Sample records for high specific capacitance

  1. Strontium ruthenate perovskites with high specific capacitance for use in electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, P.M.; Guther, T.J.; Oesten, R.; Garche, J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strontium ruthenates with the perovskite type structure ABO{sub 3} have been shown to exhibit attractive capacitive properties. Doping on the A site with La lead to typical capacitance values of 21 F/g. These materials were synthesized by coprecipitating metal hydroxides from a stoichiometric salt solution and subsequent firing at 800 C in air. In this paper the authors present a new procedure to synthesize the materials which are crystalline and nevertheless show appreciable capacitances in contrast to ruthenium dioxide material, which only works in a hydrated amorphous structure. The process basically consists in a pyrolysis of concentrated metal salt solutions of the respective chlorides and nitrates at 500 C for several minutes. Excess soluble phases are removed by washing out with water. X-ray diffraction experiments revealed similar phase purity and crystallinity as known from the coprecipitated materials. However the measured capacitances of undoped perovskites reached high values of 200 F/g exceeding twenty times the value of respective coprecipitated materials. First experiments on doping the materials promise further progress. The new synthesis route introduces a higher surface area by leaving cavities from leached soluble phases and bulk defects into the crystal structure. The first effect increases the number of active sites in contact with the electrolyte while the latter enhances the protonic conduction which is necessary to keep the charge balance within the material during cycling.

  2. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  3. The capacitively coupled converter (C³) for high power DC-DC conversion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Shahriar

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CAPACITIVELY COUPLED CONVERTER (C3) FOR HIGH POWER DC-DC CONVERSION A Thesis by SHAHRIAR KHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THE CAPACITIVELY COUPLED CONVERTER (Cs) FOR HIGH POWER DC-DC CONVERSION A Thesis by SHAHRIAR KHAN Approved as to style and content by: Mehrdad Ehsani (Chair of Committee) Prasad Enjeti...

  4. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  5. A HIGH-SPEED CMOS OP-AMP DESIGN TECHNIQUE USING NEGATIVE MILLER CAPACITANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    -signal applications, however, require fast settling Op-Amps. Op-Amp design has therefore become exceedingly difficult of CMOS Op-Amps are needed to accommodate high speed operation with low noise performance. In this paper is a low impedance node, the load capacitance has little effect on the phase margin of the amplifier. The

  6. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  7. The capacitively coupled converter (C³) for high power DC-DC conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Shahriar

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A&M University. A combination of inherent capacitive commutation and gate turn-off switching devices (MCT, GTO, and ZTO) allows zero current switching, and reduces the switching losses to a minimum. This converter is capable of a wide ratio... to implement these switches and the power capability of the transistor can be increased manifold. If a high frequency capability is desired to reduce the sizes of the reactive elements, high power gate turn-off devices, such as the GTO, ZTO, or the MCT may...

  8. In situ fabrication of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanofibers on polypyrrole-based carbon nanotubes for high-capacitance supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jianzhang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Mi, Hongyu, E-mail: mmihongyu@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Xu, Youlong, E-mail: ylxuxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Gao, Bo [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Facile surface decoration approach to highly porous Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composites. ? Polypyrrole-based CNTs form three-dimensional electron-transport channels. ? A high capacitance of 1118 F g{sup ?1} at 50 mA cm{sup ?2} is delivered. ? Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composites exhibit high discharge capability. - Abstract: Large-scale nickel hydroxide–carbon [Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT] networks with three-dimensional electron-transport channels are synthesized via a facile and general surface-decoration approach, using polypyrrole-derived CNTs as the support. Flexible Ni(OH){sub 2} nanofibers with a diameter of 5–10 nm and a length of 50–120 nm are intertwined and wrapped homogenously on carbon networks, leading to the formation of more complex networks. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, this designed architecture with large surface area, abundant pores and good electrical conductivity is very important in technology. It can promote the bulk accessibility of electrolyte OH{sup ?} and diffusion rate within the redox phase. Consequently, an unusual specific capacitance of 1745 F g{sup ?1} can be obtained for Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composite at 30 mA cm{sup ?2}. Even at a high rate (50 mA cm{sup ?2}), the composite can also deliver a specific capacitance as high as 1118 F g{sup ?1}, exhibiting the potential application for supercapacitors.

  9. High Frequency Inversion Capacitance Measurements for 6H-SiC n-MOS Capacitors from 450 to 600 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    High Frequency Inversion Capacitance Measurements for 6H-SiC n-MOS Capacitors from 450 to 600 °C inversion capacitance due to thermal generation of holes in 6H-SiC n-MOS capacitors between 450 and 600 °C to thermal generation of holes in 6H-SiC n-MOS capacitors between 450 and 600 °C. In order to ensure

  10. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21?cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130?MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  11. Self-consistent electrodynamics of large-area high-frequency capacitive plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhigang; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken [Applied Materials, Inc., 974 E. Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) generated using high frequency (3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (30-300 MHz) radio-frequency (rf) sources are used for many plasma processing applications including thin film etching and deposition. When chamber dimensions become commensurate with the effective rf wavelength in the plasma, electromagnetic wave effects impose a significant influence on plasma behavior. Because the effective rf wavelength in plasma depends upon both rf and plasma process conditions (e.g., rf power and gas pressure), a self-consistent model including both the rf power delivery system and the plasma discharge is highly desirable to capture a more complete physical picture of the plasma behavior. A three-dimensional model for self-consistently studying both electrodynamic and plasma dynamic behavior of large-area (Gen 10, >8 m{sup 2}) CCP is described in this paper. This model includes Maxwell's equations and transport equations for charged and neutral species, which are coupled and solved in the time domain. The complete rf plasma discharge chamber including the rf power delivery subsystem, rf feed, electrodes, and the plasma domain is modeled as an integrated system. Based on this full-wave solution model, important limitations for processing uniformity imposed by electromagnetic wave propagation effects in a large-area CCP (3.05x2.85 m{sup 2} electrode size) are studied. The behavior of H{sub 2} plasmas in such a reactor is examined from 13.56 to 200 MHz. It is shown that various rectangular harmonics of electromagnetic fields can be excited in a large-area rectangular reactor as the rf or power is increased. The rectangular harmonics can create not only center-high plasma distribution but also high plasma density at the corners and along the edges of the reactor.

  12. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  13. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  14. High capacitive performance of nanostructured Mn-Ni-Co oxide composites for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Jianmin [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Gao Bo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhang Xiaogang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)], E-mail: azhangxg@163.com

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured Mn-Ni-Co oxide composites (MNCO) were prepared by thermal decomposition of the precursor obtained by chemical co-precipitation of Mn, Ni and Co salts. The chemical composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical capacitance of MNCO electrode was examined by cyclic voltammetry, impedance and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The results showed that MNCO electrode exhibited the good electrochemical characteristics. A maximum capacitance value of 1260 F g{sup -1} could be obtained within the potential range of -0.1 to 0.4 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in 6 mol L{sup -1} KOH electrolyte.

  15. High Performance Fortran Language Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    Version 1.1 #12; The High Performance Fortran Forum (HPFF), with participation from over 40 organ will become widely available, HPFF is not sanctioned or supported by any official standards organization. The HPFF had a second series of meetings from April 1994 to October 1994 to consider requests

  16. A bipolar monolithic preamplifier for high-capacitance SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) silicon calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, C.L. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Kennedy, E.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bugg, W.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a preamplifier designed and fabricated specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The topology and its features are discussed in addition to the design methodology employed. The simulated and measured results for noise, power consumption, and speed are presented. Simulated an measured data for radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are also presented. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Designing A High Level Test Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jing

    Designing A High Level Test Specification Language For iec 61499 function block diagram formulae. introduction Mohamad Farid Jaafar Iec 61499 Function block IEC 61499 is one of the standards((input=accelPressed) & (label=throttle.ACCEL))) Figure 1. The IEC 61499 Function Block Notation. (a) Basic Blocks (b) Composite

  18. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  19. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  20. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  1. A standalone capacitively coupled occupancy sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, William H., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of a standalone, capacitively coupled, occupancy sensor. Unlike previous iterations, the new sensor is decoupled from the fluorescent lamp. A well controlled, high voltage ...

  2. Carbon nanotube electrodes for capacitive deionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutha, Heena K

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a desalination method where voltage is applied across high surface area carbon, adsorbing salt ions and removing them from the water stream. CDI has the potential to be more efficient than ...

  3. Capacitive Stress Transducers in Model Dipole Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Christopher P.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitive stress transducers are used to measure mechanical stresses in the windings of superconducting dipole magnets. These transducers consist of a bonded laminate composed of alternating foils of stainless steel and a high-strength polymer...

  4. Capacitive Stress Gauges in Model Dipole Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragland, R. Blake

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitive transducers are used to measure mechanical stress in the windings of superconducting magnets. The transducer consists of a bonded laminate of alternating thin foils of stainless steel and high-strength polymer (polyimide). The thin...

  5. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Il [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  6. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  7. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  8. Atomic hydrogen densities in capacitively coupled very high-frequency plasmas in H{sub 2}: Effect of excitation frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, J.; Booth, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Centre Nazionale de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Absolute hydrogen atom densities in pure hydrogen capacitive discharges were measured as a function of excitation frequency (13.56, 27.12, and 40.68 MHz), nominal electrical power, and gas pressure (between 0.1 and 1 Torr). Quantitative measurements were made using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF), put on an absolute scale by comparison with the TALIF signal from a known density of krypton gas, as proposed by Niemi, Schultz von Gathen, and Doebele [J. Phys. D 34, 2330 (2001)]. The H atom density increases with gas pressure and electrical power, and at a given power and pressure it increases significantly with excitation frequency. The latter can be attributed in part to increased electron density. However, time-resolved TALIF measurements in the afterglow showed that the H atom surface loss probabilities are not constant, becoming somewhat smaller when the sheath voltage is lowered, as is the case when the excitation frequency is increased, contributing to the increase in H density.

  9. HCH-1000 Series Capacitive Humidity Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, Anthony

    www.honeywell.com/sensing SPECIFICATIONS (TA= 25 ºC [77 ºF], Input Voltage = 1 VRMS, Frequency = 20 k: TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS (At 1 VRMS and 20 kHz) #12;Capacitive Humidity Sensors Honeywell Sensing TEST SYSTEM DIAGRAM #12;Sensing and Control 1985 Douglas Drive North Minneapolis, MN 55422 www.honeywell

  10. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto, E-mail: a.striolo@ucl.ac.uk [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States) [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  11. Online capacitive densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porges, K.G.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is an apparatus for measuring fluid density of mixed phase fluid flow. The apparatus employs capacitive sensing of the mixed phased flow combined with means for uniformizing the electric field between the capacitor plates to account for flow line geometry. From measurement of fluid density, the solids feedrate can be ascertained. 7 figs.

  12. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a full-range, low cast humidity sensor has led Honeywell to develop a capacitive relative humidity (RH) sensor with resistance to environmental contaminants. The sensor is used in a bridge circuit to give either a voltage or a current...

  13. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a full-range, low cast humidity sensor has led Honeywell to develop a capacitive relative humidity (RH) sensor with resistance to environmental contaminants. The sensor is used in a bridge circuit to give either a voltage or a current...

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Capacitive Charging and Desalination by Porous Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by super-capacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization (or desalination), and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory in the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes wi...

  15. Fabrication and characterization of a nanoporous NiO film with high specific energy and power via an electrochemical dealloying approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Kun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Tang, Xianzhong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wei, Bingqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Hu, Wencheng, E-mail: huwc@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The maximum values were 170 Wh kg{sup ?1} and 27.5 kW kg{sup ?1} for specific energy and power at the potential window of 1.1 V, respectively. As so far as we know, the values of specific energy and power were both the highest than that reported in literatures. - Highlights: • We developed a convenient approach to fabricate the three-dimensional nanoporous NiO film. • The nanoporous films contain irregular 3D interconnected nanosheets structure with open channels. • The film as supercapacitor electrode showed excellent specific capacitance values. • It is noticed that the nanoporous film exhibited high specific energy and high specific power. • The electrochemical electrode presented excellent cycling performance and low retention. - Abstract: A three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous NiO film was fabricated via a two-step process using an electrochemical route. This process included electrodeposition of the Ni/Zn alloy film and electrochemical dealloying using a direct-current power source. The scanning electron microscopy images suggest that the film has an irregular 3D interconnected nanosheet structure with open channels. The adsorption–desorption isotherms indicate that the as-prepared NiO film had a high specific surface area of 198 m g{sup ?1} and a narrow pore size distribution, with two peaks at 2.7 and 5.1 nm. The specific capacitance of the sample reached 1670 F g{sup ?1} at a discharge current density of 1 A g{sup ?1}. In addition, the as-prepared nanoporous film exhibited high performance during a long-term cycling test. The maximum values for the specific energy and specific power at the 1.1 V potential window were 170 and 27.5 kW kg{sup ?1}, respectively.

  16. Development and Implementation of 3-D, High Speed Capacitance Tomography for Imaging Large-Scale, Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qussai Marashdeh

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed understanding of multiphase flow behavior inside a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) requires a 3-D technique capable of visualizing the flow field in real-time. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) is a newly developed technique that can provide such measurements. The attractiveness of the technique is in its low profile sensors, fast imaging speed and scalability to different section sizes, low operating cost, and safety. Moreover, the flexibility of ECVT sensors enable them to be designed around virtually any geometry, rendering them suitable to be used for measurement of solid flows in exit regions of the CFB. Tech4Imaging LLC has worked under contract with the U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to develop an ECVT system for cold flow visualization and install it on a 12 inch ID circulating fluidized bed. The objective of this project was to help advance multi-phase flow science through implementation of an ECVT system on a cold flow model at DOE NETL. This project has responded to multi-phase community and industry needs of developing a tool that can be used to develop flow models, validate computational fluid dynamics simulations, provide detailed real-time feedback of process variables, and provide a comprehensive understating of multi-phase flow behavior. In this project, a complete ECVT system was successfully developed after considering different potential electronics and sensor designs. The system was tested at various flow conditions and with different materials, yielding real-time images of flow interaction in a gas-solid flow system. The system was installed on a 12 inch ID CFB of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Labs. Technical and economic assessment of Scale-up and Commercialization of ECVT was also conducted. Experiments conducted with larger sensors in conditions similar to industrial settings are very promising. ECVT has also the potential to be developed for imaging multi-phase flow systems in high temperature and high pressure conditions, typical in many industrial applications.

  17. Oscillation of Capacitance inside Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [University of California, Riverside; Jin, Zhehui [University of California, Riverside

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials for supercapacitors. Although great attention has been given to the anomalous increase of the capacitance as the pore size approaches the ionic dimensions, there remains a lack of full comprehension of the size dependence of the capacitance in nanopores. Here we predict from a classical density functional theory that the capacitance of an ionic-liquid electrolyte inside a nanopore oscillates with a decaying envelope as the pore size increases. The oscillatory behavior can be attributed to the interference of the overlapping electric double layers (EDLs); namely, the maxima in capacitance appear when superposition of the two EDLs is most constructive. The theoretical prediction agreeswell with the experiment when the pore size is less than twice the ionic diameter.Confirmation of the entire oscillatory spectruminvites future experiments with a precise control of the pore size from micro- to mesoscales.

  18. Shielded capacitive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kireeff Covo, Michel

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is described, which is sensitive to electric fields, but is insensitive to stray electrons/ions and unlike a bare, exposed conductor, it measures capacitively coupled current while rejecting currents due to charged particle collected or emitted. A charged particle beam establishes an electric field inside the beam pipe. A grounded metallic box with an aperture is placed in a drift region near the beam tube radius. The produced electric field that crosses the aperture generates a fringe field that terminates in the back surface of the front of the box and induces an image charge. An electrode is placed inside the grounded box and near the aperture, where the fringe fields terminate, in order to couple with the beam. The electrode is negatively biased to suppress collection of electrons and is protected behind the front of the box, so the beam halo cannot directly hit the electrode and produce electrons. The measured signal shows the net potential (positive ion beam plus negative electrons) variation with time, as it shall be observed from the beam pipe wall.

  19. Theory of volumetric capacitance of an electric double layer supercapacitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinner, Brian; Loth, M S; Shklovskii, B I

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric double layer supercapacitors are a fast-rising class of high-power energy storage devices based on porous electrodes immersed in a concentrated electrolyte or ionic liquid. As of yet there is no microscopic theory to describe their surprisingly large capacitance per unit volume (volumetric capacitance) of ~ 100 F/cm^3, nor is there a good understanding of the fundamental limits on volumetric capacitance. In this paper we present a non-mean-field theory of the volumetric capacitance of a supercapacitor that captures the discrete nature of the ions and the exponential screening of their repulsive interaction by the electrode. We consider analytically and via Monte-Carlo simulations the case of an electrode made from a good metal and show that in this case the volumetric capacitance can reach the record values. We also study how the capacitance is reduced when the electrode is an imperfect metal characterized by some finite screening radius. Finally, we argue that a carbon electrode, despite its relativ...

  20. Accurate capacitive metrology for atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents accurate capacitive sensing metrology designed for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) originally developed in the MIT Precision Motion Control Lab. The capacitive measurements use a set of ...

  1. On the applicability of Sato's equation to capacitative radio frequency sheaths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Balakrishnan; G. R. Nagabhushana

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the time dependent version of Sato's equation, when applied to capacitative rf sheaths is no longer independent of the electric field of the space charge, and discuss the use of the equation for a specific sheath model.

  2. Leveraging Symbiotic On-Die Decoupling Capacitance Michael Sotman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodny, Avinoam

    to be an ideal short-circuit, and the off-die PDN is modeled by an inductance LPDN . Assume that LPDN prevents current passing from the battery to the current-consuming switching circuit at high frequencies. Hence, the decoupling capacitance supplies current by releasing a stored charge Q, with a corresponding voltage drop V

  3. Capacitive de-ionization electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, III, William D.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode "cell" for use in a capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a non-reactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate and a flow through screen/separator. These "layers" are repeated and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes in the CDI reactor.

  4. Nucleotide capacitance calculation for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun-Qiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a first-principles linear response theory, the capacitance of the DNA nucleotides, adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, are calculated. The difference in the capacitance between the nucleotides is studied with respect to conformational distortion. The result suggests that although an alternate current capacitance measurement of a single-stranded DNA chain threaded through a nano-gap electrodes may not sufficient to be used as a stand alone method for rapid DNA sequencing, the capacitance of the nucleotides should be taken into consideration in any GHz-frequency electric measurements and may also serve as an additional criterion for identifying the DNA sequence.

  5. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); De Marquis, Virginia K. (Tijeras, NM); Harris, Steven M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  6. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  7. Versatile and compact capacitive dilatometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Lounsbury, A. W.; Luna, D. J.; Tracy, S. J.; Schramm, A. J.; Tozer, S. W.; Correa, V. F.; Hannahs, S. T.; Murphy, T. P.; Palm, E. C.; Lacerda, A. H.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Smith, J. L.; Lashley, J. C.; Cooley, J. C. [Department of Physics, Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041 (United States); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and operation of a relatively simple differential capacitive dilatometer suitable for measurements of thermal expansion and magnetostriction from 300 to below 1 K with a low-temperature resolution of about 0.05 A ring . The design is characterized by an open architecture permitting measurements on small samples with a variety of shapes. Dilatometers of this design have operated successfully with a commercial physical property measurement system, with several types of cryogenic refrigeration systems, in vacuum, in helium exchange gas, and while immersed in liquid helium (magnetostriction only) to temperatures of 30 mK and in magnetic fields to 45 T.

  8. Micromachined low frequency rocking accelerometer with capacitive pickoff

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Arlington, VA); Simon, Jonathon N. (San Leandro, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro electro mechanical sensor that uses capacitive readout electronics. The sensor involves a micromachined low frequency rocking accelerometer with capacitive pickoff fabricated by deep reactive ion etching. The accelerometer includes a central silicon proof mass, is suspended by a thin polysilicon tether, and has a moving electrode (capacitor plate or interdigitated fingers) located at each end the proof mass. During movement (acceleration), the tethered mass moves relative to the surrounding packaging, for example, and this defection is measured capacitively by a plate capacitor or interdigitated finger capacitor, having the cooperating fixed electrode (capacitor plate or interdigitated fingers) positioned on the packaging, for example. The micromachined rocking accelerometer has a low frequency (<500 Hz), high sensitivity (.mu.G), with minimal power usage. The capacitors are connected to a power supply (battery) and to sensor interface electronics, which may include an analog to digital (A/D) converter, logic, RF communication link, antenna, etc. The sensor (accelerometer) may be, for example, packaged along with the interface electronics and a communication system in a 2".times.2".times.2" cube. The proof mass may be asymmetric or symmetric. Additional actuating capacitive plates may be used for feedback control which gives a greater dynamic range.

  9. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  10. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedorenko, Evelina G.

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain ...

  11. Systems considerations in capacitive energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, E. [Cryo Energy Systems, Inc., Medford, MA (United States); Jackson, W.D. [HMJ Corp., Kensington, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitive energy storage systems are being developed as an alternative to SMES for utility power quality applications, to supplement batteries in electric vehicles, and other applications. Systems considerations show that the low voltages of ultra-capacitors impose a high penalty in terms of increased component count, greater complexity in the power electronics used for charging and discharging, and large IR voltage drops. The consequent dissipation and reductions in efficiency exacerbate thermal management and stresses on the power electronics. Alternative strategies using ceramic hyper-capacitors in the 800--1,500 V range will be discussed in terms of system cost and performance. A system analysis indicates that hyper-capacitors at 12 Wh/kg have higher effective energy density than ultra-capacitors at 20 Wh/kg when usable/recoverable energy, packing density, and system issues are taken into account. The power quality delivered to the load, the cost, weight, and volume of the power converters used in discharging and recharging are shown to be essential considerations. Cryogenic operation appears to offer numerous attractive performance benefits.

  12. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  13. Overall plant design specification Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 9 of the ``Overall Plant Design Specification Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor,`` DOE-HTGR-86004 (OPDS) has been completed and is hereby distributed for use by the HTGR Program team members. This document, Revision 9 of the ``Overall Plant Design Specification`` (OPDS) reflects those changes in the MHTGR design requirements and configuration resulting form approved Design Change Proposals DCP BNI-003 and DCP BNI-004, involving the Nuclear Island Cooling and Spent Fuel Cooling Systems respectively.

  14. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  15. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  16. New Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    -ion batteries based on LiCoO2 cathodes and graphite anodes (410 Wh kg-1 ). The nanostructured design of bothNew Nanostructured Li2S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy Yuan Yang,,§ Matthew, California 94305 ABSTRACT Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however

  17. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z., E-mail: abai@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou, Z. B., E-mail: zhouzb@mail.hust.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  18. Impact of stray capacitance on hvdc harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, E.V.; Sublich, M.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experience suggests that a new approach is needed to determining harmonic generation from hvdc converters for the purpose of telephone interference evaluation. This paper presents simulation results showing the effect on harmonic generation of stray capacitances inherent to hvdc converters. These simulation results illustrate the basic characteristics of the phenomenon, which agree qualitatively with field experience.

  19. Use of heparin to accelerate capacitation of equine spermatozoa in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleet Nelson, Tami Lynn

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this paper and that was my driving force. Thank you for always being there for me, I love you with all of my heart. Finally, I would like to acknowledge a most special light in my life, my son, Tyler W. Nelson. You have taught me to slow down and enjoy... capacitation-inducing ability in bull spermatozoa, with the degree of sulfation being at least partially responsible for differences in capacitation-inducing efficacy (Handrow er a/. , 1982; Miller and Ax, 1989). Heparin, a more highly sulfated molecule than...

  20. Leveraging Symbiotic On-Die Decoupling Capacitance Michael Sotman Mikhail Popovich Avinoam Kolodny Eby Friedman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    -die power grid is assumed to be an ideal short-circuit, and the off-die PDN is modeled by an inductance LPDN. Assume that LPDN prevents current passing from the battery to the current-consuming switching circuit at high frequencies. Hence, the decoupling capacitance supplies current by releasing a stored charge AQ

  1. Concept of Quasi-Capacitive Tapping of Bipolar Voltage-Controlled Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Concept of Quasi-Capacitive Tapping of Bipolar Voltage-Controlled Oscillators Aleksandar Tasic the active part of the oscillator and the LC-tank, as proposed in this paper, the voltage swing over the tank of high- performance bipolar voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO's). As the voltage-controlled oscillators

  2. Capacitive mixing power production from salinity gradient energy enhanced through exoelectrogen-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermolytic solutions that can be used to capture waste heat energy as salinity gradient energy. Forced our expanding water and energy infrastructures across the globe, the development of sustainable dual energy generation and water treatment process is highly desirable. A combined capacitive mixing

  3. Influence of solvation on the structural and capacitive properties of electrical double layer capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The electrolytes, represented by coarse-grained models, are enclosed between graphite electrodes. We employ capacitance, solvation, molecular dynamics simulations, interfacial structure, graphite 2 hal-00853396,version batteries. They can be used as high-power generators and can undergo one million charge/discharge cycles

  4. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  5. Specific-heat measurements on high-T/sub c/ A-15's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific heat measurements for the seven high T/sub c/ A-15's are reviewed. Derivation of values for ..gamma.., proportional to N(0) (1 + lambda), is discussed, with strict attention given to limits of error. Particular note is taken of recent controversies concerning the correct values of ..gamma.. for A-15 V/sub 3/Si and Nb/sub 3/Sn. Using tunneling and infrared spectroscopy results for lambda where available, and an approximate phenomenological formula otherwise, values for the electronic density-of-states at the Fermi energy, N(0), are derived and compared with theory. These specific heat derived N(0) values, ranging from 0.95 +- 0.3 states/eV-atom for A-15 Nb/sub 3/Si to 2.4 +- 0.3 states/eV-atom for A-15 V/sub 3/Si, are taken as conclusive evidence that high T/sub c/ does not imply a high N(0).

  6. active capacitive voltage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Khoman 5 Discrete Steps in the Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics of GaInNGaN Light Emitting Diode Structures Materials Science Websites Summary: Discrete Steps in the...

  7. New Benchmark Instances for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Uchoa

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 14, 2014 ... New Benchmark Instances for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Eduardo Uchoa (uchoa ***at*** producao.uff.br) Diego Pecin ...

  8. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

  9. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  10. Development of algorithms for capacitance imaging techniques for fluidized bed flow fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loudin, W.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to provide support for the instrumentation concept of a High Resolution Capacitance Imaging System (HRCIS). The work involves the development and evaluation of the mathematical theory and associated models and algorithms which reduce the electronic measurements to valid physical characterizations. The research and development require the investigation of techniques to solve large systems of equations based on capacitance measurements for various electrode configurations in order to estimate densities of materials in a cross-section of a fluidized bed. Capacitance measurements are made for 400 connections of the 32-electrode system; 400 corresponding electric-field curves are constructed by solving a second order partial differential equation. These curves are used to partition the circular disk into 193 regions called pixels, and the density of material in each pixel is to be estimated. Two methods of approximating densities have been developed and consideration of a third method has been initiated. One method (Method 1) is based on products of displacement currents for intersecting electric-field curves on a cross section. For each pixel one point of intersection is chosen, and the product of the capacitance measurements is found. Both the product and the square-root-of-product seem to yield good relative distribution of densities.

  11. Development of algorithms for capacitance imaging techniques for fluidized bed flow fields. 1990 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loudin, W.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to provide support for the instrumentation concept of a High Resolution Capacitance Imaging System (HRCIS). The work involves the development and evaluation of the mathematical theory and associated models and algorithms which reduce the electronic measurements to valid physical characterizations. The research and development require the investigation of techniques to solve large systems of equations based on capacitance measurements for various electrode configurations in order to estimate densities of materials in a cross-section of a fluidized bed. Capacitance measurements are made for 400 connections of the 32-electrode system; 400 corresponding electric-field curves are constructed by solving a second order partial differential equation. These curves are used to partition the circular disk into 193 regions called pixels, and the density of material in each pixel is to be estimated. Two methods of approximating densities have been developed and consideration of a third method has been initiated. One method (Method 1) is based on products of displacement currents for intersecting electric-field curves on a cross section. For each pixel one point of intersection is chosen, and the product of the capacitance measurements is found. Both the product and the square-root-of-product seem to yield good relative distribution of densities.

  12. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  13. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaojing [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Steinbrener, Jan [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Kirz, Janos [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Marchesini, Stephano [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Neiman, Aaron M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Turner, Joshua J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Jacobsen, Chris [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  14. Negative quantum capacitance in graphene nanoribbons with lateral gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian, Libisch

    Negative quantum capacitance in graphene nanoribbons with lateral gates R. Reiter1, , U. Derra2 , S numerical simulations of the capacitive coupling between graphene nanoribbons of various widths and gate electrodes in different configurations. We compare the influence of lateral metallic or graphene side gate

  15. Low Rates of Expression Profile Divergence in Highly Expressed Genes and Tissue-Specific Genes During Mammalian Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Low Rates of Expression Profile Divergence in Highly Expressed Genes and Tissue-Specific Genes specificity influence the divergence of expression profiles between orthologous genes. Here we address expression profile change during evolution is negatively correlated with the level of gene expression

  16. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.

  17. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with themore »GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.« less

  18. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-Filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of subnanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with widths from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width-dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of 'ion solvation' in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  19. Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-filled Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Peng, Wu [Clemson University

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of sub-nanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with width from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of ion solvation in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

  20. Capacitance-based prover for gas flow meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pipkins, Sean Patrick

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ;?= enthalpy of the air at the inlet. H Uo =U +RT Uo =Cv(T To)+RT, (36) 24 Equation (35) can be written as c (T-T)=[c (T?? T)+RT. , ?] Il ? ' n j (37) Solving Equation (37) for T gives the equation used to calculate the temperature profiles of the air.... . . . . Relation of Capacitance Change to Molar Flow Rate. DiIferential Method Integral Method THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS. Calculated C. Experimental C. Thermal Expansion Effects . . Capacitance Change Due to Length Change Capacitance Change Due to Radius...

  1. Supercapacitor Capacitance Exhibits Oscillatory Behavior as a Function of Nanopore Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Guang [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors composed of slit-shaped micropores ranging in size from 0.67 to 1.8 nm in a room-temperature ionic liquid were studied to investigate the dependence of capacitance (C) on the pore size (d) using molecular dynamics simulations. The capacitance versus pore size (i.e., the Cd curve) was found to exhibit two peaks located at 0.7 and 1.4 nm, respectively. Specifically, as the pore shrinks from 1.0 to 0.7 nm, the capacitance of the micropore increases anomalously, in good agreement with experimental observations. We report herein that the second peak within 1.0 to 1.8 nm is a new feature of the Cd curve. Furthermore, by analogy to the wave interference, we demonstrate that the interference of two electrical double layers near each slit wall does not only explain the entire Cd curve, including the anomalous character, but also predicts the oscillatory behavior of Cd curve beyond 1.8 nm.

  2. avec capacites calorifiques: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of temperature on capacitive sensitivity was also presented. Finally, the development of smart sensor was discussed. Eswaran P; Malarvizhi S First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7...

  3. anomalously large capacitance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: ply a modified Iterated Local Search procedure to Capacitated Vehicle .... enter and leave the set S, in such a way that at least 2k(S) ? |?R(S)| times an .........

  4. Strongly enhanced sensitivity in elastic capacitive strain sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laflamme, Simon

    Strain sensors based on dielectric elastomer capacitors function by the direct coupling of mechanical deformations with the capacitance. The coupling can be improved by enhancing the relative permittivity of the dielectric ...

  5. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the effects of time and temperature on the capacitance of electrochemically deposited nickel hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    /AgCl) it is shown that the optimal treatment condition for maximum ®lm capacitance occurs at 3008C for 3 h of electrochemical capacitors (ECs) is motivated by its possible use in high-power devices such as lasers be prepared by thermal treatment of electrodeposited [3,4] or sol±gel prepared [5] nickel hydro- xide thin ®lm

  6. Differential capacitance of the electric double layer: The interplay between ion finite size and dielectric decrement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuya Nakayama; David Andelman

    2015-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the electric double layer by combining the effects of ion finite size and dielectric decrement. At high surface potential, both mechanisms can cause saturation of the counter-ion concentration near a charged surface. The modified Grahame equation and differential capacitance are derived analytically for a general expression of a permittivity epsilon(n) that depends on the local ion concentration, n, and under the assumption that the co-ions are fully depleted from the surface. The concentration at counter-ion saturation is found for any epsilon(n), and a criterion predicting which of the two mechanisms (steric vs. dielectric decrement) is the dominant one is obtained. At low salinity, the differential capacitance as function of surface potential has two peaks (so-called camel-shape). Each of these two peaks is connected to a saturation of counter-ion concentration caused either by dielectric decrement or by their finite size. Because these effects depend mainly on the counter-ion concentration at the surface proximity, for opposite surface-potential polarity either the cations or anions play the role of counter-ions, resulting in an asymmetric camel-shape. At high salinity, we obtain and analyze the crossover in the differential capacitance from a double-peak shape to a uni-modal one. Finally, several nonlinear models of the permittivity decrement are considered, and we predict that the concentration at dielectrophoretic saturation shifts to higher concentration than those obtained by the linear decrement model.

  7. Nanoparticle growth and transport mechanisms in capacitively coupled silane discharges: a numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleecker, K. de; Bogaerts, A. [PLASMANT, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Goedheer, W.J. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-consistent 1D fluid model is used to investigate the formation, growth and transport mechanisms of sub-micrometer particles in a low pressure capacitively coupled radio-frequency silane (SiH4) discharge. In this contribution we analyze the competition between the different forces governing the transport of nanometer-sized particles and the specific role of the thermophoretic force arising from a thermal gradient in gas temperature induced by heating or cooling of the electrodes. Further growth of the nanoparticles due to coagulation is also described by coupling the 1D fluid model with an aerosol dynamics model.

  8. High Energy X-Ray System Specification for the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the NNSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification establishes requirements for an X-Ray System to be used at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) to support radiography of experimental assemblies for Laboratory (LANL, LLNL, SNL) programs conducting work at the NNSS.

  9. Molecular Insights into Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitors: Capacitance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNTs have emerged as promising candidates for fabricating high-performance supercapacitor electrodes with preeminent power handling as a result of their very high...

  10. Use of heparin to accelerate capacitation of equine spermatozoa in vivo 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleet Nelson, Tami Lynn

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have revealed that heparin is capable ics. of accelerating capacitation of equine spermatozoa under in vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of heparin to accelerate capacitation of equine...

  11. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Harpenau

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-SR-05-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  12. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-SR-04-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  13. Testing of Supercapacitors: Capacitance, Resistance, and Energy Energy and Power Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing of Supercapacitors: Capacitance, Resistance, andenergy density of supercapacitors ? Statements concerningthe power capability of supercapacitors are particularly

  14. Method for high specific bioproductivity of .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul (Schenectady, NY); Shank, Gary Keith (Rocky Hill, CT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a low-cost method of producing .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids. Particular bioconversion conditions result in highly efficient conversion of fatty acid, fatty acid ester, or alkane substrates to diacids. Candida tropicalis AR40 or similar yeast strains are grown in a medium containing a carbon source and a nitrogen source at a temperature of 31.degree. C. to 38.degree. C., while additional carbon source is continuously added, until maximum cell growth is attained. Within 0-3 hours of this point, substrate is added to the culture to initiate conversion. An .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acid made according to this method is also provided.

  15. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLightingFebruary 23,C L S CEnergy

  16. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donko, Z. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D. [Institute for Plasma and Atomic Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  17. Improved Bounds for Large Scale Capacitated Arc Routing Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    ply a modified Iterated Local Search procedure to Capacitated Vehicle .... enter and leave the set S, in such a way that at least 2k(S) ? |?R(S)| times an ...... algorithm clearly outperformed, in terms of solution quality, those that dealt with large.

  18. Stray capacitances in the watt balance operation: electrostatic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quagliotti, Danilo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil originates a difference between the coil and magnet electric-potentials, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results of a finite element analysis of the forces acting on the coil.

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization P. M double layer in microporous carbon electrodes, suitable for incorporation in porous electrode theory and the metallic pore surfaces (image forces) that are not captured by mean-field theories, such as the Poisson

  20. Capacitance between Two Points in an Infinite Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Asad; R. s. Hijjawi; A. J. Sakaji; J. M. Khalifeh

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacitance between two adjacent nodes on an infinite square grid of identical capacitors can easily be found by superposition, and the solution is found by explotting the symmetry of the grid. The mathematical problem presented in this work involves the solution of an infinite set of linear, inhomogenous difference equations which are solved by the method of separation of variables.

  1. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH? gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g?¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m?¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg?¹ at a current density of 1 A g?¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g?¹ was retained at 50 A g?¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore »fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of ?-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  2. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youn, Hee-Chang [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Bak, Seong-Min [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Myeong-Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Jaye, Cherno [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Fischer, Daniel A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lee, Chang-Wook [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roh, Kwang Chul [Korea Inst. of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Kim, Kwang-Bum [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH? gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g?¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m?¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg?¹ at a current density of 1 A g?¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g?¹ was retained at 50 A g?¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of ?-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  3. Technical basis for flawed cylinder test specification to assure adequate fracture resistance of ISO high-strength steel cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Smith, J.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.; Tribolet, R.O. [Tribolet (R.O.), Van Wert, OH (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure industrial gases (such as oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, etc.) are stored and transported in portable cylinders. ISO TC58 SC3 has developed a draft specification 9809 for design and fabrication of high-pressure cylinders with maximum tensile strength limitation of 1,100 N/mm{sup 2}. In order to extend the ISO 9809 rules for higher than 1,100 N/mm{sup 2} strength level cylinders, a working group WG14 was formed in 1989 to develop new rules to assure adequate fracture resistance. In 1994, WG14 recommended a simple, but unique flawed cylinder test method for design qualification of the cylinder and acceptance criteria to assure adequate fracture resistance. WG14 also recommended Charpy-V-notch impact tests to control the required fracture resistance on production cylinders. This paper presents the technical basis that was employed in developing the flawed cylinder test method and acceptance criteria. The specification was developed for seamless steel cylinders having actual strength in the range of 1,100 to 1,400 N/mm{sup 2} and cylindrical section wall thickness in the range of 3 to 10 mm. Flawed cylinder tests were conducted on several hundred cylinders of varying sizes and strength levels. The specification requires to demonstrate LEAK-BEFORE-BREAK performance of the cylinder having flaw length equal to 1.6 (o.d. {times} t{sub design}){sup 0.5} at failure pressure = (t{sub design}/t{sub actual}) x Design Pressure.

  4. Technical basis for flawed cylinder test specification to assure adequate fracture resistance of ISO high strength steel cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Process and Systems R and D; Smith, J.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Metallurgy Div.; Tribolet, R.O.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure industrial gases (such as oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, etc.) are stored and transported in portable cylinders. ISO TC58 SC3 has developed a draft specification 9809 for design and fabrication of high pressure cylinders with maximum tensile strength limitation of 1,100 N/mm{sup 2}. In order to extend the ISO 9809 rules for higher than 1,100 N/mm{sup 2} strength level cylinders, a working group WG14 was formed in 1989 to develop new rules to assure adequate fracture resistance. In 1994, WG14 recommended a simple, but unique flawed cylinder test method for design qualification of the cylinder and acceptance criteria to assure adequate fracture resistance. WG14 also recommended Charpy-V-Notch impact tests to control the required fracture resistance on production cylinders. This paper presents the technical basis that was employed in developing the flawed cylinder test method and acceptance criteria. The specification was developed for seamless steel cylinders having actual strength in the range of 1,100 to 1,400 N/mm{sup 2} and cylindrical section wall thickness in the range of 3mm to 10mm. Flawed cylinder tests were conducted on several hundred cylinders of varying sizes and strength levels. The specification requires to demonstrate LEAK-BEFORE-BREAK performance of the cylinder having flaw length equal to 1.6(O.D. {times} t{sub design}){sup 0.5} at failure pressure = (t{sub design}/t{sub actual}) {times} Design Pressure.

  5. Cotunneling in single-electron devices: Effects of stray capacitances G. Y. Hu and R. F. O'Connell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    Cotunneling in single-electron devices: Effects of stray capacitances G. Y. Hu and R. F. O of stray capacitances on cotunneling in single-electron devices with equal junction capacitances capacitances increase, the current-voltage curve of the single-electron device is shifted towards the low

  6. Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Energy Supercapacitors Simulations explain experimental results for electrical storage devices June 1, 2012 JiangCummingsCoverLarge.gif Capacitance and geometry effects...

  7. Curvature Effect on the Capacitance of Electric Double Layers at Ionic Liquid/Onion-Like Carbon Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Guang [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments have revealed that onion-like carbons (OLCs) offer high energy density and charging/discharging rates when used as the electrodes in supercapacitors. To understand the physical origin of this phenomenon, molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a room-temperature ionic liquid near idealized spherical OLCs with radii ranging from 0.356 to 1.223 nm. We find that the surface charge density increases almost linearly with the potential applied on electric double layers (EDLs) near OLCs. This leads to a nearly flat shape of the differential capacitance versus the potential, unlike the bell or camel shape observed on planar electrodes. Moreover, our simulations reveal that the capacitance of EDLs on OLCs increases with the curvature or as the OLC size decreases, in agreement with experimental observations. The curvature effect is explained by dominance of charge overscreening over a wide potential range and increased ion density per unit area of electrode surface as the OLC becomes smaller.

  8. Capacitance of edge plane of pyrolytic graphite in acetonitrile solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minick, S.K.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacitance of the edge plane of pyrolytic graphite electrodes, in acetonitrile solutions, is measured by recording the current response to an applied triangular voltage sweep; TVS, and then fitting the current response with an appropriate function, (via a set of adjustable parameters). The pretreatment of the electrodes, the supporting electrolyte concentration used, and the frequency of the input TVS, were all found to affect the measured capacitance. In these experiments, a background current was also seen and the shape of the current output for the TVS; the charging/discharging curve, is shown to correlate with the magnitude of this background current. In addition, the size of the background current was found to have some dependence on the type of electrode pretreatment procedure used. 60 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Treatment Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients With Ultra-High Prostate-Specific Antigen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai, Patricia, E-mail: ptai2@yahoo.com [Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, SK (Canada); Tonita, Jon; Woitas, Carla; Zhu Tong [Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, SK (Canada); Joseph, Kurian [Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Calgary, AB (Canada); Skarsgard, David [Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, University of Alberta, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: It is commonly believed that prostate cancer patients with very high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are unlikely to benefit from definitive local treatment, and patients with very high PSA are often underrepresented in, or excluded from, randomized clinical trials. Consequently, little is known about their optimal treatment or prognosis. We performed a registry-based analysis of management and outcome in this population of patients. Methods and Materials: Our provincial Cancer Registry was used to identify all men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1990 to 2001. A retrospective chart review provided information on stage, Gleason score, PSA at diagnosis, and treatment. In this study, ultra-high PSA was defined as PSA of {>=}50 ng/ml. For a more complete perspective, treatment outcomes of patients with PSA of 20 to 49.9 ng/ml were also studied. Results: Of the 8378 men diagnosed with prostate cancer during this period, 6,449 had no known nodal or distant metastatic disease. The median follow-up of this group was 67.2 months (range, 0-192 months). A total of 1534 patients had PSA of {>=}20 ng/ml. Among the 995 patients with PSA 20 to 49.9 ng/ml, 85 had radical prostatectomy (RP), and their 5- and 10-year cause-specific survivals (CSS) were 95% and 84%, respectively. The 497 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) had 5- and 10-year CSS of 92% and 71%. For the 332 patients with PSA 50-99.9 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 81% and 55%. For the 207 patients with PSA of {>=}100 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 80% and 54%. Conclusions: This is the largest series in the world on non metastatic cancer patients with ultra-high PSA at diagnosis. Even in the setting of a very high presenting PSA level, prostatectomy and radiotherapy are often associated with prolonged survival.

  10. Capacitive energy storage and recovery for synchrotron magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koseki, K., E-mail: kunio.koseki@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Feasibility studies on capacitive energy storage and recovery in the main-ring synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex were conducted by circuit simulation. The estimated load fluctuation was 96 MVA in total for dipole magnets, which is likely to induce a serious disturbance in the main grid. It was found that the energy stored in the magnets after the excitation period can be recovered to the storage capacitor by controlling the voltage across the energy-storage capacitor using a pulse-width-modulation converter and reused in the next operational cycle. It was also found that the power fluctuation in the main grid can be reduced to 12 MVA. An experimental evaluation of an aluminum metalized film capacitor revealed that capacitance loss was induced by a fluctuating voltage applied to the storage capacitor when applying the proposed method. The capacitance loss was induced by corona discharge around the edges of segmented electrodes of a self-healing capacitor. The use of aluminum-zinc alloy was evaluated as a countermeasure to mitigate the effect induced by the corona discharge. For a zinc content of 8%, which was optimized experimentally, a capacitor with a sufficient life time expectancy of 20 years and a working potential gradient of 250 V/?m was developed.

  11. Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali nanoparticles at 1% mass concentration. The specific heat capacity of the nanofluid was enhanced by 14 of nanoparticles at min- ute concentrations are termed as ``nanofluids'' [1­3]. Nanoparticles are defined

  12. Generation of uniform large-area very high frequency plasmas by launching two specific standing waves simultaneously

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hsin-Liang, E-mail: hlchen@iner.gov.tw; Tu, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Deng-Lain [Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Leou, Keh-Chyang [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With the characteristics of higher electron density and lower ion bombardment energy, large-area VHF (very high frequency) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has become an essential manufacturing equipment to improve the production throughput and efficiency of thin film silicon solar cell. However, the combination of high frequency and large electrodes leads to the so-called standing wave effect causing a serious problem for the deposition uniformity of silicon thin film. In order to address this issue, a technique based on the idea of simultaneously launching two standing waves that possess similar amplitudes and are out of phase by 90° in time and space is proposed in this study. A linear plasma reactor with discharge length of 54 cm is tested with two different frequencies including 60 and 80 MHz. The experimental results show that the proposed technique could effectively improve the non-uniformity of VHF plasmas from >±60% when only one standing wave is applied to <±10% once two specific standing waves are launched at the same time. Moreover, in terms of the reactor configuration adopted in this study, in which the standing wave effect along the much shorter dimension can be ignored, the proposed technique is applicable to different frequencies without the need to alter the number and arrangement of power feeding points.

  13. Impedance-based study of capacitive porous carbon electrodes with hierarchical and bimodal porosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    hierarchical and bimodal supercapacitor electrodes. First detailed characterization of hierarchical carbon Supercapacitor Capacitive deionization Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Hierarchical carbon a b s t r a c

  14. Capacitive deionization of water: An innovative new process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.; Fix, D.; Mack, G. [and others

    1995-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals were required for regeneration of the system. Electricity was used instead. Water with various anions and cations was pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions were electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at electrode surfaces. The water leaving the cell was purified, as desired.

  15. Ising interaction between capacitively-coupled superconducting flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiko Satoh; Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Kosuke Kakuyanagi; Koichi Semba; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Shiro Saito

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we propose a scheme to generate a controllable Ising interaction between superconducting flux qubits. Existing schemes rely on inducting couplings to realize Ising interactions between flux qubits, and the interaction strength is controlled by an applied magnetic field On the other hand, we have found a way to generate an interaction between the flux qubits via capacitive couplings. This has an advantage in individual addressability, because we can control the interaction strength by changing an applied voltage that can be easily localized. This is a crucial step toward the realizing superconducting flux qubit quantum computation.

  16. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, Shane W., E-mail: shane.w.lani@gmail.com, E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu; Sabra, Karim G. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Levent Degertekin, F. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12?MHz range.

  17. Multiplexed Neural Recording Down a Single Optical Fiber via Optical Reflectometry with Capacitive Signal Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriques, Samuel G; Mankin, Max; Wood, Lowell; Boyden, Edward S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a fiber-optic architecture for neural recording without contrast agents, and study its properties theoretically. Our sensor design is inspired by electrooptic modulators, which modulate the refractive index of a waveguide by applying an electric field across an electrooptic core material, and allows recording of the activities of individual neurons located at points along a 10 cm length of optical fiber with 20 um axial resolution, sensitivity down to 100 uV and a dynamic range of up to 1V using commercially available optical reflectometers as readout devices. A key concept of the design is the ability to create an "intensified" electric field inside an optical waveguide by applying the extracellular voltage from a neural spike over a nanoscopic distance. Implementing this concept requires the use of ultrathin high-dielectric capacitor layers. If suitable materials can be found -- possessing favorable properties with respect to toxicity, ohmic junctions, and surface capacitance -- then such sensi...

  18. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of electron capacitance for Geobacter in sedimentary environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lovley, Derek R.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ stimulation of the metabolic activity of Geobacter species through acetate amendment has been shown to be a promising bioremediation strategy to reduce and immobilize hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] as insoluble U(IV). Although Geobacter species are reducing U(VI), they primarily grow via Fe(III) reduction. Unfortunately, the biogeochemistry and the physiology of simultaneous reduction of multiple metals are still poorly understood. A detailed model is therefore required to better understand the pathways leading to U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction by Geobacter species. Based on recent experimental evidence of temporary electron sinks in Geobacter we propose a novel kinetic model that physically distinguishes Geobacter species into neutral and electron-charged states. This model shows that the existence of an electron load-unload cycle might be responsible for efficient U(VI) reduction, and elucidates the relationship between U(VI) and Fe(III)-reducing activity and further explains the correlation of high U(VI) removal with high proportions of Geobacter species in a planktonic state in groundwater. Global sensitivity analysis was used to validate the beneficial effects of electron capacitance and determine the level of importance and interactions of physicochemical and biogeochemical processes controlling Geobacter growth and U(VI) reduction. As compared with current modeling approaches in which biomass is often assumed to maintain the same metabolic state over all conditions, the structured two-state model accounts for important aspects of the dynamic electron capacitance of subsurface Geobacter, thereby facilitating further applications in the optimal bioremediation design strategy.

  19. Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gongkai; Sun, Xiang; Lu, Fengyuan; Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Mingpeng; Jiang, Weilin; Liu, Changsheng; Lian, Jie

    2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible graphene paper (GP) pillared by carbon black (CB) nanoparticles using a simple vacuum filtration method is developed as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Through the introduction of CB nanoparticles as spacers, the self-restacking of graphene sheets during the filtration process is mitigated to a great extent. The pillared GP-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performances and cyclic stabilities compared with GP without the addition of CB nanoparticles. At a scan rate of 10 mV s?1, the specific capacitance of the pillared GP is 138 F g^?1 and 83.2 F g^?1 with negligible 3.85% and 4.35% capacitance degradation after 2000 cycles in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. At an extremely fast scan rate of 500 mV s ^?1, the specific capacitance can reach 80 F g^?1 in aqueous electrolyte. No binder is needed for assembling the supercapacitor cells and the pillared GP itself may serve as a current collector due to its intrinsic high electrical conductivity. The pillared GP has great potential in the development of promising flexible and ultralight-weight supercapacitors for electrochemical energy storage.

  20. Measurement strategy for rectangular electrical capacitance tomography sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jiamin; Ge, Ruihuan; Qiu, Guizhi; Wang, Haigang [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the influence of the measurement strategy for the rectangular electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor, a Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilized to create the model for simulation. The simulation was carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics(trade mark, serif) and Matlab(trade mark, serif). The length-width ratio of the rectangular sensing area is 5. Twelve electrodes are evenly arranged surrounding the pipe. The covering ratio of the electrodes is 90%. The capacitances between different electrode pairs are calculated for a bar distribution. The air of the relative permittivity 1.0 and the material of the permittivity 3.0 are used for the calibration. The relative permittivity of the second phase is 3.0. The noise free and noise data are used for the image reconstruction using the Linear Back Projection (LBP). The measurement strategies with 1-, 2- and 4- electrode excitation are compared using the correlation coefficient. Preliminary results show that the measurement strategy with 2-electrode excitation outperforms other measurement strategies with 1- or 4-electrode excitation.

  1. Penetration of plasma into the wafer-focus ring gap in capacitively coupled plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Penetration of plasma into the wafer-focus ring gap in capacitively coupled plasmas Natalia Y of capacitively coupled plasma reactors with a wafer-focus ring gap. The penetration of plasma generated species i.e., ions and radicals into the wafer-focus ring gap is discussed. We found that the penetration of plasma

  2. DECENTRALIZED INVENTORY CONTROL IN A TWO-STAGE CAPACITATED SUPPLY CHAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karaesmen, Fikri

    DECENTRALIZED INVENTORY CONTROL IN A TWO-STAGE CAPACITATED SUPPLY CHAIN Zied Jema¨i and Fikri@ku.edu.tr Revised Version: July 2005 #12;Decentralized Inventory Control in a Two-Stage Capacitated Supply Chain base stock policies for inventory replenishment. All unsatisfied demand is backlogged and the customer

  3. 450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented fabrication will soon transition from 300 to 450 mm at a time when excitation frequencies for capacitively of processing. The increase in diameter to 450 mm is likely to exacerbate these effects, perhaps requiring

  4. Comparison of fingerprint quality measures using an optical and a capacitive sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Comparison of fingerprint quality measures using an optical and a capacitive sensor Fernando Alonso of Cagliari images are expected to be different for optical and capacitive sensors. For example, the effect measure computation. In our opinion, some measures could be suitable for the optical sensor

  5. Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition Monm Doshi (I-0425 regan.zane@colorado.edu Absfruci-This paper presents a low frequency architecture for driving parallel to the architecture is a proposed capacitive coupling approach for ac lamp ignition. The system consists of a single

  6. Gate Delay Calculation Considering the Crosstalk Capacitances Soroush Abbaspour and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . As the victim line switches, the impedance of its driving gate changes by orders of magnitude, thereby the various R and C parasitics as well as the capacitive coupling between interconnect lines. However, since of capacitances. For example, for opposite direction switching of two identical coupled lines, switching

  7. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  8. The AMWCNTs supported porous nanocarbon composites for high-performance supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Yu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Li [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Tian, Chungui, E-mail: chunguitianhq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Lin, Haibo, E-mail: lhb910@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The AMWCNTs supported porous nanocarbon composites were prepared by a easy method. The composites had shown good performances for electrochemical energy storage with high specific capacitance and good stability. - Highlights: • The AMWCNTs supported porous nanocarbon composites were prepared. • The composites have good conductivity and large BET specific surface areas. • The composites had shown high specific capacitance, and good stability. - Abstract: The porous nanocarbons supported by acid-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes (PC@ACNTs) were prepared by the combination of the hydrothermal polymerization of glucose on ACNTs, carbonization under N{sub 2} protection and final activation with ZnCl{sub 2}. The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectra. The results indicated that the ACNTs distributed uniformly into the framework of the porous carbon. The composites showed the high BET specific surface area up to 1712 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} and good conductivity. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the composites processed good performances for electrochemical energy storage (210 F g{sup ?1} at 0.5 A g{sup ?1}), and high stability (>99.9%), much higher than the corresponding ACNTs, porous carbons and the samples prepared by using raw MWCNTs as source. The good performance of PC@ACNTs composites was relative with the synergy of good conductivity of ACNTs and large specific surface areas of PC.

  9. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Spenik, James L. (Morgantown, WV); Condon, Christopher M. (Morgantown, WV); Anderson, Rodney (Grafton, WV); Driscoll, Daniel J. (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, Jr., William L. (Fairmont, WV); Monazam, Esmail R. (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  10. Measurement of bubble sizes in fluidised beds using electrical capacitance tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandrasekera, T. C.; Li, Y.; Moody, D.; Schnellmann, M. A.; Dennis, J. S.; Holland, D. J.

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) provides a means for non-invasively imaging multiphase flows, such as those in fluidised beds. Traditionally ECT images are reconstructed using the assumption that the distribution of permittivity varies...

  11. Capacitative coupling of singlet-triplet qubits in different inter-qubit geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuukka Hiltunen; Ari Harju

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the singlet-triplet qubit architecture, the two-qubit interactions required in universal quantum computing can be implemented by capacitative coupling, by exploiting the charge distribution differences of the singlet and triplet states. The efficiency of this scheme is limited by decoherence, that can be mitigated by stronger coupling between the qubits. In this paper, we study the capacitative coupling of singlet-triplet qubits in different geometries of the two-qubit system. The effects of the qubit-qubit distance and the relative orientation of the qubits on the capacitative coupling strength are discussed using an accurate microscopic model and exact diagonalization of it. We find that the trapezoidal quantum dot formations allow strong coupling with low charge distribution differences between the singlet and triplet states. The analysis of geometry on the capacitative coupling is also extended to the many-qubit case and the creation of cluster states.

  12. Efficient numerical methods for capacitance extraction based on boundary element method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Shu

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    algorithms based on boundary element methods (BEM) and to compute the capacitance extraction in the presence of floating dummy conductors. We propose the PHiCap algorithm, which is based on a hierarchical refinement algorithm and the wavelet transform. Unlike...

  13. Efficient numerical methods for capacitance extraction based on boundary element method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Shu

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast and accurate solvers for capacitance extraction are needed by the VLSI industry in order to achieve good design quality in feasible time. With the development of technology, this demand is increasing dramatically. ...

  14. Defect Sink Characteristics of Specific Grain Boundary Types in 304 Stainless Steels Under High Dose Neutron Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Yang, Ying [ORNL; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation induced segregation (RIS) is a well-studied phenomena which occurs in many structurally relevant nuclear materials including austenitic stainless steels. RIS occurs due to solute atoms preferentially coupling to mobile point defect fluxes that migrate and interact with defect sinks. Here, a 304 stainless steel was neutron irradiated up to 47.1 dpa at 320 C. Investigations into the RIS response at specific grain boundary types were utilized to determine the sink characteristics of different boundary types as a function of irradiation dose. A rate theory model built on the foundation of the modified inverse Kirkendall (MIK) model is proposed and benchmarked to the experimental results. This model, termed the GiMIK model, includes alterations in the boundary conditions based on grain boundary structure and includes expressions for interstitial binding. This investigation, through experiment and modeling, found specific grain boundary structures exhibit unique defect sink characteristics depending on their local structure. Such interactions were found to be consistent across all doses investigated and had larger global implications including precipitation of Ni-Si clusters near different grain boundary types.

  15. Ultrananocrystalline diamond films with optimized dielectric properties for advanced RF MEMS capacitive switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Mancini, Derrick C.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient deposition process is provided for fabricating reliable RF MEMS capacitive switches with multilayer ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) films for more rapid recovery, charging and discharging that is effective for more than a billion cycles of operation. Significantly, the deposition process is compatible for integration with CMOS electronics and thereby can provide monolithically integrated RF MEMS capacitive switches for use with CMOS electronic devices, such as for insertion into phase array antennas for radars and other RF communication systems.

  16. Observation of negative differential capacitance (NDC) in Ti Schottky diodes on SiGe islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Jantsch, Wolfgang [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Tonkikh, Alexander; Zakharov, Nikolay; Werner, Peter [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Germany)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Negative Differential Capacitance (NDC) effect on Ti Schottky diodes formed on n-type Silicon samples with embedded Germanium Quantum Dots (QDs) is observed and reported. The NDC-effect is detected using capacitance-voltage (CV) method at temperatures below 200 K. It is explained by the capture of electrons in Germanium QDs. Our measurements reveal that each Ge QD captures in average eight electrons.

  17. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

  18. Capacitive, deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes: Carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the capacitive deionization (CDI) of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. Water with various anions and cations is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions are electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at the surfaces of electrodes. The water leaving the cell is purified, as desired. The effects of cell voltage on the electrosorption capacities for Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been investigated and are reported here. Results for NaCl and NaNO{sub 3} have been reported previously. Possible applications for CDI are as a replacement for ion exchange processes which remove heavy metals and radioisotopes from process and waste water in various industries, as well as to remove inorganic ions from feedwater for fossil and nuclear power plants.

  19. Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Peterson, K.A.; Barton, D.L.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit are disclosed. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 {micro}m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits. 7 figs.

  20. Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Barton, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 .mu.m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits.

  1. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  2. Temperature dependent junction capacitance-voltage characteristics of Ni embedded TiN/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si metal–insulator–semiconductor structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panda, J.; Nath, T. K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Amity Institute of Nano Technology, Amity University, Sector-125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201313 (India)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the junction capacitance–voltage characteristics of highly textured/epitaxial Ni nanoparticle embedded in TiN matrix (TiN(Ni)) metal-insulator-semiconductor TiN(Ni)/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (100) heterojunction in the temperature range of 10–300?K. This heterojunction behaves as metal-semiconductor junction with unavoidable leakage through native oxide SiO{sub 2} layer. The clockwise hysteresis loop has been observed in the capacitance-voltage characteristics measured at various frequencies mainly due to presence of trap centers at the TiN(Ni)/SiO{sub 2} interface and these are temperature dependent. The spin-dependent trap charge effect at the interface influences the quadratic nature of the capacitance with magnetic field. The junction magnetocapacitance (JMC) is observed to be dependent on both temperature and frequency. The highest JMC of this heterojunction has been observed at 200?K at higher frequencies (100?kHz–1?MHz). It is found that there is not much effect of band structure modification under magnetic field causing the JMC.

  3. Spectroscopy diagnostic of dual-frequency capacitively coupled CHF{sub 3}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Du, Yong-Quan [Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Tian-Liang; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xu, Yong; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min [Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined spectroscopic method of absorption, actinometry, and relative optical emission intensity is employed to determine the absolute CF{sub 2} density, the relative F and H densities, H atom excitation temperature and the electron density in dual-frequency (60/2 MHz) capacitively coupled CHF{sub 3}/Ar plasmas. The effects of different control parameters, such as high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power, gas pressure, gap length and content of CHF{sub 3}, on the concentration of radical CF{sub 2}, F, and H and excitation temperature are discussed, respectively. It is found that the concentration of CF{sub 2} is strongly dependent on the HF power, operating pressure and the proportion of CHF{sub 3} in feed gas, while it is almost independent of the LF power and the gap length. A higher concentration ratio of F to CF{sub 2} could be obtained in dual-frequency discharge case. Finally, the generation and decay mechanisms of CF{sub 2} and F were also discussed.

  4. 450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wafer diameters for microelectronics fabrication will soon transition from 300 to 450 mm at a time when excitation frequencies for capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) are increasing to 200 MHz or higher. Already for 300 mm tools, there is evidence that wave behavior (i.e., propagation, constructive, and destructive interference) affects the uniformity of processing. The increase in diameter to 450 mm is likely to exacerbate these effects, perhaps requiring nontraditional tool designs. This is particularly important in dual frequency (DF) CCP tools in which there are potential interactions between frequencies. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar plasma properties in a 450 mm DF-CCP reactor, incorporating a full-wave solution of Maxwell's equations, are discussed. As in 300 mm DF-CCP reactors, the electron density collapses toward the center of the reactor with increasing high frequency (HF), however, with more pronounced finite wavelength effects. Graded conductivity electrodes with multilayer of dielectrics are computationally demonstrated as a possible means to suppress wave effects thereby increasing plasma uniformity. Segmentation of the HF electrode also improves the plasma uniformity by making the electrical distance between the feeds and the sheath edges as uniform as possible.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitance of long tungsten oxide nanorod arrays grown vertically on substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sun Hwa [Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Heon; Lee, Tae Geol; Shon, Hyun Kyong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Min [Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Yong, E-mail: jysong@kriss.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Growth of long amorphous tungsten oxide nanorods on a substrate. ? Formation of single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods by a heat-treatment. ? High electrochemical pseudocapacitance of 2.8 mF cm{sup ?2}. ? Excellent cyclability of psuedocapacitance up to 1000 cycles. -- Abstract: Long tungsten oxide nanorods are vertically grown on Al/W/Ti coated silicon substrates using a two-step anodization process. The first anodization of the Al film forms a mesh-like mask of anodic aluminum oxide, and the second anodization of the W film results in the formation of a buffer layer, a bottom nanorod, and a top nanorod of amorphous tungsten oxide. A pore-widening process prior to the second anodization leads to the enhancement of nanorod length above approximately 500 nm. After a heat-treatment, the tungsten oxide nanorods are crystallized to form a single crystalline structure while the buffer layer forms a polycrystalline structure. The crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods show a cyclic voltammogram retaining the quasi-rectangular shape of an electrochemically reversible faradaic redox reaction, i.e., a typical pseudocapacitive behavior. The maximum electrochemical capacitance per apparent surface area reaches approximately 2.8 mF cm{sup ?2} at the voltage scan rate of 20 mV s{sup ?1}, and the excellent cyclability of charge–discharge process is maintained up to 1000 cycles.

  6. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi [Department of Offshore Process and Energy Systems Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  7. Deposition of ruthenium nanoparticles on carbon aerogels for high energy density supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.M.; Dunn, B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Labs., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation and characterization of high surface area ruthenium/carbon aerogel composite electrodes for use in electrochemical capacitors is reported. These new materials have been prepared by the chemical vapor impregnation of ruthenium into carbon aerogels to produce a uniform distribution of adherent {approx}20 {angstrom} nanoparticles on the aerogel surface. The electrochemically oxidized ruthenium particles contribute a pseudocapacitance to the electrode and dramatically improve the energy storage characteristics of the aerogel. These composites have demonstrated specific capacitances in excess of 200 F/g, in comparison to 95 F/g for the untreated aerogel.

  8. Novel Approach for Correlating Capacitance Data with Performance During Thin-Film Device Stress Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R. L.; Albin, D. S.; Clark, L. A.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new data mining algorithm was developed to identify the strongest correlations between capacitance data (measured between -1.5 V and +0.49 V) and 1st and 2nd level performance metrics (efficiency, open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current density (JSC), and fill-factor (FF)) during the stress testing of voltage-stabilized CdS/CdTe devices. When considering only correlations between 1st and 2nd level metrics, 96.5% of the observed variation in efficiency was attributed to FF. The overall decrease in VOC after 1000 hours of open-circuit, light-soak stress at 60 degrees C was about 1.5%. As determined by our algorithm, the most consistent correlation existing between FF and 3rd level metric capacitance data at all stages during stress testing was between FF and the apparent CdTe acceptor density (Na) calculated at a voltage of +0.49 V during forward voltage scans. Since the contribution of back contact capacitance to total capacitance increases with increasing positive voltage, this result suggests that FF degradation is associated with decreases in Na near the CdTe/back contact interface. Also of interest, it appears that capacitance data at these higher voltages appears to more accurately fit the one-sided abrupt junction model.

  9. Commissioning Specifications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commissioning specifications outline basic requirements of the commissioning process and detail the roles and responsibilities of each party involved. System checklists, startup requirements, and...

  10. Theory of substrate, Zeeman, and electron-phonon interaction effects on the quantum capacitance in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahir, M. [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Sabeeh, K. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaukat, A. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Schwingenschlögl, U., E-mail: Udo.Schwingenschlogl@kaust.edu.sa [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements.

  11. Androgen Deprivation Therapy Does Not Impact Cause-Specific or Overall Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Managed With Brachytherapy and Supplemental External Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]. E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Lief, Jonathan [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in high-risk prostate cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and July 2002, 204 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score {>=}8 or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/mL or clinical stage {>=}T2c) underwent brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 7.0 years. The bPFS was defined by a PSA {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for the impact on survival. Results: The 10-year CSS, bPFS, and OS were 88.9%, 86.6%, and 68.6%, respectively. A statistically significant difference in bPFS was discerned between hormone naive, ADT {<=}6 months, and ADT >6 month cohorts (79.7% vs. 95.% vs. 89.9%, p = 0.032). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) did not impact CSS or OS. For bPFS patients, the median posttreatment PSA was <0.04 ng/mL. A Cox linear regression analysis demonstrated that Gleason score was the best predictor of CSS, whereas percent positive biopsies and duration of ADT best predicted for bPFS. The OS was best predicted by Gleason score and diabetes. Thirty-eight patients have died, with 26 of the deaths from cardiovascular/pulmonary disease or second malignancy. Eleven patients have died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: The ADT improved 10-year bPFS without statistical impact on CSS or OS. Death as a result of cardiovascular/pulmonary disease and second malignancies were more than twice as common as prostate cancer deaths. Strategies to improve cardiovascular health should positively impact OS.

  12. Simulating Electric Double Layer Capacitance of Mesoporous Electrodes with Cylindrical Pores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    morphology on the capacitance of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) made of mesoporous electrodes affecting EDLCs' performance. The simulations showed that reducing the ion effective diameter and the pore capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices that store electric charge in the electric dou- ble layer

  13. 3-D airborne ultrasound synthetic aperture imaging based on capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    3-D airborne ultrasound synthetic aperture imaging based on capacitive micromachined ultrasonic was implemented by mechanical scanning a co-located transmitter and receiver using the classic synthetic aperture, silicone rubber, and foam plastics, in an attempt to overcome bad mechanical impedance matching between

  14. Energetic performance optimization of a capacitive deionization system operating with transient cycles and brackish water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    face economic water shortage [4], meaning that effective steps have to be taken, in terms of increasing cycles and brackish water Onur N. Demirer, Rachel M. Naylor, Carlos A. Rios Perez, Ellen Wilkes, Carlos analysis Water desalination using capacitive deionization (CDI) has been a recent topic of intense research

  15. Effective Capacitance of RLC Loads for Estimating Short-Circuit Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    behavior of the short-circuit current. In [1], Veendrick developed a closed form expression for shortEffective Capacitance of RLC Loads for Estimating Short-Circuit Power Guoqing Chen and Eby G for estimating short-circuit power is presented in this paper. Both resistive and inductive shielding effects

  16. Capacitive Behavior of HF Power Transformers: Global Approach to Draw Robust Equivalent Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    behavior of all components. Among these components, HF power transformers constitute a special case. EvenCapacitive Behavior of HF Power Transformers: Global Approach to Draw Robust Equivalent Circuits of n-windings HF power transformers. A global approach, mainly based on energy considerations about

  17. CONTROLE DE GESTION, CAPACITES DYNAMIQUES ET STRATEGIES EMERGENTES DANS LES ORGANISATIONS ENTREPRENEURIALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONTROLE DE GESTION, CAPACITES DYNAMIQUES ET STRATEGIES EMERGENTES DANS LES ORGANISATIONS gerald.naro@univ-montp1.fr Résumé : Cette communication porte sur la problématique du contrôle de gestion/exploration (March, 1991). Elle s'appuie sur l'étude de cas d'une entreprise entrepreneuriale. Il s'agissait de

  18. Minimum Buffered Routing with Bounded Capacitive Load for Slew Rate and Reliability Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    reliability with respect to hot­carrier oxide breakdown and AC self­heating in interconnects, and guarantees electrons) [10], [12] and AC self­heating in interconnects [20], and facilitate technology migration since capacitance at gate outputs is a well­known part of today's electrical correctness methodologies. Bounds

  19. Capacitive effect of cavitation in xylem conduits: results from a dynamic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Capacitive effect of cavitation in xylem conduits: results from a dynamic model TEEMU HÃ?LTTÃ?1. A dynamic model is presented that models xylem water potential, xylem sap flow and cavitation, taking; xylem transport. INTRODUCTION Xylem embolism formation by cavitation causes a decrease in plant

  20. Accurate sizing of supercapacitors storage system considering its capacitance variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the best available technology such as lithium-ion battery. In hybrid transportation systems and in full is around 100 000 cycles. Even if its specific energy cost is higher compared to a lithium-ion battery electric drive train. Today, most of full-electrical transportation drive trains use batteries as main

  1. Battery with a microcorrugated, microthin sheet of highly porous corroded metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaFollette, Rodney M.

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Microthin sheet technology is disclosed by which superior batteries are constructed which, among other things, accommodate the requirements for high load rapid discharge and recharge, mandated by electric vehicle criteria. The microthin sheet technology has process and article overtones and can be used to form thin electrodes used in batteries of various kinds and types, such as spirally-wound batteries, bipolar batteries, lead acid batteries silver/zinc batteries, and others. Superior high performance battery features include: (a) minimal ionic resistance; (b) minimal electronic resistance; (c) minimal polarization resistance to both charging and discharging; (d) improved current accessibility to active material of the electrodes; (e) a high surface area to volume ratio; (f) high electrode porosity (microporosity); (g) longer life cycle; (h) superior discharge/recharge characteristics; (i) higher capacities (A.multidot.hr); and (j) high specific capacitance.

  2. Capacitive Proximity Communication with Distributed Alignment Sensing for Origami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emami-Neyestanak, Azita

    visual resolution. Such increases in capa- bility require the development of specialized, highly in the biomedical market. Even with highly-integrated designs, the size of the system required can pose on implants in sensitive organs such as the eye, this alignment-and-adaptation operation needs to be energy

  3. arXiv:cond-mat/9609266v127Sep1996 Far-infrared and capacitance spectroscopy of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    -size semiconductor systems. In these systems, the charge carriers are strongly confined in all three dimensions, so spectroscopy is carried out using standard lock-in technology. For small-scale capacitance probing a bridge

  4. Preconditioning first and second kind integral formulations of the capacitance problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tausch, J.; White, J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering programs which compute electrostatic capacitances for complicated arrangements of conductors commonly set up the electrostatic potential u as a superposition of surface carges {sigma} u(x) = {integral}{sub s}G(x, y){sigma}(y) dS(y). Where G(x, y) = {1/4}{pi}{vert_bar}x - y{vert_bar} is the Green`s function for the Laplacian in the three-space. For a specified potential on the conductor surface(s) S, this approach leads to an integral equation of the first kind on S for the charge density {sigma}. The capacitance is the net-charge on the conductors and is given by the surface integral of {sigma}.

  5. Correlations of Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis with Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell Performance During Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present the correlation of CdTe solar cell performance with capacitance-voltage hysteresis, defined presently as the difference in capacitance measured at zero-volt bias when collecting such data with different pre-measurement bias conditions. These correlations were obtained on CdTe cells stressed under conditions of 1-sun illumination, open-circuit bias, and an acceleration temperature of approximately 100 degrees C.

  6. Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    prepared by electrochemically precipitating the hydroxide and heating it in air to form Co3O4 the need to identify more suitable materials. One promising route is the use of transi- tion metal oxides to batteries, are referred to as Faradaic or pseudocapacitors. However, the high cost of these materials has

  7. Effect of capacitive coupling in a miniature inductively coupled plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric particle-in-cell simulations with a Monte Carlo collision algorithm (PIC-MCC) have been conducted to investigate the effect of capacitive coupling in a miniature inductively coupled plasma source (mICP) by using two models: an inductive model and a hybrid model. The mICP is 3 mm in radius and 6 mm in height with a three-turn planar coil, where argon plasma is sustained. In the inductive model, the coil is assumed to be electrostatically shielded, and thus the discharge is purely inductive coupling. In the hybrid model, we assume that the different turns of the coil act like electrodes in capacitive discharge to include the effect of capacitive coupling. The voltage applied to these electrodes decreases linearly from the powered end of the coil towards the grounded end. The numerical analysis has been performed for rf frequencies in the range of 100-1000 MHz, and the power absorbed by the plasma in the range of 5-50 mW at a fixed pressure of 500 mTorr. The PIC-MCC results show that potential oscillations at the plasma-dielectric interface are not negligible, and thus the major component of the absorbed power is caused by the axial motion of electrons in the hybrid model, although almost all of the power absorption is due to the azimuthal motion of electrons in the inductive model. The effect of capacitive coupling is more significant at lower rf frequencies and at higher absorbed powers under the calculation conditions examined. Moreover, much less coil currents are required in the hybrid model.

  8. Cluster Before You Hallucinate: Approximating Node-Capacitated Network Design and Energy Efficient Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treuille, Adrien

    )-approximate with O(log4 n) congestion. This translates back to a O(log4+3 n)-approximation for the multicast energy-minimization)-approximate with O(log12 n) congestion, which translates back to a O(log12+5 n)-approximation for the unicast energy-minimizationCluster Before You Hallucinate: Approximating Node-Capacitated Network Design and Energy Efficient

  9. Effect of stray capacitances on single electron tunneling in a turnstile Young Bong Kang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    of single electrons due to the Coulomb blockade effect. These devices are, in particular, potentially useful- tal systems6 have stray capacitances. The aim of the this article is to perform a general study conservation laws, which are expressed as i 1 D i i 1 nie/C i 1,2,...,N 1,N 1,...,2N 1 , 1 N 1 D N N 1 nN U e

  10. Specification No. 203-HJT-9004 R0 Specification for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Specification No. 203-HJT-9004 R0 Specification for the MERIT Mercury-Jet Experiment Titanium TITANIUM TARGET MODULE COMPONENTS Prepared by: V.B. Graves (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) P. T. Spampinato.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY April 10, 2006 #12;Specification for Ti Alloy Components MERIT High Power Mercury

  11. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al?O?/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?apajna, M., E-mail: milan.tapajna@savba.sk; Jurkovi?, M.; Válik, L.; Haš?ík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Kuzmík, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hashizume, T. [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, 060-0814 Sapporo, Japan and JST-CREST, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (D{sub it}) and net charge of Al?O?/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. D{sub it} distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher D{sub it} (?5–8?×?10¹²eV?¹?cm?²) was found at trap energies ranging from EC-0.5 to 1?eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (D{sub it}???2–3?×?10¹²eV?¹?cm?²) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. D{sub it} distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high D{sub it} (>10¹³eV?¹?cm?²) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher D{sub it} centered about EC-0.6?eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al?O? thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

  13. Specification No. 203-HJT-9004 R1 Specification for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    .S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY April 10, 2006 #12;Specification for Titanium Components MERIT High Power Mercury Titanium Components August 14, 2006 #12;Specification for Titanium Components MERIT High Power Mercury MODULE TITANIUM COMPONENTS Prepared by: V.B. Graves (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) P. T. Spampinato (Oak

  14. Noise measurements and optimization of the high sensitivity capacitive transducer of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padova Via Marzolo 8, I­35100, Padova, Italy 2 Centro di Fisica degli Stati Aggregati CNR­ITC and INFN (that provide an attenuation of 65 dB) hold the outer flange, which closes the dewar. All the pumping through this flange; a light and torsionally rigid structure holds the Internal Vacuum Chamber (IVC

  15. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of the bending influence on the capacitance of interdigitated micro-electrodes patterned on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Lopez, F.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) - Institute of Microengineering (IMT) – Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Laboratory - SAMLAB, 2002 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Kinkeldei, T.; Tröster, G. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ) – Electronics Laboratory, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interdigitated electrodes are common structures in the fields of microelectronics and MEMS. Recent developments in flexible electronics compel an understanding of such structures under bending constraints. In this work, the behavior of interdigitated micro-electrodes when subjected to circular bending has been theoretically and experimentally studied through changes in capacitance. An analytical model has been developed to calculate the expected variation in capacitance of such structures while undergoing outward and inward bending along the direction perpendicular to the electrodes. The model combines conformal mapping techniques to account for the electric field redistribution and fundamental aspects of solid mechanics in order to define the geometrical deformation of the electrodes while bending. To experimentally verify our theoretical predictions, several interdigitated electrode structures with different geometries were fabricated on polymeric substrates by means of photolithography. The samples, placed in a customized bending setup, were bent to controlled radii of curvature while measuring their capacitance. A maximum variation in capacitance of less than 3% was observed at a minimum radius of curvature of 2.5?mm for all the devices tested with very thin electrodes whereas changes of up to 7% were found on stiffer, plated electrodes. Larger or smaller variations would be possible, in theory, by adjusting the geometry of the device. This work establishes a useful predictive tool for the design and evaluation of truly flexible/bendable electronics consisting of interdigitated structures, allowing one to tune the bending influence on the capacitance value through geometrical design.

  17. The use of capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes to remove inorganic contaminants from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals were required for regeneration of the system. Electricity was used instead. Water with various anions and cations was pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions were electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at electrode surfaces. The water leaving the cell was purified, as desired.

  18. Enhanced sheath heating in capacitively coupled discharges due to non-sinusoidal voltage waveforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafleur, T. [Johannesburg (South Africa); Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Booth, J. P. [LPP-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the use of particle-in-cell simulations, we demonstrate that the power deposition in capacitively coupled discharges (in argon) can be increased by replacing sinusoidal waveforms with Gaussian-shaped voltage pulses (with a repetition frequency of 13.56 MHz). By changing the Gaussian pulse width, electron heating can be directly controlled, allowing for an increased plasma density and ion flux for the same gas pressure and geometrical operating conditions. Analysis of the power deposition profiles and electron distribution functions shows that enhanced electron-sheath heating is responsible for the increased power absorption.

  19. Theoretical investigation of phase-controlled bias effect in capacitively coupled plasma discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigated the effect of phase difference between powered electrodes in capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges. Previous experimental result has shown that the plasma potential could be controlled by using a phase-shift controller in CCP discharges. In this work, based on the previously developed radio frequency sheath models, we developed a circuit model to self-consistently determine the bias voltage from the plasma parameters. Results show that the present theoretical model explains the experimental results quite well and there is an optimum value of the phase difference for which the V{sub dc}/V{sub pp} ratio becomes a minimum.

  20. Modeling of capacitive and electromagnetic field shielding effects in a CVT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gover, James E. (Kettering University); Bou, Jimmy; Sommerville, William (Kettering University); Sanchez, Robert O.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the discharge of a capacitor the current was measured with a current viewing transformer (CVT). In addition to measuring the current flowing through the CVT primary, a 51 MHz noise signal was added to the primary current. When the CVT was covered with a gold shield, the noise was eliminated. Analysis of the measured results indicate that the gold layer reflected the electromagnetic that was generated by current flowing in the primary and that the capacitance between the shield and the CVT secondary had no measurable effect on the CVT output.

  1. Specification No. 203-HJT-9000R09000R1a Specification for a Pump System for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Specification No. 203-HJT-9000R09000R1a Specification for a Pump System for the High Power Mercury-Jet Target Experiment August 24Nov 1, 2005 #12;Specification for Syringe Pump System High Power Mercury Target Experiment 203-HJT-9000R09000R1a ii SPECIFICATION FOR A PUMP SYSTEM FOR THE HIGH POWER MERCURY

  2. Spatially resolved measurements of ion density and electron temperature in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma by complete floating double probe technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Xiangzhan; Liu Yongxin; Yang Shuo; Lu Wenqi; Bi Zhenhua; Li Xiaosong; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially resolved measurements of the ion density and electron temperature in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled Ar discharge plasma are performed with a newly developed complete floating double probe. Axial and radial distributions of the ion density and electron temperature under various high-frequency (HF) power and gas pressure were studied in detail. Both the ion density and the electron temperature increased with increasing HF power. With increasing gas pressure from 1.3 to 9.3 Pa, the radial profile of ion density below the driven electrode experienced a change from ''bimodal'' to ''unimodal'' shape, with better uniformity being achieved at the optimal pressure of about 5 Pa. In addition, changing the axial profile of ion density was also observed with the peak shift toward the powered electrode at higher pressures. The measured results showed satisfying consistency with that of improved two dimensional fluid simulations.

  3. Power consumption, discharge capacitance and light emission as measures for thrust production of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegseis, J. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Grundmann, S. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Tropea, C. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Greisheim (Germany)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new procedure of determining the time resolved capacitance of a plasma actuator during operation is introduced, representing a simple diagnostic tool that provides insight into the phenomenological behavior of plasma actuators. The procedure is demonstrated by presenting example correlations between consumed electrical energy, size of the plasma region, and the operating voltage. It is shown that the capacitance of a plasma actuator is considerably increased by the presence of the plasma; hence a system that has previously been impedance matched can be considerably de-tuned when varying the operating voltage of the actuator. Such information is fundamental for any attempts to increase the energy efficiency of plasma-actuator systems. A combined analysis of the capacitance, light emission, size of the plasma region, force production, and power consumption is presented.

  4. Charging and discharging in ion implanted dielectric films used for capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical systems switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Gang; Chen Xuyuan [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Vestfold University College, P.O. Box 2243, N-3103 Toensberg (Norway); San Haisheng [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structure was used to investigate the dielectric charging and discharging in the capacitive radio frequency microelectromechanical switches. The insulator in MIS structure is silicon nitride films (SiN), which were deposited by either low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processes. Phosphorus or boron ions were implanted into dielectric layer in order to introduce impurity energy levels into the band gap of SiN. The relaxation processes of the injected charges in SiN were changed due to the ion implantation, which led to the change in relaxation time of the trapped charges. In our experiments, the space charges were introduced by stressing the sample electrically with dc biasing. The effects of implantation process on charge accumulation and dissipation in the dielectric are studied by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results show that the charging and discharging behavior of the ion implanted silicon nitride films deposited by LPCVD is quite different from the one deposited by PECVD. The charge accumulation in the dielectric film can be reduced by ion implantation with proper dielectric deposition method.

  5. Nanowire-based frequency-selective capacitive photodetector for resonant detection of infrared radiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, Saumil, E-mail: saumilb@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of a capacitive infrared photodetector that works at room temperature by registering a change in capacitance upon illumination are reported. If used in an ideal resonant inductor-resistor-capacitor circuit, it can exhibit zero dark current, zero standby power dissipation, infinite detectivity, and infinite light-to-dark contrast ratio. It is also made frequency-selective by employing semiconductor nanowires that selectively absorb photons of energies close to the nanowire's bandgap. Based on measured parameters, the normalized detectivity is estimated to be ?3?×?10{sup 7} Jones for 1.6??m IR wavelength at room temperature.

  6. Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Construction Methods, Specifications, and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLeod, Heather Anne Kirkvold

    2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development, construction, and evaluation of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained through the construction of 14 LC-HPC ...

  7. Tissue specific regulation of the high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor Class B, Type I (SR-BI) by the scaffold protein PDZK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenske, Sara Anne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PDZK1 is a four PDZ-domain containing cytoplasmic adaptor protein that binds the Cterminus of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor SR-BI. Abolishing PDZK1 expression in PDZK1 knockout (KO) mice leads to a ...

  8. Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp Petar Ljusev, Michael A.E. Andersen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Direct-conversion switching-mode audio power amplifier with active capacitive voltage clamp Petar discusses the advantages and problems when implementing direct energy conversion switching-mode audio power on a direct-conversion switching-mode audio power ampli- fier with active capacitive voltage clamp

  9. Combined effects of gas pressure and exciting frequency on electron energy distribution functions in hydrogen capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Fattah, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Sugai, H. [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined effects of the variation of hydrogen pressure (40-400 mTorr) and exciting frequency (13.56-50 MHz) on the electron energy probability function (EEPF) and other plasma parameters in capacitively coupled hydrogen H{sub 2} discharge at fixed discharge voltage were investigated using rf-compensated Langmuir probe. At a fixed exciting frequency of 13.56 MHz, the EEPF evolved from Maxwellian-like distribution to a bi-Maxwellian distribution when the H{sub 2} pressure increased, possibly due to efficient vibrational excitation. The electron density largely increased to a peak value and then decreased with the increase of H{sub 2} pressure. Meanwhile, the electron temperature and plasma potential significantly decrease and reaching a minimum at 120 mTorr beyond, which saturated or slightly increases. On the other hand, the dissipated power and electron density markedly increased with increasing the exciting frequency at fixed H{sub 2} pressure and voltage. The electron temperatures negligibly dependent on the driving frequency. The EEPFs at low pressure 60 mTorr resemble Maxwellian-like distribution and evolve into a bi-Maxwellian type as frequency increased, due to a collisonless (stochastic) sheath-heating in the very high frequency regime, while the EEPF at hydrogen pressure {>=}120 mTorr retained a bi-Maxwellian-type distribution irrespective of the driving frequency. Such evolution of the EEPFs shape with the driving frequency and hydrogen pressure has been discussed on the basis of electron diffusion processes and low threshold-energy inelastic collision processes taking place in the discharge. The ratio of stochastic power to bulk power heating ratio is dependent on the hydrogen pressure while it is independent on the driving frequency.

  10. arXiv:cond-mat/0301467v219Mar2003 Quantum effects in small-capacitance single Josephson junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    is that the effective impedance of an array can be varied in situ by applying an external magnetic field perpen- dicular measured the current-voltage (I-V ) characteristics of small-capacitance single Josephson junctions at low devices (SQUIDs). The single-junction I-V curve is sensitive to the impedance of the environment, which

  11. Total energy loss to fast ablator-ions and target capacitance of direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623, USA 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545Total energy loss to fast ablator-ions and target capacitance of direct-drive implosions on OMEGA N 19, 093101 (2012) Target normal sheath acceleration sheath fields for arbitrary electron energy

  12. Abstract Efficiency issues of variable-capacitance micromotors are discussed in context of combined drive and motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Patrick

    of combined drive and motor interaction. It is shown that variable-capacitance motors ideally have nearly, the drive system consisting of both the motor and electronics is not ideal when considering different motors, electric drives, efficiency I. INTRODUCTION An active area of research for commercial

  13. Negative capacitance in GaN/AlGaN heterojunction dual-band detectors L. E. Byrum,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Negative capacitance in GaN/AlGaN heterojunction dual-band detectors L. E. Byrum,1 G. Ariyawansa,1 online 2 September 2009 A study of trap states in n+ -GaN/AlGaN heterostructures using electrical related absorption centers attributed to shallow Si-donor pinned to the AlGaN barrier , N-vacancy/ C

  14. EMC EUROPE WORKSHOP 2005, ROME, ITALY Technical Areas (11. Antennas) RF-MEMS Capacitive Series Switches of CPW & MSL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    EMC EUROPE WORKSHOP 2005, ROME, ITALY Technical Areas (11. Antennas) RF-MEMS Capacitive Series.P. Li and Franco De Flaviis Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University substrate (r = 7.4 and tan = 0.001) as shown in figure 1 (a) and (b). The isolation and insertion losses

  15. Specification No. 203-HJT-9000R0 Procurement Specification for a Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Specification No. 203-HJT-9000R0 Procurement Specification for a Pump System for the High Power Mercury- Jet Target Experiment August 2005 #12;Draft Specification for Syringe Pump System High Power Mercury Target Experiment 203-HJT-9000R0 8/10/05 Draft Draftii SPECIFICATION FOR A PUMP SYSTEM

  16. Observation of transient electric fields in particle-in-cell simulation of capacitively coupled discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S., E-mail: sarvsarvesh@gmail.com; Mishra, S. K.; Kaw, Predhiman K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical prediction of the presence of transient electric field regions between the bulk plasma and sheath edge in radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (RF-CCP) discharges has been reported by Kaganovich [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 265006 (2002)]. In this paper, we have used the semi-infinite particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation technique to verify the theoretical prediction for the existence of transient electric field in the linear regime; it is shown that the PIC simulation results are in good agreement with the results predicted by analytical model in this regime. It is also demonstrated that the linear theory overestimates the transient electric field as one moves from linear to weakly nonlinear regime. The effect of applied RF current density and electron temperature on evolution of transition field and phase mixing regime has been explored.

  17. Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in ?-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Calzada Solidaridad Esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N. C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ?(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup ?2} is affected.

  18. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  19. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  20. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  1. Characteristics of molecular hydrogen and CH* radicals in a methane plasma in a magnetically enhanced capacitive RF discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Lapochkina, T. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The parameters of a methane-containing plasma in an asymmetric RF capacitive discharge in an external magnetic field were studied using optical emission spectroscopy. The power deposited in the discharge was 90 W and the gas pressure and magnetic field were varied in the ranges 1-5 Pa and 50-200 G, respectively. The vibrational and rotational temperatures of hydrogen molecules and CH* radicals were measured as functions of the magnetic field and methane pressure. The ratio between the densities of atomic and molecular hydrogen was estimated. The processes responsible for the excitation of molecular hydrogen and CH* radicals in a methane-containing plasma in an RF capacitive discharge are analyzed.

  2. Al fraction induced effects on the capacitance characteristics -GaN/AlxGa1-xN IR detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    substrate. As shown in Fig. 1(a), the device structures consist of a 0.2 m n+ -GaN top contact (emitter.1117/12.828156 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7467 74670W-1 #12;(a) Sapphire Substrate n GaN Bottom Contact AlxGa1-xN Barrier n GaNAl fraction induced effects on the capacitance characteristics of n+ -GaN/AlxGa1-xN IR detectors

  3. Cylinder Test Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Catanach; Larry Hill; Herbert Harry; Ernest Aragon; Don Murk

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the cylinder testis two-fold: (1) to characterize the metal-pushing ability of an explosive relative to that of other explosives as evaluated by the E{sub 19} cylinder energy and the G{sub 19} Gurney energy and (2) to help establish the explosive product equation-of-state (historically, the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation). This specification details the material requirements and procedures necessary to assemble and fire a typical Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) cylinder test. Strict adherence to the cylinder. material properties, machining tolerances, material heat-treatment and etching processes, and high explosive machining tolerances is essential for test-to-test consistency and to maximize radial wall expansions. Assembly and setup of the cylinder test require precise attention to detail, especially when placing intricate pin wires on the cylinder wall. The cylinder test is typically fired outdoors and at ambient temperature.

  4. The response of a capacitively coupled discharge to the formation of dust particles: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denysenko, I.; Berndt, J.; Kovacevic, E.; Stefanovic, I.; Selenin, V.; Winter, J. [School of Physics and Technology, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Svobody sq. 4, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Institute of Experimental Physics II, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics II, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Institute of Physics, POB 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Institute of Experimental Physics II, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of dust particles on the properties of a capacitively coupled Ar-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} discharge is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The results of measurements of the intensity and spatial distribution of the emitted light, the line width of the fast component of H{sub {alpha}} line and of the electron density during the particle growth are presented. To analyze the experimental results a one-dimensional discharge model is developed. Using the model the effects of dust grains on the power absorption (taking into account stochastic and Ohmic heating in the plasma sheaths), the optical emission intensity profile, the sheath size, the rf electric field and on the energy of positive ions bombarding the electrodes are investigated. In particular, it is shown that the decrease of the power absorption in the sheaths of complex plasmas is due to the dependence of the stochastic and Ohmic heating in the plasma sheaths on the electron temperature and the current flowing across the discharge plates. The results of the calculations are compared with the available experimental data and found to be in good agreement.

  5. Influence of finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bora, B., E-mail: bbora@cchen.cl; Soto, L. [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Santiago, Chile and Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) plasmas are widely studied in last decades due to the versatile applicability of energetic ions, chemically active species, radicals, and also energetic neutral species in many material processing fields including microelectronics, aerospace, and biology. A dc self-bias is known to generate naturally in geometrically asymmetric CCRF plasma because of the difference in electrode sizes known as geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in order to compensate electron and ion flux to each electrode within one rf period. The plasma series resonance effect is also come into play due to the geometrical asymmetry and excited several harmonics of the fundamental in low pressure CCRF plasma. In this work, a 13.56?MHz CCRF plasma is studied on the based on the nonlinear global model of asymmetric CCRF discharge to understand the influences of finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in terms of generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. The nonlinear global model on asymmetric discharge has been modified by considering the sheath at the grounded electrode to taking account the finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes. The ion density inside both the sheaths has been taken into account by incorporating the steady-state fluid equations for ions considering that the applied rf frequency is higher than the typical ion plasma frequency. Details results on the influences of geometrical asymmetry on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating are discussed.

  6. Preparation of high specific activity technetium-96

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Prach, Thomas (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of producing Tc-96 from the proton irradiation of a rhodium target and a technique for isolating under remote hot cell conditions the Tc-96 from the proton irradiated target.

  7. A highly specific test for periodicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincar\\'e sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its run time grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  8. Surface Electronic Properties and Site-Specific Laser Desorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties and Site-Specific Laser Desorption Processes of Highly Structured Nanoporous MgO Thin Films. Surface Electronic Properties and Site-Specific Laser Desorption Processes...

  9. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  10. ProductSpecifications Thermo Scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    ProductSpecifications Thermo Scientific CellomicsArrayScan VTI HCS Reader The Thermo Scientific info.cellularimaging@thermofisher.com www.thermo.com/cellomics and Cellular Imaging Europe: +44 118 988 and filters available Integrated Software Features · Thermo Scientific Cellomics iQ - High Content intelligent

  11. High Q tunable LC resonator operating at cryogenic temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract We present a step-motor based cryogenic tuning device for a high Q electrical resonator of 1.8 Ã? 106 is found to be unaffected by the superconducting core and by the drive system. The noise. The bar vibrations are converted into an electrical signal by a mushroom shaped capacitive transducer

  12. Specific Learning Difficulties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    Dyslexia and other Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLDs) A guide for tutors Enabling Services Supporting you to succeed #12;2 Contents Dyslexia Support ............................................................................................................ 3 Recognising students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties................. 4

  13. Analysis of AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structure by using capacitance-frequency-temperature mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Hong-An; Kudo, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu [Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is analyzed by using capacitance-frequency-temperature (C-f-T) mapping. Applying sputtering-deposited AlN, we attained AlN/AlGaN/GaN MIS heterostructure field-effect transistors with much suppressed gate leakage currents, but exhibiting frequency dispersion in C-V characteristics owing to high-density AlN/AlGaN interface states. In order to investigate the interface states deteriorating the device performance, we measured temperature-dependent frequency dispersion in the C-V characteristics. As a result, we obtained C-f-T mapping, whose analysis gives the activation energies of electron trapping, namely the interface state energy levels, for a wide range of the gate biases. This analysis method is auxiliary to the conventional conductance method, serving as a valuable tool for characterization of wide-bandgap devices with deep interface states. From the analysis, we can directly evaluate the gate-control efficiency of the devices.

  14. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong, E-mail: yongxu@dlut.edu.cn; Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  15. Use of neural networks in the capacitance imaging system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasching, G.E.; Loudin, W.J.; Paton, D.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has developed a capacitance imaging system (CIS) to support its fluidized-bed research programs. The CIS uses 400 electric displacement current measurements taken between combinations of pairs of 32 electrodes to obtain a measure of the fluidized-bed material density in the volume between the electrodes. The measurements are simultaneously made for three other sets of horizontally-oriented 32 electrodes with the four sets evenly spaced vertically. This report describes the development of a method of using the 400 current measurements per level as the input to a neural network to produce the 193-pixel density estimates defined for each level. A 417-neuron subnetwork using 4,047 weights is defined as the system used to determine a set of 32-pixel densities in one of the annular regions of the fluidized-bed cross section. The same subnetwork with different values of weights is used for the other five annular regions that cover the rest of the cross section. An averaging technique is used to determine the density of the small central region. The methods used to optimize the set of weights for each of the six subnetworks are described. The results of tests using calibration electric current data as inputs to the neural system showed that these density estimates have less error than three previously developed methods of converting current measurements into pixel density maps. A comparison of the density maps produced by the neural system and the alternate three methods using input fluidization data also indicates the superior performance of the neural network approach.

  16. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  17. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  18. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  19. High Frequency Characteristicsof NanocompositeThin Film "Supercapacitors" and their Suitability For EmbeddedDecoupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    High Frequency Characteristicsof NanocompositeThin Film "Supercapacitors" and their Suitability, the capacitance density would be much lower. Newer capacitor concepts such as supercapacitors can overcome and the suitability of the thin film supercapacitors for high-frequency decoupling applications will be discussed. 1

  20. Specific Group Hardware

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from...

  1. Legacy Management Specific Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following courses are specific to Legacy Management Employees, for more information about the courses below or to register for any of these courses please contact Chequita Johnson.

  2. HIGH-VOLTAGE LOW POWER ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION FOR ADAPTIVE ARCHITECTURES OF CAPACITIVE VIBRATION ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTERS R. Khalil1* , A. Dudka1 , D. Galayko1 , P. Basset2 1 University Paris 6, LIP6 harvester for vibration energy. A smart energy management in the harvester is needed to achieve an optimal conversion of the vibration energy. This block is achieved with a successive approximation analogue

  3. High-capacity electric double-layer capacitor with high-density-activated carbon fiber electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shudo, Atsushi; Miura, Kouichi

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the authors have presented a method to prepare activated carbon fiber with high bulk density (HD-ACF) without using any binders. The possibility of using the HD-ACF as an electrode for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) was examined in this paper. The capacitance of the EDLC with the HD-ACF electrode increased with the increase of bulk density of the HD-ACF, indicating that individual fibers are highly packed without losing their capacitance. The capacitance also increased in proportion to the size of the HD-ACF electrode. The initial discharge current of the EDLC showed little dependency on either the bulk density or the size of the HD-ACF electrode. These results clarified that the HD-ACF electrode is suitable for constructing a high-power EDLC. The initial discharge current was directly proportional to the conductivity of aqueous KCI used as the electrolyte, indicating that the resistance of the electrolyte is much higher than that of the HD-ACF electrode. This result showed that the efficiency of the HD-ACF was well above the efficiency of the electrolyte used in this study and that the improvement of the ionic conductivity of electrolyte is also necessary for developing a high-power EDLC.

  4. Preparation of activated graphene and effect of activation parameters on electrochemical capacitance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices with high power density. They operate through the separation

  5. Specific light in sculpture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, John William

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific light is defined as light from artificial or altered natural sources. The use and manipulation of light in three dimensional sculptural work is discussed in an historic and contemporary context. The author's work ...

  6. Redesigning specificity in miniproteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Christina Marie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on designing specific miniprotein interactions using computational models and then testing these designs with experiments. Miniproteins are small, autonomously-folding proteins that are excellent for ...

  7. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extraction Utility Design Specification January 11, 2011 Document Version 1.9 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All...

  8. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  9. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect and refrigerant capacitance in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumaresavanji, M., E-mail: vanji.hplt@gmail.com; Sousa, C. T.; Pires, A.; Pereira, A. M.; Araujo, J. P. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); Lopes, A. M. L. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Porto (Portugal); CFNUL, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High aspect ratio La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanotube (NT) arrays have been synthesized using nitrates based sol-gel precursor by nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide template assisted method. Their phase purity and microstructures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of as prepared NTs was investigated by means of field dependence magnetization measurements. Significant magnetic entropy change, ??S{sub M}?=?1.6?J/kg K, and the refrigerant capacitance, RC?=?69?J/kg, were achieved near the transition temperature at 315?K for 5?T. For comparison, a bulk sample was also prepared using the same precursor solution which gives a value of ??S{sub M}?=?4.2?J/kg K and a RC?=?165?J/kg. Though the bulk sample exhibits higher ?S{sub M} value, the NTs present an expanded temperature dependence of ??S{sub M} curves that spread over a broad temperature range and assured to be appropriate for active magnetic refrigeration. The diminutive MCE observed in manganite NTs is explained by the increased influence of surface sites of nanograins which affect the structural phase transition occurred by external magnetic field due to the coupling between magnetism and the lattice in manganese perovskites. Our report paves the way for further investigation in 1D manganite nanostructured materials towards applications in such magnetic refrigeration technology or even on hyperthermia/drug delivery.

  10. 26 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 55, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 Effective Capacitance of Inductive Interconnects for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    to the complicated transient be- havior of the short-circuit current [1]. The short-circuit power dissipation Effective Capacitance of Inductive Interconnects for Short-Circuit Power Analysis Guoqing Chen and Eby G induce sig- nificant error when estimating short-circuit power. In order to cap- ture this shielding

  11. Clock tree synthesis for prescribed skew specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, Rishi

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    for prescribed skew targets. The interactions among skew targets, sink location proximities and capacitive load balance are analyzed. Based on this analysis, a maximum delay-target ordering merging scheme is suggested to minimize wire and bu?er area, which...

  12. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  13. Compliant membranes for the development of MEMS dual-backplate capacitive microphone using the SUMMiT V fabrication process.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, David (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is the investigation of compliant membranes for the development of a MicroElectrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphone using the Sandia Ultraplanar, Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT V) fabrication process. The microphone is a dual-backplate capacitive microphone utilizing electrostatic force feedback. The microphone consists of a diaphragm and two porous backplates, one on either side of the diaphragm. This forms a capacitor between the diaphragm and each backplate. As the incident pressure deflects the diaphragm, the value of each capacitor will change, thus resulting in an electrical output. Feedback may be used in this device by applying a voltage between the diaphragm and the backplates to balance the incident pressure keeping the diaphragm stationary. The SUMMiT V fabrication process is unique in that it can meet the fabrication requirements of this project. All five layers of polysilicon are used in the fabrication of this device. The SUMMiT V process has been optimized to provide low-stress mechanical layers that are ideal for the construction of the microphone's diaphragm. The use of chemical mechanical polishing in the SUMMiT V process results in extremely flat structural layers and uniform spacing between the layers, both of which are critical to the successful fabrication of the MEMS microphone. The MEMS capacitive microphone was fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories and post-processed, packaged, and tested at the University of Florida. The microphone demonstrates a flat frequency response, a linear response up to the designed limit, and a sensitivity that is close to the designed value. Future work will focus on characterization of additional devices, extending the frequency response measurements, and investigating the use of other types of interface circuitry.

  14. Planar Fully Depleted SOI Technology: the Convergence of High Performance and Low Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Borivoje

    voltages. Index Terms--28nm, FD-SOI, CMOS, high-performance, low- power, mobile, SoC, efficiency, Back conditions. B. Electrostatics Due to the reduction of the spacing between the drain and the source/IOFF current ratio originates from SCE. The drain and source capacitances jeopardize the gate control over

  15. A narrow-band high-speed switched-capacitor sixth order bandpass ladder filter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adut, Jozef

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In narrow-band high-speed switched-capacitor filters, the main limitation comes from the capacitance spread and from amplifier settling time. A secondary clock, that averages at an integer fraction of the main clock signal, is used to reduce...

  16. Microwave Planar Capacitors Employing Low Loss, High-K, and Tunable BZN Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    Microwave Planar Capacitors Employing Low Loss, High-K, and Tunable BZN Thin Films Jaehoon Park) thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Device Q factors (QDUT) and capacitances (CDUT) were films can be the alternative to conventional BST thin films. Index Terms -- Dielectric properties

  17. A narrow-band high-speed switched-capacitor sixth order bandpass ladder filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adut, Jozef

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In narrow-band high-speed switched-capacitor filters, the main limitation comes from the capacitance spread and from amplifier settling time. A secondary clock, that averages at an integer fraction of the main clock signal, is used to reduce...

  18. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  19. Changing fuel specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatt, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will describe the goals, methods, and results of a program designed to expand fuel specifications. The ability to expand fuel specs can provide many advantages to a power company. These would include increased fuel flexibility, better performance and lower fuel cost. The expansion of transportation modes also may enhance the scenario. Although brief, this paper should provide a good understanding of the types of problems that can be encountered, and the cooperative effort necessary to resolve them.

  20. Timing analysis of digital circuits considering impact of capacitive crosstalk & process variation on path delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upasani, Neeraj Sudhir

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Competitive design of modern digital circuits requires high performance at reduced cost and time-to-market. Hence, accurate timing analysis is essential in the design and test of digital integrated circuits. With reduced feature sizes and increasing...

  1. High linearity GaN HEMT power amplifier with pre-linearization gate diode Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Sten Heikman, Alessandro Chini,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    High linearity GaN HEMT power amplifier with pre-linearization gate diode Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA A high linearity MMIC RF power amplifier is reported in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT to compensate the non-linear effect caused by the nonlinear input capacitance Cgs of the GaN HEMT device

  2. Oak Ridge Site Specific

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment ofDepartment640OrderOREMJanuary 20149Oak RidgeSite Specific

  3. Specific Group Hardware

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|SolarSpeakers BureauSpecialSpecific Group

  4. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  5. Simplified radio-frequency generator for driving ion guides, traps, and other capacitive loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott L.

    of features e.g., built-in dc offset power supplies, fast keying circuit with ramp speed control, large is not an issue, it is straightforward to package the 6.3 V ac filament transformer and high voltage power, small size was a requirement, ac- complished by having all dc power supplies external. If size

  6. Characteristic impedance and capacitance analysis of Blumlein type pulse forming line of accelerator based on tape helix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yu; Liu Jinliang; Fan Xuliang; Zhang Hongbo; Wang Shiwen; Feng Jiahuai [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073 (China)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the electromagnetic dispersion theory and the classic telegraph equations were combined to calculate the important parameters of the helical Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL) of accelerator based on tape helix. In the work band of the BPFL at several hundred ns range, electromagnetic dispersion characteristics were almost determined by the zeroth harmonic. In order to testify the dispersion theory of BPFL in this paper, filling dielectrics, such as de-ionized water, transformer oil, and air were employed in the helical BPFL, respectively. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, characteristic impedance, and pulse duration of the BPFL were calculated. Effects of dispersion on these parameters were analyzed. Circuit simulation and electromagnetic simulation were carried out to prove these parameters of BPFL filled with these three kinds of dielectrics, respectively. The accelerator system was set up, and experimental results also corresponded to the theoretical calculations. The average theoretical errors of impedances and pulse durations were 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively, which proved the electromagnetic dispersion analyses in this paper.

  7. Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  8. General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications Vehicle Characteristics Specification Maximum Depth 700m with 1.5 safety factor Vehicle power 2kWHr Li Ion Rechargeable Transducer 700m rated Paroscientific Depth Sensor will be integrated into the vehicle navigation stream

  9. Experimental investigations of electron density and ion energy distributions in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas for Ar/CF{sub 4} and Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bi, Zhen-Hua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron density and ion energy distribution (IED) are investigated in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled Ar/CF{sub 4} (90%/10%) and Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} (80%/10%/10%) plasmas. The relations between controllable parameters, such as high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power and gas pressure, and plasma parameters, such as electron density and IEDs, are studied in detail by utilizing a floating hairpin probe and an energy resolved quadrupole mass spectrometer, respectively. In our experiment, the electron density is mainly determined by the HF power and slightly influenced by the LF power. With increasing gas pressure, the electron density first goes up rapidly to a maximum value and then decreases at various HF and LF powers. The HF power also plays a considerable role in affecting the IEDs under certain conditions and the ion energy independently controlled by the LF source is discussed here. For clarity, some numerical results obtained from a two-dimensional fluid model are presented.

  10. Structure and trapping of three-dimensional dust clouds in a capacitively coupled rf-discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, O.; Block, D.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this survey the recently found 'Coulomb balls' are discussed, which show an unusual kind of crystalline order. These three-dimensional dust clouds consisting of hundreds or thousands of micrometer-sized dust particles have a spherical shape and exist in a wide range of plasma conditions. Coulomb balls are optically highly transparent and have macroscopic dimensions of several millimeters in diameter. The clouds allow for the observation of each single particle and thus the complete reconstruction of the crystal structure by means of video microscopy techniques. The particles are arranged in distinct nested shells in which they form patterns with mostly five and six neighbors. The confinement of Coulomb balls by dielectric walls involves electric forces, surface charges, ion drag forces, and thermophoretic levitation. The thermophoretic force field is measured with tracer particles and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The electric forces are derived from simulations with the two-dimensional SIGLO-2D code. It is shown the the sum of all confining forces results in a stable potential well that describes levitation and spherical confinement of the Coulomb ball.

  11. SISGR: Improved Electrical Energy Storage with Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitance Based on Novel Carbon Electrodes, New Electrolytes, and Thorough Development of a Strong Science Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. [PI; Alam, Todd M. [co-PI; Bielawski, Christopher W. [co-PI; Chabal, Yves [co-PI; Hwang, Gyeong [co-PI; Ishii, Yoshitaka [co-PI; Rogers, Robin [co-PI

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The broad objective of the SISGR program is to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) and thus of ultracapacitor systems composed of a new type of electrode based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) and (primarily) with ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte. Our team has studied the interplay between graphene-based and graphene-derived carbons as the electrode materials in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) systems on the one hand, and electrolytes including novel ionic liquids (ILs), on the other, based on prior work on the subject.

  12. Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS Manufacturer: Advanced Recycling Equipment efficiency of natural gas combustion) The facility is designed to meet additional future heating loads, so annual output will increase when the Research Support Facility comes online What it will heat

  13. Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array SyStem SpecificationS System size: 750 kW (DC, estimated) Characteristics: Single axis tracker photovoltaics, ground mounted Annual output: 1,200 MWh Location: Top of South Table Mountain; NREL Campus; Golden, Colorado Start of operation: Spring 2008 financial terms System

  14. DOCUMENTATION SPECIFIC TASK TRAINING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    DOCUMENTATION APPENDIX SPECIFIC TASK TRAINING PROGRAM Conducted by the ILLINOIS CENTER ............................................................. Coordination of Contract Documents Art.105.05 Appendix Page 14

  15. Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  17. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  18. Specific energy for laser removal of rocks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z.; Kornecki, G.; Reed, C. B.; Gahan, B. C.; Parker, R. A.; Batarseh, S.; Graves, R. M.

    2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of advanced high power laser technology into oil and gas well drilling has been attracting significant research interests recently among research institutes, petroleum industries, and universities. Potential laser or laser-aided oil and gas well drilling has many advantages over the conventional rotary drilling, such as high penetration rate, reduction or elimination of tripping, casing, and bit costs, and enhanced well control, perforating and side-tracking capabilities. The energy required to remove a unit volume of rock, namely the specific energy (SE), is a critical rock property data that can be used to determine both the technical and economic feasibility of laser oil and gas well drilling.

  19. Cell Data Sheet Specification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentation shows a brief status report on the development of a specification being considered by IEC TC82 WG7 for a concentrator cell data sheet and solicits suggestions from the community.

  20. Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board * P.O. Box 2001, EM-91, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone: 865-241-4583, 865-241-4584, 1-800-382-6938 * Fax: 865-574-3521 * Internet:...

  1. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Ju Won; Sharma, Ronish; Meduri, Praveen; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Lemmon, John P.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; McGrail, B. Peter; Nune, Satish K.

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical performance of the existing state-of-the art capacitors is not very high, key scientific barrier is that its charge storage mechanism wholly depends on adsorption of electrolyte on electrode. We present a novel method for the synthesis of nitrogen -doped porous carbons and address the drawback by precisely controlling composition and surface area. Nitrogen-doped porous carbon was synthesized using a self-sacrificial template technique without any additional nitrogen and carbon sources. They exhibited exceptionally high capacitance (239 Fg-1) due to additional pseudocapacitance originating from doped nitrogen. Cycling tests showed no obvious capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, which meets the requirement of commercial supercapacitors. Our method is simple and highly efficient for the production of large quantities of nitrogen-doped porous carbons.

  2. Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES),...

  3. Materials for electrochemical capacitors: Theoretical and experimental constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarangapani, S. [ICET, Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are unique devices exhibiting 20 to 200 times greater capacitance than conventional capacitors. The large capacitance exhibited by these systems has been demonstrated to arise from a combination of the double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance associated with surface redox-type reactions. The purpose of this review is to survey the published data of available electrode materials possessing high specific double-layer or pseudocapacitance and examine their reported performance data in relation to their theoretical expectations.

  4. Spacecraft computing systems with high-level specifications and FPGAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Elwin, 1979-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A typical modem spacecraft requires computer processing in every major subsystem. The most popular method to carry out these processing requirements involves the use of a primary computer based on microprocessors. To carry ...

  5. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  6. High specific surface area aerogel cryoadsorber for vacuum pumping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Randal M. (Livermore, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Brentwood, CA); Biltoft, Peter J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic pumping system is provided, comprising a vacuum environment, an aerogel sorbent formed from a carbon aerogel disposed within the vacuum environment, and cooling means for cooling the aerogel sorbent sufficiently to adsorb molecules from the vacuum environment onto the aerogel sorbent. Embodiments of the invention include a liquid refrigerant cryosorption pump, a compressed helium cryogenic pump, a cryopanel and a Meissner coil, each of which uses carbon aerogel as a sorbent material.

  7. CBEA High-Efficiency Parking Structure Lighting Specification | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The BigSidingState6 (2-91)A (04-86)SnapshotCAOmemo.pdfof

  8. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sickle cell hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Grabske, R.J.; Branscomb, E.W.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two mouse hybridoma cell lines were isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies that bind hemoglobin S. The mice were immunized with peptide-protein conjugates to stimulate a response to the amino terminal peptide of the beta chain of hemoglobin S, where the single amino acid difference between A and S occurs. Immunocharacterization of the antibodies shows that they bind specifically to the immunogen peptide and to hemoglobin S. The specificity for S is high enough that one AS cell in a mixture with a million AA cells is labeled by antibody, and such cells can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of electrophoretic gels allows definitive identification of hemoglobin S as compared with other hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic mobility. 12 references, 4 figures.

  9. A Capacitor-Less Wide-Band Power Supply Rejection Low Drop-Out Voltage Regulator with Capacitance Multiplier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengde

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A Low Drop-Out (LDO) voltage regulator with both capacitor-less and high power supply rejection (PSR) bandwidth attributes is highly admired for an integrated power management system of mobile electronics. The capacitor-less feature is demanded...

  10. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass...

  11. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaert, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Lauwaert@UGent.be; Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W. [Laboratory for Chemical Technology (LCT), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S5, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1–x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  12. Probing the mechanism of high capacitance in two-dimensional titanium carbide using in-situ X-Ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Bak, Seong -Min; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of supercapacitors (electrochemical capacitors) is constantly evolving. The global motivation is to create devices that possess a significant energy density without compromising the power density. To achieve this goal, new materials must be discovered and complex electrode architectures developed.

  13. Gas Slow Control System Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    AMS-02 TRD Gas Slow Control System Specifications v 4.2 26-06-2006 A. Bartoloni, B. Borgia, F. Bucci, F. R. Spada INFN Sezione di Roma 1- Roma, Italy #12;2/45 #12;3/45 1. ABSTRACT 5 2. GAS SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 5 3. GAS CONTROL SYSTEM 8 4. CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS 12 a. Universal Control System

  14. Programme Specification 1. General Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sriram

    , administrative and practical skills required in exhibition making. Able to: C. Professionalism C1. Take Institution Royal College of Art Professional Accreditation N/A Qualifications Framework Level 7 Credit Value as competent and #12;Programme Specification 2/10 responsible professionals, equipped with the knowledge

  15. Temporal Specifications with Accumulative Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boker, Udi

    Temporal Specifications with Accumulative Values Udi Boker, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Thomas A the accumulation of values along a computation. It is either the accumulated summation, as with the energy objectives, or the accumulated average, as with the mean-payoff objectives. We investigate the extension

  16. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research University of California at Santa Barbara Spectroscopy Department Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR and EPR

  17. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sideris, Thomas C.

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs____________________19 #12;3 Introduction 12/4/2013 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Hygiene Plan NMR and EPR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information Laboratory Name

  18. CHEMICAL HYGIENE LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs______________________19 #12;3 Introduction 10/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Department Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information

  19. ProductSpecifications Thermo Scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    ProductSpecifications Thermo Scientific Niton XL3t GOLDD+ XRF Analyzer The Thermo Scientific Niton XL3t x-ray tube-based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer with GOLDD+ technology is purpose versatile x-ray tubes ever used in a handheld XRF instrument. When this power is harnessed to our

  20. Design, modeling, fabrication and testing of a piezoelectric microvalve for high pressure, high frequency hydraulic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, David C. (David Christopher)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectrically-driven hydraulic amplification microvalve for use in high specific power hydraulic pumping applications was designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. High frequency, high force actuation ...

  1. High-Quality Epitaxy of Ruthenium Dioxide, RuO2, on Rutile Titanium Dioxide, TiO2, by Pulsed Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of rutile TiO2, a material with a high dielectric constant. Therefore, capacitors with high capacitance per these capacitors have low leakage current. Due to its good redox properties, RuO2 has been made into electrodes films have been made by CVD, such as wide-gap semiconductors ZnO23,25 and SnO2,26,27 super- conducting

  2. Frit specification development: Letter report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Vienna, J.D.; Fini, P.T.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To specify frit for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the relevant requirements and characterization need to be established. The properties and applicable testing will be incorporated into a specification. Several areas have been identified that require consideration in a frit specification: glass processability and acceptability; frit storage and handling; frit slurry rheology; melter feed rheology; canister decontamination; pumping equipment/pipe erosion; frit cooling rate; and glass melting rate. The listed areas are influenced primarily by frit composition, temperature history, particle morphology, particle size, size distribution. and properties that depend on the primary variables such as hardness and frit density. Frit development proceeds in two steps: the first focuses on the waste glass, and the second on the pre-melt (including cold cap) processing.

  3. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  4. Simulation of 3-D electromagnetic fields near capacitance sensors. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1294-0306

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, L.J.; Morris, M.D.; Semeraro, B.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooper, E. [Computer Application Systems, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer Application Systems, Inc. is currently developing a capciflector sensor for a variety of commercial applications, e.g., object detection in robotics. The goal of this project was to create computational tools for simulating the performance of this device. The role of modeling is to provide a quantitative understanding of how the sensor works, and to assist in designing optimal sensor configurations for specific applications. A two-dimensional boundary integral code for determining the electric field was constructed, and a novel algorithm for solving the inverse design problem was investigated. Parallel implementation of the code, which will be required for detailed three-dimensional analysis, was also investigated.

  5. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  6. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

  7. High-performance carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres for supercapacitors with low series resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Bin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohua, E-mail: hudacxh62@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Guo, Kaimin [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China)] [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Xu, Longshan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Chen, Chuansheng [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China)] [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology (China); Yan, Haimei; Chen, Jianghua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} CNTs-implanted porous carbon spheres are prepared by using gelatin as soft template. {yields} Homogeneously distributed CNTs form a well-develop network in carbon spheres. {yields} CNTs act as a reinforcing backbone assisting the formation of pore structure. {yields} CNTs improve electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of supercapacitor. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres were prepared by an easy polymerization-induced colloid aggregation method using gelatin as a soft template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements reveal that the materials are mesoporous carbon spheres, with a diameter of {approx}0.5-1.0 {mu}m, a specific surface area of 284 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size of 3.9 nm. Using the carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte solution, a low equivalent series resistance of 0.83 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and a maximum specific capacitance of 189 F/g with a measured power density of 8.7 kW/kg at energy density of 6.6 Wh/kg are obtained.

  8. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  9. Product specification Supersedes data of 1999 Apr 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    A; note 1 - 200 mV IC = 50 mA; IB = 5 mA; note 1 - 200 mV VBEsat base-emitter saturation voltage IC = 10 mA; IB = 1 mA; note 1 - 850 mV IC = 50 mA; IB = 5 mA; note 1 - 950 mV Cc collector capacitance VCB = 5 V

  10. Uniform Diffusion of Acetonitrile inside Carbon Nanotubes Favors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    materials. Nanoporous carbon exhibits excellent charge-discharge properties and a stable cyclic life. Moreover, activated composite carbon films generate high specific capacitance, laying the foundationUniform Diffusion of Acetonitrile inside Carbon Nanotubes Favors Supercapacitor Performance Oleg N

  11. Packing efficiency and accessible surface area of crumpled graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cranford, Steven Wayne

    Graphene holds promise as an ultracapacitor due to its high specific surface area and intrinsic capacitance. To exploit both, a maximum surface area must be accessible while the two-dimensional (2D) graphene is deformed ...

  12. Nanopore Based Sequence Specific Detection of Duplex DNA for Genomic Profiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanopore Based Sequence Specific Detection of Duplex DNA for Genomic Profiling Alon Singer,,§ Meni demonstrate a purely electrical method for the single-molecule detection of specific DNA sequences, achieved to achieve high affinity and sequence specificity. Sequence detection is performed by reading the ion current

  13. Isotope Specific Remediation Media and Systems - 13614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua L. [Kurion, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Kurion, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Morita, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Fukushima Project Team, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Fukushima Project Team, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On March 11, 2011, now two years ago, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. While, of course, most of the outcome of this unprecedented natural and manmade disaster was a negative, both in Japan and worldwide, there have been some extremely invaluable lessons learned and new emergency recovery technologies and systems developed. As always, the mother of invention is necessity. Among these developments has been the development and full-scale implementation of proven isotope specific media (ISMs) with the intent of surgically removing specific hazardous isotopes for the purpose of minimizing dose to workers and the environment. The first such ISMs to be deployed at the Fukushima site were those removing cesium (Cs-137) and iodine (I-129). Since deployment on June 17, 2011, along with treated cooling water recycle, some 70% of the curies in the building liquid wastes have been removed by the Kurion system alone. The current levels of cesium are now only 2% of the original levels. Such an unprecedented, 'external cooling system' not only allowed the eventual cold shut down of the reactors in mid-December, 2011, but has allowed workers to concentrate on the cleanup of other areas of the site. Water treatment will continue for quite some time due to continued leakage into the buildings and the eventual goal of cleaning up the reactors and fuel pools themselves. With the cesium removal now in routine operation, other isotopes of concern are likely to become priorities. One such isotope is that of strontium, and yttrium (Sr-90 and Y-90), which is still at original levels causing further dose issues as well as impediments to discharge of the treated waste waters. For over a year now, a new synthetic strontium specific media has been under development and testing both in our licensed facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, but also in confirmatory tests by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Japan for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The tests have proven quite successful, even in high salt conditions, and, with loading and dose calculations being completed, will be proposed to add to the existing cesium system. There is no doubt, as high gamma isotopes are removed, other recalcitrant isotopes such as this will require innovative removal media, systems and techniques. Also coming out of this international effort are other ISM media and systems that can be applied more broadly to both Commercial Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) as well as in Department of Energy (DOE) applications. This cesium and strontium specific media has further been successfully tested in 2012 at a Magnox station in the UK. The resulting proposed mitigation systems for pond and vault cleanup look quite promising. An extremely unusual ISM for carbon 14 (C-14), nickel (Ni-63) and cesium (Cs-137) has been developed for Diablo Canyon NPP for dose reduction testing in their fuel pool. These media will be deployed in Submersible Media Filter (SMF) and Submersible Columns (SC) systems adapted to standard Tri-Nuclear{sup R} housings common in the U.S. and UK. External Vessel Systems (mini-Fukushima) have also been developed as a second mitigation system for D and D and outages. Finally, technetium (Tc- 99) specific media developed for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) recycle or condensate (secondary) waste streams (WM 2011) are being further perfected and tested for At-Tank Tc-99 removal, as well as At Tank Cs media. In addition to the on-going media development, systems for deploying such media have developed over the last year and are in laboratory- and full-scale testing. These systems include the fore mentioned Submersible Media Filters (SMF), Submersible Columns (SC) and external pilot- and full-scale, lead-lag, canister systems. This paper will include the media development and testing, as well as that of the deployment systems themselves. (authors)

  14. Engineering Enzyme Specificity Using Computational Design of a Defined-Sequence Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippow, Shaun M.

    Engineered biosynthetic pathways have the potential to produce high-value molecules from inexpensive feedstocks, but a key limitation is engineering enzymes with high activity and specificity for new reactions. Here, we ...

  15. A Design-Oriented Framework to Determine the Parasitic Parameters of High Frequency Magnetics in Switching Power Supplies using Finite Element Analysis Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadmand, Mohammad

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ____________ This thesis follows the style of IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. 2 such as multi-winding transformers. More complex geometries indicate that it is almost impossible to derive the analytical equations that describe the behavior of magnetic... is the resistance of the winding, and Cs is the equivalent * Part of this chapter is taken with permission from ?FEA Tool Approach for Determination of Parasitic Capacitance of the Windings in High Frequency Coupled Inductors Filters? in IEEE Power...

  16. Specific energy for pulsed laser rock drilling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z.; Reed, C. B.; Kornecki, G.; Gahan, B. C.; Parker, R. A.; Batarseh, S.; Graves, R. M.; Figueroa, H.; Skinner, N.; Technology Development

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of advanced high power laser technology to oil and gas well drilling has been attracting significant research interests recently among research institutes, petroleum industries, and universities. Potential laser or laser-aided oil and gas well drilling has many advantages over the conventional rotary drilling, such as high penetration rate, reduction or elimination of tripping, casing, and bit costs, and enhanced well control, perforating and side-tracking capabilities. The energy required to remove a unit volume of rock, namely the specific energy (SE), is a critical rock property data that can be used to determine both the technical and economic feasibility of laser oil and gas well drilling. When a high power laser beam is applied on a rock, it can remove the rock by thermal spallation, melting, or vaporization depending on the applied laser energy and the way the energy is applied. The most efficient rock removal mechanism would be the one that requires the minimum energy to remove a unit volume of rock. Samples of sandstone, shale, and limestone were prepared for laser beam interaction with a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser beam to determine how the beam size, power, repetition rate, pulse width, exposure time and energy can affect the amount of energy transferred to the rock for the purposes of spallation, melting, and vaporization. The purpose of the laser rock interaction experiment was to determine the optimal parameters required to remove a maximum rock volume from the samples while minimizing energy input. Absorption of radiant energy from the laser beam gives rise to the thermal energy transfer required for the destruction and removal of the rock matrix. Results from the tests indicate that each rock type has a set of optimal laser parameters to minimize specific energy (SE) values as observed in a set of linear track and spot tests. As absorbed energy outpaces heat diffusion by the rock matrix, local temperatures can rise to the melting points of the minerals and quickly increase observed SE values. Tests also clearly identified the spallation and melting zones for shale samples while changing the laser power. The lowest SE values are obtained in the spalling zone just prior to the onset of mineral melt. The laser thermally spalled and saw mechanically cut rocks show similarity of surface microstructure. The study also found that increasing beam repetition rate within the same material removal mechanism would increase the material removal rate, which is believed due to an increase of maximum temperature, thermal cycling frequency, and intensity of laser-driven shock wave within the rock.

  17. Magnetic Wall Climbing Robot for Thin Surfaces with Specific Obstacles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Magnetic Wall Climbing Robot for Thin Surfaces with Specific Obstacles W. Fischer¹, F. Tâche high magnetic forces The main optimization criterion for this robot was to design it as light@ethz.ch Summary. This paper describes a novel solution to a mobile climbing robot on mag- netic wheels, designed

  18. Situvis: visualising multivariate context information to evaluate situation specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Simon

    Situvis: visualising multivariate context information to evaluate situation specifications Adrian K, highly multivariate, and constantly being updated as new readings are recorded. Situations have been. The visualisation of large and complex multivariate data sets, such as those that context-aware system developers

  19. Glucose conjugation for the specific targeting and treatment of cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    Glucose conjugation for the specific targeting and treatment of cancer Emilia C. Calvaresia and Paul J. Hergenrother*ab Cancers of diverse origins exhibit marked glucose avidity and high rates has led to an interest in targeting it for cancer therapy. One promising strategy for such targeting

  20. Application specific compression : final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  1. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  2. Graceful Degradation Via Versions: Specifications and Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thekkath, Chandramohan A.

    Graceful Degradation Via Versions: Specifications and Implementations Lidong Zhou, Vijayan to degraded system behavior that deviates from the system's specification and even causing complete unavailability of the system. This paper advocates the notion of graceful degradation as a complementary

  3. Runtime verification of object lifetime specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Zev (Zev A.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports on the implementation of a runtime verification system for object lifetime specifications. This system is used to explore and evaluate the expressiveness object lifetime specifications. Object lifetime ...

  4. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  5. Ergonomic Chair Specifications These specifications are intended to address most employees. Employees that have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Ergonomic Chair Specifications These specifications are intended to address most employees should consult Environmental Health & Safety if they require a special ergonomic chair. a. Any chair must

  6. Microwave power spectral density and its effects on exciting electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, S.J.; Goss, H.H.; Lapatovich, W.P. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Salem, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a microwave source generating a spectrally dense power spectrum on the operation of an electrodeless high intensity discharge lamp were measured. Spectrally pure sources operating within ISM bands at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz produce stable capacitively coupled discharges useful for producing flicker-free light for numerous applications. The internal plasma temperature distribution and lamp geometry define acoustic resonance modes within the lamp which can be excited with power sidebands. The operation of lamps with commercially available power sources and custom built generators are discussed. Estimates of the spectral purity required for stable operation are provided.

  7. A High-Precision Instrument for Mapping of Rotational Errors in Rotary Stages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu W.; Lauer,K.; Chu,Y.; Nazaretski,E.

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotational stage is a key component of every X-ray instrument capable of providing tomographic or diffraction measurements. To perform accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, runout errors due to imperfect rotation (e.g. circle of confusion) must be quantified and corrected. A dedicated instrument capable of full characterization and circle of confusion mapping in rotary stages down to the sub-10 nm level has been developed. A high-stability design, with an array of five capacitive sensors, allows simultaneous measurements of wobble, radial and axial displacements. The developed instrument has been used for characterization of two mechanical stages which are part of an X-ray microscope.

  8. Method To Identify Specific Inhibiutors Of Imp Dehydrogenase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collart, Frank R. (Bolingbrook, IL); Huberman, Eliezer (LaGrange, IL)

    2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to methods to identify specific inhibitors of the purine nucleotide synthesis enzyme, IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). IMPDH is an essential enzyme found in all free-living organisms from humans to bacteria and is an important therapeutic target. The invention allows the identification of specific inhibitors of any IMPDH enzyme which can be expressed in a functional form in a recombinant host cell. A variety of eukaryotic or prokaryotic host systems commonly used for the expression of recombinant proteins are suitable for the practice of the invention. The methods are amenable to high throughput systems for the screening of inhibitors generated by combinatorial chemistry or other methods such as antisense molecule production. Utilization of exogenous guanosine as a control component of the methods allows for the identification of inhibitors specific for IMPDH rather than other causes of decreased cell proliferation.

  9. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  10. Municipal Consortium Releases Updated Model Specification for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to reflect changes in technologies and associated standards, and to incorporate feedback from users, the model specification enables cities, utilities, and other local...

  11. Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide, from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. rerhsolarelectricguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Water...

  12. Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Terms of Reference Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of Reference Agency...

  13. Static Consistency Checking for Distributed Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, Anthony

    Static Consistency Checking for Distributed Specifications Christian Nentwich, Wolfgang Emmerich, UK {c.nentwich,w.emmerich,a.finkelstein}@cs.ucl.ac.uk Abstract Software engineers building a complex

  14. Electrostatic Potential of Specific Mineral Faces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions, and in testing surface complexation theories. Citation: Zarzycki PP, SME Chatman, T Preocanin, and KM Rosso.2011."Electrostatic Potential of Specific Mineral...

  15. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    2000-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the DST Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  16. Selfish Routing in Capacitated Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correa, Jose R.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to Wardrop's first principle, agents in a congested network choose their routes selfishly, a behavior that is captured by the Nash equilibrium of the underlying ...

  17. Formal Specification and Verification of Concurrent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Daniel M.

    Formal Specification and Verification of Concurrent ProgramsCurriculum Module SEI-CM-27-1.0 #12;Formal Specification and Verification of Concurrent Programs SEI Curriculum Module SEI-CM-27-1.0 February 1993 Daniel M. Berry Technion and Software Engineering Institute Software Engineering Institute

  18. Summary of beryllium specifications, current and historical

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, S.P.; Kyed, P.

    1990-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes beryllium properties included in producer, Department of Energy, and government specifications. The specifications are divided into two major categories: current and historical. Within each category the data are arranged primarily according to increasing purity and secondarily by increasing tensile properties. Qualitative comments on formability and weldability are included. Also, short summaries of powder production and consolidation techniques are provided.

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  20. Working Copy Specification E-I-474

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Working Copy Specification E-I-474 Revision Number 0 Revision Date 07/30/07 ECO Number 11818.7 Packaging and Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.8 Final #12;Working Copy E-I-474, Rev. 0 SPECIFICATION E-X-XXX RECORD OF REVISION ECO/REV NUMBER DATE PAGES

  1. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobel, R.; Tjader, T.R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 ( Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power.

  2. Site-specific labeling of cellular proteins with unnatural substrates of biotin ligases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Irwin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) catalyzes the site-specific ligation of biotin to the lysine within its 15-amino acid peptide substrate (AP). We harnessed the high peptide substrate specificity of BirA to develop a general ...

  3. Domain-specific abstractions and compiler transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    portability of high-performance applications, i.e., develop a single version of source code for an application that achieves high performance on different parallel computer...

  4. A Highly Linear Broadband LNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Joung Won

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a highly linear broadband Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is presented. The linearity issue in broadband Radio Frequency (RF) front-end is introduced, followed by an analysis of the specifications and requirements of a broadband LNA through...

  5. Stepwise Development from Ideal Specifications Graeme Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Stepwise Development from Ideal Specifications Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract The stepwise development of a program using

  6. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  7. BRASIL Language Specification March 9, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BRASIL Language Specification March 9, 2010 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Getting Started: Simulations in BRASIL 4 2.1 The State-Effect Design Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Supporting the State-Effect Pattern in BRASIL

  8. Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades Summary (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and numerous industry stakeholders developed the Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades to define the minimum requirements for high-quality residential energy upgrades. Today, the Standard Work Specifications provide a unique source for defining high-quality home energy upgrades, establishing clear expectations for homeowners, contractors, trainers, workers, program administrators, and organizations that provide financing for energy upgrades.

  9. Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02) Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02) Indoor airPLUS Construction Specifications Version 1 (Rev. 02), November 2013,...

  10. Building America Climate-Specific Guidance | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Building America Climate-Specific Guidance Building America Climate-Specific Guidance Building America Climate-Specific Guidance 2014 Housing Innovation...

  11. Novel strategies for ultrahigh specific activity targeted nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dong

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed novel strategies optimized for preparing high specific activity radiolabeled nanoparticles, targeting nuclear imaging of low abundance biomarkers. Several compounds have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64 for radiolabeling of SCK-nanoparticles via Copper(I) catalyzed or copper-free alkyne-azide cyclolization. Novel strategies have been developed to achieve ultrahigh specific activity with administrable amount of dose for human study using copper-free chemistry. Ligands for carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12), a low abundance extracellular biomarker for the responsiveness of breast cancer to endocrine therapie, have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64, and one of them has been evaluated in animal models. The results of this project will lead to major improvements in the use of nanoparticles in nuclear imaging and will significantly advance their potential for detecting low abundance biomarkers of medical importance.

  12. Finite quantum dissipation: the challenge of obtaining specific heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hänggi, Peter; Talkner, Peter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a free particle coupled with finite strength to a bath and investigate the evaluation of its specific heat. A harmonic oscillator bath of Drude type with cutoff frequency omega_D is employed to model an ohmic friction force with dissipation strength gamma. Two scenarios for obtaining specific heat are presented. The first one uses the measurement of the kinetic energy of the free particle while the second one is based on the reduced partition function. Both descriptions yield results which are consistent with the Third Law of thermodynamics. Nevertheless, the two methods produce different results that disagree even in their leading quantum corrections at high temperatures. We also consider the regime where the cutoff frequency is smaller than the friction strength, i.e. omega_D1.

  13. Highly Integrated, High Performance, Imaging Detector Systems Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    performance - Susceptible to bulk radiation damage so radiation"soft" · CCDs are large capacitance devices so.3 volt) operation - Fast, digital readout - More radiation hard than CCDs · Strong commercial, biomedical Miniaturized imaging instruments Space telescopes - Spacecraft Star trackers Optical navigation Optical comm

  14. W.-L. Huang, Z. Ren, and C. T.-C. Nguyen, "Nickel vibrating micromechanical disk resonator with solid dielectric capacitive-transducer gap," Proceedings, 2006 IEEE Int. Frequency Control Symp., Miami, Florida, June 5-7, 2006, pp. 839-847.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Clark T.-C.

    W.-L. Huang, Z. Ren, and C. T.-C. Nguyen, "Nickel vibrating micromechanical disk resonator, Florida, June 5-7, 2006, pp. 839-847. Nickel Vibrating Micromechanical Disk Resonator With Solid in a low temperature nickel metal material and using a 30-nm nitride dielectric capacitive transducer has

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major sub-system. Section 4.0--Specific technical basis description for each product specification. The scope of this product specification does not include data collection requirements to support accountability or environmental compliance activities.

  16. Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Toby

    Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications Alan M. Frisch1 , Brahim Hnich2 , Ian choose model transformations to reduce greatly the amount of effort that is required to solve a problem by systematic search. It is a consid- erable challenge to automate such transformations. A problem may be viewed

  17. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  18. SAVCBS 2003 Specification and Verification of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavens, Gary T.

    ://www.cs.iastate.edu/SAVCBS/ September 1-2, 2003 Helsinki, Finland Workshop at ESEC/FSE 2003 9th European Software Engineering ConferenceSAVCBS 2003 Specification and Verification of Component-Based Systems ESEC/FSE 2003 9th European Software Engineering Conference and 11th ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering

  19. Dimerization specificities of leucine zipper mutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieker, Jennifer Dawn

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The dimerization specificity of a leucine zipper is partially determined by the interactions of charged amino acids on the surfaces of dimer interfaces (e and g positions). A series of e and g position GCN4 mutants has been described that do...

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  1. CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) Spectroscopy Facility. All labs Chemical Hygiene Plan NMR Laboratory Form Version 8/6/98 1. General Laboratory Information Laboratory Name

  2. THE DEVELOPMENTAL SPECIFICITY OF PHYSICAL MECHANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Stuart A.

    THE DEVELOPMENTAL SPECIFICITY OF PHYSICAL MECHANISMS STUART A. NEWMAN Marta Linde understanding was bumpy and tortuous, with not everybody arriving at the same place (Linde-Medina 2010). Among populations. The molding of the forms by functional requirements leads Linde-Medina to term this school

  3. Modeling and Validation of Pipeline Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    -on-Chip design process. Many existing approaches employ a bottom-up approach to pipeline validation, where description language (ADL) constructs, and thus allows a powerful top-down approach to pipeline validationModeling and Validation of Pipeline Specifications PRABHAT MISHRA and NIKIL DUTT University

  4. PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION Programme name Radiography (Computed Tomography);

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyde, Tillman

    1 PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION KEY FACTS Programme name Radiography (Computed Tomography); Radiography in a clinical speciality, for example, Computed Tomography, you must successfully complete the Computed-time The postgraduate programmes in Radiography provide advanced education in #12;2 Computed Tomography and Medical

  5. Writing Motor Specifications - How to Include Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartermaine, B. J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be as low as 50% load. EFFICIENCY EVALUATION Unless advised otherwise, a motor manufacturer will not know that effiency is to be evaluated and as a result is likely to offer the least cost motor when tendering for a specific application. Hence...

  6. Mining malware specifications through static reachability analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mining malware specifications through static reachability analysis Hugo Daniel Macedo1 and Tayssir be used to model the stack operations occurring during the binary code execution), use reachability the file under analysis is malicious. Experimental data shows that our approach can be used to learn

  7. Methods of biological dosimetry employing chromosome-specific staining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  8. Methods And Compositions For Chromosome-Specific Staining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  9. Security Policy Specification Using a Graphical Approach Page 1 Security Policy Specification Using a Graphical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Security Policy Specification Using a Graphical Approach Page 1 Security Policy Specification Using of California, Davis {hoagland,pandey,levitt}@cs.ucdavis.edu Technical Report CSE-98-3 A security policy states for organizations to declare their security policies, even informal state- ments would be better than the current

  10. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  11. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  12. An Experimental Method for Determining the Time Constants of Capacitive Thin-Film Polymer Humidity sensors at Various Duct Air Velocities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, B.; O'Neal, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identical to the Candidate X test sensor. All sensors were brand new at the onset of this study, and each was shipped with a factory calibration certificate. The pertinent specifications reported by the manufacturer of each sensor are shown in Table I... of the Candidate Y sensor under Test 19 conditions was 'sensor was reported to be approximately 20 s (Table I) by the manufacturer. DATA REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS For a given test run, the RH...

  13. The Reaction Specificity of Nanoparticles in Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, Donald R.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-based metallic and oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have enhanced reactivity towards a variety of chemical species, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and reducible oxyanions, which frequently contaminate ground water at DOE and other government and industrial sites. Possibly of greater importance is the ability of these nanoparticles to select specific reaction pathways, potentially facilitating the formation of the most environmentally acceptable reaction products.

  14. Composition Semantics of the Rosetta Specification Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Megan Elizabeth

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    using Coalgebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 6.2.1 Process Calculi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 6.2.2 Coalgebras in Java Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 6.2.3 Previous Work on Rosetta.... Components may have inputs and outputs that allow them to be parameterized and to communicate with other specification constructs. The terms within a component may either be Boolean expressions written in Rosetta’s expression language or may instantiate other...

  15. Rational Material Architecture Design for Better Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zheng

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon (EDLC) Materials………………………………..… Redox-Activedouble-layer capacitance (EDLC) formed along an electrode/capacitance and high power EDLC materials. Secondly, MnO 2 /

  16. Automatic generation of executable communication specifications from parallel applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Xing [NCSU; Mueller, Frank [NCSU

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Portable parallel benchmarks are widely used and highly effective for (a) the evaluation, analysis and procurement of high-performance computing (HPC) systems and (b) quantifying the potential benefits of porting applications for new hardware platforms. Yet, past techniques to synthetically parameterized hand-coded HPC benchmarks prove insufficient for today's rapidly-evolving scientific codes particularly when subject to multi-scale science modeling or when utilizing domain-specific libraries. To address these problems, this work contributes novel methods to automatically generate highly portable and customizable communication benchmarks from HPC applications. We utilize ScalaTrace, a lossless, yet scalable, parallel application tracing framework to collect selected aspects of the run-time behavior of HPC applications, including communication operations and execution time, while abstracting away the details of the computation proper. We subsequently generate benchmarks with identical run-time behavior from the collected traces. A unique feature of our approach is that we generate benchmarks in CONCEPTUAL, a domain-specific language that enables the expression of sophisticated communication patterns using a rich and easily understandable grammar yet compiles to ordinary C + MPI. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated benchmarks are able to preserve the run-time behavior - including both the communication pattern and the execution time - of the original applications. Such automated benchmark generation is particularly valuable for proprietary, export-controlled, or classified application codes: when supplied to a third party. Our auto-generated benchmarks ensure performance fidelity but without the risks associated with releasing the original code. This ability to automatically generate performance-accurate benchmarks from parallel applications is novel and without any precedence, to our knowledge.

  17. Face Recognition Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Both Domain Specific and Process Specific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigelt, Sarah

    Although many studies have reported face identity recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), two fundamental question remains: 1) Is this deficit “process specific” for face memory in particular, or does it ...

  18. A cryogenic high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present our new development of a high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of helium at ultra-low temperatures. The cell has a large sample volume of ~140 cm3, and a working pressure of ~70 bar, with a relatively thin wall-thickness (1.1 mm) - thanks to the high yield strength aluminum used in the design. Two variants of this cell have been developed; one with permanently joined components using electron-beam welding and explosion welding, methods that have little or no impact on the global heat treatment of the cell, and another with modular and interchangeable components, which include a capacitance pressure gauge, that can be sealed using traditional indium wire technique. The performance of the cell has been tested in recent measurements on superfluid liquid helium near the solidification line.

  19. Greatly improved interfacial passivation of in-situ high ? dielectric deposition on freshly grown molecule beam epitaxy Ge epitaxial layer on Ge(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, R. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y. C.; Lee, W. C.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M., E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-quality high-?/Ge interface has been achieved by combining molecule beam epitaxy grown Ge epitaxial layer and in-situ deposited high ? dielectric. The employment of Ge epitaxial layer has sucessfully buried and/or removed the residue of unfavorable carbon and native oxides on the chemically cleaned and ultra-high vacuum annealed Ge(100) wafer surface, as studied using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the scanning tunneling microscopy analyses showed the significant improvements in Ge surface roughness from 3.5?Å to 1?Å with the epi-layer growth. Thus, chemically cleaner, atomically more ordered, and morphologically smoother Ge surfaces were obtained for the subsquent deposition of high ? dielectrics, comparing with those substrates without Ge epi-layer. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and low extracted interfacial trap density (D{sub it}) reveal the improved high-?/Ge interface using the Ge epi-layer approach.

  20. Evaluation of superpave fine aggregate specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Md. Tahjib-Ul-Arif

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregate resistance (CAR) test, image analysis Hough transform, and visual inspection. The results from those tests were compared with the available performance history. The FAA test method does not consistently identify angular, cubical aggregates as high...

  1. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS.

  2. Draft Specifications for Application of UNFC-2009 to Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Draft Specifications for Application of UNFC-2009 to Renewable Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Draft Specifications for...

  3. Odessa fabricator builds rig specifically for geothermal drilling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Odessa fabricator builds rig specifically for geothermal drilling Odessa fabricator builds rig specifically for geothermal drilling August 3, 2008 - 2:59pm Addthis For 35 years, MD...

  4. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  5. application specific scintimammography: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 21 Dear Applicant DisabilitySpecific Learning Difficulties (including Dyslexia and Dyspraxia) and Mathematics Websites Summary: Dear Applicant DisabilitySpecific...

  6. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments. N-Terminal Enrichment: Developing a Protocol to Detect Specific Proteolytic Fragments....

  7. anatomically specific patterns: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conversion of specifications between formalisms. Indeed 26 Patterns for Representing FMEA in Formal Specification of Control Systems Ilya Lopatkin, Alexei Iliasov, Engineering...

  8. Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  9. An investigation on stochastic specific activity curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dominic Yat-Hung

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . into homogeneous components called. compartment s. (3) The system is in steady state, i. e. , compartments have a constant size and. are connected by fixed. flow rates. (4) The introduction of tracer does not alter the behavior of the system. (5) The system... 0. 10 SA (t) SA (t) Figure 3. 2. 2 Deterministic Specific Activity-Time Curve With stochastic flow of the tracer, the curves shown in Figure 3. 2. 2 (p. 10) would not be smooth, instead. they take the form as shown in Figure 4. 2. 1 (p. 18...

  10. Project specific selection of decommissioning techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, B.G.; Wehner, E.L. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany). Nuclear Technology Div.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three decommissioning projects with quite different contamination characteristics were terminated with the requested result of freely released rooms for dismantled buildings under supervision of the responsible authorities. The examples show that control areas with different kinds of contamination and different equipment can be decommissioned with reasonable effort. The specific selection of decontamination methods and measurement techniques optimizes the performance of the project and lowers the amount of primary and secondary active waste. The careful planning of radiation protection measures ensures the safe work within the foreseen time schedule.

  11. Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential, 4/22/2013Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION,

  12. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring.

  13. Web-Based Method to Generate Specific Energy Consumption Data for the Evaluation and Optimization of Building Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, A.; Wambsgan, M.; Froehlich, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    about energy consumptionand specific data especially in large building stocks?user complaints and energy consumption arerarely considered in building operation?reduction of energy consumption and operation costsas well as ensuring a high work space... consumption specific heating energy consumption buildings with additional technical usage (control room)without arithmetic mean consumption related to the heated net floor area; data measured one full year: 02-2001 to 02-2002 specific yearly energy...

  14. 2009 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Bowers Michelle Diane Highly Distinguished Bowling Joseph David Highly Distinguished Ashley Highly Distinguished Bryant Catherine Clancy Highly Distinguished Buckheister Elaine A Highly

  15. Finite quantum dissipation: the challenge of obtaining specific heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Hänggi; Gert-Ludwig Ingold; Peter Talkner

    2008-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a free particle coupled with finite strength to a bath and investigate the evaluation of its specific heat. A harmonic oscillator bath of Drude type with cutoff frequency omega_D is employed to model an ohmic friction force with dissipation strength gamma. Two scenarios for obtaining specific heat are presented. The first one uses the measurement of the kinetic energy of the free particle while the second one is based on the reduced partition function. Both descriptions yield results which are consistent with the Third Law of thermodynamics. Nevertheless, the two methods produce different results that disagree even in their leading quantum corrections at high temperatures. We also consider the regime where the cutoff frequency is smaller than the friction strength, i.e. omega_Dheat based on the thermodynamic prescription becomes negative. This anomaly is rooted in an ill-defined density of states of the damped free particle which assumes unphysical negative values when gamma/omega_D>1.

  16. A summary of North American HVDC converter station reliability specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vancers, I. (ABB Power Systems Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Hormozi, F.J. (Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) specifications that were issued for thyristor based HVDC converter stations in service in North America. A total of twenty project specifications are summarized. A detailed summary by project is shown with specific quantitative requirements categorized. Definitions of terms, representative design principles, and formulas used in calculating RAM parameters contained in existing reliability specifications are presented.

  17. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  18. Extremely scaled high-k/In?.??Ga?.??As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO? and ZrO? gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 ?F/cm? at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10¹²cm?²eV?¹range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO? and small quantities of In?O?, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  19. Enhanced Specific Heat of Silica Donghyun Shin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    , molten salt, lithium carbonate, potassium carbonate, solar energy, thermal en- ergy storage, phase change the operational efficiencies and reliability of solar thermal energy conversion systems. The materials material 1 Introduction Thermal energy storage TES systems at high temperatures are required to improve

  20. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  1. Diverse specificity, phenotype and anti-viral activity of cytomegalovirus specific CD8+ T cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, S. E.; Mason, G. M.; Okecha, G.; Sisson, J. G. P.; Wills, M. R.

    2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    % Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) (PAA, Linz, Austria) solution. 147 Frozen PBMC were rapidly thawed in a 37°C water bath and the freezing medium 148 diluted into 25mls of fresh RPMI-10, centrifuged and resuspended in fresh RPMI-10 149 before use. 150 151... of expanded CD8+ T cell cultures 223 using mapped peptides was determined by specific pentamer staining, cells were 224 harvested and washed and then stained with the specific unlabelled pentamer 225 (ProImmune), washed and then further stained...

  2. Rational design and directed evolution of probe ligases for site-specific protein labeling and live-cell imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Katharine Alice

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical fluorophores have superior photophysical properties to fluorescent proteins and are much smaller. However, in order to use these probes for live-cell protein imaging, highly specific labeling methods are required. ...

  3. 2011 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Elizabeth Campbell Highly Distinguished Bowker Ripley Eden Highly Distinguished Brandfass Lara Rose Highly Distinguished Brotherton Cara Price Highly Distinguished Brown Anna Laughlin Highly Distinguished Brown Chloe Alix Highly Distinguished Brown Kelsey Michelle Highly Distinguished Brown Kyle Truman Highly

  4. Examining the specific entropy (density of adiabatic invariants) of the outer electron radiation belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using temperature and number-density measurements of the energetic-electron population from multiple spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, the specific entropy S = T/n{sup 2/3} of the outer electron radiation belt is calculated. Then 955,527 half-hour-long data intervals are statistically analyzed. Local-time and solar-cycle variations in S are examined. The median value of the specific entropy (2.8 x 10{sup 7} eVcm{sup 2}) is much larger than the specific entropy of other particle populations in and around the magnetosphere. The evolution of the specific entropy through high-speed-stream-driven geomagnetic storms and through magnetic-cloud-driven geomagnetic storms is studied using superposed-epoch analysis. For high-speed-stream-driven storms, systematic variations in the entropy associated with electron loss and gain and with radiation-belt heating are observed in the various storm phases. For magnetic-cloud-driven storms, multiple trigger choices for the data superpositions reveal the effects of interplanetary shock arrival, sheath driving, cloud driving, and recovery phase. The specific entropy S = T/n{sup 2/3} is algebraically expressed in terms of the first and second adiabatic invariants of the electrons: this allows a relativistic expression for S in terms of T and n to be derived. For the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit, the relativistic corrections to the specific entropy expression are -15%.

  5. High Performance Fortran: Implementor and Users Workshop Alok Choudhary * Charles Koelbel Mary Zosel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the High Performance Computing Forum (HPFF). A specific goal of HPFF was to have *Supported by ARPA

  6. Specifications of Futures and Options Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Mark; Robinson, John; Anderson, David P.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanisms and changes in futures contract specifications. Mark Welch, John Robinson and David P. Anderson* 2 ( c o n t i n u e d o n n e x t p a ge ) T a bl e 1 . C o n t r a c t s p e c i fi c a t i o n s f or a g r i c u l t u r a l c ro p a n d l iv e... s t o ck f u t u r e s . C om m o di t y & s i z e o f c o n t r a c t T i c k e r s y m b o l T r a d i n g h o u r s ( c e n t r a l t i m e ) M o nt h s t ra d e d P r i c e quo t e s M i n i m u m p r i c e fluc t u a t i on D a i l y l i m i...

  7. Specifications of Futures and Options Contracts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Mark; Robinson, John; Anderson, David P.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanisms and changes in futures contract specifications. Mark Welch, John Robinson and David P. Anderson* 2 ( c o n t i n u e d o n n e x t p a ge ) T a bl e 1 . C o n t r a c t s p e c i fi c a t i o n s f or a g r i c u l t u r a l c ro p a n d l iv e... s t o ck f u t u r e s . C om m o di t y & s i z e o f c o n t r a c t T i c k e r s y m b o l T r a d i n g h o u r s ( c e n t r a l t i m e ) M o nt h s t ra d e d P r i c e quo t e s M i n i m u m p r i c e fluc t u a t i on D a i l y l i m i...

  8. Formal Verification of CHP Specifications with CADP Illustration on an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph Fourier Grenoble-I, Université

    Formal Verification of CHP Specifications with CADP Illustration on an Asynchronous Network in the high-level language CHP, by using model checking techniques provided by the CADP toolbox. Our proposal is based on an automatic translation from CHP into LOTOS, the process algebra used in CADP. A translator

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIFIC ELECTRICAL CONTACT RESISTANCE BETWEEN SIC AND LEAD-LITHIUM EUTECTIC ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIFIC ELECTRICAL CONTACT RESISTANCE BETWEEN SIC AND LEAD-LITHIUM EUTECTIC ALLOY Neil B. Morley, Albert Medina, and Mohamed A. Abdou Mechanical &Aerospace Engineering, UCLA, Los resistance of disks of high purity CVD SiC were measured with liquid lead-lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy melts

  10. Functional specificity in the human brain: A window into the functional architecture of the mind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    Is the human mind/brain composed of a set of highly specialized components, each carrying out a specific aspect of human cognition, or is it more of a general-purpose device, in which each component participates in a wide ...

  11. 2012 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Beck Misty Nicole Highly Distinguished Beckett Ethan Patrick Highly Distinguished Sara Nicole Highly Distinguished Borland Kelly Nicole Highly Distinguished Bosshardt Zachary Michael

  12. In-growth of an electrically active defect in high-purity silicon after proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Juul Pedersen, H.; Christian Petersen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Privitera, V. [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy)] [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy); Gurimskaya, Y.; Mesli, A. [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)] [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Defect-related energy levels in the lower half of the band gap of silicon have been studied with transient-capacitance techniques in high-purity, carbon and oxygen lean, plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition grown, n-and p-type silicon layers after 2-MeV proton irradiations at temperatures at or just below room temperature. The in-growth of a distinct line in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra, corresponding to a level in the band gap at E{sub V} + 0.357 eV where E{sub V} is the energy of the valence band edge, takes place for anneal temperatures at around room temperature with an activation energy of 0.95 ± 0.08 eV. The line disappears at an anneal temperature of around 450 K. The corresponding defect is demonstrated not to contain boron, carbon, oxygen, or phosphorus. Possible defect candidates are discussed.

  13. The effect of metal-contacts on carbon nanotube for high frequency interconnects and devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimowa, George; Bhattacharyya, Somnath [Nano-Scale Transport Physics laboratory and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P. Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High frequency characterisation of platinum and tungsten contacts on individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) is performed from 10 MHz to 50 GHz. By measuring the scattering parameters of aligned individual MWNTs, we show that metal contacts enhance an inductive response due to the improved MWNT-electrode coupling reducing the capacitive effect. This behaviour is pronounced in the frequency below 10 GHz and strong for tungsten contacts. We explain the inductive response as a result of the interaction of stimulus current with the localized (or defects) states present at the contact region resulting in the current lagging behind the voltage. The results are further supported by direct current measurements that show tungsten to significantly increase carbon nanotube-electrode coupling. The immediate consequence is the reduction of the contact resistance, implying a reduction of electron tunnelling barrier from the electrode to the carbon nanotube.

  14. Developing Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermalEnergy A New High

  15. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were {approx} 55% higher than the previous measurement of specific heat capacity on a reference Saltstone mix in 1997. Values of mixes prepared using Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA), Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio were {approx} 1.95 J/g/{sup o}C and were equivalent within experimental error. The simple law of mixtures was used to predict the heat capacities of the Saltstone and the results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. This simple law of mixtures can therefore be used to predict the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes in those cases where measurements have not been made. The time dependence of the heat capacity is important as an input to the modeling of temperature increase in Saltstone vaults. The heat capacity of a mix of MCU and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio was measured immediately after initial mixing and then periodically up to times greater than 100 days. Within experimental error, the heat capacity did not change with time. Therefore, the modeling is not complicated by requiring a time dependent function for specific heat capacity. The water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio plays a key role in determining the value of the heat capacity. Both experimental and predictive values for SWPF mixes as function of the w/cm ratio were obtained and presented in this report. Predictions of the maximum temperatures of the Saltstone mixes were made using the heat of hydration data from previous isothermal measurements and the newly measured heat capacities for DDA, MCU and SWPF mixes. The maximum temperature increase ranged from 37 to 48 C for these mixes. The presence of aluminate at 0.33 M produced a temperature increase of 68 C which is close to the adiabatic temperature rise of 74 C observed by Steimke and Fowler in 1997 for a mix containing 0.35 M aluminate. Aluminum dissolution of the sludge will increase the aluminate in the DSS which in turn will result in a larger temperature increase in the Saltstone vaults during the curing p

  16. 2012 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Distinguished Andersen Meredith Esther Highly Distinguished Anderson Anna Kathleen Highly Distinguished Anderson Leah Ellen Highly Distinguished Anderson Lucy Paige Highly Distinguished Andrews James Matheson Highly Distinguished Aquino Jeri-Lynn Highly Distinguished Armistead Mary Chandler Highly Distinguished Armstrong Jessa

  17. Semantics of first order parametric specifications Dusko Pavlovi'c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    in the algebraic setting and are by now a standard part of most software development toolkits. However, an effort specifications was proposed early on and became a standard part of specification theory (cf. e.g. [8, 12, 13

  18. Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merz, Stephan

    Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank LeÃ?ke and Stephan Merz Institut f Introduction We propose a solution to the steam boiler control specification problem [AS] by means of a formal

  19. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

  20. An ObjectOriented Algebraic SteamBoiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object­Oriented Algebraic Steam­Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba Ë? Olveczky 1# , Piotr Introduction The steam­boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for di

  1. altered recombination specificity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plasmas. The specific context for this study is astrophysical plasmas, (more) Bennet, Euan David 2012-01-01 32 Altered Expression ofAn Ll-Specific, O-Linked Cuticle...

  2. Element specific measurements of the structural properties and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Element specific measurements of the structural properties and magnetism of CoxZn1-xO. Element specific measurements of the structural properties and magnetism of CoxZn1-xO....

  3. Solution Self-Assembly of Sequence Specific Biomimetic Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murnen, Hannah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from sequence-specific peptoid polymers. Nat. Mater. 2010, 9from sequence-specific peptoid polymers. Nat. Mater. 2010, 9in a folded nonbiological polymer. J. Am. Chem. Soc. Patch,

  4. Contrasting Adult Literacy Learners With and Without Specific Learning Disabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Margaret; Mellard, Daryl

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrasting adult literacy learners with and without specific learning disabilities This study of 311 adult education (AE) learners found 29% self-reported having a specific learning disability (SLD). Significant differences ...

  5. Specificity of growth inhibition of melanoma by 4-hydroxyanisole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, G.A.; Nathanson, L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study using human melanoma (NEL-MI), rat hepatoma (Fu5-5), and human kidney (293-31) cell lines was undertaken in order to evaluate the antitumor activity of 4-hydroxyanisole (4-OHA) in vitro. Prior reports have indicated highly specific antitumor activity of 4-OHA against melanoma cells in vitro. This specific antitumor activity has been proposed to be due to the oxidation of 4-OHA by tyrosinase to cytotoxic oxidation products. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed when cells were cultured for 72 h in the presence of 4-OHA. At 100 microM, 4-OHA produced growth inhibition of 62%, 32%, and 55% in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cell lines, respectively. No effect was seen at 10 microM 4-OHA. 1,000 microM 4-OHA produced 100% kill. Tyrosinase activity was detected only in melanoma cells. The effect of 100 microM 4-OHA on the incorporation of 3H DNA precursors in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cells was also studied. Thymidine incorporation was inhibited in all three cell lines at the lowest cell density tested, with the greatest inhibition seen on melanoma cells. As cell density increased, the effect of 4-OHA on thymidine incorporation decreased. With respect to RNA synthesis, 4-OHA significantly reduced the incorporation of uridine in all three cell lines, with the greatest effect in melanoma cells. Cell density also affected the inhibition of uridine incorporation, but to a lesser extent than that observed on thymidine incorporation. The effect of 4-OHA on leucine incorporation was modest and uninfluenced by cell density. Thus, cytotoxicity of 4-OHA may involve two different mechanisms.

  6. Productive High Performance Parallel Programming with Auto-tuned Domain-Specific Embedded Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamil, Shoaib Ashraf

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    information about types and library functions, enabling thecollection types from the NumPy and SciPy libraries as

  7. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 1 High Specificity Binding of Lectins to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dagenais, Mario

    that affect mankind, including cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, infectious diseases, flu, Alzheimer

  8. Application-Specific Memory Interleaving Enables High Performance in FPGA-based Grid Computations1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbordt, Martin

    around an off-grid position that are needed for 3D interpolation of a value at that position. We present applications, where forces computed at grid points must be applied to off-grid particles. Red-black relaxation

  9. Table 1. Design specifications of ultra-high speed PM motor. Supply voltage (V) 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    by the engine to compress inlet air to the engine cylinder. The supercharger electrically driven by the UHS combustion engine with a belt from a crankshaft, and compress the air flow to the engine cylinder, for example, magnet eddy-current loss that is proportional to square of the operating frequency

  10. Antibody-functionalized nanoporous surfaces enable high throughput specific cell capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Sukant

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adhesion-based cell capture on surfaces in microfluidic devices forms the basis of numerous biomedical diagnostics and in vitro assays. Solid surface microfluidic platforms have been widely explored for biomedical diagnostics ...

  11. Productive High Performance Parallel Programming with Auto-tuned Domain-Specific Embedded Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamil, Shoaib Ashraf

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this looks similar to a standard Python API description. Thefor the C API used by extensions for the standard Python

  12. teins were present in the cytosol. The speci-ficity for glyphosate is high. Other common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Lawrence

    Aspects, S. O. Duke, Ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1996), pp. 53-84. 4. J. A. Gougler, D. R. Geiger). 7. C. J. Thompson et al., EMBO J. 6, 2519 (1987). 8. M. De Block et al., EMBO J. 6, 2513 (1987). 9

  13. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 7)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    This is the fourth of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at -15 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  14. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 4)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    This is the first of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at +0 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  15. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 8)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    This is the fifth of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at -30 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  16. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 5)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    This is the second of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at +15 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  17. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells (CXIDB ID 6)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nelson, Johanna

    This is the third of five exposures of the same sample at different tilts. This one is at +30 degrees tilt. Check CXI IDs 4 to 8 for the complete set.

  18. A new method with high sensitivity and specificity for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okerlund, M.D.; Sheldon, K.; Corpuz, S.; O'Connell, W.; Faulkner, D.; Clark, O.; Galante, M.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands involving color-processing of nuclear scintigrams of the neck after injection of Thallium-201 and Technetium pertechnetate is presented with surgical correlation. Preoperative localization of single parathyroid adenomas was successful in 88% of previously unoperated patients and in 85.7% of those with adenomas not located at previous surgery. Eighty-three per cent of glands with secondary hyperplasia, 66% of glands with primary hyperplasia, and one carcinoma were localized. No abnormal studies were seen in non-hyperparathyroid hypercalcemia, and no false positive studies were seen. Localization appeared related to larger adenomas (300-5000 mg), although one of 60 mg was localized. Color-comparison dual-isotype scintigraphy was useful for localization of parathyroid adenomas and hyperplastic glands and exceeded the reported sensitivity of either ultrasonography or computerized tomography. It deserves wider evaluation in preoperative management of at least hyperparathyroidism of the primary or persistent types.

  19. Method to Produce High Specific Impulse and Moderate Thrust from a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRodMIT-HarvardEnergyMethod-----Energy

  20. EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Department ofNotices |Notice of38:3:1:EM OfficialAugustJulySSABEM2/2012

  1. High-speed electrochemistry using ultramicroelectrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigates the use of ultramicroelectrodes in performing electrochemistry on microsecond and nanosecond time scales. One purpose of this research was to look at new ways to apply ultramicroelectrodes to high speed experiments. Some of the aspects that are discussed in this thesis are: (a) A novel technique was developed for measuring currents on short time scales that involves conversion of the current to light using a light emitting diode and measuring the light intensity as a function of time using time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). Computer processing of the light intensity data can convert this data back to current. The technique is capable of measurements on nanosecond time scales, but TCSPC requires tens or hundreds of millions of experiments to obtain a complete set of data and this frequently results in severe electrode fouling problems. (b) Potential step experiments were used instead of potential sweep experiments. Potential step experiments enable the separation in time of the faradaic and charging currents for chemical systems in which the faradaic impedance is greater than the uncompensated solution resistance. (c) For systems in which the faradaic impedance and uncompensated resistance are of the same order of magnitude, a computer simulation was developed which accounts for the interaction of the faradaic and double layer charging processes. (d) Application of short time scale experiments to the study of surface processes. Some processes studied in this work are the oxidation of clean platinum surfaces, electrode reactions of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid adsorbed on mercury, reductive hydrogen adsorption on platinum and double layer charging. (e) A study of the smallest available time constants was performed, taking into account non-idealities in the electrode such as stray capacitance and resistance of the electrode itself.

  2. Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Nutrition, digestive system and digestion specificity in phytophagous bats NF Zhukova Schmalhausen arisen as to how the feeding and digestion specificity is revealed in phytophagous bats, and how the entire order specificity affects these processes. To tackle these issues, the digestive system

  3. Specification and Refinement of a RealTime Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    such approach via the specification and refinement of the well­known Steam Boiler Control Problem. The case. These features, although not central to the Steam Boiler Control Problem, are typical of features which must­level (i.e., abstract) specification of the Steam Boiler Control Problem. This specification is refined

  4. Hazard Communication Site Specific Information Sheet Hazard Communication Program (HCP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    Hazard Communication Site Specific Information Sheet Hazard Communication Program (HCP) Site Specific Information The responsible party for a unit/area should complete this section to make the Hazard Communication Program site specific. The responsible party will ensure that the Hazard Communication Program

  5. Appendix B: LABORATORY-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    1 Appendix B: LABORATORY-SPECIFIC CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN The Laboratory Standard requires laboratory-specific Chemical Hygiene Plans. At UC Davis, this can be accomplished by having the person responsible ( the forms follow) and thus creating a laboratory-specific Chemical Hygiene Plan. For additional assistance

  6. Lab Home A and B Construction Specifications and Alterations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appendix A ­ Lab Home A and B Construction Specifications and Alterations #12;A.1 Appendix A -Lab Home A and B Construction Specifications and Alterations A.1 Lab Home A Construction Specifications walls that are replaced or constructed shall be taped, finished and painted in the original wall color

  7. Important Cognitive Components of Domain-Specific Search Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.

    the subject-specific terms to enter in a query. For example, many university students often buy electronicImportant Cognitive Components of Domain-Specific Search Knowledge Suresh K. Bhavnani School Many users have acquired a sophisticated understanding of searching the Web in specific domains

  8. Dynamics Within an Organisation: Temporal Specification, Simulation and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    - 1 - Dynamics Within an Organisation: Temporal Specification, Simulation and Evaluation Catholijn is its dynamics. In this paper different types of specifications of properties of the dynamics within an organisation are introduced. Supporting tools for specification, simulation and analysis of dynamics within

  9. Sequence specific alkylation of DNA by hairpin pyrroleimidazole polyamide conjugates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Sequence specific alkylation of DNA by hairpin pyrrole­imidazole polyamide conjugates Nicholas R predetermined sequences in the minor groove of DNA with affinities and specificities comparable to those of DNA for covalent reaction at specific DNA sequences and thereby inhibit DNA­protein interactions. Site

  10. Radiotherapy With 8-MHz Radiofrequency-Capacitive Regional Hyperthermia for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Radiofrequency-Output Power Correlates With the Intraesophageal Temperature and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohguri, Takayuki [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan)], E-mail: ogurieye@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Imada, Hajime; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Terashima, Hiromi [Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Korogi, Yukunori [Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with regional hyperthermia (HT) guided by radiofrequency (RF)-output power and intraesophageal temperature and evaluate the potential contribution of HT to clinical outcomes in patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with Stage III NSCLC treated with RT plus regional HT were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-two of the 35 patients underwent intraesophageal temperature measurements. Patients with subcutaneous fat of 2.5 cm or greater, older age, or other serious complications did not undergo this therapy. The 8-MHz RF-capacitive heating device was applied, and in all patients, both the upper and lower electrodes were 30 cm in diameter, placed on opposite sides of the whole thoracic region, and treatment posture was the prone position. The HT was applied within 15 minutes after RT once or twice a week. Results: All thermal parameters, minimum, maximum, and mean of the four intraesophageal temperature measurements at the end of each session and the proportion of the time during which at least one of the four intraesophageal measurements was 41{sup o}C or higher in the total period of each session of HT, of the intraesophageal temperature significantly correlated with median RF-output power. Median RF-output power ({>=}1,200 W) was a statistically significant prognostic factor for overall, local recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival. Conclusions: The RT combined with regional HT using a higher RF-output power could contribute to better clinical outcomes in patients with Stage III NSCLC. The RF-output power thus may be used as a promising parameter to assess the treatment of deep regional HT if deep heating using this device is performed with the same size electrodes and in the same body posture.

  11. Capacitance and conductance versus voltage characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition at 25?°C??T???200?°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henkel, Karsten, E-mail: henkel@tu-cottbus.de; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter [Applied Physics and Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Gargouri, Hassan; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael [Sentech Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstraße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PE-ALD) samples were prepared at substrate temperatures in the range between room temperature (RT) and 200?°C and investigated by capacitance–voltage and conductance–voltage recordings. The measurements are compared to standard thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) at 200?°C. Very low interface state density (D{sub it}) ?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1}?cm{sup ?2} could be achieved for the PE-ALD process at 200?°C substrate temperature after postdeposition anneal (PDA) in forming gas at 450?°C. The PDA works very effectively for both the PE-ALD and T-ALD at 200?°C substrate temperature delivering also similar values of negative fixed charge density (N{sub fix}) around ?2.5?×?10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2}. At the substrate temperature of 150?°C, highest N{sub fix} (?2.9?×?10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2}) and moderate D{sub it} (2.7?×?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1}?cm{sup ?2}) values were observed. The as deposited PE-ALD layer at RT shows both low D{sub it} in the range of (1 to 3)?×?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} and low N{sub fix} (?4.4?×?10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}) at the same time. The dependencies of N{sub fix}, D{sub it}, and relative permittivity on the substrate temperatures and its adjustability are discussed.

  12. The role of packaging sites in efficient and specific virus assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Perlmutter; M. F. Hagan

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the lifecycle of many single-stranded RNA viruses, including many human pathogens, a protein shell called the capsid spontaneously assembles around the viral genome. Understanding the mechanisms by which capsid proteins selectively assemble around the viral RNA amidst diverse host RNAs is a key question in virology. In one proposed mechanism, sequence elements (packaging sites) within the genomic RNA promote rapid and efficient assembly through specific interactions with the capsid proteins. In this work we develop a coarse-grained particle-based computational model for capsid proteins and RNA which represents protein-RNA interactions arising both from non-specific electrostatics and specific packaging sites interactions. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we explore how the efficiency and specificity of assembly depend on solution conditions (which control protein-protein and nonspecific protein-RNA interactions) as well as the strength and number of packaging sites. We identify distinct regions in parameter space in which packaging sites lead to highly specific assembly via different mechanisms, and others in which packaging sites lead to kinetic traps. We relate these computational predictions to in vitro assays for specificity in which cognate viral RNAs are compete against non-cognate RNAs for assembly by capsid proteins.

  13. FORMT: Form-based Mutation Testing of Logical Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faatz, Andreas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The draft paper defines a system, which is capable of maintaining bases of test cases for logical specifications. The specifications, which are subject to this system are transformed from their original shape in first-order logic to form-based expressions as originally introduced in logics of George Spencer-Brown. The innovation comes from the operations the system provides when injecting faults - so-called mutations - to the specifications. The system presented here applies to logical specifications from areas as different as programming, ontologies or hardware specifications.

  14. Overview of the RRR Nb Specifications and the Evolution of SRF Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Myneni

    2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Maury Tigner’s classical review paper, “RF Superconductivity For Accelerators – Is It A Hollow Promise”# summarizes the pioneering work that was carried out from mid 1960’s to late 1070’s and is a must reading for all the new comers in to SRF world. The specifications of high purity niobium for SRF cavities seem to have evolved between 1979 and 1987. Fine grain high purity niobium has been the material of choice for SRF cavities for the past two decades. The current high RRR niobium material specifications will be reviewed from the historical context. The specification discussions include grain size, ductility, yield strength, thermal conductivity and residual resistance ratio. The effect of each of these material characteristic on the process and performance of the cavities will be explored. The recent progress on the single crystal - large grain niobium technology and its potential impact on the cost and performance of ILC cavities will be discussed. The possible relaxation of specifications, such as residual resistance ratio and Tantalum content will be presented from the perspective of reducing the cavity fabrication costs for industrial applications. Further, a summary of the low temperature mechanical properties of polycrystalline niobium will also be presented.

  15. This journal is c the Owner Societies 2011 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 1761517624 17615 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 1761517624

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density Qian Cheng,ab Jie Tang,*ab Jun Ma,a Han Zhang by a blending process for use as electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. Specific capacitances of 290, and binder in the graphene/CNT supercapacitors. This work suggests that our graphene/CNT supercapacitors can

  16. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS IN TANK FARMS OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS DOCUMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERGLIN, E J

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the technical basis for high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) for Hanford tank farm ventilation systems (sometimes known as heating, ventilation and air conditioning [HVAC]) to support limits defined in Process Engineering Operating Specification Documents (OSDs). This technical basis included a review of older technical basis and provides clarifications, as necessary, to technical basis limit revisions or justification. This document provides an updated technical basis for tank farm ventilation systems related to Operation Specification Documents (OSDs) for double-shell tanks (DSTs), single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, and various other miscellaneous facilities.

  17. 2013 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Anderson Chelsea Mariah Highly Distinguished Anderson Madison Olivia Highly Distinguished Andrews James Askew Mary Frances Highly Distinguished Augustine Andrew William Highly Distinguished Austin Adrian Bailes Mary Elizabeth Highly Distinguished Bailey Erika Leigh Highly Distinguished Bailey Margaret

  18. High e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footworke ne rgy data s am

  19. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. A Domain Specific Ontology Based Semantic Web Search Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Mukherjee, Sreemoyee; Bhattacharya, Jhilik; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its emergence in the 1990s the World Wide Web (WWW) has rapidly evolved into a huge mine of global information and it is growing in size everyday. The presence of huge amount of resources on the Web thus poses a serious problem of accurate search. This is mainly because today's Web is a human-readable Web where information cannot be easily processed by machine. Highly sophisticated, efficient keyword based search engines that have evolved today have not been able to bridge this gap. So comes up the concept of the Semantic Web which is envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee as the Web of machine interpretable information to make a machine processable form for expressing information. Based on the semantic Web technologies we present in this paper the design methodology and development of a semantic Web search engine which provides exact search results for a domain specific search. This search engine is developed for an agricultural Website which hosts agricultural information about the state of West Bengal.

  1. High Power, High Voltage FETs in Linear Applications: A User's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Greenough, E. Fredd, S. DePasquale

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The specifications of the current crop of highpower, high-voltage field-effect transistors (FETs) can lure a designer into employing them in high-voltage DC equipment. Devices with extremely low on-resistance and very high power ratings are available from several manufacturers. However, our experience shows that high-voltage, linear operation of these devices at near-continuous duty can present difficult reliability challenges at stress levels well-below their published specifications. This paper chronicles the design evolution of a 600 volt, 8 ampere shunt regulator for use with megawatt-class radio transmitters, and presents a final design that has met its reliability criteria.

  2. Mechanisms Regulating Specification and Maintenance of Pancreatic Cell Fate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanji, Murtaza Shabbir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. , SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreaticstem cells for tissue maintenance? Cell Cycle, 2004. 3(9):cell specification and maintenance. ” Larry Hillblom Islet

  3. DOE has published the revised 2010 Energy Sector Specific Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy announces the publication of the Energy Sector-Specific Plan: An Annex to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan 2010.

  4. abstracting code specific: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poster: 4195B656 Abstract Title: Specification of Multiple Ganglion Cell Stimulation Codes for Engineering Websites Summary: ProgramPoster: 4195B656 Abstract Title:...

  5. apomorphine-induced context-specific behavioural: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    color detection. Depending on camera settings, illumination, shadows, people Cremers, Daniel 8 BehavioralSystemsCognitive Context-Specific Grasp Movement Representation in...

  6. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate Surface Area and Enzymatic Digestibility. Specific Effects of Fiber Size and Fiber Swelling on Biomass Substrate...

  7. UFAD Commissioning Cart: Design Specifications and Operating Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Arens, Edward; Anwar, George; Bonnell, J.; Bauman, Fred; Brown, C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    companion to the UFAD Commissioning Procedures document thatrequirements of the UFAD Commissioning Specifications beingCBE periodically during the commissioning process to support

  8. Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SHARE Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors, batteries, biotech and more This sheet of graphene...

  9. Specific Administrative Controls Review at the Hanford Site with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Office of Health, Safety and Security, participated in the Office of Environmental Management Office of Standards and Quality Assurance, EM-23, review of Specific...

  10. Site-Specific Raman Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics of Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics of Nanoscale Interstitial Systems. Site-Specific Raman Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics of Nanoscale Interstitial Systems. Abstract:...

  11. New IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    working with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Committee on wind turbine availability to develop three specifications for IEC-61400-26-the standard that...

  12. Biodiesel Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2nd Generation Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Progress: ASTM Specifications and 2 nd Generation Biodiesel Steve Howell Technical Director National Biodiesel Board Detroit, Michigan August 15, 2007 Today's Topics Biodiesel...

  13. Transuranic Waste Processing Center Oak Ridge Site Specific...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transuranic Waste Processing Update Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board May 14, 2014 Laura Wilkerson, Portfolio Federal Project Director Karen Deacon, Deputy Federal Project...

  14. Quantitative Site-specific Reactivity Profiling of S-Nitrosylation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiling of S-Nitrosylation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Using Cysteinyl Peptide Enrichment Quantitative Site-specific Reactivity Profiling of S-Nitrosylation in Mouse Skeletal...

  15. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  16. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  17. The risks and consequences from the transport of low specific activity materials by truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, N.C.; McClure, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.; Ostmeyer, R.O.; Wangler, M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The packaging and transport category of low specific activity (LSA) material was conceived for radioactive materials (RAM) that were considered inherently safe for transport. Such materials could be transported in ''strong, tight'' packages. The primary concern for the radionuclide content in LSA materials was associated with the potential for inhalation of particulate radioactive material. Thus, the specifications for the category in terms of specific activity were structured to preclude excessive inhalation hazard. The current version of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations maintains the inhalation-related limits but also shows concern that the restrictions on the LSA category may not preclude an excessive external radiation hazard for gamma-emitting materials. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the potential for such excessive external radiation hazards, particularly for LSA materials with specific activity levels near the current regulatory limit. Analyses are discussed that were performed to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of highway accidents leading to the release of high radiation level-low specific activity (HRL-LSA) materials from their packagings. The results of the analyses are intended to provide a basis for evaluating restrictions on the quantity of gamma-emitting radionuclides that can be contained in an LSA shipment. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Improving Site-Specific Radiological Performance Assessments - 13431

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tauxe, John; Black, Paul; Catlett, Kate; Lee, Robert; Perona, Ralph; Stockton, Tom; Sully, Mike [Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)] [Neptune and Company, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved approach is presented for conducting complete and defensible radiological site-specific performance assessments (PAs) to support radioactive waste disposal decisions. The basic tenets of PA were initiated some thirty years ago, focusing on geologic disposals and evaluating compliance with regulations. Some of these regulations were inherently probabilistic (i.e., addressing uncertainty in a quantitative fashion), such as the containment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Chap. 191.13 [1]. Methods of analysis were developed to meet those requirements, but at their core early PAs used 'conservative' parameter values and modeling approaches. This limited the utility of such PAs to compliance evaluation, and did little to inform decisions about optimizing disposal, closure and long-term monitoring and maintenance, or, in general, maintaining doses 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). This basic approach to PA development in the United States was employed essentially unchanged through the end of the 20. century, principally by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Performance assessments developed in support of private radioactive waste disposal operations, regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its agreement states, were typically not as sophisticated. Discussion of new approaches to PA is timely, since at the time of this writing, the DOE is in the midst of revising its Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management [2], and the NRC is revising 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste [3]. Over the previous decade, theoretical developments and improved computational technology have provided the foundation for integrating decision analysis (DA) concepts and objective-focused thinking, plus a Bayesian approach to probabilistic modeling and risk analysis, to guide improvements in PA. This decision-making approach, [4, 5, 6] provides a transparent formal framework for using a value- or objective-focused approach to decision-making. DA, as an analytical means to implement structured decision making, provides a context for both understanding how uncertainty affects decisions and for targeting uncertainty reduction. The proposed DA approach improves defensibility and transparency of decision-making. The DA approach is fully consistent with the need to perform realistic modeling (rather than conservative modeling), including evaluation of site-specific factors. Instead of using generic stylized scenarios for radionuclide fate and transport and for human exposures to radionuclides, site-specific scenarios better represent the advantages and disadvantages of alternative disposal sites or engineered designs, thus clarifying their differences as well as providing a sound basis for evaluation of site performance. The full DA approach to PA is described, from explicitly incorporating societal values through stakeholder involvement to model building. Model building involves scoping by considering features, events, processes, and exposure scenarios (FEPSs), development of a conceptual site model (CSM), translation into numerical models and subsequent computation, and model evaluation. These are implemented in a cycle of uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis and value of information analysis so that uncertainty can be reduced until sufficient confidence is gained in the decisions to be made. This includes the traditional focus on hydrogeological processes, but also places emphasis on other FEPSs such as biotically-induced transport and human exposure phenomena. The significance of human exposure scenarios is emphasized by modifying the traditional acronym 'FEPs' to include them, hence 'FEPSs'. The radioactive waste community is also recognizing that disposal sites are to be considered a national (or even global) resource. As such, there is a pressing need to optimize their utility withi

  19. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D., E-mail: briassou@aua.gr; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  20. Formal Specification and Testing of a Management Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derrick, John

    . The aim of our work is to test the applicability of FDTs to managed object specification by formallyFormal Specification and Testing of a Management Architecture G. P. A. Fernandes \\Lambda and J systems management to supply and maintain services required by users has led to a demand for management

  1. Revising Specifications with CTL Properties using Bounded Model Checking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finger, Marcelo

    Revising Specifications with CTL Properties using Bounded Model Checking No Author Given that inconsistencies arise between the formal specification and some desired property. Belief Revision deals. In this paper, we propose the use of belief revision techniques in order to deal with inconsistencies in formal

  2. TESLA: A Formally Defined Event Specification Language Gianpaolo Cugola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cugola, Gianpaolo

    TESLA: A Formally Defined Event Specification Language Gianpaolo Cugola Dip. di Elettronica e to clearly state how the system should behave. Moving from these premises, we present TESLA, a complex event specification language. Each TESLA rule considers incoming data items as notifi- cations of events and defines

  3. The Dangerous "All" in Specifications Daniel M. Berry Erik Kamsties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Daniel M.

    The Dangerous "All" in Specifications Daniel M. Berry Erik Kamsties Computer Science Department, are dangerous because they are usually not true. Jackson and Zave provide a classification of requirement specification sentences into indicative and optative sen- tences. It is observed that the dangerous sentences

  4. UPC Language and Library Specifications, Version 1.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UPC Consortium; Bonachea, Dan; Funck, Gary

    2013-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99 Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language and library syntax and semantics, and supersedes prior specification version 1.2 (LBNL-59208).

  5. Atrioventricular blood flow simulation based on patient-specific data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Mark

    Atrioventricular blood flow simulation based on patient-specific data Viorel Mihalef1 , Dimitris blood flow in- side the heart, usable with geometric models of the heart from patient- specific data. The method is geared toward realistic simulation of blood flow, taking into account not only heart wall

  6. Mining API Error-Handling Specifications from Source Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    Mining API Error-Handling Specifications from Source Code Mithun Acharya and Tao Xie Department it difficult to mine error-handling specifications through manual inspection of source code. In this paper, we, without any user in- put. In our framework, we adapt a trace generation technique to distinguish

  7. Nucleotide Specificity versus Complex Heterogeneity in Exonuclease Activity Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Nucleotide Specificity versus Complex Heterogeneity in Exonuclease Activity Measurements Jo activity is nucleotide-dependent, and that a fluorescent label bound to a nucleotide significantly slows are fluorescently labeled at two specific sites in the nucleotide sequence (positions 5 and 38 from the free end

  8. ENES 100 Introduction to Engineering Design Hovercraft Product Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Bruce

    requirements (a) The use of internal combustion engines (gas and glow fuel engines) is prohibited. (bENES 100 Introduction to Engineering Design Hovercraft Product Specifications HC_PS_005 Rev. A, 28 to Engineering Design Hovercraft Product Specifications HC_PS_005 Rev. A, 28 August 2008 Figure 1: The test

  9. ENES 100 Introduction to Engineering Design Hovercraft Product Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Bruce

    requirements (a) The use of internal combustion engines (gas and glow fuel engines) is prohibited. (bENES 100 Introduction to Engineering Design Hovercraft Product Specifications HC_PS_004 Rev. A, 22 100 Introduction to Engineering Design Hovercraft Product Specifications HC_PS_004 Rev. A, 22 January

  10. NDetermin: Inferring Nondeterministic Sequential Specifications for Parallelism Correctness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Necula, George

    NDetermin: Inferring Nondeterministic Sequential Specifications for Parallelism Correctness Jacob and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post;NDetermin: Inferring Nondeterministic Sequential Specifications for Parallelism Correctness Jacob Burnim

  11. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  12. ALSEP TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION Contract NAS 9-5829

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . ", ., ,I',: , t "' ,- EXHIBIT 13 ALSEP TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION Contract NAS 9-5829 -~ t. ".' . THE MncfYCORPORATION BENDIX SYSTEMS DIVISION' ANN ARBOR MICHIGAN' #12;EXHIBIT B ALSEP TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION Contract NAS 9-5829 March 10, 1966 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 SCOPE 1.1 Scope 1. 2 Associated

  13. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  14. Partition inequalities for capacitated survivable network design ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    problem (NDP) is to install batches of a capacity unit on the edges of the ... more than the capacity installed and all demands are met at minimum total cost.

  15. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  16. Carbon Materials for Chemical Capacitive Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power against specifi c energy for various electrical energy storage systems. If a supercapacitor is used in an electric vehicle, the specifi c power shows how fast one can go, and...

  17. Microbial Capacitive Desalination Cell - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals fromprocess used in miningMicroBooNEThru

  18. Crucial role of non-specific interactions in amyloid nucleation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An?ela Šari?; Yassmine C. Chebaro; Tuomas P. J. Knowles; Daan Frenkel

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein oligomers have been implicated as toxic agents in a wide range of amyloid-related diseases. Yet it has remained unsolved whether the oligomers are a necessary step in the formation of amyloid fibrils, or just a dangerous by-product. Analogously, it has not been resolved if the amyloid nucleation process is a classical one-step nucleation process, or a two-step process involving pre-nucleation clusters. We use coarse-grained computer simulations to study the effect of non-specific attractions between peptides on the primary nucleation process underlying amyloid fibrillization. We find that for peptides that do not attract, the classical one-step nucleation mechanism is possible, but only at non-physiologically high peptide concentrations. At low peptide concentrations, which mimic the physiologically relevant regime, attractive inter-peptide interactions are essential for fibril formation. Nucleation then inevitably takes place through a two-step mechanism involving prefibrillar oligomers. We show that oligomers not only help peptides meet each other, but create an environment that facilitates the conversion of monomers into the $\\beta$-sheet rich form characteristic of fibrils. Nucleation typically does not proceed via the most prevalent oligomers, but via an oligomer size that is only observed in rare fluctuations, which is why such aggregates might be hard to capture experimentally. Finally, we find that the nucleation of amyloid fibrils cannot be described by classical nucleation theory: in the two-step mechanism the critical nucleus size increases both with an increase in concentration and in the inter-peptide interactions, in direct contrast with predictions from classical nucleation theory.

  19. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  20. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsipher, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Qualification of high-level waste implies specifications driven by risk against which performance can be assessed. The inherent uncertainties should be addressed in the specifications and statistical methods should be employed to appropriately manage these uncertainties. Uncertainties exist whenever measurements are obtained, sampling is employed, or processes are affected by systematic or random perturbations. This paper presents the approach and statistical methods currently employed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to characterize, minimize, and control uncertainties pertinent to a waste-form acceptance specification concerned with product consistency.

  1. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W [ORNL; Pleva, Ed [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Ha, Tam T [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  2. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1?s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18?×?10{sup ?8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (?10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800?°C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  3. A410 Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 161 (3) A410-A415 (2014) 0013-4651/2014/161(3)/A410/6/$31.00 The Electrochemical Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an asymmetric cell with an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrode and a red-ox battery electrode-infinite. Therefore, the full-cell specific capacitance (Ctot) of a hybrid capac- itor is dominated by the EDLC electrode. Usually EDLC electrodes are based on high surface area activated carbons (AC) and there- fore

  4. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  5. Electrochemically induced deposition method to prepare {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites as electrode material in supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)], E-mail: chenjinhua@hnu.cn; Zhang Bing; Sun Feng; Liu Bo; Kuang Yafei [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/multi-walled carbon nanotube ({gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT) composite has been prepared by electrochemically induced deposition method. The morphology and crystal structure of the composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The capacitive properties of the {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT composite have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). A specific capacitance (based on {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}) as high as 579 F g{sup -1} is obtained at a scan rate of 10 mV s{sup -1} in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. Additionally, the {gamma}-MnO{sub 2}/MWNT composite electrode shows excellent long-term cycle stability (only 2.4% decrease of the specific capacitance is observed after 500 CV cycles)

  6. Model Specification for Networked Outdoor Lighting Control Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium's Model Specification for Networked Outdoor Lighting Control Systems is a tool designed to help cities, utilities, and other local agencies...

  7. Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board Contacts | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Advisory Board Contacts Mailing Address Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board P.O. Box 2001, EM-91 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone Numbers (865) 241-4583, (865) 241-4584 (800) 382-6938,...

  8. PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES Programme name Economic Evaluation in Healthcare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyde, Tillman

    1 PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION ­ POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES KEY FACTS Programme name Economic Evaluation PROGRAMME SUMMARY This programme is designed to produce professionals who can undertake economic evaluation bases for economic evaluation and in advanced quantitative methods relevant to healthcare decision

  9. Specific Examples of Global Activities Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with the Office competitiveness, global energy security, global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park worksSpecific Examples of Global Activities · Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan · Study abroad

  10. Tissue-specific gene silencing monitored in circulating RNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Alfica

    Pharmacologic target gene modulation is the primary objective for RNA antagonist strategies and gene therapy. Here we show that mRNAs encoding tissue-specific gene transcripts can be detected in biological fluids and that ...

  11. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  12. PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION Programme name Mathematical Science with Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyde, Tillman

    Mathematical Science with Computer Science with Placement Award MMath School School of Engineering1 PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION KEY FACTS Programme name Mathematical Science with Computer Science and computer science. In mathematics you will focus in particular on applied mathematics, although you

  13. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification revises the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  14. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  15. Concise specifications of locally optimal code generators Andrew W. Appel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appel, Andrew W.

    , so it can be much more concise. Twig specifications for the VAX and MC68020 are described. The instruction sets of the DEC VAX and Motorola 68020 are used as a illustrative examples. The VAX architecture

  16. Using XML to Build Consistency Rules for Distributed Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, Anthony

    Using XML to Build Consistency Rules for Distributed Specifications Andrea Zisman Wolfgang Emmerich)20 76794413 a.zisman@soi.city.ac.uk {w.emmerich | a.finkelstein}@cs.ucl.ac.uk ABSTRACT The work presented

  17. DNA topology confers sequence specificity to nonspecific architectural proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swigon, David

    DNA topology confers sequence specificity to nonspecific architectural proteins Juan Weia , Luke of DNA change the disorder found in chain molecules randomly decorated by nonspecific, architectural, counter to expectations, in greater quantities and at particular sites along simulated DNA minicircles

  18. Sequence-specific synthesis with artificial molecular machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papmeyer, Marcus

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequence-specific synthesis is essential to life. In nature, information-rich polymers such as polynucleotides, polypeptides and polysaccharides are responsible for virtually all vital processes. As opposed to nature’s ...

  19. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage Dennis H. Oh* , Brett A- neously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimen- sions. This approach for targeting

  20. Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film assembled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and compared with the calculated data. Citation: Antony J, J Nutting, DR Baer, D Meyer, AM Sharma, and Y Qiang.2006."Size dependent specific surface area of nanoporous film...