National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high storage levels

  1. Canister storage building evaluation of nuclear safety for solidified high-level waste transfer and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kidder, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-17

    This document is issued to evaluate the safety impacts to the Canister Storage Building from transfer and storage of solidified high-level waste.

  2. High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on the High Level Computational Chemistry given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

  3. US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra M Birk

    2010-10-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

  4. Considerations of the effects of high winds on a low-level radioactive interim storage pile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.E. )

    1991-11-01

    On Wednesday, March 27, 1991, the St. Louis area experienced high winds that damaged a synthetic cover of a low-level radioactive waste storage pile at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) in Hazelwood, Missouri. Winds in the St. Louis area at the time of the incident were reported to be 35 mi/h with gusts up to 50 mi/h. Tornado warnings were in effect at the time. The purpose of this summary is to analyze the effects of uplift forces on a synthetic pile cover because of high winds. Consideration is given to anchoring the synthetic cover, type and placement of ballast on the pile, and the type of synthetic membranes best suited to this application. Discussion also includes the emergency procedures used in responding to the incident.

  5. Guidelines for development of structural integrity programs for DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; Rooyen, D. van; Weeks, J.

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for developing programs to promote the structural integrity of high-level waste storage tanks and transfer lines at the facilities of the Department of Energy. Elements of the program plan include a leak-detection system, definition of appropriate loads, collection of data for possible material and geometric changes, assessment of the tank structure, and non-destructive examination. Possible aging degradation mechanisms are explored for both steel and concrete components of the tanks, and evaluated to screen out nonsignificant aging mechanisms and to indicate methods of controlling the significant aging mechanisms. Specific guidelines for assessing structural adequacy will be provided in companion documents. Site-specific structural integrity programs can be developed drawing on the relevant portions of the material in this document.

  6. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, L.A.

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  7. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  8. High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of the Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems David A. Dixon Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Cast: Myrna Hernandez-Matus, Daniel Grant, Jackson Switzer, Jacob Batson, Ronita Folkes, Minh Nguyen Anthony J. Arduengo & co-workers Maciej Gutowski (PNNL) Robert Ramsay Chair Fund Shelby Hall Funding provided in part by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under the

  9. A Low-Tech, Low-Budget Storage Solution for High Level Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Carlsen; Ted Reed; Todd Johnson; John Weathersby; Joe Alexander; Dave Griffith; Douglas Hamelin

    2014-07-01

    The need for safe, secure, and economical storage of radioactive material becomes increasingly important as beneficial uses of radioactive material expand (increases inventory), as political instability rises (increases threat), and as final disposal and treatment facilities are delayed (increases inventory and storage duration). Several vendor-produced storage casks are available for this purpose but are often costly due to the required design, analyses, and licensing costs. Thus the relatively high costs of currently accepted storage solutions may inhibit substantial improvements in safety and security that might otherwise be achieved. This is particularly true in areas of the world where the economic and/or the regulatory infrastructure may not provide the means and/or the justification for such an expense. This paper considers a relatively low-cost, low-technology radioactive material storage solution. The basic concept consists of a simple shielded storage container that can be fabricated locally using a steel pipe and a corrugated steel culvert as forms enclosing a concrete annulus. Benefits of such a system include 1) a low-tech solution that utilizes materials and skills available virtually anywhere in the world, 2) a readily scalable design that easily adapts to specific needs such as the geometry and radioactivity of the source term material), 3) flexible placement allows for free-standing above-ground or in-ground (i.e., below grade or bermed) installation, 4) the ability for future relocation without direct handling of sources, and 5) a long operational lifetime . Le mieux est lennemi du bien (translated: The best is the enemy of good) applies to the management of radioactive materials particularly where the economic and/or regulatory justification for additional investment is lacking. Development of a low-cost alternative that considerably enhances safety and security may lead to a greater overall risk reduction than insisting on solutions that remain economically and/or politically out of reach.

  10. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is divided into Part 1 that defines time-dependent releases from each regional site, Part 2 that defines transport conditions through the groundwater, and Part 3 that defines transport through surface water and populations using the surface waters for drinking.

  11. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  12. High-level waste canister storage final design, installation, and testing. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, B.J.; Meigs, R.A.; Pezzimenti, D.M.; Vlad, P.M.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s radioactive waste storage facility, the Chemical Process Cell (CPC). This facility is currently being used to temporarily store vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters. These canisters are stacked two-high in a seismically designed rack system within the cell. Approximately 300 canisters will be produced during the Project`s vitrification campaign which began in June 1996. Following the completion of waste vitrification and solidification, these canisters will be transferred via rail or truck to a federal repository (when available) for permanent storage. All operations in the CPC are conducted remotely using various handling systems and equipment. Areas adjacent to or surrounding the cell provide capabilities for viewing, ventilation, and equipment/component access.

  13. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  14. Environmental permits and approvals plan for high-level waste interim storage, Project W-464

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1998-05-28

    This report discusses the Permitting Plan regarding NEPA, SEPA, RCRA, and other regulatory standards and alternatives, for planning the environmental permitting of the Canister Storage Building, Project W-464.

  15. Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines.

  16. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  17. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

  18. Assessment of degradation concerns for spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes in monitored retrievalbe storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Slate, S.C.; Partain, W.L.; Divine, J.R.; Kreid, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    It has been concluded that there are no significant degradation mechanisms that could prevent the design, construction, and safe operation of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. However, there are some long-term degradation mechanisms that could affect the ability to maintain or readily retrieve spent fuel (SF), high-level wastes (HLW), and transuranic wastes (TRUW) several decades after emplacement. Although catastrophic failures are not anticipated, long-term degradation mechanisms have been identified that could, under certain conditions, cause failure of the SF cladding and/or failure of TRUW storage containers. Stress rupture limits for Zircaloy-clad SF in MRS range from 300 to 440/sup 0/C, based on limited data. Additional tests on irradiated Zircaloy (3- to 5-year duration) are needed to narrow this uncertainty. Cladding defect sizes could increase in air as a result of fuel density decreases due to oxidation. Oxidation tests (3- to 5-year duration) on SF are also needed to verify oxidation rates in air and to determine temperatures below which monitoring of an inert cover gas would not be required. Few, if any, changes in the physical state of HLW glass or canisters or their performance would occur under projected MRS conditions. The major uncertainty for HLW is in the heat transfer through cracked glass and glass devitrification above 500/sup 0/C. Additional study of TRUW is required. Some fraction of present TRUW containers would probably fail within the first 100 years of MRS, and some TRUW would be highly degraded upon retrieval, even in unfailed containers. One possible solution is the design of a 100-year container. 93 references, 28 figures, 17 tables.

  19. EIS-0062: Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Waste Storage, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the impacts of the various design alternatives for the construction of fourteen 1.3 million gallon high-activity radioactive waste tanks. The EIS further evaluates the effects of these alternative designs on tank durability, on the ease of waste retrieval from such tanks, and the choice of technology and timing for long-term storage or disposal of the wastes.

  20. EIS-0063: Waste Management Operations, Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the existing tank design and consider additional specific design and safety feature alternatives for the thirteen tanks being constructed for storage of defense high-level radioactive liquid waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This statement supplements ERDA-1538, "Final Environmental Statement on Waste Management Operation."

  1. Statement of work for conceptual design of solidified high-level waste interim storage system project (phase I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has embarked upon a course to acquire Hanford Site tank waste treatment and immobilization services using privatized facilities. This plan contains a two phased approach. Phase I is a ``proof-of-principle/commercial demonstration- scale`` effort and Phase II is a full-scale production effort. In accordance with the planned approach, interim storage (IS) and disposal of various products from privatized facilities are to be DOE furnished. The path forward adopted for Phase I solidification HLW IS entails use of Vaults 2 and 3 in the Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building, to be located in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This Statement of Work describes the work scope to be performed by the Architect-Engineer to prepare a conceptual design for the solidified HLW IS System.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  3. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  4. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  5. High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the ...

  6. High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation) High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation)...

  7. High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Summary of the...

  8. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to ...

  9. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) ...

  10. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with ...

  11. Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation by Zhili Feng of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. PDF icon csd_workshop_7_feng.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems R&D of Large Stationary Hydrogen/CNG/HCNG Storage Vessels

  12. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Jesse R. (Burlington, MA); Kallianidis, Milton (Brockton, MA); Kelsey, G. Stephen (Nashua, NH)

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  13. High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (presentation) | Department of Energy High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland. PDF icon ht_snl_ronnebro_mcdaniel.pdf More Documents & Publications High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop

  14. High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_singh.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP - FY13 Q3 High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage

  15. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) ...

  16. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel ... Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels The ...

  17. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references.

  18. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042413_andraka.pdf More Documents & Publications Dish/Stirling High-Performance Thermal Storage - FY13 Q2 Dish Sterling High Performance Thermal Storage - FY13 Q1 Dish/Stirling High-Performance Thermal Storge - FY13 Q3

  19. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics HEPFrontcover.png Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics An HEP / ASCR / NERSC Workshop November 12-13, 2009 Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics, Report of the Joint HEP / ASCR / NERSC Workshop conducted Nov. 12-13, 2009 https://www.nersc.gov/assets/HPC-Requirements-for-Science/HEPFrontcover.png Goals This workshop was organized by the Department of

  20. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Wayne A. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  1. High-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

  2. High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    htsnlronnebromcdaniel.pdf More Documents & Publications High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Combinatorial Approaches for...

  3. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LNT) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

  4. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by Adriaan Sachtler from the High Throughput Combinatorial Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Materials Meeting PDF icon sachtler.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  5. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  6. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  7. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Nanocomposite - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Nanocomposite Processes to add metal hydrideds to nanocarbon structures to yield high capacity hydrogen storage materials Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Plot of Number of hydrogen atoms per lithium atom vs the Mol ratio of C<sub>60</sub>:Li.&nbsp; An ratio of 1:6

  8. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantums then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel systems performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of smart tanks that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of Cool Fuel technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  9. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  10. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  11. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (presentation) | Department of Energy Materials (presentation) High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland. PDF icon ht_symyx_boussie.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Throughput Methodology for Discovery of Metal-Organic Frameworks with a High Binding Energy (New Joint UC-Berkeley/Symyx DoD/DLA Project) (presentation) High Througput

  12. Design Considerations for High Energy Electron -- Positron Storage Rings

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Richter, B.

    1966-11-01

    High energy electron-positron storage rings give a way of making a new attack on the most important problems of elementary particle physics. All of us who have worked in the storage ring field designing, building, or using storage rings know this. The importance of that part of storage ring work concerning tests of quantum electrodynamics and mu meson physics is also generally appreciated by the larger physics community. However, I do not think that most of the physicists working tin the elementary particle physics field realize the importance of the contribution that storage ring experiments can make to our understanding of the strongly interacting particles. I would therefore like to spend the next few minutes discussing the sort of things that one can do with storage rings in the strongly interacting particle field.

  13. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics: Target 2017 HEPlogo.jpg The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics" is organized by the Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The review's goal is to characterize

  14. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  15. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace026_peden_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT)

  16. High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Hydrogen storage for transportation is one of the most important problems faced in implementing a "hydrogen economy". Hydrogen can be produced in many ways, but then must be stored for use by fuel cells. The U.S. Department of Energy's

  17. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  18. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace026_peden_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis

  19. Potential problem areas: extended storage of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. In particular, the range of storage alternatives considered and being implemented by the nuclear power plant utilities is described. The properties of the waste forms and waste containers are discussed. An overview is given of the performance of the waste package and its contents during storage (e.g., radiolytic gas generation, corrosion) and of the effects of extended storage on the performance of the waste package after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of polyethylene, the weakening of steel containers by corrosion). Additional information and actions required to address these concerns, including possible mitigative measures, are discussed. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  20. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the power capacity specification for BESS and super-capacitors. Recommendations include experimental implementation of the controller and energy storage systems in laboratory environment for further testing and verification, which will help commercialization of the proposed system design and controller.

  1. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Adriaan Sachtler from the High Throughput/ Combinatorial Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Materials Meeting

  2. Project Profile: A Novel Storage Method for CSP Plants Allowing Operation at High Temperature

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City College of New York (CCNY), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing and testing a novel thermal storage method that allows operation at very high temperatures.

  3. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  4. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  5. High Level Waste System Plan Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.; Choi, A.S.; Paul, P.; Wise, F.E.

    1998-04-01

    Revision 9 of the High Level Waste System Plan documents the current operating strategy of the HLW System at SRS to receive, store, treat, and dispose of high-level waste.

  6. Technical considerations and problems associated with long-term storage of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1991-12-31

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) several years ago (1984--86) to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study were (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. In this summary of that study, the circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  7. Technical considerations and problems associated with long-term storage of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.

    1991-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) several years ago (1984--86) to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study were (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. In this summary of that study, the circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW.

  8. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace026_peden_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction

  9. Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  10. High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop | Department of Energy High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Summary of the June 2007 high-throughput combinatorial techniques in hyrogen storage materials workshop PDF icon high_througput_sessions.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approaches

  11. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the suns not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MITs heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat wellthis makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MITs low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  12. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Felipe Gándara, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Seungkyu Lee, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136, 5271-5274 (2014) DOI: 10.1021/ja501606h Abstract Image Abstract: The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and

  13. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-09-21

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management.

  14. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plan | Department of Energy High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to store Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) for many decades will have a near-term and potentially significant impact on nuclear plant licensing and operations. While dry storage of lower burnup SNF [less than 45 gigawatt days per metric ton uranium (GWD / MTU)] has occurred since 1986, dry storage

  15. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es_09_murphy.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: INL Electrochemical Performance Testing Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing,

  16. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP Project Profile: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP ANL logo Argonne National Laboratory and project partner Ohio Aerospace Institute, under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, will design, develop, and test a prototype high-temperature and high-efficiency thermal energy storage (TES) system with rapid charging and discharging times. By increasing the efficiency of TES

  17. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  18. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  19. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  20. High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (presentation) | Department of Energy High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation) High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation) Meeting Background, Purpose and Agenda presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland. PDF icon ht_doe_stetson.pdf More Documents & Publications Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High

  1. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  2. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

  3. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  4. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nutt, Gerald L. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1991-01-01

    The stability of porous solid high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, is enhanced by reducing the sensitivity to shock initiation of a reaction that leads to detonation. The pores of the explosive down to a certain size are filled under pressure with a stable, low melt temperature material in liquid form, and the combined material is cooled so the pore filling material solidifies. The stability can be increased to progressively higher levels by filling smaller pores. The pore filling material can be removed, at least partially, by reheating above its melt temperature and drained off so that the explosive is once more suitable for detonation.

  5. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cladding | Department of Energy Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR Cladding Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperatures on the DBTT of High Burnup PWR Cladding The purpose of the research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor cladding alloys during cooling for a range of storage temperatures and hoop

  6. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues | Department of Energy Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues These slides were presented at the Onboard Storage Tank Workshop on April 29, 2010. PDF icon highpressure_fuelcylinders_ostw.pdf More Documents & Publications Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles U.S. Department of Energy

  7. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  8. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  9. High energy storage capacitor by embedding tunneling nano-structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holme, Timothy P; Prinz, Friedrich B; Van Stockum, Philip B

    2014-11-04

    In an All-Electron Battery (AEB), inclusions embedded in an active region between two electrodes of a capacitor provide enhanced energy storage. Electrons can tunnel to/from and/or between the inclusions, thereby increasing the charge storage density relative to a conventional capacitor. One or more barrier layers is present in an AEB to block DC current flow through the device. The AEB effect can be enhanced by using multi-layer active regions having inclusion layers with the inclusions separated by spacer layers that don't have the inclusions. The use of cylindrical geometry or wrap around electrodes and/or barrier layers in a planar geometry can enhance the basic AEB effect. Other physical effects that can be employed in connection with the AEB effect are excited state energy storage, and formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  10. Spent fuel storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, R.H.; Bowidowicz, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage capacity to utilities that cannot reasonably provide such capacity for themselves. Topics considered include the implementation of the Act (DOE away-from reactor storage), the Act's impact on storage needs, and an economic evaluation. The Waste Act mandates schedules for the determination of several sites, the licensing and construction of a high-level waste repository, and the study of a monitored retrievable storage facility. It is determined that a small wet pool storage facility offers a conservative and cost-effective approach for many stations, in comparison to dry cask storage.

  11. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  12. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project Prepares to Relocate High-Level Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – With completion of the recently constructed interim storage pad at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), EM crews have begun a multi-year effort to relocate high-level waste (HLW) canisters stored inside the Main Plant Process Building to prepare the facility for demolition.

  14. High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter PDF icon High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter More Documents & Publications Corporate Board By-Laws NNMCAB Bylaws ORSSAB Bylaws

  15. Cryogenic Capable High Pressure Containers for Compact Storage of Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Onboard Vehicles - Energy Innovation Portal 283176 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to

  16. Project Profile: Dish Stirling High-Performance Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Connecticut, under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, to demonstrate key thermal energy storage (TES) system components for dish Stirling power generation. Current dish Stirling systems do not feature TES, but have been identified as having a strong potential of meeting the SunShot cost goal of $0.06/kWh.

  17. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project, Final Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-27

    EPRI is leading a project team to develop and implement the first five years of a Test Plan to collect data from a SNF dry storage system containing high burnup fuel.12 The Test Plan defined in this document outlines the data to be collected, and the storage system design, procedures, and licensing necessary to implement the Test Plan.13 The main goals of the proposed test are to provide confirmatory data14 for models, future SNF dry storage cask design, and to support license renewals and new licenses for ISFSIs. To provide data that is most relevant to high burnup fuel in dry storage, the design of the test storage system must mimic real conditions that high burnup SNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to the ISFSI for multi-year storage.15 Along with other optional modeling, SETs, and SSTs, the data collected in this Test Plan can be used to evaluate the integrity of dry storage systems and the high burnup fuel contained therein over many decades. It should be noted that the Test Plan described in this document discusses essential activities that go beyond the first five years of Test Plan implementation.16 The first five years of the Test Plan include activities up through loading the cask, initiating the data collection, and beginning the long-term storage period at the ISFSI. The Test Plan encompasses the overall project that includes activities that may not be completed until 15 or more years from now, including continued data collection, shipment of the Research Project Cask to a Fuel Examination Facility, opening the cask at the Fuel Examination Facility, and examining the high burnup fuel after the initial storage period.

  18. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}1} mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual`s lifetime radiation dose.

  19. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    The accomplishments and technology progressmade during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 05NT42403 (duration: July 11, 2005 through April 30, 2014, funded for $125 million in cost- shared research) are summarized in this Final Technical Report for a total of thirty-seven (37) collaborative programs organized by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, LLC (USABC). The USABC is a partnership, formed in 1991, between the three U.S. domestic automakers Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, to sponsor development of advanced high-performance batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The USABC provides a unique opportunity for developers to leverage their resources in combination with those of the automotive industry and the Federal government. This type of pre-competitive cooperation minimizes duplication of effort and risk of failure, and maximizes the benefits to the public of the government funds. A major goal of this program is to promote advanced battery development that can lead to commercialization within the domestic, and as appropriate, the foreign battery industry. A further goal of this program is to maintain a consortium that engages the battery manufacturers with the automobile manufacturers and other key stakeholders, universities, the National Laboratories, and manufacturers and developers that supply critical materials and components to the battery industry. Typically, the USABC defines and establishes consensus goals, conducts pre-competitive, vehicle-related research and development (R&D) in advanced battery technology. The R&D carried out by the USABC is an integral part of the DOEs effort to develop advanced transportation technologies that will significantly improve fuel economy, comply with projected emissions and safety regulations, and use domestically produced fuels. The USABC advanced battery development plan has the following three focus areas: 1. Existing technology validation, implementation, and cost reduction. 2. Identification of the next viable technology with emphasis on the potential to meet USABC cost and operating temperature range goals. 3. Support high-risk, high-reward battery technology R&D. Specific to the Cooperative Agreement DE- FC26-05NT42403, addressing High-Energy and High Power Energy Storage Technologies, the USABC focus was on understanding and addressing the following factors (listed in priority of effort): Cost: Reducing the current cost of lithium- ion batteries (currently about 2-3 times the FreedomCAR target ($20/kW). Low Temperature Performance: Improving the discharge power and removing lithium plating during regenerative braking. Calendar Life: Achieving 15-year life and getting accurate life prediction. Abuse Tolerance: Developing a system level tolerance to overcharge, crush, and high temperature exposure. This Final Technical Report compilation is submitted in fulfillment of the subject Cooperative Agreement, and is intended to serve as a ready-reference for the outcomes of following eight categories of projects conducted by the USABC under award from the DOEs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ) Vehicle Technologies Program: USABC DoE Final Report DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-95EE50425 8 Protected Information 1. Electric Vehicle (EV) (Section A of this report) 2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Section B 3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) (Section C) 4. Low-Energy Energy Storage Systems (LEESS) (Section D) 5. Technology Assessment Program (TAP) (Section E) 6. Ultracapacitors (Section F) 7. 12 Volt Start-Stop (Section G) 8. Separators (Section H) The report summarizes the main areas of activity undertaken in collaboration with the supplier community and the National Laboratories. Copies of the individual supplier final reports are available upon request. Using project gap analysis versus defined USABC goals in each area, the report documents known technology limits and provides direction on future areas of technology and performance needs for vehicle applications. The report was developed using information such as program plans, gap analysis charts, quarterly reports and final project reports submitted by the developers. The public benefit served by this USABC program is that it continues the development of critical advanced battery technology that is needed to make electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles attractive to a wide segment of the vehicle market. This will allow for a substantial savings in petroleum fuel use as these vehicles are introduced into the nations transportation system. It will also allow a sharp reduction in automotive air pollution emissions in critical areas that are currently classified as non-attainment by the Environmental Protection Agency. This program will also help ensure the long term health and viability of the U.S. Battery and Ultracapacitor Manufacturing Industry. The goals of eight categories of projects follow and summarization of each of the projects accomplishments are in sequence of the list above.

  20. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  1. Spectroscopic Feedback for High Density Data Storage and Micromachining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Christopher W. (Livermore, CA); Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-16

    Optical breakdown by predetermined laser pulses in transparent dielectrics produces an ionized region of dense plasma confined within the bulk of the material. Such an ionized region is responsible for broadband radiation that accompanies a desired breakdown process. Spectroscopic monitoring of the accompanying light in real-time is utilized to ascertain the morphology of the radiated interaction volume. Such a method and apparatus as presented herein, provides commercial realization of rapid prototyping of optoelectronic devices, optical three-dimensional data storage devices, and waveguide writing.

  2. High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 26, 2007 the Hydrogen Storage Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held a one-day meeting to identify how to better implement high-throughput/combinatorial techniques to benefit...

  3. Impacts of High Penetration of PV with Energy Storage at Flagstaff Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project team, led by Arizona Public Service, will evaluate the impacts of high penetrations of distributed PV and energy storage on a dedicated feeder to identify the technical and operational...

  4. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Authors: Chen, X ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gregorczyk, Keith ; Ghodssi, Reza ; Rubloff, Gary W Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1105360 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: RSC Advances; Journal

  5. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Authors: Farmer, J ; Chang, J ; Zumstein, J ; Kotovsky, J ; Dobley, A ; Puglia, F ; Osswald, S ; Wolf, K ; Kaschmitter, J ; Eaves, S ; Bandhauer, T Publication Date: 2013-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1124816 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-644556 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  6. Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Battery Management System for Safe High-Capacity Energy Storage × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  7. The parallel I/O architecture of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, R.W.; Coyne, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid improvements in computational science, processing capability, main memory sizes, data collection devices, multimedia capabilities and integration of enterprise data are producing very large datasets (10s-100s of gigabytes to terabytes). This rapid growth of data has resulted in a serious imbalance in I/O and storage system performance and functionality. One promising approach to restoring balanced I/O and storage system performance is use of parallel data transfer techniques for client access to storage, device-to-device transfers, and remote file transfers. This paper describes the parallel I/O architecture and mechanisms, Parallel Transport Protocol, parallel FIP, and parallel client Application Programming Interface (API) used by the High Performance Storage System (HPSS). Parallel storage integration issues with a local parallel file system are also discussed.

  8. Energy storage requirements of dc microgrids with high penetration renewables under droop control

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weaver, Wayne W.; Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-01-09

    Energy storage is a important design component in microgrids with high penetration renewable sources to maintain the system because of the highly variable and sometimes stochastic nature of the sources. Storage devices can be distributed close to the sources and/or at the microgrid bus. In addition, storage requirements can be minimized with a centralized control architecture, but this creates a single point of failure. Distributed droop control enables a completely decentralized architecture but, the energy storage optimization becomes more difficult. Our paper presents an approach to droop control that enables the local and bus storage requirements to be determined. Givenmore » a priori knowledge of the design structure of a microgrid and the basic cycles of the renewable sources, we found that the droop settings of the sources are such that they minimize both the bus voltage variations and overall energy storage capacity required in the system. This approach can be used in the design phase of a microgrid with a decentralized control structure to determine appropriate droop settings as well as the sizing of energy storage devices.« less

  9. Energy storage requirements of dc microgrids with high penetration renewables under droop control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Wayne W.; Robinett, Rush D.; Parker, Gordon G.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-01-09

    Energy storage is a important design component in microgrids with high penetration renewable sources to maintain the system because of the highly variable and sometimes stochastic nature of the sources. Storage devices can be distributed close to the sources and/or at the microgrid bus. In addition, storage requirements can be minimized with a centralized control architecture, but this creates a single point of failure. Distributed droop control enables a completely decentralized architecture but, the energy storage optimization becomes more difficult. Our paper presents an approach to droop control that enables the local and bus storage requirements to be determined. Given a priori knowledge of the design structure of a microgrid and the basic cycles of the renewable sources, we found that the droop settings of the sources are such that they minimize both the bus voltage variations and overall energy storage capacity required in the system. This approach can be used in the design phase of a microgrid with a decentralized control structure to determine appropriate droop settings as well as the sizing of energy storage devices.

  10. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: I. Niagara Falls Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1984-11-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations carried out to recover uranium from pitchblende ore in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the NFSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations performed to help provide a quantitative evaluation of the effects of various options. NFSS soil and groundwater samples were characterized; and uranium and radium sorption ratios, as well as apparent concentration limit values, were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by employing batch contact methodology. The results suggest that any uranium which is in solution in the groundwater at the NFSS may be poorly retarded due to the low uranium sorption ratio values and high solubility measured. Further, appreciable concentrations of uranium in groundwater could be attained from soluble wastes. Release of uranium via groundwater migration could be a significant release pathway. Solubilized radium would be expected to be effectively retarded by soil at the NFSS as a result of the very high radium sorption ratios observed. The addition of iron oxyhydroxide to NFSS soils resulted in much higher uranium sorption ratios. Additional field testing of this potential remedial action additive could be desirable. 10 references.

  11. High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Solar Energy Center High-Throughput Methodology for Discovery of Metal-Organic Frameworks with a High Binding Energy (New Joint UC-BerkeleySymyx DoDDLA Project), Jeffrey ...

  12. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Throughput Methodology for Discovery of Metal-Organic Frameworks with a High Binding Energy (New Joint UC-BerkeleySymyx DoDDLA Project) ...

  13. Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials Jonathan L. Male Pacific Northwest National Laboratory June 26, 2006 US Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Chemical) Hydrogen Storage DOE EERE Chemical Hydrogen Center * Controlling release of hydrogen from NH 3 BH 3 - Regeneration of NH 3 BH 3 - Engineering, experiment and theory - Materials Discovery DOE BES Hydrogen Fuel Initiative * Structure and dynamics (Neutron and NMR) -

  14. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,...

  15. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  16. High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive High-Level Waste Corporate Board Presentation Archive Archived Documents PDF icon High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Dr. Inés Triay PDF icon High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Mark Gilbertson PDF icon EM Engineering & Technology Roadmap and Major Technology Demonstrations PDF icon Office of River Protection PDF icon Idaho National Laboratory Description, Chellenges, Technology, Issues, and Needs PDF icon West Valley

  17. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F. [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  18. Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda PDF icon Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda More Documents & Publications NTSF Spring 2013 Save The Date NTSF 2013 Agenda NTSF Spring 2010 Final Agenda

  19. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  20. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for High Energy Physics Accelerator Physics P. Spentzouris, Fermilab Motivation Accelerators enable many important applications, both in basic research and applied sciences Different machine attributes are emphasized for different applications * Different particle beams and operation principles * Different energies and intensities Accelerator science and technology objectives for all applications * Achieve higher energy and intensity, faster and cheaper machine design, more reliable operation a

  1. CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITY PROJECT IN COLOMBIA TO PROVIDE THE SAFE STORAGE AND PROTECTION OF HIGH-ACTIVITY RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Raymond; Wright, Kyle A.; McCaw, Erica E.; Vallejo, Jorge

    2009-10-07

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) reduces and protects vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. Internationally, over 40 countries are cooperating with GTRI to enhance the security of these materials. The GTRI program has worked successfully with foreign countries to remove and protect nuclear and radioactive materials, including orphaned and disused high-activity sources. GTRI began cooperation with the Republic of Colombia in April 2004. This cooperation has been a resounding success by securing forty high-risk sites, consolidating disused/orphan sources at an interim secure national storage facility, and developing a comprehensive approach to security, training, and sustainability. In 2005 the Colombian Ministry of Mines and Energy requested the Department of Energys support in the construction of a new Central Storage Facility (CSF). In December 2005, the Ministry selected to construct this facility at the Institute of Geology and Mining (Ingeominas) site in Bogota. This site already served as Colombias national repository, where disused sources were housed in various buildings around the complex. The CSF project was placed under contract in May 2006, but environmental issues and public protests, which led to a class action lawsuit against the Colombian Government, forced the Ministry to quickly suspend activities, thereby placing the project in jeopardy. Despite these challenges, however, the Ministry of Mines and Energy worked closely with public and environmental authorities to resolve these issues, and continued to be a strong advocate of the GTRI program. In June 2008, the Ministry of Mines and Energy was granted the construction and environmental licenses. As a result, construction immediately resumed and the CSF was completed by December 2008. A commissioning ceremony was held for the new facility in January 2009, which was attended by representatives from the Department of Energy, U.S. Embassy, and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, including the Minister and Vice Minister.

  2. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  3. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q3 Quad Chart.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q3 Quad Chart. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q3 Quad Chart. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science

  4. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q4 Quad Chart.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q4 Quad Chart. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q4 Quad Chart. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources

  5. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q3 Quad Chart (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q3 Quad Chart Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q3 Quad Chart × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  6. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  7. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes a section that describes efforts already underway or planned at NERSC that address requirements collected at the workshop. NERSC has many initiatives in progress that address key workshop findings and are aligned with NERSC's strategic plans.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT_19507_1 High-Level Waste Management Bryan Bower, DOE Director - WVDP DOE High-Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting Savannah River Site April 1, 2008 West Valley Demonstration Project West Valley Demonstration Project DRAFT_19507_2 West Valley High-Level Waste To solidify the radioactive material from approximately 600,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste into a durable, high-quality glass, both a pretreatment system to remove salts and sulfates from the waste and a vitrification

  9. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Breakout Session 1B-Integration of Supply Chains I: ...

  10. NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 29, 2010 | Department of Energy NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, October 29, 2010 NERC Presentation: Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation, October 29, 2010 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) presentation to the Electricity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010, on accommodating high levels of variable electricity eneration. Variable resources are types of electric power generation that rely on an uncontrolled,

  11. Cloud object store for archive storage of high performance computing data using decoupling middleware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2015-06-30

    Cloud object storage is enabled for archived data, such as checkpoints and results, of high performance computing applications using a middleware process. A plurality of archived files, such as checkpoint files and results, generated by a plurality of processes in a parallel computing system are stored by obtaining the plurality of archived files from the parallel computing system; converting the plurality of archived files to objects using a log structured file system middleware process; and providing the objects for storage in a cloud object storage system. The plurality of processes may run, for example, on a plurality of compute nodes. The log structured file system middleware process may be embodied, for example, as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS). The log structured file system middleware process optionally executes on a burst buffer node.

  12. High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

    2011-08-01

    To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

  13. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation Meeting arravt081vssnewhouse2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8...

  14. Alpha storage regime in high temperature sub-ignited D-T tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweben, S.J.; Furth, H.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Redi, M.H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-07-01

    Alpha particle parameters in sub-ignited D-T tokamaks like TFTR can be optimized in a high temperature ''alpha storage regime '' in which the alpha particle thermalization time /tau//sub ..cap alpha../ is long (approx.1.0 sec) and in which the alpha particle source rate S/sub ..cap alpha../ is enhanced due to a beam-target and beam-beam reactions (by a factor of approx.2-3). Near reactor-level alpha instability parameters ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(0) approx. n/sub ..cap alpha../(0)/n/sub e/(O) approx. 1% are predicted by simulation codes when Q approx. 0.5-1, while present TFTR ''supershots'' already have ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(O) approx. n/sub /alpha/(O)/n/sub e/(O) /approx/ 0.1-0.2%. Plasmas in this regime can be used to test theories of collective alpha instabilities for the first time, and can be used to provide a strong (but transient) alpha heating pulse. An experimental scenario to exploit this regime is described. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.,

  15. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  16. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  17. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  18. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2004-09-07

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  19. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

  20. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  1. Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Downsizing | Department of Energy Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing Discussed technologies applied in highly downsized efficient gasoline engine concept such as multiple injection, advanced boosting, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and electrical supercharger PDF icon deer11_boggs.pdf More Documents & Publications Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER

  2. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  3. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-60175 November 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  4. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen

    2013-02-27

    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  5. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  6. Development and Performance Evaluation of High Temperature Concrete for Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Panneer Selvam, Micah Hale and Matt strasser

    2013-03-31

    Thermal energy can be stored by the mechanism of sensible or latent heat or heat from chemical reactions. Sensible heat is the means of storing energy by increasing the temperature of the solid or liquid. Since the concrete as media cost per kWhthermal is $1, this seems to be a very economical material to be used as a TES. This research is focused on extending the concrete TES system for higher temperatures (500 ?ºC to 600 ?ºC) and increasing the heat transfer performance using novel construction techniques. To store heat at high temperature special concretes are developed and tested for its performance. The storage capacity costs of the developed concrete is in the range of $0.91-$3.02/kWhthermal Two different storage methods are investigated. In the first one heat is transported using molten slat through a stainless steel tube and heat is transported into concrete block through diffusion. The cost of the system is higher than the targeted DOE goal of $15/kWhthermal The increase in cost of the system is due to stainless steel tube to transfer the heat from molten salt to the concrete blocks.The other method is a one-tank thermocline system in which both the hot and cold fluid occupy the same tank resulting in reduced storage tank volume. In this model, heated molten salt enters the top of the tank which contains a packed bed of quartzite rock and silica sand as the thermal energy storage (TES) medium. The single-tank storage system uses about half the salt that is required by the two-tank system for a required storage capacity. This amounts to a significant reduction in the cost of the storage system. The single tank alternative has also been proven to be cheaper than the option which uses large concrete modules with embedded heat exchangers. Using computer models optimum dimensions are determined to have an round trip efficiency of 84%. Additionally, the cost of the structured concrete thermocline configuration provides the TES capacity cost of $33.80$/kWhthermal compared with $30.04/kWhthermal for a packed-bed thermocline (PBTC) configuration and $46.11/kWhthermal for a two-tank liquid configuration.

  7. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  8. EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste & Facilities Disposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid...

  9. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Kevin Comer, Associate Principal, Antares Group Inc.

  10. A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study Mace, Gerald University of Utah Category: Field Campaigns The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP ICE) was conducted near...

  11. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  12. High-Level Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008 Karthik Subramanian Bruce Wiersma November 2008 High Level Waste Corporate Board Meeting karthik.subramanian@srnl.doe.gov bruce.wiersma@srnl.doe.gov 2 Acknowledgements * Bruce Wiersma (SRNL) * Kayle Boomer (Hanford) * Michael T. Terry (Facilitator) * SRS - Liquid Waste Organization * Hanford Tank Farms * DOE-EM 3 Background * High level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks provide critical interim confinement for waste prior to processing and permanent

  13. Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High- Level Radioactive Waste

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Separate Disposal of Defense High- Level Radioactive Waste March 2015 [This page left blank.] i EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Purpose This report considers whether a separate repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from atomic energy defense activities ("Defense HLW Repository") is "required" within the meaning of Section 8(b)(2) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). In 1985, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and President Reagan considered this

  14. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt081_vss_newhouse_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology and

  15. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 3 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt081_vss_damon_2013_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8

  16. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt081_vss_newhouse_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8

  17. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  18. A High-Performance Rechargeable Iron Electrode for Large-Scale Battery-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Yang, C; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, robust and efficient large-scale electrical energy storage systems are vital to the utilization of electricity generated from solar and wind resources. In this regard, the low cost, robustness, and eco-friendliness of aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries are particularly attractive and compelling. However, wasteful evolution of hydrogen during charging and the inability to discharge at high rates have limited the deployment of iron-based aqueous batteries. We report here new chemical formulations of the rechargeable iron battery electrode to achieve a ten-fold reduction in the hydrogen evolution rate, an unprecedented charging efficiency of 96%, a high specific capacity of 0.3 Ah/g, and a twenty-fold increase in discharge rate capability. We show that modifying high-purity carbonyl iron by in situ electro-deposition of bismuth leads to substantial inhibition of the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The in situ formation of conductive iron sulfides mitigates the passivation by iron hydroxide thereby allowing high discharge rates and high specific capacity to be simultaneously achieved. These major performance improvements are crucial to advancing the prospect of a sustainable large-scale energy storage solution based on aqueous iron-based rechargeable batteries. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.034208jes] All rights reserved.

  19. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  20. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  2. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  3. Harvey Wasserman! Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harvey Wasserman! Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics Research: Target 2017 Meeting Goals & Process! ! --- 1 --- December 3 , 2 012 Logistics: Schedule * Agenda o n w orkshop w eb p age - h%p://www.nersc.gov/science/requirements/HEP * Mid---morning / a <ernoon b reak, l unch * Self---organizaBon for dinner * MulBple s cience a reas, o ne w orkshop - Science---focused b ut c rosscu?ng d iscussion - Explore a reas o f c ommon n eed ( within H EP) *

  4. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q1 Quad Chart (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Q1 Quad Chart Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q1 Quad Chart × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available

  5. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q2 Quad Chart (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Q2 Quad Chart Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY15Q2 Quad Chart × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available

  6. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2015-01-20

    In April 2014, NERSC, ASCR, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a review to characterize high performance computing (HPC) and storage requirements for NP research through 2017. This review is the 12th in a series of reviews held by NERSC and Office of Science program offices that began in 2009. It is the second for NP, and the final in the second round of reviews that covered the six Office of Science program offices. This report is the result of that review

  7. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  8. HybridStore: A Cost-Efficient, High-Performance Storage System Combining SSDs and HDDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae; Gupta, Aayush; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Piotr, Berman; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into existing systems non-trivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given these trade-offs between HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. We design and evaluate such a hybrid system called HybridStore to provide: (a) HybridPlan: improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets and (b) HybridDyn: improved performance/lifetime guarantees during episodes of deviations from expected workloads through two novel mechanisms: write-regulation and fragmentation busting. As an illustrative example of HybridStore s ef cacy, HybridPlan is able to nd the most cost-effective storage con guration for a large scale workload of Microsoft Research and suggest one MLC SSD with ten 7.2K RPM HDDs instead of fourteen 7.2K RPM HDDs only. HybridDyn is able to reduce the average response time for an enterprise scale random-write dominant workload by about 71% as compared to a HDD-based system.

  9. High-Level Waste Corporate Board, Mark Gilbertson

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Level Waste Corporate Board April 1, 2008 safety v performance v cleanup v closure M E Environmental Management Environmental Management Path Forward * Initial meeting lays groundwork for future meetings * There are enough issues to manage that meetings will be more frequent than semiannual * HLW Issues Board will address include: - Within Site - Between Sites - Affecting Entire Complex

  10. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  11. A strategy for resolving high-priority Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank safety issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babad, H.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Fulton, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    High-activity radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Eastern Washington State since 1944. Since then, more than 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 Mgal) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes consist of many different chemicals. The waste forms include liquids, slurries, salt cakes, and sludges. A number of safety issues have been raised about these wastes, and resolution of these issues is a top priority of DOE. A Waste Tank Safety Program has been established to resolve these high-priority safety issues. This paper will deal with three of these issues. The issues described are the release of flammable vapors from single- and double-shell tanks, the existence of organic chemicals, and/or ferrocyanide ion-containing fuel-rich mixtures of nitrate and nitrite salts in single-shell tanks.

  12. High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 09/11/08

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    UPCOMING EVENTS: The Low-Level Waste Federal Review Group (LFRG) in Washington, DC on 16-18 September 2008. Contact Maureen O'Dell for details (MAUREEN.O'DELL@hq.doe.gov) Next High-Level Waste Corporate Board meeting will be held at DOE- RL on 6 November 2008. Meeting details will be presented here and e- mailed to those persons with an interest to participate. Topics for discussion include but are not limited to:  Results of the Tank Integrity Workshop  Strategic Initiative Briefing 

  13. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  16. High Level Waste Corporate Board Newsletter - 06/03/08

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 June 2008 UPCOMING EVENTS: Next High-Level Waste Corporate Board meeting will be held at DOE-ID on 24 July 2008. Meeting details will be presented here and e-mailed to those persons with an interest to participate. Topics for discussion include: * Strategic Planning Initiative * Technology Development / Needs Collection / Prioritization * Waste Acceptance Product Specification This meeting will include a members-only executive session OTHER NEWS DOE SELECTS WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION

  17. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment Caley Johnson, Emily Newes, Aaron Brooker, and Robert McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Peterson Lexidyne, LLC Paul Leiby, Rocio Uria Martinez, and Gbadebo Oladosu Oak Ridge National Laboratory Maxwell L. Brown Colorado School of Mines Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-63698 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance

  18. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demandthe most costly kind of power for utilitiesand with much more versatile performance.

  19. Accelerated high-temperature tests with spent PWR and BWR fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porsch, G.; Fleisch, J.; Heits, B.

    1986-09-01

    Accelerated high-temperature tests on 25 intact pressurized water and boiling water reactor rods were conducted for more than 16 months at 400, 430, and 450/sup 0/C in a helium gas atmosphere. The pretest characterized rods were examined by nondestructive methods after each of the three test cycles. No cladding breaches occurred and the creep deformation remained below 1%, which was in good agreement with model calculations. The test atmospheres were analyzed for /sup 85/Kr and tritium. The /sup 85/Kr concentrations were negligible and the tritium release agreed with the theoretical predictions. It can be concluded that for Zircaloy-clad fuel, cladding temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C are acceptable for dry storage in inert cover gases.

  20. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  1. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  2. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  3. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs in these regions providing a useful set of data to ground the prediction of transition onset and length over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and turbulence intensity and scales.

  4. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  5. Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole Rechargeable Energy Storage Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced commercialization of a rechargeable energy storage device capable of operating in the extreme temperatures necessary for geothermal energy production. Industry...

  6. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  7. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  8. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  9. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  10. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3/sup -/ to 0.9/sup -/m depth); the maximum values were 1566 ..mu..g/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6/sup -/m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 ..mu..g/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system.

  11. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  12. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore » do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  13. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  14. Storage Statistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Trends and Summaries Storage by Scientific Discipline Troubleshooting IO ... Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems ...

  15. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  17. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the disposal container inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel and the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be a barrier made of high-nickel alloy. The defense HLW disposal container interfaces with the emplacement drift environment and the internal waste by transferring heat from the canisters to the external environment and by protecting the canisters and their contents from damage/degradation by the external environment. The disposal container also interfaces with the canisters by limiting access of moderator and oxidizing agents to the waste. A loaded and sealed disposal container (waste package) interfaces with the Emplacement Drift System's emplacement drift waste package supports upon which the waste packages are placed. The disposal container interfaces with the Canister Transfer System, Waste Emplacement /Retrieval System, Disposal Container Handling System, and Waste Package Remediation System during loading, handling, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval for the disposal container/waste package.

  18. Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

  19. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  20. River Protection Project (RPP) Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRIGGS, M.G.

    2000-09-22

    This document replaces HNF-1751, Revision 1. It incorporates updates to reflect changes in programmatic direction associated with the vitrification plant contract and associated DOE-ORP guidance. In addition it includes planning associated with failed/used melter and sample handling and disposition work scope. The document also includes format modifications and section numbering update consistent with CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. procedures.

  1. Project Profile: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative made an award to Colorado School of Mines (CSM) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  2. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  3. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  4. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal storage is found to drop considerably (by more than \\$70/MWh) as the penetration of solar increases toward 30\\percent on an energy basis. This is due primarily to a steep drop in capacity value followed by a decrease in energy value. In contrast, the value of CSP with thermal storage drops much less dramatically as penetration increases. As a result, at solar penetration levels above 10\\percent, CSP with thermal storage is found to be considerably more valuable relative to PV and CSP without thermal storage. The marginal economic value of wind is found to be largely driven by energy value, and is lower than solar at low penetration. The marginal economic value of wind drops at a relatively slower rate with penetration, however. As a result, at high penetration, the value of wind can exceed the value of PV and CSP without thermal storage. Though some of these findings may be somewhat unique to the specific case study presented here, the results: (1) highlight the importance of an analysis framework that addresses long-term investment decisions as well as short-term dispatch and operational constraints, (2) can help inform long-term decisions about renewable energy procurement and supporting infrastructure, and (3) point to areas where further research is warranted.

  5. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.; Lee, S.

    2010-04-20

    The engineering design of disposal of the high level waste (HLW) packages in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the packages. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the geologic disposal gallery system and as input to assess the transient thermal characteristics of the vitrified HLW Package. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal performance of the supercontainer containing the vitrified HLW in a non-backfilled and unventilated underground disposal gallery. In order to achieve the objective, transient computational models for a geologic vitrified HLW package were developed by using a computational fluid dynamics method, and calculations for the HLW disposal gallery of the current Belgian geological repository reference design were performed. An initial two-dimensional model was used to conduct some parametric sensitivity studies to better understand the geologic system's thermal response. The effect of heat decay, number of co-disposed supercontainers, domain size, humidity, thermal conductivity and thermal emissivity were studied. Later, a more accurate three-dimensional model was developed by considering the conduction-convection cooling mechanism coupled with radiation, and the effect of the number of supercontainers (3, 4 and 8) was studied in more detail, as well as a bounding case with zero heat flux at both ends. The modeling methodology and results of the sensitivity studies will be presented.

  6. A pilot test of partitioning for the simulated highly saline high level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Jing, Shan

    2007-07-01

    It is a problem how to treat the highly saline high level waste (HLW). A partitioning process for HLW was developed at INET. The partitioning process includes the removal of actinides by TRPO extraction, the removal of Sr by crown ether extraction, and the removal of Cs by ion exchange. A 72-hour test was carried out in a pilot facility using the simulated HLW. Nd and Zr were used to simulate Am and Pu, respectively. The decontamination factors are >3000, >500, >1000, {approx}150 and {approx}94 for U, Nd, Zr, Sr and Cs, respectively. The results meet the requirement to change the highly saline HLW into a non-{alpha} and intermediate level waste. (authors)

  7. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations to aid in the benefit-cost analysis for management decision whether to deploy the technology or to abandon the pipeline as has been done in the past. In conclusion: The ultimate objective of this study is to qualify NuVision's unplugging technology for use at Hanford. Experimental testing has been conducted using three pipeline lengths and three types of blockages. Erosion rates have been obtained and pressure data is being analyzed. An amplification of the inlet pressure has been observed along the pipeline and is the key to determining up to what pipe lengths the technology can be used without surpassing the site pressure limit. In addition, we will attempt to establish what the expected unplugging rates will be at the longer pipe lengths for each of the three blockages tested. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations so that management decisions can be made whether the technology has a reasonable chance to successfully unplug a pipeline, such as a cross site transfer line or process transfer pipeline at the Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

  8. HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2006-10-02

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

  9. High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-08-18

    The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were combined into three batches for a total of about 3.2 million gallons of liquid waste. The chemical and radiological composition of these batches was estimated from the SpaceMan Plus{trademark} model using the same data set and assumptions as the baseline plans.

  10. QCD Thermodynamics at High Temperature Peter Petreczky Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics (NP),

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QCD Thermodynamics at High Temperature Peter Petreczky Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics (NP), Bethesda MD, April 29-30, 2014 NY Center for Computational Science 2 Defining questions of nuclear physics research in US: Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) "The Frontiers of Nuclear Science", 2007 Long Range Plan "What are the phases of strongly interacting matter and what roles do they play in the cosmos ?" "What does QCD predict for

  11. Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tushar K Ghosh

    2008-10-13

    The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.

  12. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  13. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Ditto, Mary E; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Marquez, Manuel; Zhou, Hui

    2006-01-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste. Disposal of high-level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in underground waste tanks at various USDOE sites has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. To vitrify the entire mass of the high-level waste would be prohibitively expensive. Accordingly, an urgent need has arisen for technologies to remove radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs from the high-level waste so that the bulk of it may be diverted to cheaper low-level waste forms and cheaper storage. To address this need in part, chemical research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on calixcrown extractants, molecules that combine a crown ether with a calixarene. This hybrid possesses a cavity that is highly complementary for the Cs{sup +} ion vs. the Na+ ion, making it possible to cleanly separate cesium from wastes that contain 10,000- to 1,000,000-fold higher concentrations of sodium. Previous EMSP results in Project 55087 elucidated the underlying extraction equilibria in cesium nitrate extraction by the calixcrown used in the CSSX process, calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-crown-6), designated here as BOBCalixC6 (see structure). This understanding led to key improvements in the development of the CSSX process under the EM Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program, entailing a method to back-extract or 'strip' cesium from the calixcrown subsequent to cesium extraction from waste. Having this stripping method allowed the cesium to be concentrated in a relatively pure aqueous stream and the extractant to be regenerated for recycle. Closing the cycle then made possible the design of a process flowsheet and successful demonstration through collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory and Savannah River Technology Center under funding from the USDOE Office of Project Completion and Tanks Focus Area. Despite these successes, the CSSX process represents young technology that can benefit substantially from further fundamental inquiry. First, reversibility of the process (stripping efficiency) still presents the greatest potential for problems and the greatest potential for improvement. Second, although the calixcrown extractants for cesium are two orders of magnitude stronger than the next best simple crown ether, a minor fraction of the extractant capacity is utilized. Third, potassium competes significantly with cesium for the calixcrown binding site, an important issue in dealing with Hanford wastes having potassium concentrations as high as 1 M. Fourth, the calixcrown solubility needs to be improved. And finally, the mechanism of extraction must be understood in detail to provide the base of knowledge from which further development of the technology can be rationally made.

  14. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  15. Design Improvements and Analysis of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 12171

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pribanic, Tomas; Awwad, Amer; Crespo, Jairo; McDaniel, Dwayne; Varona, Jose; Gokaltun, Seckin; Roelant, David

    2012-07-01

    Transferring high-level waste (HLW) between storage tanks or to treatment facilities is a common practice performed at the Department of Energy (DoE) sites. Changes in the chemical and/or physical properties of the HLW slurry during the transfer process may lead to the formation of blockages inside the pipelines resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. To improve DoE's capabilities in the event of a pipeline plugging incident, FIU has continued to develop two novel unplugging technologies: an asynchronous pulsing system and a peristaltic crawler. The asynchronous pulsing system uses a hydraulic pulse generator to create pressure disturbances at two opposite inlet locations of the pipeline to dislodge blockages by attacking the plug from both sides remotely. The peristaltic crawler is a pneumatic/hydraulic operated crawler that propels itself by a sequence of pressurization/depressurization of cavities (inner tubes). The crawler includes a frontal attachment that has a hydraulically powered unplugging tool. In this paper, details of the asynchronous pulsing system's ability to unplug a pipeline on a small-scale test-bed and results from the experimental testing of the second generation peristaltic crawler are provided. The paper concludes with future improvements for the third generation crawler and a recommended path forward for the asynchronous pulsing testing. (authors)

  16. Studies Related to Chemical Mechanisms of Gas Formation in Hanford High-Level Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kent Barefield; Charles L. Liotta; Henry M. Neumann

    2002-04-08

    The objective of this work is to develop a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the thermal reactions that lead to gas production in certain high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford, Washington site. Prediction of the combustion hazard for these wastes and engineering parameters for waste processing depend upon both a knowledge of the composition of stored wastes and the changes that they undergo as a result of thermal and radiolytic decomposition. Since 1980 when Delagard first demonstrated that gas production (H2and N2O initially, later N2 and NH3)in the affected tanks was related to oxidative degradation of metal complexants present in the waste, periodic attempts have been made to develop detailed mechanisms by which the gases were formed. These studies have resulted in the postulation of a series of reactions that account for many of the observed products, but which involve several reactions for which there is limited, or no, precedent. For example, Al(OH)4 has been postulated to function as a Lewis acid to catalyze the reaction of nitrite ion with the metal complexants, NO is proposed as an intermediate, and the ratios of gaseous products may be a result of the partitioning of NO between two or more reactions. These reactions and intermediates have been the focus of this project since its inception in 1996.

  17. Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Discussed technologies applied in highly downsized efficient gasoline engine concept such as multiple injection, advanced boosting, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and electrical ...

  18. Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement...

  19. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High and Intermediate Level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    necessary for the safe examination, analysis and testing of highly radioactive materials. Skilled operators stand safely outside of each cell and use manipulator arms to...

  20. Greening the Grid: The Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STORAGE AND DEMAND RESPONSE GREENING THE GRID THE NEED FOR FLEXIBILITY Affordably integrating high levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such as wind and solar requires ...

  1. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well defined and ordered pores. Here the main challenge is to find a chemically stable MOF required for regeneration of the AB-spent fuel. Finally, for carbon capture application of MOFs, we investigate the performance of a number of metal–organic frameworks with particular focus on their behavior at the low pressures commonly used in swing adsorption. This comparison clearly shows that it is the process that determines which MOF is optimal rather than there being one best MOF, though MOFs that possess enhanced binding at open metal sites generally perform better than those with high surface area. References: 1. Y. Peng, V. Krungleviciute, J. T. Hupp, O. K. Farha, and T. Yildirim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 11887 (2013). 2. G. Srinivas, V. Krungleviciute, Z. Guo, and T. Yildirim, Ener. Environ. Sci. 7, 335 (2014). 3. G. Burres, and T. Yildirim, Ener. Environ. Sci. 5, 6453 (2012). 4. G. Srinivas, W. Travis, J. Ford, H. Wu, Z. X. Guo, and T. Yildirim, J. Mat. Chem.1, 4167 (2013). 5. For details, please see http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/staff/taner

  2. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  3. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10-8 mol/s/cm2 were achieved.

  4. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  5. High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee John E. Marra, Ph.D. Associate Laboratory Director November 6, 2008 Richland, WA DOE-EM HLW Corporate Board Meeting Background - Performance Assessment Process Performance assessments are the fundamental risk assessment tool used by the DOE to evaluate and communicate the effectiveness and long-term impact of waste management and cleanup decisions. This includes demonstrations of compliance, NEPA analyses, and decisions about

  6. The demonstration of continuous stirred tank reactor operations with high level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-07-19

    This report contains the results of testing performed at the request of High Level Waste Engineering. These tests involved the operation of two continuous stirred tank reactors with high level waste.

  7. Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste...

  8. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)...

  9. Power applications of high-temperature superconductivity: Variable speed motors, current switches, and energy storage for end use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawsey, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Banerjee, B.B.; Grant, P.M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct joint research and development activities related to certain electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS). The new superconductors may allow development of an energy-efficient switch to control current to variable speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, and other power conversion equipment. Motor types that were considered include induction, permanent magnet, and superconducting ac motors. Because it is impractical to experimentally alter certain key design elements in radial-gap motors, experiments were conducted on an axial field superconducting motor prototype using 4 NbTi magnets. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology with 0.25--5 kWh stored energy was studied as a viable solution to short duration voltage sag problems on the customer side of the electric meter. The technical performance characteristics of the device wee assembled, along with competing technologies such as active power line conditioners with storage, battery-based uninterruptible power supplies, and supercapacitors, and the market potential for SMES was defined. Four reports were prepared summarizing the results of the project.

  10. Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste This report considers whether a separate repository for high-level radioactive waste resulting from atomic energy defense activities is "required" within the meaning of Section 8(b)(2) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. PDF icon Report on Separate Disposal of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste More Documents &

  11. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  12. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  13. HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS OF ENERGETICALLY HIGH-LYING LEVELS OF ODD PARITY OF ATOMIC VANADIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gzelimen, F.; Yap?c?, B.; Demir, G.; Er, A.; ztrk, I. K.; Ba?ar, G.; Krger, S.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Docenko, D.; Ba?ar, G. E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of a vanadium-argon plasma have been recorded in the wavelength range of 365-670 nm (15,000-27,400 cm{sup 1}). Optical bandpass filters were used in the experimental setup to enhance the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer. In total, 138 atomic vanadium spectral lines showing resolved or partially resolved hyperfine structure have been analyzed to determine the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A of the involved energy levels. One of the investigated lines has not been previously classified. As a result, the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A for 90 energy levels are presented: 35 of them belong to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 55 to the configuration 3d {sup 4}4p. Of these 90 constants, 67 have been determined for the first time, with 23 corresponding to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 44 to 3d {sup 4}4p.

  14. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuels photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MITs technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuelscalled Hybrisolcan also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  15. Electroville: Grid-Scale Batteries: High Amperage Energy Storage DeviceEnergy for the Neighborhood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by MIT professor Donald Sadoway, the Electroville project team is creating a community-scale electricity storage device using new materials and a battery design inspired by the aluminum production process known as smelting. A conventional battery includes a liquid electrolyte and a solid separator between its 2 solid electrodes. MITs battery contains liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt electrolyte. Because metals and salt dont mix, these 3 liquids of different densities naturally separate into layers, eliminating the need for a solid separator. This efficient design significantly reduces packaging materials, which reduces cost and allows more space for storing energy than conventional batteries offer. MITs battery also uses cheap, earth-abundant, domestically available materials and is more scalable. By using all liquids, the design can also easily be resized according to the changing needs of local communities.

  16. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  17. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  18. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

  19. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT - 9310

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanian, K; Bruce Wiersma, B; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-01-12

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground carbon steel storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The underground tanks will be closed by removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations, and severing/sealing external penetrations. The life of the carbon steel materials of construction in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to grouted conditions. A stochastic approach was followed to estimate the distributions of failures based upon mechanisms of corrosion accounting for variances in each of the independent variables. The methodology and results used for one-type of tank is presented.

  20. Structural Integrity Program for INTEC Calcined Solids Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Bryant

    2008-08-30

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual'. Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  1. Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Documents |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Technologies » Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project » Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Documents Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Documents October 1, 2014 Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Shutdown Sites In January 2013, the Department of Energy issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste. Among

  2. President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The Reagan Administration announces a nuclear energy policy that anticipates the establishment of a facility for the storage of high-level radioactive waste and lifts the ban on ...

  3. Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2013-02-24

    Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source.

  4. Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste - 13532

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States)] [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States); Bryan, Samuel; Lines, Amanda; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source. (authors)

  5. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Salt | Department of Energy Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that

  6. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel

  7. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on spinel liquidus temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature Spinel crystals ...

  8. EIS-0303: Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Tank Closure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates alternatives for closing 49 high-level radioactive waste tanks and associated equipment such as evaporator systems, transfer pipelines, diversion boxes, and pump pits. DOE...

  9. Conformance Tool High Level Design Document: IEC 61850 Cyber Security Acceleration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, Thomas W.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the high level design document for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IEC 62351-3, 4 and 6 standards conformance test software toolkit.

  10. Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Spent Nuclear Fuel | Department of Energy Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel The Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel report assesses the technical options for the safe and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) managed

  11. Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Map of the United States of America showing the locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. PDF icon Slide 1 More Documents & Publications Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel End of Year 2010 SNF & HLW Inventories Evaluation of Options for Permanent

  12. Analytic Challenges to Valuing Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark; Cheung, Kerry; Larochelle, Philippe; Scheer, Rich

    2011-10-25

    Electric grid energy storage value. System-level asset focus for mechanical and electrochemical energy storage. Analysis questions for power system planning, operations, and customer-side solutions.

  13. Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... changed to active. References Methodology Related Links Storage Basics Field Level Annual Capacity Data Map of Storage Facilities Natural Gas Data Tables Short-Term Energy Outlook

  14. Interim storage study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  15. File storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage File storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Euclid File Systems Euclid has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and...

  16. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations: HIGH CLOUD IN CRM Citation Details In-Document Search This content will ...

  17. Final LDRD report : nanoscale mechanisms in advanced aging of materials during storage of spent %22high burnup%22 nuclear fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  18. Bearing design for flywheel energy storage using high-TC superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    A high temperature superconductor material bearing system (38) This system (38) includes a rotor (50) having a ring permanent magnet (60), a plurality of permanent magnets (16, 20 and 70) for interacting to generate levitation forces for the system (38). This group of magnets are a push/pull bearing (75). A high temperature superconductor structure (30) interacts with the ting permanent magnet (60) to provide stabilizing forces for the system (38).

  19. Integration of US Department of Energy contractor installations for the purpose of optimizing treatment, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, M.; Gnoose, J.; Coony, M.; Martin, E.; Piscitella, R.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages a multibillion dollar environmental management (EM) program. In June 1996, the Assistant Secretary of Energy for EM issued a memorandum with guidance and a vision for a ten year planning process for the EM Program. The purpose of this process, which became known as the Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006, is to make step changes within the DOE complex regarding the approach for making meaningful environmental cleanup progress. To augment the process, Assistant Secretary requested the site contractors to engage in an effort to identify and evaluate integration alternatives for EM waste stream treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) that would parallel the 2006 Plan. In October 1996, ten DOE contractor installations began the task of identifying alternative opportunities for low level radioactive waste (LLW). Cost effective, efficient solutions were necessary to meet all requirements associated with storing, characterizing, treating, packaging, transporting, and disposing of LLW while protecting the workers` health and safety, and minimizing impacts to the environment. To develop these solutions, a systems engineering approach was used to establish the baseline requirements, to develop alternatives, and to evaluate the alternatives. Key assumptions were that unique disposal capabilities exist within the DOE that must be maintained; private sector disposal capability for some LLW may not continue to exist into the foreseeable future; and decisions made by the LLW Team must be made on a system or complex wide basis to fully realize the potential cost and schedule benefits. This integration effort promoted more accurate waste volume estimates and forecasts; enhanced recognition of existing treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities and capacities; and improved identification of cost savings across the complex.

  20. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  1. Effects of Hanford high-level waste components on sorption of cobalt, strontium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium on Hanford sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, C H; Barney, G S

    1983-03-01

    To judge the feasibility of continued storage of high-level waste solutions in existing tanks, effects of chemical waste components on the sorption of hazardous radioelements were determined. Experiments identified the effects of 12 Hanford high-level waste-solution components on the sorption of cobalt, strontium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium on 3 Hanford 200 Area sediments. The degree of sorption of strontium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium on two Hanford sediments was then quantified in terms of the concentrations of the influential waste components. Preliminary information on the influence of the waste components on radioelement solubility was gathered. Of the 12 Hanford waste-solution components studied, the most influential on radioelement sorption were NaOH, NaAlO/sub 2/, HEDTA, and EDTA. The chelating complexants, HEDTA and EDTA, generally decreased sorption by complexation of the radioelement metal ions. The components NaOH and NaAlO/sub 2/ decreased neptunium and plutonium sorption and increased cobalt sorption. Americium sorption was increased by NaOH. The three Hanford sediments' radioelement sorption behaviors were similar, implying that their sorption reactions were also similar. Sorption prediction equations were generated for strontium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium sorption reactions on two Hanford sediments. The equations yielded values of the distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, as quadratic functions of waste-component concentrations and showed that postulated radioelement migration rates through Hanford sediment could change by factors of 13 to 40 by changes in Hanford waste composition.

  2. Catalyzed Nano-Framework Stablized High Density Reversible Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xia; Opalka, Susanne M.; Mosher, Daniel A; Laube, Bruce L; Brown, Ronald J; Vanderspurt, Thomas H; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Ronnebro, Ewa; Boyle, Tim; Cordaro, Joseph

    2010-06-30

    A wide range of high capacity on-board rechargeable material candidates have exhibited non-ideal behavior related to irreversible hydrogen discharge / recharge behavior, and kinetic instability or retardation. This project addresses these issues by incorporating solvated and other forms of complex metal hydrides, with an emphasis on borohydrides, into nano-scale frameworks of low density, high surface area skeleton materials to stabilize, catalyze, and control desorption product formation associated with such complex metal hydrides. A variety of framework chemistries and hydride / framework combinations were investigated to make a relatively broad assessment of the method's potential. In this project, the hydride / framework interactions were tuned to decrease desorption temperatures for highly stable compounds or increase desorption temperatures for unstable high capacity compounds, and to influence desorption product formation for improved reversibility. First principle modeling was used to explore heterogeneous catalysis of hydride reversibility by modeling H2 dissociation, hydrogen migration, and rehydrogenation. Atomic modeling also demonstrated enhanced NaTi(BH4)4 stabilization at nano-framework surfaces modified with multi-functional agents. Amine multi-functional agents were found to have more balanced interactions with nano-framework and hydride clusters than other functional groups investigated. Experimentation demonstrated that incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in aerogels enhanced hydride desorption kinetics. Carbon aerogels were identified as the most suitable nano-frameworks for hydride kinetic enhancement and high hydride loading. High loading of NaTi(BH4)4 ligand complex in SiO2 aerogel was achieved and hydride stability was improved with the aerogel. Although improvements of desorption kinetics was observed, the incorporation of Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2 in nano-frameworks did not improve their H2 absorption due to the formation of stable alkaline earth B12H12 intermediates upon rehydrogenation. This project primarily investigated the effect of nano-framework surface chemistry on hydride properties, while the effect of pore size is the focus area of other efforts (e.g., HRL, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) etc.) within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The projects were complementary in gaining an overall understanding of the influence of nano-frameworks on hydride behavior.

  3. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  4. Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  5. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  6. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN (United States); Darwen, N.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance functional and timing studies throughout the design process. Since no humans can go in or out of the cell, there are several recovery options that have been designed into the system including jack-down wheels for the bridge and trolley, recovery drums for the manipulator hoist, and a wire rope cable cutter for the slewer jib hoist. If the entire crane fails in cell, the large diameter cable reel that provides power, signal, and control to the crane can be used to retrieve the crane from the cell into the crane maintenance area. (authors)

  7. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in todays EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal batterywhich does not use any hazardous substancescan be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetaks converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengerseliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  8. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    nuclear fuel (SNF) | Department of Energy Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor to generate nuclear energy but that has been removed from the reactor as no

  9. SRS Workers Moved Millions of Gallons of High-Level Waste Safely in 2014 |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Workers Moved Millions of Gallons of High-Level Waste Safely in 2014 SRS Workers Moved Millions of Gallons of High-Level Waste Safely in 2014 February 26, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis A view of the Savannah River Site, which includes underground waste tanks and facilities. A view of the Savannah River Site, which includes underground waste tanks and facilities. AIKEN, S.C. - EM and its liquid waste contractor safely transferred more than 20 million gallons of high-level waste

  10. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  11. Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

    2007-02-05

    We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

  12. Geological Repository Layout for Radioactive High Level Long Lived Waste in Argilite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaussen, J.L.

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high-level long-lived waste. This presentation is focused on the underground facilities that constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout, which has been elaborated, is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in term of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimisation of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. 4 shafts ensure the link between the surface and the underground. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long-term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in big cavities the diameter of which is about 10 meters and the length of which is about 250 meters. On the other hand, the design of the C waste disposal cells (vitrified waste) is mainly derived from their thermal power (about 500 W after a 60 year period of interim storage). The disposal cell is a tunnel the diameter of which is about 0,70 m and the length of which is about 40 m. The number of the disposal packages (made of steel) per cell, the spacing between two adjacent canisters within a given cell and the spacing between two adjacent cells are adjusted to limit the peak of temperature in the host formation at 100 deg. C. The disposal cells are also characterized by favourable design factors that would facilitate the potential retrieval of the wastes. The whole underground layout would represent a surface area of several km{sup 2}. (authors)

  13. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  14. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company

  15. Comments of Santiago Grijalva: High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-Level Response to DOE RFI on Smart Grid Policy: This document responds to DOE questions regarding smart grid policy. The approach followed herein is to write concise comments addressing the...

  16. TWRS HLW interim storage facility search and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calmus, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify and provide an evaluation of interim storage facilities and potential facility locations for the vitrified high-level waste (HLW) from the Phase I demonstration plant and Phase II production plant. In addition, interim storage facilities for solidified separated radionuclides (Cesium and Technetium) generated during pretreatment of Phase I Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant feed was evaluated.

  17. Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting March 13, 2006 - 11:48am Addthis Discuss Pakistan's energy opportunities; Follows United States-Pakistan Strategic Partnership launched by President Bush earlier this month WASHINGTON, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today visited Pakistan, the first stop in his four-nation swing where he will discuss ways that the U.S. and Pakistan can increase

  18. Statement on Launch of the U.S.-Republic of Korea High Level Bilateral

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Commission Pursuant to the Agreement for Cooperation between the United States and Republic of Korea Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy | Department of Energy Statement on Launch of the U.S.-Republic of Korea High Level Bilateral Commission Pursuant to the Agreement for Cooperation between the United States and Republic of Korea Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Statement on Launch of the U.S.-Republic of Korea High Level Bilateral Commission Pursuant to the Agreement for

  19. DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel October 2014 [This page left blank.] FOREWORD In January 2012, the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future urged the Administration to conduct a review of the current policy to dispose of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a single repository or repositories. Based on that recommendation, in January 2013, the Administration's

  20. EIS-0113: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington | Department of Energy 113: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Waste, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EIS-0113: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Waste, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to examine the potential environmental impacts of final disposal options for legacy and future radioactive defense wastes stored at the Hanford Site.

  1. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  2. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  3. Project Profile: Development and Performance Evaluation of High Temperature Concrete for Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of Arkansas, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing a novel concrete material that can withstand operating temperatures of 500°C or more and is measuring the concrete properties.

  4. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  5. The high level programmer and user interface of the NSLS control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Y.N.; Smith, J.D.; Sathe, S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents the major components of the high level software in the NSLS upgraded control system. Both programmer and user interfaces are discussed. The use of the high-speed work stations, fast network communications, UNIX system, X-window and Motif have greatly changed and improved these interfaces.

  6. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, J. T. (Palo Alto, CA); Larsen, R. S. (Menlo Park, CA); Shapiro, S. L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  7. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  8. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  9. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  10. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonell, W R

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms.

  11. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  12. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  13. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Lawrence T.; Chew, David P.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance. There is currently a premium on processing and storage space in the radioactive liquid waste tank system. To enable continuation of risk reduction initiatives, the Plan establishes a processing strategy that provides tank space required to meet, or minimizes the impacts to meeting, programmatic objectives. The Plan also addresses perturbations in funding and schedule impacts. (authors)

  14. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred; Halstead, Robert J.; Ballard, James D.

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

  15. Aluminium doped ceriazirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 C for 20 h. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the BrunauerEmmetTeller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Snippet 4.9 High Level EVM Expectations 20140711 [Compatibility Mode]

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    focuses on the DOE Federal Project Director's expectations of the contractor's earned value management system and the resultant EVM data. The high-level EVM expectations presented in this Snippet will cover these areas: EVM concepts and objectives, the scheduling and budgeting process, work authorization, level of effort concerns, variance analysis and reporting, evaluation of the contractor's estimate at completion, baseline control and revisions, and a synopsis of expectations. The requirement

  17. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  18. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

  19. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-02-25

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes.

  20. In-tank pretreatment of high-level tank wastes: The SIPS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SIPS (Small In-Tank Processing System), that enables the in-tank processing and separation of high-level tank wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) streams that are suitable for vitrification, is described. Presently proposed pretreatment systems, such as enhanced sludge washing (ESW) and TRUEX, require that the high-level tank wastes be retrieved and pumped to a large, centralized processing facility, where the various waste components are separated into a relatively small, radioactively concentrated stream (HLW), and a relatively large, predominantly non-radioactive stream (LLW). In SIPS, a small process module, typically on the order of 1 meter in diameter and 4 meters in length, is inserted into a tank. During a period of approximately six months, it processes the solid/liquid materials in the tank, separating them into liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small diameter (typically 3 cm o.d.) pipes. The SIPS concept appears attractive for pretreating high level wastes, since it would: (1) process waste in-situ in the tanks, (2) be cheaper and more reliable than a larger centralized facility, (3) be quickly demonstrable at full scale, (4) have less technical risk, (5) avoid having to transfer unstable slurries for long distances, and (6) be simple to decommission and dispose of. Further investigation of the SIPS concept appears desirable, including experimental testing and development of subscale demonstration units.

  1. RAIL ROUTING - CURRENT PRACTICES FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE SHIPMENTS,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4.31 Final 7/30 RAIL ROUTING - CURRENT PRACTICES FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE SHIPMENTS, AND A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY REGULATORY GUIDELINES APPLIED TO RAIL A DISCUSSION PAPER PREPARED BY THE RAIL TOPIC GROUP OF THE TRANSPORTATION EXTERNAL COORDINATION WORKING GROUP JULY 2004 1 Revision 4.31 Final 7/30 Rail Routing- Current Practices for Spent Nuclear Fuel And High-Level Waste Shipments, And a Comparative Analysis Of Highway Regulatory Guidelines Applied to Rail I.

  2. SRS Crosses Halfway Mark on Closing Another High-Level Waste Tank |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy SRS Crosses Halfway Mark on Closing Another High-Level Waste Tank SRS Crosses Halfway Mark on Closing Another High-Level Waste Tank February 25, 2016 - 12:20pm Addthis Work is more than halfway complete on grouting Tank 12, the eighth to be operationally closed at Savannah River Site. Work is more than halfway complete on grouting Tank 12, the eighth to be operationally closed at Savannah River Site. AIKEN, S.C. - Savannah River Site (SRS) moved past the halfway mark

  3. Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Road Map for Development of Crystal-Tolerant High Level Waste Glasses This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystal-tolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford

  4. EVMS Training Snippet: 4.9 High-level EVM Expectations | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 9 High-level EVM Expectations EVMS Training Snippet: 4.9 High-level EVM Expectations This EVMS Training Snippet, sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) focuses on the DOE Federal Project Director's expectations of the contractor's earned value management system and the resultant EVM data. Link to Video Presentation | Prior Snippet (4.8) | Next Snippet (5.1) | Return to Index PDF icon Slides Only PDF icon Slides with Notes More Documents & Publications EVMS Training

  5. SHAM: High-level seismic tests of piping at the HDR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Costello, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level simulated seismic tests (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the VKL (Versuchskreislauf) in-plant piping system with two servohydraulic actuators, each capable of generating 40 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to study the behavior of piping subjected to seismic excitation levels that exceed design levels manifold and may result in failure/plastification of pipe supports and pipe elements, and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. The performance of six different dynamic pipe support systems was compared in these tests and the response, operability, and fragility of dynamic supports and of a typical US gate valve were investigated. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. Very preliminary evaluations lead to the observation that, in general, failures of dynamic supports (in particular snubbers) occur only at load levels that substantially exceed the design capacity. Pipe strains at load levels exceeding the design level threefold are quite small, and even when exceeding the design level eightfold are quite tolerable. Hence, under seismic loading, even at extreme levels and in spite of multiple support failures, pipe failure is unlikely. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  6. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  7. Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2014-06-23

    ORNL Distinguished Scientist Parans Paranthaman is discovering new materials with potential for greatly increasing batteries' energy storage capacity and bring manufacturing back to the US.

  8. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2014-06-03

    ORNL Distinguished Scientist Parans Paranthaman is discovering new materials with potential for greatly increasing batteries' energy storage capacity and bring manufacturing back to the US.

  9. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GLOVE FOR GLOVE BOXES WITH HIGH-LEVEL PERFORMANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blancher, J.; Poirier, J.M.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the results of a joint technological program of COGEMA and MAPA to develop a new generation of glove for glove boxes. The mechanical strength of this glove is twice as high as the best characteristics of gloves available on the market. This new generation of product has both a higher level of performance and better ergonomics.

  11. Structural integrity and potential failure modes of hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    Structural Integrity of the Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks were evaluated based on the existing Design and Analysis Documents. All tank structures were found adequate for the normal operating and seismic loads. Potential failure modes of the tanks were assessed by engineering interpretation and extrapolation of the existing engineering documents.

  12. Modeling the Benefits of Storage Technologies to Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.; Short, W.; Blair, N.

    2008-06-01

    Rapid expansion of wind power in the electricity sector is raising questions about how wind resource variability might affect the capacity value of wind farms at high levels of penetration. Electricity storage, with the capability to shift wind energy from periods of low demand to peak times and to smooth fluctuations in output, may have a role in bolstering the value of wind power at levels of penetration envisioned by a new Department of Energy report ('20% Wind by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply'). This paper quantifies the value storage can add to wind. The analysis was done employing the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, formerly known as the Wind Deployment System (WinDS) model. ReEDS was used to estimate the cost and development path associated with 20% penetration of wind in the report. ReEDS differs from the WinDS model primarily in that the model has been modified to include the capability to build and use three storage technologies: pumped-hydroelectric storage (PHS), compressed-air energy storage (CAES), and batteries. To assess the value of these storage technologies, two pairs of scenarios were run: business-as-usual, with and without storage; 20% wind energy by 2030, with and without storage. This paper presents the results from those model runs.

  13. Gap Analysis to Support Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Gap Analysis to Support Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Gap Analysis to Support Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology, has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives

  14. Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thus, energy storage and power electronics hold substantial promise for transforming the electric power industry. High voltage power electronics, such as switches, inverters, and ...

  15. Development of a Real-Time, High-Speed Distribution Level Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of smart grids and the deployment of their enabling technologies, improved data acquisition will be needed at the distribution level to understand the full impact of these changes. With this in mind, NREL has developed a high-speed measurement and data collection network targeted specifically at the distribution level. This network is based around adaptable, rugged measurement devices designed for deployment at a variety of low and medium voltage locations below the sub-station. Each of these devices is capable of real-time data transmission via an Internet connection. Additionally, several analysis and visualization applications have been developed around the incoming data streams.

  16. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie; Fioravanti, Richard; Gordon, Paul; Markel, Larry; Agrawal, Poonum; Nourai, Ali

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  17. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  18. Cold Crucible Induction Melting Technology for Vitrification of High Level Waste: Development and Status in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugilal, G.; Sengar, P.B.S. [Nuclear Recycle Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melting is globally emerging as an alternative technology for the vitrification of high level radioactive waste. The new technology offers several advantages such as high temperature availability with long melter life, high waste loading, high specific capacity etc. Based on the laboratory and bench scale studies, an engineering scale cold crucible induction melter was locally developed in India. The melter was operated continuously to assess its performance. The electrical and thermal efficiencies were found to be in the range of 70-80 % and 10-20 % respectively. Glass melting capacities up to 200 kg m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} were accomplished using the ESCCIM. Industrially adaptable melter operating procedures for start-up, melting and pouring operations were established (author)

  19. NERSC Nick Balthaser NERSC Storage Systems Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archival Storage at NERSC Nick Balthaser NERSC Storage Systems Group nabalthaser@lbl.gov NERSC User Training March 8, 2011 * NERSC Archive Technologies Overview * Use Cases for the Archive * Authentication * Storage Clients Available at NERSC * Avoiding Common Mistakes * Optimizing Data Storage and Retrieval Agenda NERSC Archive Technologies * The NERSC archive is a hierarchical storage management system (HSM) * Highest performance requirements and access characteristics at top level * Lowest

  20. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  1. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

  2. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  3. 4.1.1.50 High Level Techno-Economic Analysis of Innovative Technology Concepts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review 4.1.1.50 High Level Techno-Economic Analysis of Innovative Technology Concepts 3-24-2015 Analysis & Sustainability Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Sue Jones Iowa State University: Mark Wright This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Goal Statement 2 GOAL: Enable R&D of economically viable biomass derived liquid

  4. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  5. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  7. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  8. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  9. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  10. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and to assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the Development Plan ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) with no deviations from the plan.

  11. File Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage File Storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Carver File Systems Carver has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and project directories, all provided by the NERSC Global File system. Each file system serves a different purpose. File System Home Scratch Project Environment Variable Definition $HOME $SCRATCH or $GSCRATCH No environment variable /project/projectdirs/ Description Global homes file system shared by all NERSC systems except

  12. File storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage File storage Disk Quota Change Request Form Euclid File Systems Euclid has 3 kinds of file systems available to users: home directories, scratch directories and project directories, all provided by the NERSC Global File system. Each file system serves a different purpose. File System Home Scratch Project Environment Variable Definition $HOME $SCRATCH or $GSCRATCH No environment variable /project/projectdirs/ Description Global homes file system shared by all NERSC systems except

  13. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure/Energy Storage - Energy StorageTara Camacho-Lopez2015-10-16T01:57:05+00:00 ESTP The contemporary grid limits renewable energy and other distributed energy sources from being economically and reliably integrated into the grid. While a national renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS) has yet to be established, 35 states have forged ahead with their own RPS programs and policies. As this generation becomes a larger

  14. Flywheel Energy Storage technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Kain, D.; Howell, D.

    1993-12-31

    Advances in recent years of high strength/lightweight materials, high performance magnetic bearings, and power electronics technology has spurred a renewed interest by the transportation, utility, and manufacturing industries in Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) technologies. FES offers several advantages over conventional electro-chemical energy storage, such as high specific energy and specific power, fast charging time, long service life, high turnaround efficiency (energy out/energy in), and no hazardous/toxic materials or chemicals are involved. Potential applications of FES units include power supplies for hybrid and electric vehicles, electric vehicle charging stations, space systems, and pulsed power devices. Also, FES units can be used for utility load leveling, uninterruptable power supplies to protect electronic equipment and electrical machinery, and for intermittent wind or photovoltaic energy sources. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to highlight technologies that offer a high potential to increase the performance of FES systems and to discuss potential solutions to overcome present FES application barriers. This document consists of viewgraphs from 27 presentations.

  15. Optimization and Analysis of High-Power Hydrogen/Bromine-Flow Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, KT; Albertus, P; Battaglia, V; Kojic, A; Srinivasan, V; Weber, AZ

    2013-10-07

    For storage of grid-scale electrical energy, redox-flow batteries (RFBs) are considered promising technologies. This paper explores the influence of electrolyte composition and ion transport on cell performance by using an integrated approach of experiments and cost modeling. In particular, the impact of the area-specific resistance on system capability is elucidated for the hydrogen/bromine RFB. The experimental data demonstrate very good performance with 1.46 W cm(-2) peak power and 4 A cm(-2) limiting current density at ambient conditions for an optimal cell design and reactant concentrations. The data and cost model results show that higher concentrations of RFB reactants do not necessarily result in lower capital cost as there is a tradeoff between cell performance and storage (tank) requirements. In addition, the discharge time and overall efficiency demonstrate nonlinear effects on system cost, with a 3 to 4 hour minimum discharge time showing a key transition to a plateau in terms of cost for typical RFB systems. The presented results are applicable to many different RFB chemistries and technologies and highlight the importance of ohmic effects and associated area-specific resistance on RFB viability.

  16. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is emerging as a viable approach for cancer treatment because of its potential for delivering curative doses of radiation to malignant cell populations while sparing normal tissues. Alpha particles such as those emitted by 211At are particularly attractive for this purpose because of their short path length in tissue and high energy, making them highly effective in killing cancer cells. The current impact of targeted radiotherapy in the clinical domain remains limited despite the fact that in many cases, potentially useful molecular targets and labeled compounds have already been identified. Unfortunately, putting these concepts into practice has been impeded by limitations in radiochemistry methodologies. A critical problem is that the synthesis of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals provides additional challenges in comparison to diagnostic reagents because of the need to perform radio-synthesis at high levels of radioactivity. This is particularly important for {alpha}-particle emitters such as 211At because they deposit large amounts of energy in a highly focal manner. The overall objective of this project is to develop convenient and reproducible radiochemical methodologies for the radiohalogenation of molecules with the {alpha}-particle emitter 211At at the radioactivity levels needed for clinical studies. Our goal is to address two problems in astatine radiochemistry: First, a well known characteristic of 211At chemistry is that yields for electrophilic astatination reactions decline as the time interval after radionuclide isolation from the cyclotron target increases. This is a critical problem that must be addressed if cyclotrons are to be able to efficiently supply 211At to remote users. And second, when the preparation of high levels of 211At-labeled compounds is attempted, the radiochemical yields can be considerably lower than those encountered at tracer dose. For these reasons, clinical evaluation of promising 211At-labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  17. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  18. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  19. Minor component study for simulated high-level nuclear waste glasses (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H.; Langowskim, M.H.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Vienna, J.D.; Smith, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Hanford Site single-shell tank (SSI) and double-shell tank (DSI) wastes are planned to be separated into low activity (or low-level waste, LLW) and high activity (or high-level waste, HLW) fractions, and to be vitrified for disposal. Formulation of HLW glass must comply with glass processibility and durability requirements, including constraints on melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, tendency for phase segregation on the molten glass surface, and chemical durability of the final waste form. A wide variety of HLW compositions are expected to be vitrified. In addition these wastes will likely vary in composition from current estimates. High concentrations of certain troublesome components, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chrome, raise concerns about their potential hinderance to the waste vitrification process. For example, phosphate segregation in the cold cap (the layer of feed on top of the glass melt) in a Joule-heated melter may inhibit the melting process (Bunnell, 1988). This has been reported during a pilot-scale ceramic melter run, PSCM-19, (Perez, 1985). Molten salt segregation of either sulfate or chromate is also hazardous to the waste vitrification process. Excessive (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni) spinel crystal formation in molten glass can also be detrimental to melter operation.

  20. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  1. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  2. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  3. Advanced research in solar-energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  4. Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presentation on NIST Combinatorial Methods at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland. PDF icon ht_nist_bendersky.pdf More Documents & Publications High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Hydrogen Storage Lab PI Workshop: HyMARC and

  5. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Adsorption of Ruthenium, Rhodium and Palladium from Simulated High-Level Liquid Waste by Highly Functional Xerogel - 13286

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Takashi [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)] [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Koyama, Shin-ichi [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)] [Fukushima Fuels and Materials Department O-arai Research and Development Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho 4002, O-arai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2,Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 (Japan)] [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University Aramaki-Aza-Aoba 6-6-01-2,Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Fission products are generated by fission reactions in nuclear fuel. Platinum group (Pt-G) elements, such as palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh) and ruthenium (Ru), are also produced. Generally, Pt-G elements play important roles in chemical and electrical industries. Highly functional xerogels have been developed for recovery of these useful Pt-G elements from high - level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW). An adsorption experiment from simulated HLLW was done by the column method to study the selective adsorption of Pt-G elements, and it was found that not only Pd, Rh and Ru, but also nickel, zirconium and tellurium were adsorbed. All other elements were not adsorbed. Adsorbed Pd was recovered by washing the xerogel-packed column with thiourea solution and thiourea - nitric acid mixed solution in an elution experiment. Thiourea can be a poison for automotive exhaust emission system catalysts, so it is necessary to consider its removal. Thermal decomposition and an acid digestion treatment were conducted to remove sulfur in the recovered Pd fraction. The relative content of sulfur to Pd was decreased from 858 to 0.02 after the treatment. These results will contribute to design of the Pt-G element separation system. (authors)

  7. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  8. UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-08-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during extended storage. The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage system SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Hanson et al. 2011). Other sources of information surveyed to develop the list of SSCs and their degradation mechanisms included references such as Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel (NWTRB 2010), Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification, Revision 1 (OCRWM 2008), Data Needs for Long-Term Storage of LWR Fuel (EPRI 1998), Technical Bases for Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EPRI 2002), Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program (EPRI 2010a), Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (EPRI 2010b), and Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, Issues Resolution (EPRI 2010c). SSCs include items such as the fuel, cladding, fuel baskets, neutron poisons, metal canisters, etc. Potential degradation mechanisms (FEPs) included mechanical, thermal, radiation and chemical stressors, such as fuel fragmentation, embrittlement of cladding by hydrogen, oxidation of cladding, metal fatigue, corrosion, etc. These degradation mechanisms are discussed in Section 2 of this report. The degradation mechanisms have been evaluated to determine if they would be influenced by extended storage or high burnup, the need for additional data, and their importance to transportation. These categories were used to identify the most significant transportation degradation mechanisms. As expected, for the most part, the transportation importance was mirrored by the importance assigned by the UFD Storage Task. A few of the more significant differences are described in Section 3 of this report

  9. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E. [AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Piroux, J.C. [Joint Vitrification Laboratory - LCV, Marcoule, BP171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  10. Investigation of Flammable Gas Releases from High Level Waste Tanks during Periodic Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swingle, R.F.

    1999-01-07

    The Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste through precipitation by the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate in a large (approximately 1.3 million gallon) High Level Waste Tank. Radiolysis of water produces a significant amount of hydrogen gas in this slurry. During quiescent periods the tetraphenylborate slurry retains large amounts of hydrogen as dissolved gas and small bubbles. When mixing pumps start, large amounts of hydrogen release due to agitation of the slurry. Flammability concerns necessitate an understanding of the hydrogen retention mechanism in the slurry and a model of how the hydrogen releases from the slurry during pump operation. Hydrogen concentration data collected from the slurry tank confirmed this behavior in the full-scale system. These measurements also provide mass transfer results for the hydrogen release during operation. The authors compared these data to an existing literature model for mass transfer in small, agitated reactors and developed factors to scale this existing model to the 1.3 million gallon tanks in use at the Savannah River Site. The information provides guidance for facility operations.

  11. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized.more » Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  12. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  13. Crystallization in high-level waste glass: A review of glass theory and noteworthy literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J. H.

    2015-08-18

    There is a fundamental need to continue research aimed at understanding nepheline and spinel crystal formation in high-level waste (HLW) glass. Specifically, the formation of nepheline solids (K/NaAlSiO4) during slow cooling of HLW glass can reduce the chemical durability of the glass, which can cause a decrease in the overall durability of the glass waste form. The accumulation of spinel solids ((Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4), while not detrimental to glass durability, can cause an array of processing problems inside HLW glass melters. In this review, the fundamental differences between glass and solid-crystals are explained using kinetic, thermodynamic, and viscosity arguments, and several highlights of glass-crystallization research, as it pertains to high-level waste vitrification, are described. In terms of mitigating spinel in the melter and both spinel and nepheline formation in the canister, the complexity of HLW glass and the intricate interplay between thermal, chemical, and kinetic factors further complicates this understanding. However, new experiments seeking to elucidate the contributing factors of crystal nucleation and growth in waste glass, and the compilation of data from older experiments, may go a long way towards helping to achieve higher waste loadings while developing more efficient processing strategies. Higher waste loadings and more efficient processing strategies will reduce the overall HLW Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vitrification facilities mission life.

  14. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  15. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  16. Crystallization in high-level waste glass: A review of glass theory and noteworthy literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J. H.

    2015-08-01

    There is a fundamental need to continue research aimed at understanding nepheline and spinel crystal formation in high-level waste (HLW) glass. Specifically, the formation of nepheline solids (K/NaAlSiO?) during slow cooling of HLW glass can reduce the chemical durability of the glass, which can cause a decrease in the overall durability of the glass waste form. The accumulation of spinel solids ((Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe,Cr)?O?), while not detrimental to glass durability, can cause an array of processing problems inside of HLW glass melters. In this review, the fundamental differences between glass and solid-crystals are explained using kinetic, thermodynamic, and viscosity arguments, and several highlights of glass-crystallization research, as it pertains to high-level waste vitrification, are described. In terms of mitigating spinel in the melter and both spinel and nepheline formation in the canister, the complexity of HLW glass and the intricate interplay between thermal, chemical, and kinetic factors further complicates this understanding. However, new experiments seeking to elucidate the contributing factors of crystal nucleation and growth in waste glass, and the compilation of data from older experiments, may go a long way towards helping to achieve higher waste loadings while developing more efficient processing strategies.

  17. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glasses and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulationsmorehave been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentration of Fe2O3. Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste group.less

  18. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glasses and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentration of Fe2O3. Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste group.

  19. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both the as poured state and after being slowly cooled according to the canister centerline cooling (CCC) profile. Glass formulation development was also completed on other Hanford tank wastes that were identified to further challenge waste loading due to the presence of appreciable quantities (>750 g) of plutonium in the waste tanks. In addition to containing appreciable Pu quantities, the C-102 waste tank and the 244-TX waste tank contain high concentrations of aluminum and iron, respectively that will further challenge vitrification processing. Glass formulation testing also demonstrated that high waste loadings could be achieved with these tank compositions using the attributes afforded by the CCIM technology.

  20. A gene stacking approach leads to engineered plants with highly increased galactan levels in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondolf, Vibe M.; Stoppel, Rhea; Ebert, Berit; Rautengarten, Carsten; Liwanag, April J.M.; Loqu, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2014-12-10

    Background: Engineering of plants with a composition of lignocellulosic biomass that is more suitable for downstream processing is of high interest for next-generation biofuel production. Lignocellulosic biomass contains a high proportion of pentose residues, which are more difficult to convert into fuels than hexoses. Therefore, increasing the hexose/pentose ratio in biomass is one approach for biomass improvement. A genetic engineering approach was used to investigate whether the amount of pectic galactan can be specifically increased in cell walls of Arabidopsis fiber cells, which in turn could provide a potential source of readily fermentable galactose. Results: First it was tested if overexpression of various plant UDP-glucose 4-epimerases (UGEs) could increase the availability of UDP-galactose and thereby increase the biosynthesis of galactan. Constitutive and tissue-specific expression of a poplar UGE and three Arabidopsis UGEs in Arabidopsis plants could not significantly increase the amount of cell wall bound galactose. We then investigated co-overexpression of AtUGE2 together with the ?-1,4-galactan synthase GalS1. Co-overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 led to over 80% increase in cell wall galactose levels in Arabidopsis stems, providing evidence that these proteins work synergistically. Furthermore, AtUGE2 and GalS1 overexpression in combination with overexpression of the NST1 master regulator for secondary cell wall biosynthesis resulted in increased thickness of fiber cell walls in addition to the high cell wall galactose levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that the increased galactose was present as ?-1,4-galactan in secondary cell walls. Conclusions: This approach clearly indicates that simultaneous overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 increases the cell wall galactose to much higher levels than can be achieved by overexpressing either one of these proteins alone. Moreover, the increased galactan content in fiber cells while improving the biomass composition had no impact on plant growth and development and hence on the overall biomass amount. Thus, we could show that the gene stacking approach described here is a promising method to engineer advanced feedstocks for biofuel production.

  1. A gene stacking approach leads to engineered plants with highly increased galactan levels in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gondolf, Vibe M.; Stoppel, Rhea; Ebert, Berit; Rautengarten, Carsten; Liwanag, April J.M.; Loqué, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2014-12-10

    Background: Engineering of plants with a composition of lignocellulosic biomass that is more suitable for downstream processing is of high interest for next-generation biofuel production. Lignocellulosic biomass contains a high proportion of pentose residues, which are more difficult to convert into fuels than hexoses. Therefore, increasing the hexose/pentose ratio in biomass is one approach for biomass improvement. A genetic engineering approach was used to investigate whether the amount of pectic galactan can be specifically increased in cell walls of Arabidopsis fiber cells, which in turn could provide a potential source of readily fermentable galactose. Results: First it was tested ifmore » overexpression of various plant UDP-glucose 4-epimerases (UGEs) could increase the availability of UDP-galactose and thereby increase the biosynthesis of galactan. Constitutive and tissue-specific expression of a poplar UGE and three Arabidopsis UGEs in Arabidopsis plants could not significantly increase the amount of cell wall bound galactose. We then investigated co-overexpression of AtUGE2 together with the β-1,4-galactan synthase GalS1. Co-overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 led to over 80% increase in cell wall galactose levels in Arabidopsis stems, providing evidence that these proteins work synergistically. Furthermore, AtUGE2 and GalS1 overexpression in combination with overexpression of the NST1 master regulator for secondary cell wall biosynthesis resulted in increased thickness of fiber cell walls in addition to the high cell wall galactose levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that the increased galactose was present as β-1,4-galactan in secondary cell walls. Conclusions: This approach clearly indicates that simultaneous overexpression of AtUGE2 and GalS1 increases the cell wall galactose to much higher levels than can be achieved by overexpressing either one of these proteins alone. Moreover, the increased galactan content in fiber cells while improving the biomass composition had no impact on plant growth and development and hence on the overall biomass amount. Thus, we could show that the gene stacking approach described here is a promising method to engineer advanced feedstocks for biofuel production.« less

  2. Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications High-Pressure Tube ...

  3. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami U/NREL DoD/DLA Project) (presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  4. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyer, James M.; Corey, Garth P.

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  5. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  6. SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

    2009-10-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

  7. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on sensible heat storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  8. NREL: Energy Storage - Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Transportation Research Energy Storage Printable Version Awards R&D 100 2013 NREL's energy storage innovation has been recognized with numerous awards. R&D 100 ...

  9. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  10. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Silicon-Polymer Encapsulation of High-Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. G. Loomis; C. M. Miller; J. A. Giansiracusa; R. Kimmel; S. V. Prewett

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

  13. Polysiloxane Encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, Guy George

    2000-03-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: 1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; 2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, 3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

  14. Issue Brief: A Survey of State Policies to Support Utility-Scale and Distributed-Energy Storage (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes proposed and enacted legislation and activities related to energy storage for nine states, which are presented alphabetically. These states were selected to provide a high-level view of various energy storage efforts taking place across the United States.

  15. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  16. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  17. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  18. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  20. Storage tracking refinery trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, J.

    1996-05-01

    Regulatory and marketplace shakeups have made the refining and petrochemical industries highly competitive. The fight to survive has forced refinery consolidations, upgrades and companywide restructurings. Bulk liquid storage terminals are following suit. This should generate a flurry of engineering and construction by the latter part of 1997. A growing petrochemical industry translates into rising storage needs. Industry followers forecasted flat petrochemical growth in 1996 due to excessive expansion in 1994 and 1995. But expansion is expected to continue throughout this year on the strength of several products.

  1. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  2. Emerging Technologies: Energy Storage for PV Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponoum, Ratcharit; Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-30

    The article discusses available technologies for energy storage for photovoltaic power systems, and also addresses the efficiency levels and market potential of these strategies.

  3. High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

  4. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage - Creation of 3D mesh from surface and background meshes using conformal decomposition finite-element method (CDFEM) for a LiCoO2 cathode: (a) reconstructed surface mesh from Avizo for particle phase, (b) background mesh for CDFEM, and (c) resultant 3D mesh for particle and electrolyte phases from CDFEM. Permalink Gallery Sandia Wins Funding for Two DOE-EERE Computer-Aided Battery-Safety R&D Projects Analysis, Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, Design,

  5. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  6. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  7. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  8. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  9. Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  10. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  11. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN CHEMISTRY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-01-14

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange technology is being considered for cesium removal using a polymer resin made of resorcinol formaldehyde that has been engineered into microspheres. The waste under study is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste; therefore, the resin performance was evaluated with actual dissolved salt waste. The ion exchange performance and resin chemistry results are discussed.

  12. Motivation and Design of the Sirocco Storage System Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curry, Matthew Leon; Ward, H. Lee; Danielson, Geoffrey Charles

    2015-07-01

    Sirocco is a massively parallel, high performance storage system for the exascale era. It emphasizes client-to-client coordination, low server-side coupling, and free data movement to improve resilience and performance. Its architecture is inspired by peer-to-peer and victim- cache architectures. By leveraging these ideas, Sirocco natively supports several media types, including RAM, flash, disk, and archival storage, with automatic migration between levels. Sirocco also includes storage interfaces and support that are more advanced than typical block storage. Sirocco enables clients to efficiently use key-value storage or block-based storage with the same interface. It also provides several levels of transactional data updates within a single storage command, including full ACID-compliant updates. This transaction support extends to updating several objects within a single transaction. Further support is provided for con- currency control, enabling greater performance for workloads while providing safe concurrent modification. By pioneering these and other technologies and techniques in the storage system, Sirocco is poised to fulfill a need for a massively scalable, write-optimized storage system for exascale systems. This is version 1.0 of a document reflecting the current and planned state of Sirocco. Further versions of this document will be accessible at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/Scalable_IO/ sirocco .

  13. Activity release during the dry storage of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, M.K. ); Fettel, W.; Gunther, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that wet storage is the predominant storage method in the USA for spent fuel assemblies. Nevertheless, most utilities have stretched their storage capacities and several reactors will lose their full-core reserve in the 90's. A great variety of out-of-pool storage methods already exist, including the FUELSTOR vault-type dry storage concept. A FUELSTOR vault relies on double containment of the spent fuel (intact cladding as the primary containment and sealing of assemblies in canisters filled with an inert gas as the secondary containment) to reduce radiation levels at the outside wall of the vault to less than site boundary levels. Investigation of accident scenarios reveals that radiation release limits are only exceeded following complete failure of all canisters and simultaneous cladding breach for more than 40% of the rods (or for more than 1% of failed rods if massive fuel oxidation occurs following cladding failure). Such failures are considered highly improbable. Thus, it can be concluded that this type of dry storage is safe and individual canister monitoring is not required in the facility.

  14. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site selection and safety assessment.

  15. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FEED CERTIFICATION IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THIEN MG; WELLS BE; ADAMSON DJ

    2010-01-14

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (l million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing ofHLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch-to-batch operational adjustments that reduce operating efficiency and have the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  16. ESTIMATING HIGH LEVEL WASTE MIXING PERFORMANCE IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THIEN MG; GREER DA; TOWNSON P

    2011-01-13

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of high level waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tank Operations Contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is currently demonstrating mixing, sampling, and batch transfer performance in two different sizes of small-scale DSTs. The results of these demonstrations will be used to estimate full-scale DST mixing performance and provide the key input to a programmatic decision on the need to build a dedicated feed certification facility. This paper discusses the results from initial mixing demonstration activities and presents data evaluation techniques that allow insight into the performance relationships of the two small tanks. The next steps, sampling and batch transfers, of the small scale demonstration activities are introduced. A discussion of the integration of results from the mixing, sampling, and batch transfer tests to allow estimating full-scale DST performance is presented.

  17. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II

    1992-09-01

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community.

  18. Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

    1991-12-01

    In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing.

  19. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  20. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.; King, W.; Hay, M.; Jones, D.

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the targeted dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  1. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-12-01

    The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, Ira J. (Whippany, NJ)

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  4. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a “bottom-up” costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with DFMA® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target. In general, tank costs are the largest component of system cost, responsible for at least 30 percent of total system cost, in all but two of the 12 systems. Purchased BOP cost also drives system cost, accounting for 10 to 50 percent of total system cost across the various storage systems. Potential improvements in these cost drivers for all storage systems may come from new manufacturing processes and higher production volumes for BOP components. In addition, advances in the production of storage media may help drive down overall costs for the sodium alanate, SBH, LCH2, MOF, and AX-21 systems.

  6. Operating Experience Level 3, Update to Requalification Test Failure of Certain High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information regarding the previous requalification test failure and subsequent successful requalification, of certain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) Filters models manufactured by Flanders Corporation.

  7. Amended Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its Record of Decision (ROD) published December 19, 2005 (70 Federal Register (FR) 75165), pursuant to the Idaho HIgh-Level Waste and Facilities...

  8. EIS-0287: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement, EIS-0287 (September 2002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternatives for managing high-level waste (HLW) calcine, mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW) and newly generated liquid...

  9. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  10. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead, the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  11. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADVANCED INVERTER FUNCTIONS TO SUPPORT HIGH LEVELS OF DISTRIBUTED SOLAR POLICY AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS The use of advanced inverters in the design of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can address some of the challenges to the integration of high levels of distributed solar generation on the electricity system. Although the term "advanced inverters" seems to imply a special type of inverter, some of the inverters currently deployed with PV systems can already provide advanced

  12. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

  13. Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility Biomass 2014 Demand-Developing Biomarkets Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels July 29, 2014 Ryan Haerer EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks 1 Storing High Octane Fuels in Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)  Mid range E20-E30 high octane fuels being considered as possible path forward  Storing high octane ethanol blended fuels will require careful consideration of material

  14. Microstructure evolution of Li uptake/removal in MoO{sub 2}@C nanoparticles with high lithium storage performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yulong; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Pan; Chen, Wenhao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zhicheng, E-mail: zhchli@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: The carbon-coated MoO{sub 2} (MoO{sub 2}@C) ultra fine nanoparticles are synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method. MoO{sub 2}@C nanoparticles have high specific capacity, excellent cycling performance and rate performance. Phase transformations for lithium ion uptake/removal are examined carefully by TEM. Phase transformations are highly reversible during the redox process. - Abstract: A facile one pot strategy of a hydrothermal methodology was applied to synthesize the carbon coated MoO{sub 2} (MoO{sub 2}@C) nanostructured particles, which are composed of ultra fine nanoparticles with homogeneous carbon coating about several nanometers. As an electrode in lithium ion batteries, the MoO{sub 2}@C shows a high specific capacity and reversible capacity (730 mA h g{sup ?1} after 60 cycles). Microstructure investigations, by using a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, of the MoO{sub 2}@C based electrodes employed at various states during the first discharge/charge cycle were conducted to elucidate the lithium ion uptake/removal mechanism and cycling behavior. In the lithium uptake process, the original MoO{sub 2} phase transfers into Li{sub 0.98}MoO{sub 2} through an addition type reaction, and then nanosized metallic Mo emerges as a result of a conversion reaction. In turn, Mo could be oxidized to the intermediate Li{sub 0.98}MoO{sub 2} before converting to hyperfine MoO{sub 2} phase on upcoming lithium removal process.

  15. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within a few meters of the repository, that can be reasonably characterized. Within a few centuries after waste emplacement, overburden pressures will seal fractures, resaturate the dehydrated zones, and provide a repository setting that strongly limits radionuclide movement to diffusive transport. Coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations indicate maximum extents of radionuclide transport on the order of tens to hundreds of meters, or less, in a million years. Under the conditions modeled, a shale repository could achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios. The performance analyses described here are based on the assumption that long-term standards for disposal in clay/shale would be identical in the key aspects, to those prescribed for existing repository programs such as Yucca Mountain. This generic repository evaluation for shale is the first developed in the United States. Previous repository considerations have emphasized salt formations and volcanic rock formations. Much of the experience gained from U.S. repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, is applied here to scoping analyses for a shale repository. A contemporary understanding of clay mineralogy and attendant chemical environments has allowed identification of the appropriate features, events, and processes to be incorporated into the analysis. Advanced multi-physics modeling provides key support for understanding the effects from coupled processes. The results of the assessment show that shale formations provide a technically advanced, scientifically sound disposal option for the U.S.

  16. Evaluation of hoop creep behaviors in long-term dry storage condition of pre-hydrided and high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Bang, J.G.; Kim, D.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Related to the degradation of the mechanical properties of Zr-based nuclear fuel cladding tubes under long term dry storage condition, the mechanical tests which can simulate the degradation of the mechanical properties properly are needed. Especially, the degradation of the mechanical properties by creep mechanism seems to be dominant under long term dry storage condition. Accordingly, in this paper, ring creep tests were performed in order to evaluate the creep behaviors of high burn-up fuel cladding under a hoop loading condition in a hot cell. The tests are performed with Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding whose burn-up is approximately {approx}60,000 MWd/tU in the temperature range from 350 deg. to 550 deg.. The tests are also performed with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO up to 1,000 ppm. First of all, the hoop loading grip for the ring creep test was designed in order that a constant curvature of the specimen was maintained during the creep deformation, and the graphite lubricant was used to minimize the friction between the outer surface of the die insert and the inner surface of the ring specimen. The specimen for the ring creep test was designed to limit the deformation within the gauge section and to maximize the uniformity of the strain distribution. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties under a hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated by using this test technique. In this paper, secondary creep rate with increasing hydrogen content are drawn, and then kinetic data such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy for creep process are also drawn. In addition, creep life are predicted by obtaining LMP (Larson-Miller parameter) correlation in the function of hydrogen content and applied stress to yield stress ratio. (authors)

  17. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  18. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  19. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

  20. High-spin states and level structure in {sup 84}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Shuifa; Han Guangbing; Wen Shuxian; Gu Jianzhong; Wu Xiaoguang; Zhu Lihua; He Chuangye; Li Guangsheng; Yu Beibei; Pan Feng; Zhu Jianyu; Draayer, J. P.; Wen Tingdun; Yan, Yupeng

    2010-07-15

    High-spin states in {sup 84}Rb have been studied by using the {sup 70}Zn({sup 18}O,p3n){sup 84}Rb reaction at beam energy of 75 MeV. The gamma-gamma coincidence, excitation function, and ratios for directional correlation of oriented states were determined. A new level scheme was established in which the positive- and negative-parity bands have been extended up to 17{sup +} and 17{sup -} with an excitation energy of about 7 MeV. The signature splitting and signature inversion of the positive-parity yrast band were observed. To understand the microscopic origin of the signature inversion in the yrast positive-parity bands of doubly odd Rb nuclei, as an example, we performed calculations using the projected shell model to describe the energy spectra in {sup 84}Rb. It can be seen that the main features are reproduced in the calculations. This analysis shows that the signature splitting, especially its inversion, can be reproduced by varying only the gamma deformation with increasing spin. To research the deformation of {sup 84}Rb carefully, we calculate the total Routhian surfaces of positive-parity yrast states by the cranking shell model formalism. In addition, the results of theoretical calculations about the negative-parity yrast band in {sup 84}Rb with configuration pi(p{sub 3/2},f{sub 5/2}) x nug{sub 9/2} are compared with experimental data, and a band diagram calculated for this band is also shown to extract physics from the numerical results.

  1. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S. H.

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  2. A Dual Regime Reactive Transport Model for Simulation of High Level Waste Tank Closure Scenarios - 13375

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Sohini; Kosson, David S.; Brown, Kevin; Garrabrants, Andrew C.; Meeussen, Hans; Van der Sloot, Hans

    2013-07-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented in this paper for estimating evolution of pH and release of major species from grout within high-level waste tanks after closure. This model was developed as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The reactive transport model consists of two parts - (1) transport of species, and (2) chemical reactions. The closure grout can be assumed to have varying extents of cracking and composition for performance assessment purposes. The partially or completely degraded grouted tank is idealized as a dual regime system comprising of a mobile region having solid materials with cracks and macro-pores, and an immobile/stagnant region having solid matrix with micropores. The transport profiles of the species are calculated by incorporating advection of species through the mobile region, diffusion of species through the immobile/stagnant region, and exchange of species between the mobile and immobile regions. A geochemical speciation code in conjunction with the pH dependent test data for a grout material is used to obtain a mineral set that best describes the trends in the test data of the major species. The dual regime reactive transport model predictions are compared with the release data from an up-flow column percolation test. The coupled model is then used to assess effects of crack state of the structure, rate and composition of the infiltrating water on the pH evolution at the grout-waste interface. The coupled reactive transport model developed in this work can be used as part of the performance assessment process for evaluating potential risks from leaching of a cracked tank containing elements of human health and environmental concern. (authors)

  3. Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gin, Stephane; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-12-01

    Ion exchange is recognized as an integral, if underrepresented, mechanism influencing glass corrosion. However, due to the formation of various alteration layers in the presence of water, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the mechanisms of ion exchange from other processes occurring simultaneously during corrosion. In this work, an operationally inert non-aqueous solution was used as an alkali source material to isolate ion exchange and study the solid-state diffusion of lithium. Specifically, the experiments involved contacting glass coupons relevant to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste, SON68 and CJ-6, which contained Li in natural isotope abundance, with a non-aqueous solution of 6LiCl dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90 C for various time periods. The depth profiles of major elements in the glass coupons were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lithium interdiffusion coefficients, DLi, were then calculated based on the measured depth profiles. The results indicate that the penetration of 6Li is rapid in both glasses with the simplified CJ-6 glass (D6Li ? 4.0-8.0 10-21 m2/s) exhibiting faster exchange than the more complex SON68 glass (DLi ? 2.0-4.0 10-21 m2/s). Additionally, sodium ions present in the glass were observed to participate in ion exchange reactions; however, different diffusion coefficients were necessary to fit the diffusion profiles of the two alkali ions. Implications of the diffusion coefficients obtained in the absence of alteration layers to the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a geological repository system are also discussed.

  4. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while...

  5. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, JA; Veenstra, M; Long, JR

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have received significant attention as a new class of adsorbents for natural gas storage; however, inconsistencies in reporting high-pressure adsorption data and a lack of comparative studies have made it challenging to evaluate both new and existing materials. Here, we briefly discuss high-pressure adsorption measurements and review efforts to develop metal-organic frameworks with high methane storage capacities. To illustrate the most important properties for evaluating adsorbents for natural gas storage and for designing a next generation of improved materials, six metal-organic frameworks and an activated carbon, with a range of surface areas, pore structures, and surface chemistries representative of the most promising adsorbents for methane storage, are evaluated in detail. High-pressure methane adsorption isotherms are used to compare gravimetric and volumetric capacities, isosteric heats of adsorption, and usable storage capacities. Additionally, the relative importance of increasing volumetric capacity, rather than gravimetric capacity, for extending the driving range of natural gas vehicles is highlighted. Other important systems-level factors, such as thermal management, mechanical properties, and the effects of impurities, are also considered, and potential materials synthesis contributions to improving performance in a complete adsorbed natural gas system are discussed.

  6. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Sun; Xiaoqin Zhang; Inhun Kim; James O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  7. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

  8. Maui energy storage study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  9. Preliminary Technology Maturation Plan for Immobilization of High-Level Waste in Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, G L.

    2012-09-30

    A technology maturation plan (TMP) was developed for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) raffinate in a glass ceramics waste form using a cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM). The TMP was prepared by the following process: 1) define the reference process and boundaries of the technology being matured, 2) evaluate the technology elements and identify the critical technology elements (CTE), 3) identify the technology readiness level (TRL) of each of the CTEs using the DOE G 413.3-4, 4) describe the development and demonstration activities required to advance the TRLs to 4 and 6 in order, and 5) prepare a preliminary plan to conduct the development and demonstration. Results of the technology readiness assessment identified five CTEs and found relatively low TRLs for each of them: Mixing, sampling, and analysis of waste slurry and melter feed: TRL-1 Feeding, melting, and pouring: TRL-1 Glass ceramic formulation: TRL-1 Canister cooling and crystallization: TRL-1 Canister decontamination: TRL-4 Although the TRLs are low for most of these CTEs (TRL-1), the effort required to advance them to higher values. The activities required to advance the TRLs are listed below: Complete this TMP Perform a preliminary engineering study Characterize, estimate, and simulate waste to be treated Laboratory scale glass ceramic testing Melter and off-gas testing with simulants Test the mixing, sampling, and analyses Canister testing Decontamination system testing Issue a requirements document Issue a risk management document Complete preliminary design Integrated pilot testing Issue a waste compliance plan A preliminary schedule and budget were developed to complete these activities as summarized in the following table (assuming 2012 dollars). TRL Budget Year MSA FMP GCF CCC CD Overall $M 2012 1 1 1 1 4 1 0.3 2013 2 2 1 1 4 1 1.3 2014 2 3 1 1 4 1 1.8 2015 2 3 2 2 4 2 2.6 2016 2 3 2 2 4 2 4.9 2017 2 3 3 2 4 2 9.8 2018 3 3 3 3 4 3 7.9 2019 3 3 3 3 4 3 5.1 2020 3 3 3 3 4 3 14.6 2021 3 3 3 3 4 3 7.3 2022 3 3 3 3 4 3 8.8 2023 4 4 4 4 4 4 9.1 2024 5 5 5 5 5 5 6.9 2025 6 6 6 6 6 6 6.9 CCC = canister cooling and crystallization; FMP = feeding, melting, and pouring; GCF = glass ceramic formulation; MSA = mixing, sampling, and analyses. This TMP is intended to guide the development of the glass ceramics waste form and process to the point where it is ready for industrialization.

  10. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H?/O? mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N?O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N?O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N?O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in the ignition delay time was proportional to the amount of N?O added and depended on pressure and temperature conditions. A detailed chemical kinetics model was developed using kinetic mechanisms from the literature. This model predicts well the experimental data obtained during this study and from the literature. The chemical analysis using this model showed that the decrease in the ignition delay time was mainly due to the reaction N?O +M ? N? + O +M which provides O atoms to strengthen the channel O + H? ? OH + H. Ignition delay times have been measured behind reflected shock waves at 1.5, 12 and 30 atm for a mixture representative of a syngas produced from biomass (0.29659% CO / 0.29659% H? / 0.15748% CO? / 0.08924% CH? / 0.20997% H?O / 0.95013% O? in 98% Ar (mol.%)) and for the same biomass-derived syngas mixture doped with 200 ppm of NH?. The importance of the various constituents on the ignition delay time was investigated by comparing the results with data from various baseline mixtures (H?/O?/Ar, H?/CO/O?/Ar and H?/CO/O?/Ar with one of the other constituent of the syngas (i.e. CO?, H?O, CH? or NH?)). The equivalence ratio was set to 0.5 during this study. Several recent detailed kinetics mechanisms from the literature were computed against these data, with fair agreement. Results showed that the mixture composition can have an important effect on the ignition delay time, with most of the effect being due to CH? addition through the reaction CH?+OH?CH?+H?O. The ammonia impurity had very little effect on the ignition delay time over the range of conditions studied.

  11. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  12. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. Highway infrastructure report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-02-01

    In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE`s development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE`s Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade.

  13. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Galvin, Thomas M. (Darien, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  14. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the waste. The difference in the two models has led to the questions of how different are the results predicted by the two models and which model predicts the more conservative (larger) G values. More conservative G values would predict higher H{sub 2} generation rates that would require higher ventilation rates in the SRS tanks. This report compares predictions based on the two models at various nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the SRS HLW tanks for both beta/gamma and for alpha radiation. It also compares predicted G values with those determined by actually measuring the H{sub 2} production from four SRS HLW tanks (Tanks 32H, 35H, 39H, and 42H). Lastly, the H{sub 2} generation rates predicted by the two models are compared for the 47 active SRS high level waste tanks using the most recent tank nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads for each tank. The predictions of the models for total H{sub 2} generation rates from the 47 active SRS waste were, for the most part, similar. For example, the predictions for both models applied to 25 tanks agreed within {+-}10% of each other. For the remaining 22 tanks, the SRS prediction was more conservative for 9 tanks (maximum 29% higher) and the Hanford prediction was more conservative for 13 tanks (maximum 19% higher). When comparing G values predicted by the equations presuming only alpha radiation or only beta/gamma was present the results were somewhat different. The results of predictions for alpha radiation, at the 47 current nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the SRS tanks indicated that all the SRS predictions were higher (up to 30%) than the Hanford predictions and thus more conservative. For beta/gamma radiation the predictions for both models agreed to {+-}10% for 18 of the combinations, the Hanford model predicted higher values (11 up to 17%) for 25 of the concentrations considered, and the SRS model predicted higher G values for the remaining two combinations (12 and 17%). For the four SRS tanks, where we compared measured G values to those predicted by the two different models, the results for two tanks (Tanks 35 and 39) were in good agreement with predictions from both models. For the other two tanks (Tanks 32 and 42) the predictions of both models were conservative. The predictions were 3 to 4X higher than the measured G values for H{sub 2} production.

  15. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Carter, Joe; Nutt, Mark; Cotton, Tom

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  16. Thermal response of a series- and parallel-connected solar energy storage to multi-day charge sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruickshank, Cynthia A.; Harrison, Stephen J.

    2011-01-15

    The thermal response of a multi-tank thermal storage was studied under variable charge conditions. Tests were conducted on an experimental apparatus that simulated the thermal charging of the storage system by a solar collector over predetermined (prescribed) daylong periods. The storage was assembled from three standard 270 L hot-water storage tanks each charged through coupled, side-arm, natural convection heat exchangers which were connected in either a series- or parallel-flow configuration. Both energy storage rates and tank temperature profiles were experimentally measured during charge periods representative of two consecutive clear days or combinations of a clear and overcast day. During this time, no draw-offs were conducted. Of particular interest was the effect of rising and falling charge-loop temperatures and collector-loop flow rate on storage tank stratification levels. Results of this study show that the series-connected thermal storage reached high levels of temperature stratification in the storage tanks during periods of rising charge temperatures and also limited destratification during periods of falling charge temperature. This feature is a consequence of the series-connected configuration that allowed sequential stratification to occur in the component tanks and energy to be distributed according to temperature level. This effect was not observed in the parallel charge configuration. A further aspect of the study investigated the effect of increasing charge-loop flow rate on the temperature distribution within the series-connected storage and showed that, at high flow rates, the temperature distributions were found to be similar to those obtained during parallel charging. A disadvantage of both the high-flow series-connected and parallel-connected multi-tank storage is that falling charge-loop temperatures, which normally occur in the afternoon, tend to mix and destratify the storage tanks. (author)

  17. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

  18. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  19. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

  20. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  1. FAQs about Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    about Storage Capacity How do I determine if my tanks are in operation or idle or ... Do I have to report storage capacity every month? No, only report storage capacity with ...

  2. A new storage-ring light source (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A new storage-ring light source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new storage-ring light source A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial

  3. Self-assembly of 2D sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Songmei Wang, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: MFO/GN composites were synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach. The MFO microspheres are sandwiched between the graphene layers. Each MFO microsphere is an interstitial cluster of nanoparticles. The MFO/GN electrode exhibits an enhanced cyclability for Li-ion batteries anodes. - Abstract: In this study, two-dimensional (2D) sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene (MFO/GN) composites are synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach, using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactant. As a consequence, the nanocomposites of MFO/GN self-assembled into a 2D sandwich structure, in which the interstitial cluster structure of microsphere-type MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is sandwiched between the graphene layers. This special structure of the MFO/GN composites used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries will be favorable for the maximum accessible surface of electroactive materials, fast diffusion of lithium ions and migration of electron, and elastomeric space to accommodate volume changes during the dischargecharge processes. The as-synthesized MFO/GN composites deliver a high specific reversible capacity of 987.95 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 200 mA g{sup ?1}, a good capacity retention of 69.27% after 80 cycles and excellent rate performance for lithium storage.

  4. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  5. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  6. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Systems Home/Energy Storage Systems - NM Energy Policy-Implementation Plan_2015_(cover) Permalink Gallery Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report Analysis, Capabilities, Customers & Partners, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Energy Surety, News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report New Mexico Governor Martinez

  7. Role of Congress in the High Level Radioactive Waste Odyssey: The Wisdom and Will of the Congress - 13096

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieth, Donald L. [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States)] [DOE/NVOO Project Manager for Yucca Mountain, 1982 thru 1987, 1154 Cheltenham Place, Maineville, OH 45039 (United States); Voegele, Michael D. [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)] [Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office, 7404 Oak Grove Ave, Las Vegas, NV 89117 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Congress has had a dual role with regard to high level radioactive waste, being involved in both its creation and its disposal. A significant amount of time has passed between the creation of the nation's first high level radioactive waste and the present day. The pace of addressing its remediation has been highly irregular. Congress has had to consider the technical, regulatory, and political issues and all have had specific difficulties. It is a true odyssey framed by an imperative and accountability, by a sense of urgency, by an ability or inability to finish the job and by consequences. Congress had set a politically acceptable course by 1982. However, President Obama intervened in the process after he took office in January 2009. Through the efforts of his Administration, by the end of 2012, the US government has no program to dispose of high level radioactive waste and no reasonable prospect of a repository for high level radioactive waste. It is not obvious how the US government program will be reestablished or who will assume responsibility for leadership. The ultimate criteria for judging the consequences are 1) the outcome of the ongoing NRC's Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking and 2) the concomitant permissibility of nuclear energy supplying electricity from operating reactors in the US. (authors)

  8. US DRIVE Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes

  9. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  10. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1988-08-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high T/sub c/ materials on SMES is discussed. 69 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Sandia Energy Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Participates in Preparation of New Mexico Renewable Energy Storage Report http:energy.sandia.govsandia-participates-in-preparation-of-new-mexico-renewable-energy-storage-...

  12. NREL: Energy Storage - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage News Keep up-to-date with NREL energy storage activities, research, and developments. October 30, 2015 NREL Innovation Improves Safety of Electric Vehicle Batteries ...

  13. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Energy Storage Systems HomeTag:Energy Storage Systems - Aquion Energy battery module installed at NELHA. Permalink Gallery Natural ...

  14. File Storage and I/O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage and I/O File Storage and I/O Disk Quota Change Request Form Cori File Systems The Cori system has 3 different user-accessible file systems; they provide different levels of disk storage and I/O performance. The table below describes these systems. File System Home Scratch Project Environment Variable $HOME $SCRATCH None. Must use /project/projectdirs/ Description Global home file system shared with other NERSC systems. All NERSC machines mount the same home directory. GPFS

  15. File storage and I/O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File storage and I/O File storage and I/O Disk Quota Change Request Form Franklin File Systems The Franklin system has 4 different file systems mounted which provide different levels of disk storage, I/O performance and file permanence. The table below describes the various Franklin file systems File System Home Local Scratch Project Environment Variable Definition $HOME $SCRATCH $SCRATCH2 No environment variable /project/projectdirs/ Description Global homes file system shared with other NERSC

  16. Secretary Moniz Announces New CO2 Storage Network at Multinational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies at real-world, saline storage sites. ... key lessons to advance the deployment of CCS. The CSLF is a Minister-level international ...

  17. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, Alok; Liao, Wei-keng

    2014-07-11

    Computational science applications have been described as having one of seven motifs (the “seven dwarfs”), each having a particular pattern of computation and communication. From a storage and I/O perspective, these applications can also be grouped into a number of data model motifs describing the way data is organized and accessed during simulation, analysis, and visualization. Major storage data models developed in the 1990s, such as Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) projects, created support for more complex data models. Development of both netCDF and HDF5 was influenced by multi-dimensional dataset storage requirements, but their access models and formats were designed with sequential storage in mind (e.g., a POSIX I/O model). Although these and other high-level I/O libraries have had a beneficial impact on large parallel applications, they do not always attain a high percentage of peak I/O performance due to fundamental design limitations, and they do not address the full range of current and future computational science data models. The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. The project consists of three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community. The product of this project, Damsel library, is openly available for download from http://cucis.ece.northwestern.edu/projects/DAMSEL. Several case studies and application programming interface reference are also available to assist new users to learn to use the library.

  18. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  19. EIS-0212: Safe Interim Storage of Hanford Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, WA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental impact statement asseses Department of Energy and Washington State Department of Ecology maintanence of safe storage of high-level radioactive wastes currently stored in the older single-shell tanks, the Watchlist Tank 101-SY, and future waste volumes associated with tank farm and other Hanford facility operations, including a need to provide a modern safe, reliable, and regulatory-compliant replacement cross-site transfer capability. The purpose of this action is to prevent uncontrolled releases to the environment by maintaining safe storage of high-level tank wastes.

  20. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  1. Deployment of High Resolution Real-Time Distribution Level Metering on Maui: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to support the ongoing Maui Smart Grid demonstration project advanced metering has been deployed at the distribution transformer level in Maui Electric Company's Kihei Circuit on the Island of Maui. This equipment has been custom designed to provide accurately time-stamped Phasor and Power Quality data in real time. Additionally, irradiance sensors have been deployed at a few selected locations in proximity to photovoltaic (PV) installations. The received data is being used for validation of existing system models and for impact studies of future system hardware. Descriptions of the hardware and its installation, and some preliminary metering results are presented. Real-time circuit visualization applications for the data are also under development.

  2. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F. |

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Generation | Department of Energy Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Project Profile: Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation Alabama logo The University of Alabama, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing thermal energy storage (TES) media consisting of low melting point (LMP) molten salt with high TES density for sensible heat storage systems. Approach They will conduct

  4. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  5. Damage structure in Nimonic PE16 alloy ion bombarded to high doses and gas levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, K.; Packan, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Nimonic PE16 alloy in solution-treated-and-aged condition was bombarded simultaneously with nickel ions and ..cap alpha.. and deuteron beams at 625/sup 0/C to doses of 80 to 313 dpa at He/dpa = 10 and D/dpa = 25. Microstructural changes consisted of the introduction of dislocations and of cavities, and the redistribuion of ..gamma..' precipitates to these defects. Cavitational swelling remained below 1%. Cavities were represented by several distinct size classes, the smaller ones believed to be gas bubbles, and some larger ones associated with preferred growth of precipitate. Formation of bubbles at grain boundaries, and large cavities at incoherent twins intensified the possibility of mechanical separation of interfaces under high-gas irradiation conditions.

  6. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  7. Evaluation the microwave heating of spinel crystals in high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J. H.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-08-18

    In this report, the microwave heating of a crystal-free and a partially (24 wt%) trevorite-crystallized waste glass simulant were evaluated. The results show that a 500 mg piece of partially crystallized waste glass can be heated from room-temperature to above 1600 °C (as measured by infrared radiometry) within 2 minutes using a single mode, highly focused, 2.45 GHz microwave, operating at 300 W. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the partially crystallized glass experiences an 87 % reduction in trevorite following irradiation and thermal quenching. When a crystal-free analogue of the same waste glass simulant composition is exposed to the same microwave radiation it could not be heated above 450 °C regardless of the heating time.

  8. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Engle, Nancy L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Talanov, Vladimir S.; Gibson, Harry W.; Jones, Jason W.

    2001-08-20

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste.

  9. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Engle, Nancy L.; Keever, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Talanov, Vladimir S.; Gibson, Harry W.; Jones, Jason W.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2002-06-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste.

  10. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Peterson, Eric

    2011-09-30

    This progress report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 of 7:1 to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) presented in this study include 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and pressures higher than about 12 atm, the ignition delay times appear to be indistinguishable with an increase in carbon monoxide. However, at high temperatures the composition of H2 and CO has a strong influence on ignition delay times. Model agreement is good across the range of the study, particularly at the elevated pressures. Also an increase in carbon monoxide causes the activation energy of the mixture to decrease.

  11. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  12. Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E.; Meisel, D.

    1992-07-01

    Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

  13. Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E. ); Meisel, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

  14. Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

    2011-09-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

  15. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  16. Decomposition of tetraphenylborate precipitates used to isolate Cs-137 from Savannah River Site high-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Ha, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process (PHP) that will be performed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site. The PHP destroys the tetraphenylborate precipitate that is used at SRS to isolate Cs-137 from caustic High-Level Waste (HLW) supernates. This process is necessary to decrease the amount of organic compounds going to the melter in the DWPF. Actual radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 was used for this demonstration.

  17. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection J. King and B. Kirby Consultants M. Milligan National Renewable Energy Laboratory S. Beuning Xcel Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52330 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  18. Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Principle Investigator Cummins Inc. Cummins SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks May 17, 2012 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID: ACE057 Innovation You Can Depend On Relevance - Program Objectives (DoE Vehicle Technologies Goals) Objective 1: Engine Development Engine system demonstration of 50% or greater BTE in a test cell at an

  19. Cummins SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation You Can Depend On David Koeberlein- Principal Investigator Cummins Inc. Cummins SuperTruck Program Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks June 12, 2015 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID: ACE057 Innovation You Can Depend On Overview 12Jun2015 2 Budget: * Total: $78,049,716 * DoE share* $38,831,115 CMI share* $39,218,601 * actuals as of

  20. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Thermal Management Infrared image of rectangular battery cell. Infrared thermal image of a lithium-ion battery cell with poor terminal design. Graph of relative ...

  1. NREL: Energy Storage - Energy Storage Systems Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Systems Evaluation Photo of man standing between two vehicles and plugging the vehicle on the right into a charging station. NREL system evaluation has confirmed ...

  2. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  3. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  4. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment : a study for the energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  5. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Delmau, Latitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Keever, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Tomkins, Bruce A.

    2004-06-30

    General project objectives. This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed pertain to cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit cleanup projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to treat and dispose of high-level radioactive wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Hanford site, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory.1 The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high level tank waste.2 This technology owes its development in part to fundamental results obtained in this program.

  6. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Keever, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Tomkins, Bruce A.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Talanov, Vladimir S.; Gibson, Harry W.; Jones, Jason W.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2003-09-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed pertain to cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit cleanup projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to treat and dispose of high-level radioactive wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Hanford site, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory.1 The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste.2 This technology owes its development in part to fundamental results obtained in this program.

  7. Disposing of High-Level Radioactive Waste in Germany - A Note from the Licensing Authority - 12530

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pick, Thomas Stefan; Bluth, Joachim; Lauenstein, Christof; Markhoefer, Joerg

    2012-07-01

    Following the national German consensus on the termination of utilisation of nuclear energy in the summer of 2011, the Federal and Laender Governments have declared their intention to work together on a national consensus on the disposal of radioactive waste as well. Projected in the early 1970's the Federal Government had started exploring the possibility to establish a repository for HLW at the Gorleben site in 1977. However, there is still no repository available in Germany today. The delay results mainly from the national conflict over the suitability of the designated Gorleben site, considerably disrupting German society along the crevice that runs between supporters and opponents of nuclear energy. The Gorleben salt dome is situated in Lower Saxony, the German state that also hosts the infamous Asse mine repository for LLW and ILW and the Konrad repository project designated to receive LLW and ILW as well. With the fourth German project, the Morsleben L/ILW repository only 20 km away across the state border, the state of Lower Saxony carries the main load for the disposal of radioactive waste in Germany. After more than 25 years of exploration and a 10 year moratorium the Gorleben project has now reached a cross-road. Current plans for setting up a new site selection procedure in Germany call for the selection and exploration of up to four alternative sites, depending only on suitable geology. In the meantime the discussion is still open on whether the Gorleben project should be terminated in order to pacify the societal conflict or being kept in the selection process on account of its promising geology. The Lower Saxony Ministry for Environment and Climate Protection proposes to follow a twelve-step-program for finding the appropriate site, including the Gorleben site in the process. With its long history of exploration the site is the benchmark that alternative sites will have to compare with. Following the national consensus of 2011 on the termination of nuclear energy utilisation, it is now the time to reach a national consensus on the disposal of radioactive waste as well. This is a task that the country and society, federal and state governments, political parties and the citizens will have to jointly master within the current generation and within German territory. The basis for the consensus will be a reset to the beginning of this process. It has to start with a new site selection procedure that will take into account and compare up to four alternative sites. This procedure will have to follow the principle of highest possible security. It should be based on a stepwise approach, strictly following scientific criteria. Public confidence in the process and trust can only be achieved by a transparent procedure allowing for the participation of the public and the stakeholders. It is therefore mandatory to consult, both on a national and regional level, all involved parties (public authority, scientist and citizen). The national consensus must also include a decision on the future of the Gorleben exploratory site. The site selection procedure must therefore take this site into account as well. Furthermore, the final decision on safe disposal of German radioactive wastes must be made by sovereign rule by Federal Parliament and Federal Council. (authors)

  8. STATUS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF IN-TANK/AT-TANK SEPARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PROCESSING FOR THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, G.; Wilmarth, B.

    2011-09-19

    Within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development, the Office of Waste Processing manages a research and development program related to the treatment and disposition of radioactive waste. At the Savannah River (South Carolina) and Hanford (Washington) Sites, approximately 90 million gallons of waste are distributed among 226 storage tanks (grouped or collocated in 'tank farms'). This waste may be considered to contain mixed and stratified high activity and low activity constituent waste liquids, salts and sludges that are collectively managed as high level waste (HLW). A large majority of these wastes and associated facilities are unique to the DOE, meaning many of the programs to treat these materials are 'first-of-a-kind' and unprecedented in scope and complexity. As a result, the technologies required to disposition these wastes must be developed from basic principles, or require significant re-engineering to adapt to DOE's specific applications. Of particular interest recently, the development of In-tank or At-Tank separation processes have the potential to treat waste with high returns on financial investment. The primary objective associated with In-Tank or At-Tank separation processes is to accelerate waste processing. Insertion of the technologies will (1) maximize available tank space to efficiently support permanent waste disposition including vitrification; (2) treat problematic waste prior to transfer to the primary processing facilities at either site (i.e., Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) or Savannah River's Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF)); and (3) create a parallel treatment process to shorten the overall treatment duration. This paper will review the status of several of the R&D projects being developed by the U.S. DOE including insertion of the ion exchange (IX) technologies, such as Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at Savannah River. This has the potential to align the salt and sludge processing life cycle, thereby reducing the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) mission by 7 years. Additionally at the Hanford site, problematic waste streams, such as high boehmite and phosphate wastes, could be treated prior to receipt by WTP and thus dramatically improve the capacity of the facility to process HLW. Treatment of boehmite by continuous sludge leaching (CSL) before receipt by WTP will dramatically reduce the process cycle time for the WTP pretreatment facility, while treatment of phosphate will significantly reduce the number of HLW borosilicate glass canisters produced at the WTP. These and other promising technologies will be discussed.

  9. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Michael A.; Page, Richard A.

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to established and qualified standards. Working with industry, academia, and the U.S. government, SwRI set out to develop an accepted set of evaluation standards and analytical methodologies. Critical measurements of hydrogen sorption properties in the Laboratory have been based on three analytical capabilities: 1) a high-pressure Sievert-type volumetric analyzer, modified to improve low-temperature isothermal analyses of physisorption materials and permit in situ mass spectroscopic analysis of the sample’s gas space; 2) a static, high-pressure thermogravimetric analyzer employing an advanced magnetic suspension electro-balance, glove-box containment, and capillary interface for in situ mass spectroscopic analysis of the sample’s gas space; and 3) a Laser-induced Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometer (LTDMS) system for high thermal-resolution desorption and mechanistic analyses. The Laboratory has played an important role in down-selecting materials and systems that have emerged from the MCoEs.

  10. Transportation Storage Interface | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Interface Transportation Storage Interface Regulation of Future Extended Storage and Transportation. PDF icon Transportation Storage Interface More Documents & Publications...

  11. Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Storage Energy storage isn’t just for AA batteries. Thanks to investments from the Energy Department's <a href="http://arpa-e.energy.gov/">Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)</a>, energy storage may soon play a bigger part in our electricity grid, making it possible to generate more renewable electricity. <a href="http://energy.gov/articles/energy-storage-key-reliable-clean-electricity-supply">Learn more</a>. Energy storage

  12. U.S. Storage Drawdown Analysis Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report examines contract terms that require owners of natural gas in storage to reduce their holdings of working gas to specified levels by certain dates or risk incurring penalties.

  13. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...

  14. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  15. Value of Underground Storage in Today's Natural Gas Industry, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report explores the significant and changing role of storage in the industry by examining the value of natural gas storage; short-term relationships between prices, storage levels, and weather; and some longer term impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 636.

  16. Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage The challenge of creating new advanced batteries and energy storage technologies is one of Argonne's key initiatives. By creating a multidisciplinary ...

  17. Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The ...

  18. Pumped Storage Hydropower

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to traditional hydropower, pumped-storage hydropower (PSH)—A type of hydropower that works like a battery, pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir for storage and...

  19. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Ditto, Mary E.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Taiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Hui Zhou

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and "switch off" when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.

  20. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Ditto, Mary E.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2005-07-06

    This project unites expertise at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Texas Tech University (TTU, Prof. Richard A. Bartsch) to answer fundamental questions addressing the problem of cesium removal from high-level tank waste. Efforts focus on novel solvent-extraction systems containing calixcrown extractants designed for enhanced cesium binding and release. Exciting results are being obtained in three areas: (1) a new lipophilic cesium extractant with a high solubility in the solvent; (2) new proton-ionizable calixcrowns that both strongly extract cesium and ''switch off'' when protonated; and (3) an improved solvent system that may be stripped with more than 100-fold greater efficiency. Scientific questions primarily concern how to more effectively reverse extraction, focusing on the use of amino groups and proton-ionizable groups to enable pH-switching. Synthesis is being performed at ORNL (amino calixcrowns) and TTU (proton-ionizable calixcrowns). At ORNL, the extraction behavior is being surveyed to assess the effectiveness of candidate solvent systems, and systematic distribution measurements are under way to obtain a thermodynamic understanding of partitioning and complexation equilibria. Crystal structures obtained at ORNL are revealing the structural details of cesium binding. The overall objective is a significant advance in the predictability and efficiency of cesium extraction from high-level waste in support of potential implementation at U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites.