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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste for energy production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of anaerobic reactors treating OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste), especially in terms… (more)

Nayono, Satoto Endar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

3

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biosurfactant production Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(1990) Received 25th January Summary: ). High Solids Anaerobic Fermentation for Biogas and Compost Production. Biomass 16, 173-182. Owen, W... Reactor for Anaerobic...

5

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid the inlet of a function- ing plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals cab- bage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor

Columbia University

6

Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

none,

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and commercialization. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic municipal solid waste and subsequent biogas and methaneThe Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Municipal Solid Waste in California. Anaerobic Digestion Technology 2.1. Feedstock Characterization 2.2. Collection & Sorting 2.2.1. Waste

Iglesia, Enrique

9

April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This webinar was held April 16, 2013, and provided information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi...

10

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic solid-liquid system Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of British Columbia Collection: Engineering 3 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook Summary: Transfer Institutions Btu British thermal unit SLS Solid-liquid...

11

High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

12

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

13

High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

14

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with wastewater sludge, wood ash, coal ash, lime-kiln dust, and/or limestone quarry dust to improve the profile systems [Block & Goldstein 2000]. Anaerobic composting is not well used in the U.S until now [Goldstein of the process, the methane gas ("cleaner energy") and harvesting materials from MSW to #12;either recycle

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

15

Compact high voltage solid state switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

Glidden, Steven C.

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

18

ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

High power density solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the â??anti-quenchingâ?ť behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, â??largeâ?ť nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

samples are overwhelmingly in favor of AD technology. Keywords Anaerobic digester, biogas, electricityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation

26

High power solid state laser modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Characterization and environmental studies of Pompano Beach anaerobic digestion facility. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. If centralized anaerobic digestion plants are to be environmentally viable, the characteristics and environmental effects of effluents from these plants must be acceptable. The environmental concerns are particularly acute where ground water supplies are precariously low and the water table is high, South Florida is such a location. A characterization and environmental study was initiated by the Resource Recovery Group on August 1978. The specific objectives are: (1) systematic characterization of solid, liquid and gaseous inputs and outputs; (2) investigations of leaching characteristic of output solid and liquid effluents, and the transport of pollutants to and through ground water systems; and (3) analysis of environmental and process parameters to obtain causal relationships.

Sengupta, S; Gerrish, H P; Wong, K F; Nemerow, N; Daly, Jr, E L; Farooq, S; Chriswell, C

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

Egg, Richard P

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide unstable cavity: Misprints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide unstable cavity: Misprints D. Kouznetsov. Kouznetsov, J.-F. Bisson, K. Takaichi K. Ueda. High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide

Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

30

Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology. Keywords Anaerobic digester, biogas, electricity production, manure management #12;4 TableArnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors

32

High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific energy density of 220 Wh/kg. The development work was focused on establishing a dual electrolyte system, coated cathode particle techniques, various types of additives, and different conductive salts. The program had a duration of three years, with Seeo delivering the final cells at the end of 2014 for evaluation by a DOE laboratory.

Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL’s test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number Ayan Ghosh number TLi+ value of 0.9 at room temperature 21­23°C . The solid-state flexible, translucent polymer of withstanding such high voltage conditions. Unlike traditional liquid electrolytes, solid-state polymer electro

Rubloff, Gary W.

35

High-Affinity Binding and Direct Electron Transfer to Solid Metals...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Binding and Direct Electron Transfer to Solid Metals by the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Outer Membrane c-type High-Affinity Binding and Direct Electron Transfer to Solid Metals...

36

HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

Zhao, Zhuang; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

James Ibbetson

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Andrzej J. Fiedler ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in an open-air wind tunnel facility to investigate the effects of preset toe-in and toe-out turbine blade

Tullis, Stephen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

Manohar Sohal

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

High harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the generation of high harmonic radiation by Bloch electrons in a model transparent solid driven by a strong mid-infrared laser field. We solve the single-electron time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (TDSE) using a velocity-gauge method [New J. Phys. 15, 013006 (2013)] that is numerically stable as the laser intensity and number of energy bands are increased. The resulting harmonic spectrum exhibits a primary plateau due to the coupling of the valence band to the first conduction band, with a cutoff energy that scales linearly with field strength and laser wavelength. We also find a weaker second plateau due to coupling to higher-lying conduction bands, with a cutoff that is also approximately linear in the field strength. To facilitate the analysis of the time-frequency characteristics of the emitted harmonics, we also solve the TDSE in a time-dependent basis set, the Houston states [Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986)], which allows us to separate inter-band and intra-band contributions to the time-depe...

Wu, Mengxi; Reis, David A; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

NSERC-Laflche Industrial Research Chair Advanced Anaerobic Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O + a. b. Enhanced digestion and biogas production of solid residue via (i) MW and (ii) ultrasound. LANDFILL BIOREACTORS EXSITU ANAEROBIC DIGESTION Apply stand alone reactor technology to digest solid 6133. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Digestion Time

Petriu, Emil M.

44

High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

48

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

Lagow, R.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

50

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide...

51

Determination of moisture in solids using high frequency methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~, An induction-Ccpacit Oscillator of Unusual Fre uenc Stabi lit-, Proc ~ I. -". ". , larch, 1948 ~ (14) Glass':one, Samuel, Textbook of Physical Chemistry? D. Tan Nostrand Companv, Ino. , New York, 1947 pp 417 (15) Ibid, pp, 333 ... and low melting solids ~ . '. :eascrement of a change in a physical consL'ant ro deucrcc ne moisture content is incorporated in many methods' The chango in dielectric constant has been used with some success (0, 7 ' 8), 'cut s. "a' n it has boon more...

Burton, Melven Boyd

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Bibliography on anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The priority assigned to biogas systems by participants in A.I.D's Energy for Rural Development Program spurred the compilation of this 373-item bibliography on anaerobic digestion. The materials focus on energy technologies that are especially suited to the social, economic, and institutional concerns of rural Asia and the Pacific. Entries are presented in two sections. The first presents largely non-technical reports on anaerobic digesters in South and Southeast Asia, for the years 1956-80, with emphasis on the period 1970-80. The second section, which includes both technical and non-technical references, is a condensation of a computerized search of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Research Abstracts published during the period 1977-80. The search revealed a lack of reliable data, pointing to the need for further research on the technology and potential of anaerobic digestion.

Ramakrishna, J.; Pruett, D.M.; Santerre, M.T.; Toyoshiba, T.S.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

55

5, 23052341, 2008 Anaerobic methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 5, 2305­2341, 2008 Anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments N. J. Knab et al. Title of Biogeosciences Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea N. J. Knab1 , B. A. Cragg2­2341, 2008 Anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments N. J. Knab et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

60

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the Shell staff who thought that esters of perfluoro salicylic acid might be an excellent antifriction additive for motor oil fuels. One of the best additives currently used in motor oils is the hydrocarbon ester of salicylic acid.

Lagow, Richard J.

1993-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and SuhImpact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams ImpactTerephthalate) Microcellular Foams Vipin KurnaW, Richard P Juntunena, and Chris Barlowb University of Washington, Seattle

Kumar, Vipin

62

Mechanism and Kinetics of Solid-State Transformation in High-Temperature Processed Linepipe Steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanism and Kinetics of Solid-State Transformation in High-Temperature Processed Linepipe Steel P, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, U.K. Abstract: A relatively new class of linepipe steels with yield strength above 500 systems. The design concept for the steels takes advantage of the enhanced role which higher levels

Cambridge, University of

63

ARTIFACT FORMATION IN HIGH VOLUME SAMPLING OF VOC's AND SOLID ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

when sampling polluted air. Purified air containing 180 ppbv ozone seems to destroy PAH according Atmospheriques, Boite 7059, UNIVERSITE PARIS 7, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 PARIS Cedex 05 ABSTRACT Pollutants from well äs solid (SOC's) organic compounds. High volume samplers are commonly used m air quality

Boyer, Edmond

64

DNS AND LES WITH STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF SUBGRID ACCELERATION APPLIED TO SOLID PARTICLES IN A HIGH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), these phenomena were coupled with particle acceler- ation statistics. In our paper, such statisticsDNS AND LES WITH STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF SUBGRID ACCELERATION APPLIED TO SOLID PARTICLES IN A HIGH Ecully, F-69134, France mikhael.gorokhovski@ec-lyon.fr ABSTRACT Inertial particle acceleration statistics

Boyer, Edmond

65

A focusable, convergent fast-electron beam from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel scheme for the creation of a convergent, or focussing, fast-electron beam generated from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions is described. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of this scheme in two dimensions. It is shown that a beam of fast-electrons of energy 500 keV - 3 MeV propagates within a solid-density plasma, focussing at depth. The depth of focus of the fast-electron beam is controlled via the target dimensions and focussing optics.

Scott, R H H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion concept Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to methane. The anaerobic digestion consortium was introduced to high... M, and a biogas composition of 55%-60% methane. INTRODUCTION Economic evaluations of ... Source:...

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic closed digester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to methane. The anaerobic digestion consortium was introduced to high... M, and a biogas composition of 55%-60% methane. INTRODUCTION Economic evaluations of ... Source:...

68

HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE (HID) SOLID STATE BALLAST PROGRAM PHASE I FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change in the output power for the solid state ballast asof the solid state ballast's constant output power withswitching power supplies such as the solid state ballast.

Ailing, W.R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Energy savings with solid-state ballasted high-pressure sodium lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of three types of solid-state ballasts used to operate high-pressure sodium lamps is discussed. Each type of solid-state ballast has been designed to operate an HPS lamp of a different wattage (150, 200, and 400 watts). The performance of these ballasts compared to standard core-coil ballasts operating the same HPS lamps shows that system efficiency improves as much as 17%. The solid-state ballasted HPS system also demonstrates excellent regulation with respect to input voltage and output power. These new ballasts can dim the HPS lamps and reduce flicker from more than 60% to less than 3%. Refitting street lighting with these new HPS systims provides an attractive return on initial capital investment.

Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

72

System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8?MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

Jain, Akhilesh, E-mail: ajain@rrcat.gov.in; Sharma, D. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Lad, M. R.; Hannurkar, P. R. [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Pathak, S. K. [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)] [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

CHALLENGES IN GENERATING HYDROGEN BY HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS USING SOLID OXIDE CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) high temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells is presented in this paper. The research results reported here have been obtained in a laboratory-scale apparatus. These results and common scale-up issues also indicate that for the technology to be successful in a large industrial setting, several technical, economical, and manufacturing issues have to be resolved. Some of the issues related to solid oxide cells are stack design and performance optimization, identification and evaluation of cell performance degradation parameters and processes, integrity and reliability of the solid oxide electrolysis (SOEC) stacks, life-time prediction and extension of the SOEC stack, and cost reduction and economic manufacturing of the SOEC stacks. Besides the solid oxide cells, balance of the hydrogen generating plant also needs significant development. These issues are process and ohmic heat source needed for maintaining the reaction temperature (~830°C), high temperature heat exchangers and recuperators, equal distribution of the reactants into each cell, system analysis of hydrogen and associated energy generating plant, and cost optimization. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. These issues need interdisciplinary research effort of federal laboratories, solid oxide cell manufacturers, hydrogen consumers, and other such stakeholders. This paper discusses research and development accomplished by INL on such issues and highlights associated challenges that need to be addressed for hydrogen to become an economical and viable option.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; J. S. Herring; E. A. Harvego

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

75

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

REMOVAL OF SOLIDS FROM HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SOLUTIONS USING THE H-CANYON CENTRIFUGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior to the dissolution of Pu-containing materials in HB-Line, highly enriched uranium (HEU) solutions stored in Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 of H-Canyon must be transferred to provide storage space. The proposed plan is to centrifuge the solutions to remove solids which may present downstream criticality concerns or cause operational problems with the 1st Cycle solvent extraction due to the formation of stable emulsions. An evaluation of the efficiency of the H-Canyon centrifuge concluded that a sufficient amount (> 90%) of the solids in the Tank 11.1 and 12.2 solutions will be removed to prevent any problems. We based this conclusion on the particle size distribution of the solids isolated from samples of the solutions and the calculation of particle settling times in the centrifuge. The particle size distributions were calculated from images generated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean particle diameters for the distributions were 1-3 {micro}m. A significant fraction (30-50%) of the particles had diameters which were < 1 {micro}m; however, the mass of these solids is insignificant (< 1% of the total solids mass) when compared to particles with larger diameters. It is also probable that the number of submicron particles was overestimated by the software used to generate the particle distribution due to the morphology of the filter paper used to isolate the solids. The settling times calculated for the H-Canyon centrifuge showed that particles with diameters less than 1 to 0.5 {micro}m will not have sufficient time to settle. For this reason, we recommend the use of a gelatin strike to coagulate the submicron particles and facilitate their removal from the solution; although we have no experimental basis to estimate the level of improvement. Incomplete removal of particles with diameters < 1 {micro}m should not cause problems during purification of the HEU in the 1st Cycle solvent extraction. Particles with diameters > 1 {micro}m account for > 99% of the solid mass and will be efficiently removed by the centrifuge; therefore, the formation of emulsions during solvent extraction operations is not an issue. Under the current processing plan, the solutions from Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 will be transferred to the enriched uranium storage (EUS) tank following centrifugation. The solution from Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 may remain in the EUS tank for an extended time prior to purification. The effects of extended storage on the solution were not evaluated as part of this study.

Rudisill, T; Fernando Fondeur, F

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 for portable power generation1,2 . Accordingly, polymer-electrolyte direct- methanol fuel cells design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel

Haile, Sossina M.

78

High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1 H Revised 13 May 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Low-power decoupling Lipid membranes Solid such as WALTZ-16. We demonstrate this moderate MAS low-power decoupling technique on hydrated POPC lipid

Hong, Mei

79

Self-powered micro-structured solid state neutron detector with very low leakage current and high efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-powered micro-structured solid state neutron detector with very low leakage current and high helps to reduce the gammas sensitivity. The neutron detec- tion efficiency of such detectors mainly, fabrication, and performance of solid-state neutron detector based on three-dimensional honeycomb-like silicon

Danon, Yaron

80

High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications; these detectors require high-voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when multiple detectors are used. In addition, due to recent increase in homeland security activity and the nuclear renaissance, there is a shortage of He-3, and these detectors become more expensive. Instead, cheap solid-state detectors that can be mass produced like any other computer chips will be developed. The new detector does not require a bias for operation, has low gamma sensitivity, and a fast response. The detection system is based on a honeycomb-like silicon device, which is filled with B-10 as the neutron converter; while a silicon p-n diode (i.e., solar cell type device) formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic charged particles emitted from the B-10 conversion layer. Such a detector has ~40% calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency with an overall detector thickness of about 200 ?m. Stacking of these devices allows over 90% thermal neutron detection efficiency. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a high-efficiency, low-noise, self-powered solid-state neutron detector system based on the promising results of the existing research program. A prototype of this solid-state neutron detector system with sufficient detector size (up to 8-inch diam., but still portable and inexpensive) and integrated with interface electronics (e.g., preamplifier) will be designed, fabricated, and tested as a coincidence counter for MPACT applications. All fabrications proposed are based on silicon-compatible processing; thus, an extremely cheap detector system could be massively produced like any other silicon chips. Such detectors will revolutionize current neutron detection systems by providing a solid-state alternative to traditional gas-based neutron detectors.

Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara; Jian-Qiang Lu, James

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

82

Processing and utilizing high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from urban solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of technologies in the US that recover energy from urban solid waste is relatively short. Most of the technology as we know it evolved over the past 25 years. This evolution led to the development of about 100 modern mass burn and RDF type waste-to-energy plants and numerous small modular combustion systems, which collectively are handling about 20%, or about 40 million tons per year, of the nations municipal solid waste. Technologies also evolved during this period to co-fire urban waste materials with other fuels or selectively burn specific waste streams as primary fuels. A growing number of second or third generation urban waste fuels projects are being developed. This presentation discusses new direction in the power generating industry aimed at recovery and utilization of clean, high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from municipal and industrial solid waste. It reviews a spectrum of alternative fuels for feasible recovery and reuse, with new opportunities emerging for urban fuels processors providing fuels in the 6,000--15,000 BTU/LB range for off premises use.

Smith, M.L. [M.L. Smith Environmental and Associates, Tinley Park, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

A flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

low-noise measurements in ambient, in situ, and electrochemical environments. II. DESIGNA flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface, specifically in electrolyte environments. Quantification of system noise limits

Gimzewski, James

84

Effect of pulping conditions and black liquor composition on Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of black liquor composition and solids concentrations on the Newtonian viscosity of slash pine black liquors over wide ranges of temperature (up to 140 C) and solids concentrations (between 50% and 83% solids) has been studied. It was found that the zero shear rate viscosity of high solids black liquors depends strongly on the cooking conditions and/or black liquor composition. Not only is high solids viscosity affected by lignin molecular weight and lignin concentration in the liquor but other organic and inorganic constituents of black liquor also make a significant contribution to viscosity. The dependency of zero shear rate viscosity on solids concentrations, and temperature is defined. The Newtonian viscosities vary over a wide range depending on temperature, solids concentrations and solids composition. The results indicate that, at fixed levels of effective alkali and sulfidity, the zero shear rate viscosities can be described as a function of both lignin concentration and lignin molecular weight. The viscosity of black liquor is an increasing function of the organics-to-inorganics ratio and is a decreasing function of the concentration of sodium and chloride ions and pH of the liquor.

Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater anal- ysis and estimation schemes for specific growth rates for an anaerobic wastewater treatment the organic and inorganic materials) of municipal or industrial wastewater often needs to be highly reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

87

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.

Carl Stoots; James O'Brien; Stephen Herring; Keith Condie; Lisa Moore-McAteer; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Dennis Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

High energy electrons and nuclear phenomena in petawatt laser-solid experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Petawatt laser at LLNL has opened a new regime of laser-matter interactions in which the quiver motion of plasma electrons is fully relativistic with energies extending well above the threshold for nuclear processes. We have developed broad-band magnetic spectrometers to measure the spectrum of high-energy electrons produced in laser-solid target experiments at the Petawatt, and have found that in addition to the expected flux of {approx}few MeV electrons characteristic of the ponderomotive potential, there is a high energy component extending to {approx}100 MeV apparently from plasma acceleration in the underdense pre-formed plasma. The generation of hard bremsstrahlung, photo-nuclear reactions, and preliminary evidence for positron-electron pair production will be discussed.

Cowan, T. E.; Ditmire, T.; Hatchett, S.; Pennington, D. M.; Perry, M. D.; Phillips, T. W.; Wilks, S. C.; Young, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Dong, B.; Takahashi, Y. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Fountain, W.; Parnell, T. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Hunt, A. W. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Johnson, J. [University Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Kuehl, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

92

High energy electrons and nuclear phenomena in petawatt laser-solid experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Petawatt laser at LLNL has opened a new regime of laser-matter interactions in which the quiver motion of plasma electrons is fully relativistic with energies extending well above the threshold for nuclear processes. We have developed broad-band magnetic spectrometers to measure the spectrum of high-energy electrons produced in laser-solid target experiments at the Petawatt, and have found that in addition to the expected flux of {approximately}few MeV electrons characteristic of the ponderomotive potential, there is a high energy component extending to {approximately}100 MeV apparently from plasma acceleration in the underdense pre-formed plasma. The generation of hard bremsstrahlung, photo-nuclear reactions, and preliminary evidence for positron-electron pair production will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Cowan, T.E.; Ditmire, T.; Hatchett, S.; Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Phillips, T.W.; Wilks, S.C.; Young, P.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)] Dong, B. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Parnell, T.; Takahashi, Y. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)] Hunt, A.W. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] Johnson, J. [University Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)] Kuehl, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

94

Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The ?rst part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

96

NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

98

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

99

Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

Xun, Luying

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

102

A High-Conduction Ge Substituted Li3AsS4 Solid Electrolyte with Exceptional Low Activation Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes show potential to enable high-energy-density secondary batteries and offer distinctive safety features as an advantage over traditional liquid electrolytes. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity, low activation energy, and outstanding electrochemical stability in crystalline solid electrolytes is a challenge for the synthesis of novel solid electrolytes. Herein we report an exceptionally low activation energy (Ea) and high room temperature superionic conductivity via facile aliovalent substitution of Li3AsS4 by Ge, which increased the conductivity by two orders of magnitude as compared to the parent compound. The composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 mScm-1 at 27oC. Local Li+ hopping in this material is accompanied by distinctive low activation energy Ea of 0.17 eV being the lowest of Li+ solid conductors. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the efficacy of surface passivation of solid electrolyte to achieve compatibility with metallic lithium electrodes.

Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Chen, Yan [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters Webinar  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This free webinar will be held on April 16, 2013, from 1-2:15 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time. It will provide information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation...

104

C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

105

Solid-State, Flexible, High Strength Paper-Based Supercapacitors Xiaodan Zhang, Ziyin Lin, Bo Chen, Yulin Deng  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-State, Flexible, High Strength Paper-Based Supercapacitors Xiaodan Zhang, Ziyin Lin, Bo Chen Supercapacitors are one of the main energy storage devices and are key technological enablers ranging from transportation to customer electronics. Compared to their competitors--batteries, supercapacitors have superior

Das, Suman

106

High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites fabricated by layer-by-layer assemblyw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites: 10.1039/b803915a Electrochromic Ruthenium Purple­polymer nanocomposite films, fabricated by multilayer assembly, were found to exhibit sub-second switching speed and the highest electrochromic con

Heflin, Randy

107

Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques have been applied to hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses: simple as to completely exclude any of the different previously proposed models for water incorporation in silicate

Boyer, Edmond

108

Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

Eric D. Wachsman

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep performance compared to the base material creep performance. Similar and dissimilar butt joints were fabricated of MA956, IN740 alloys and using inertia welding techniques. We evaluated joining process details and heat treatments and its overall effect on creep response. Fixed and incrementally accelerated temperature creep tests were performed for similar and dissimilar joints and such incremental creep life data is compiled and reported. Long term MA956-MA556 joint tests indicate a firm 2Ksi creep stress threshold performance at 850{degree}C with a maximum exposure of over 9725 hours recorded in the current program. A Larsen Miller Parameter (LMP) of 48.50 for a 2Ksi test at 850{degree}C was further corroborated with tests at 2Ksi stress at 900{degree}C yielding a LMP=48.80. Despite this threshold the joints exhibit immense temperature sensitivity and fail promptly when test temperature raised above 900{degree}C. In comparison the performance of dissimilar joints was inferior, perhaps dictated by the creep characteristics of the mating nickel-base alloys. We describe a parametric window of joint development, and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in dissimilar joints with solid solution (IN601, IN617) and precipitate strengthened (IN740) materials. Some concerns are evident regarding the diffusion of aluminum in dissimilar joints during high temperature recrystallization treatments. It is noted that aggressive treatments rapidly deplete the corrosion protecting aluminum reservoir in the vicinity of the joint interface. Subsequently, the impact of varying PWHT has been evaluated in the context on ensuing creep performance.

Bimal Kad

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

Xun, Luying

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. Moreover, the principle...

Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County Potawatomi...

115

anaerobic reactors treating: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of a destabilisation. Key words: Haldane model, Anaerobic Bernard, Olivier 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

116

anaerobic reactor treating: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of a destabilisation. Key words: Haldane model, Anaerobic Bernard, Olivier 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

117

Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

High-field half-cycle terahertz radiation from relativistic laser interaction with thin solid targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is found that half-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses with the peak field over 100 MV/cm can be produced in ultrashort intense laser interactions with thin solid targets. These THz pulses are shown to emit from both the front and rear sides of the solid target and are attributed to the coherent transition radiation by laser-produced ultrashort fast electron bunches. After the primary THz pulses, subsequent secondary half-cycle pulses are generated while some refluxing electrons cross the vacuum-target interfaces. Since such strong THz radiation is well synchronized with the driving lasers, it is particularly suitable for applications in various pump-probe experiments.

Ding, W. J.; Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)] [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustors Lydie Le Forestier a,*, Guy Libourel b,c a ISTO, UMR 6113 CNRS-Université d'Orléans, Polytech, a destruction of pathogenic agents and a possible recovery of energy. Whatever MSW combustor used, combustion of MSW produces two kinds of solid residues: (i) bottom ashes recovered from the primary combustor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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121

Development of a High Solid-Angle Silicon Detector Array for Measurement of Transfer Reactions in Inverse Kinematics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high quality radioactive beams, such as those at the HRIBF at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has made possible the measurement of transfer reactions in inverse kinematics on unstable nuclei. Measurement of (d,p) reactions on neutron-rich nuclei yield data on the evolution of nuclear structure away from stability, and are of astrophysical interest due to the proximity of suggested nuclear burning paths in the astrophysical r-process in supernovae. Experimentally, (d,p) reactions on heavy (Z = 50) fission fragments are complicated by the strongly inverse kinematics, and the relatively low beam intensities. Consequently, ejectile detection with high resolution in position and energy, a high dynamic range and a high solid angular coverage is required. The Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) is a new silicon detector array currently under construction, optimized for the measurement of (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics. It consists of two rings of silicon detectors, providing a high solid angular coverage for angles symmetrically forward and backward of 90 degrees. Resistive strip detectors are used to obtain high precision position and energy measurement of reaction ejectiles.

Pain, S. D. [Rutgers University; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Hatarik, Robert [Rutgers University; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Thomas, J. S. [Rutgers University; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Blackmon, Jeff C [ORNL; Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University; Johnson, Micah [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, June 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

Lagow, R.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Siting Requirements for Anaerobic Lagoons (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute provides regulations for required distances between anaerobic lagoons and residences or public use areas. The separation distances may be waived or reduced with the agreement of the...

126

Metagenome of an Anaerobic Microbial Community Decomposing Poplar Wood Chips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to lignin-modification or depolymerization under anaerobic conditions.

van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L. L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

Freeze, R.

1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acid-resistant bacterium Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterium anaerocellum Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantification of Methanogenic Groups in Anaerobic... February 1994 The microbial community structure of anaerobic biological reactors was evaluated by using... ,...

134

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid-state NMR study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid 2014 Keywords: Steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, PEKK Solid-state NMR Water and D2O uptake polymers a b with D2O steam at temperatures of 150 and 315 C. All samples are studied by TGA, IR, 13 C CP/MAS, 1 H

Bluemel, Janet

136

anaerobic odontogenic infections: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological knowhow and for the cost of a conventional (more) Giard, David 2011-01-01 13 ANAEROBIC CULTURE METHODS IN A...

137

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

NONE

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

138

High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

Gann, Sheryl Lee

1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

140

Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

anaerobic bacterial aggregates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems Setia, Sanjeev 73 Biogeochemistry of Isoprenoid Production and Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodgeradation. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This dissertation...

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-solid-state high repetiton Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shanxi University Collection: Physics 72 Development of high power green light emitting diode dies in piezoelectric GaInNGaN Summary: in green light emitting diodes is one...

143

MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

146

High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

High-efficiency solid-state lighting and superconductor research receives  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2MLLC High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free

148

A cryogenic high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present our new development of a high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of helium at ultra-low temperatures. The cell has a large sample volume of ~140 cm3, and a working pressure of ~70 bar, with a relatively thin wall-thickness (1.1 mm) - thanks to the high yield strength aluminum used in the design. Two variants of this cell have been developed; one with permanently joined components using electron-beam welding and explosion welding, methods that have little or no impact on the global heat treatment of the cell, and another with modular and interchangeable components, which include a capacitance pressure gauge, that can be sealed using traditional indium wire technique. The performance of the cell has been tested in recent measurements on superfluid liquid helium near the solidification line.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

High-resolution multi-MeV x-ray radiography using relativistic laser-solid interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When high intensity ({>=}10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}) laser light interacts with matter, multi-MeV electrons are produced. These electrons can be utilized to generate a MeV bremsstrahlung x-ray emission spectrum as they propagate into a high-Z solid target positioned behind the interaction area. The short duration (<10 ps) and the small diameter (<500 {mu}m) of the x-ray pulse combined with the MeV x-ray spectrum offers an interesting alternative to conventional bremsstrahlung x-ray sources based on an electron accelerator used to radiograph dense, rapidly moving objects. In experiments at the Omega EP laser, a multi-MeV x-ray source is characterized consistently with number of independent diagnostics. An unfiltered x-ray dose of approximately 2 rad in air at 1 m and a source diameter of less than 350 {mu}m are inferred. Radiography of a complex and high area density (up to 61 g/cm{sup 2}) object is then performed with few hundred microns spatial resolution.

Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Barbotin, M.; Bazzoli, S.; Brebion, D.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Le Dain, L.; Lefebvre, E.; Pichoff, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Biddle, L.; Drew, D.; Gardner, M.; Ramsay, M.; Simons, A.; Sircombe, N. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

Govasmark, Espen, E-mail: espen.govasmark@bioforsk.no [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahlsvei 20, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Staeb, Jessica [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft, Abteilung Hydrochemie, Bandtaele 2, D-70569 Stuttgart (Buesnau) (Germany); Holen, Borge [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Plant Health, Hogskoleveien 7, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Hoornstra, Douwe [University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Biocenter, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 (Finland); Nesbakk, Tommy [Mjosanlegget AS, Roverudmyra Miljostasjon, Asmarkveien 301, NO-2600 Lillehammer (Norway); Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja [University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Biocenter, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 (Finland)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Biological Hydrogen Production Measured in Batch Anaerobic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the energy balance of a global economy (1, 2). Low-cost hydrogen based fuel cells, which have been expensiveBiological Hydrogen Production Measured in Batch Anaerobic Respirometers B R U C E E . L O G A N The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests

153

Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-knit community of bacteria cooperate to form a stable, self- regulating fermentation that transforms organic-chain fatty acids); fermentation of aminoacids and sugars; anaero- bic oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols; anaerobic oxidation of intermediary products such as volatile fatty acids; conversion of acetate

Timmer, Jens

154

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High Performance Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in the Madison SymmetricHigh Carbon|1-3, mthe

156

Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}K) and high density plasmas (10{sup 22}-10{sup 24}cm{sup {minus}3}) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (10{sup 13} - 10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2}) and subpicosecond (10{sup {minus}12}-10{sup {minus}13}s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature ({approximately}40eV) super-critical density ({approximately}10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical ({approximately}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

Vu, B.T.V.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Solid Target Options S. Childress  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite beam power) · High beam power solid targets frequently use higher z materials for increased yield plusSolid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam

McDonald, Kirk

158

Calcium silicate hydrates investigated by solid-state high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work focuses on phases formed during cement hydration under high pressure and temperature: portlandite Ca(OH){sub 2} (CH); hillebrandite Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({beta}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H); jaffeite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6} (tricalcium silicate hydrate); {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({alpha}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); xonotlite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 17})(OH){sub 2} and kilchoanite Ca{sub 6}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}). Portlandite and hillebrandite were synthesized and characterised by high resolution solid-state {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In addition, information from the literature concerning the last five phases was gathered. In certain cases, a schematic 3D-structure could be determined. These data allow identification of the other phases present in a mixture. Their morphology was also observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Meducin, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]. E-mail: meducin@cnrs-orleans.fr; Bresson, Bruno [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, ESPCI (France); Lequeux, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des polymeres et des milieux disperses, ESPCI (France); Noirfontaine, Marie-Noelle de [Laboratoire CECM-CNRS, 15, rue Georges Urbain, 94407 Vitry sur Seine (France); Zanni, Helene [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211-3029 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Tritium trapping in silicon carbide in contact with solid breeder under high flux isotope reactor irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The trapping of tritium in silicon carbide (SiC) injected from ceramic breeding materials was examined via tritium measurements using imaging plate (IP) techniques. Monolithic SiC in contact with ternary lithium oxide (lithium titanate and lithium aluminate) as a ceramic breeder was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The distribution of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) of tritium in SiC was successfully obtained, which separated the contribution of 14C ß-rays to the PSL. The tritium incident from ceramic breeders was retained in the vicinity of the SiC surface even after irradiation at 1073 K over the duration of ~3000 h, while trapping of tritium was not observed in the bulk region. The PSL intensity near the SiC surface in contact with lithium titanate was higher than that obtained with lithium aluminate. The amount of the incident tritium and/or the formation of a Li2SiO3 phase on SiC due to the reaction with lithium aluminate under irradiation likely were responsible for this observation.

H. Katsui; Y. Katoh; A. Hasegawa; M. Shimada; Y. Hatano; T. Hinoki; S. Nogami; T. Tanaka; S. Nagata; T. Shikama

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Packaging of solid state devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

163

Mixed oxide solid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

816 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 36, NO. 5, MAY 2001 A Mixed-Signal Approach to High-Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

816 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 36, NO. 5, MAY 2001 A Mixed-Signal Approach to High. At the same time, these devices require low-power compact circuits to max- imize battery life and minimize off

Diorio, Chris

165

1999 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 0-7803-5129-0/99 IEEE 1999 MP 4.7 Tunable, Switchable, High-Q VHF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· 1999 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 0-7803-5129-0/99 © IEEE 1999 MP 4 high-Q passive components, at- tempts to maximize their role with the intention of harnessing the above for the transmit local oscillator and power amplifier, as well. Due to Q limitations, conventional IC technologies

Nguyen, Clark T.-C.

166

Rapid Microwave Preparation of Highly Efficient Ce[superscript 3+]-Substituted Garnet Phosphors for Solid State White Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ce{sup 3+}-substituted aluminum garnet compounds of yttrium (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and lutetium (Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) - both important compounds in the generation of (In,Ga)N-based solid state white lighting - have been prepared using a simple microwave heating technique involving the use of a microwave susceptor to provide the initial heat source. Carbon used as the susceptor additionally creates a reducing atmosphere around the sample that helps stabilize the desired luminescent compound. High quality, phase-pure materials are prepared within a fraction of the time and using a fraction of the energy required in a conventional ceramic preparation; the microwave technique allows for a reduction of about 95% in preparation time, making it possible to obtain phase pure, Ce{sup 3+}-substituted garnet compounds in under 20 min of reaction time. It is estimated that the overall reduction in energy compared with ceramic routes as practiced in the lab is close to 99%. Conventionally prepared material is compared with material prepared using microwave heating in terms of structure, morphology, and optical properties, including quantum yield and thermal quenching of luminescence. Finally, the microwave-prepared compounds have been incorporated into light-emitting diode 'caps' to test their performance characteristics in a real device, in terms of their photon efficiency and color coordinates.

Birkel, Alexander; Denault, Kristin A.; George, Nathan C.; Doll, Courtney E.; Héry, Bathylle; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Birkel, Christina S.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (Mitsubishi)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

anaerobic processes occurring: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

169

anaerobic aquifer polluted: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

170

Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aug 13, 2013 ... We extend this analysis, based on the equation of motion and aerobic energy, to include a balance of anaerobic energy (or accumulated ...

Amandine Aftalion

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterium thermoanaerobacter...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

.1.5 Selection of thermophilic conditions 7 1.2 Microbiology of thermophilic anaerobic methanol conversion 7 1 Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for Ecological and...

172

anaerobic enrichment culture: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological knowhow and for the cost of a conventional (more) Giard, David 2011-01-01 34 Parameter identification in...

173

Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lagoons. Abstract: This study evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus (P) from dairy lagoons. The ADF was...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic betaproteobacterium georgfuchsia...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

175

anaerobic mixed microbial: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

176

Solid Flame: Fundamentals and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) Or Combustion Synthesis TECHNOLOGY FOR MATERIAL (solid) ignition front propagation cooling The Phenomenon of Wave Localization for Solid State Self-propagating) 1.0000 Temperature (K) 2744 Gas products amount (mol) 6.00E-15 Products heat capacity (J/K) 74

Mukasyan, Alexander

177

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5×10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

Zhao, Huimin

179

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE SENSORS FOR UNMEASURABLE VARIABLES OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESSES Simeonov, I variables of anaerobic digestion processes. For this purpose, different mathematical models of anaerobic digestion and different theoretical approaches (differential algebraic approach, Kalman filter modifications

Boyer, Edmond

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline anaerobic respiration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Effects of Benthic Organic Matter Quality on Aerobic and Anaerobic Sediment Metabolism in West Falmouth Harbor Summary: , respectively. Anaerobic respiration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biodegradation potential Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plas- tic Materials in the Presence... of Municipal Sewage Sludge D 5210 17. Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic...

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fungus neocallimastix Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

neocallimastix Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI: POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS Summary: . Yarlett et al. (1986) reported cryopreservation of the anaerobic fungus...

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic filamentous fungus Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

filamentous fungus Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ANAEROBIC RUMEN FUNGI: POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS Summary: . Yarlett et al. (1986) reported cryopreservation of the anaerobic fungus...

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

185

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic immobilized biomass Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

H. W., Samani... of the above MSW fractions for their suitability to be converted to biogas and anaerobic compost using... of anaerobic compost (fermentation residue) and has the...

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestor methanothrix Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The main factors that affect the economic viability of anaerobic digestors... of the biogas and the energy required to heat the digestor). Anaerobic digestors are normally...

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion analysis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digesters current Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

189

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion usa Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic 2-methylnaphthalene degradation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: that can be degraded by bacteria. Biogas: the gas produced by anaerobic bacteria in the anaerobic digestion... at Virginia...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion final Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion performance Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

193

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested cattle Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

194

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion heat Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digesters treating Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester treating Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophilic digestion Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester performance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management of the anaerobic digestion...

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acidification broth Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

broth produced in the biomass... is expected to undergo anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. This biogas will serve as the primary source... be produced during the anaerobic...

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacteria thermoanaerobacter Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic selenate-respiring bacteria Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

organic waste, converting... of anaerobic bacteria, these compounds decompose to yield a biogas that comprises of methane (CH.) and carbon... not processed anaerobically. The...

204

The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shaft. With the impeller in place and rotating, gas was drawn into the top port and ejected at the impeller mount. The reactor pressure was monitored via the transducer port. The transducer was a Viatran Pressure Transducer, model 103. The liquid...THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

Hess, Richard Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid-State NMR Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid Supplementary Information Figure S1. TGA of melt-molded PBI after stirring in H2O at RT and steam-treatment with H2O at 150 °C and 315 °C. Figure S2. TGA of melt-molded PEEK after stirring in D2O at RT and steam

Bluemel, Janet

206

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its

Grossman, Ethan L.

208

Speciation of Arsenic in An Anaerobic Treatment System at a Pb-Zn Smelter Site, Gold Roaster Products, Cu Smelter Stack Dust And Impacted Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base metal ores often results in solid wastes and effluents containing high concentrations of arsenic. In addition, arsenic can be released to the atmosphere from gold roasters and base metal smelters. Speciation of arsenic in roaster products, in a stack sample from a copper smelter, in organic soils impacted by smelter emissions, and in an anaerobic effluent treatment system at a smelter site was determined in order to broaden our understanding of the nature and occurrence of arsenic in a wider range of metallurgical wastes. Micro-XANES spectra obtained from iron oxide particles forming in a gold roaster indicate preferential enrichment of As{sup 3+} species in maghemite-rich domains and microlayers. In comparison, haematite-rich iron oxide particles are dominated by As{sup 5+} species. It appears that maghemite is retarding oxidation of arsenic and its volatilisation during roasting. Arsenic occurs as both As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} species in a stack sample emitted from a Cu smelter, confined to fine-grained secondary product layers accumulated on the surfaces of spherical Cu particles. This is probably resulting from condensation of As species upon cooling following their volatilisation during the combustion process. Soil samples collected at various distances from the Cu smelter are dominated by As{sup 5+} species including monomethylarsonic acid and tetramethylarsonium iodide as the organic arsenic species. The presence of reduced As{sup 3+} species highlights the importance of organic material influencing the speciation of arsenic and mineralogical transformations taking place within the soil profile. The XANES spectra indicate that arsenic occurs predominantly as aqueous arsenite species in the anaerobic treatment system, contrary to the conventional thinking of As retention by the formation of secondary sulfides.

Paktunc, D.

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Speciation of arsenic in an anaerobic treatment system at a Pb-Zn smelter site, gold roaster products, Cu smelter stack dust and impacted soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base metal ores often results in solid wastes and effluents containing high concentrations of arsenic. In addition, arsenic can be released to the atmosphere from gold roasters and base metal smelters. Speciation of arsenic in roaster products, in a stack sample from a copper smelter, in organic soils impacted by smelter emissions, and in an anaerobic effluent treatment system at a smelter site was determined in order to broaden our understanding of the nature and occurrence of arsenic in a wider range of metallurgical wastes. Micro-XANES spectra obtained from iron oxide particles forming in a gold roaster indicate preferential enrichment of As{sup 3+} species in maghemite-rich domains and microlayers. In comparison, haematite-rich iron oxide particles are dominated by As{sup 5+} species. It appears that maghemite is retarding oxidation of arsenic and its volatilisation during roasting. Arsenic occurs as both As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} species in a stack sample emitted from a Cu smelter, confined to fine-grained secondary product layers accumulated on the surfaces of spherical Cu particles. This is probably resulting from condensation of As species upon cooling following their volatilisation during the combustion process. Soil samples collected at various distances from the Cu smelter are dominated by As{sup 5+} species including monomethylarsonic acid and tetramethylarsonium iodide as the organic arsenic species. The presence of reduced As{sup 3+} species highlights the importance of organic material influencing the speciation of arsenic and mineralogical transformations taking place within the soil profile. The XANES spectra indicate that arsenic occurs predominantly as aqueous arsenite species in the anaerobic treatment system, contrary to the conventional thinking of As retention by the formation of secondary sulfides.

Paktunc, D. (CCM)

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

210

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ?few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ?}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

Boley, A. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Desch, S. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

213

anaerobic extreme thermophilic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for methane production by anaerobic digestion of animal manures. Experiences with design, construction, and operation of a two-stage heated continuous-feed digester for a herd of...

214

Design of an anaerobic digester in Quebec, Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.In response to the future Quebec, Canada regulations prohibiting landfilling of organic matter by 2020, EBI, a waste management company located near Montreal is considering constructing an anaerobic digester. This thesis ...

Bouaziz, Alexandre N. (Alexandre Nathanel)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

anaerobic energy metabolism: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

216

Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

High-Temperature Processing of Solids Through Solar Nebular Bow Shocks: 3D Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations with Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fundamental, unsolved problem in Solar System formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks has been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H$_2$ is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulati...

Boley, A C; Desch, S J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The metagenome of an anaerobic microbial community decomposing poplar wood chips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes the composition and metabolic potential of a lignocellulosic biomass degrading community that decays poplar wood chips under anaerobic conditions. We examined the community that developed on poplar biomass in a non-aerated bioreactor over the course of a year, with no microbial inoculation other than the naturally occurring organisms on the woody material. The composition of this community contrasts in important ways with biomass-degrading communities associated with higher organisms, which have evolved over millions of years into a symbiotic relationship. Both mammalian and insect hosts provide partial size reduction, chemical treatments (low or high pH environments), and complex enzymatic 'secretomes' that improve microbial access to cell wall polymers. We hypothesized that in order to efficiently degrade coarse untreated biomass, a spontaneously assembled free-living community must both employ alternative strategies, such as enzymatic lignin depolymerization, for accessing hemicellulose and cellulose and have a much broader metabolic potential than host-associated communities. This would suggest that such a community would make a valuable resource for finding new catalytic functions involved in biomass decomposition and gaining new insight into the poorly understood process of anaerobic lignin depolymerization. Therefore, in addition to determining the major players in this community, our work specifically aimed at identifying functions potentially involved in the depolymerization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and to assign specific roles to the prevalent community members in the collaborative process of biomass decomposition. A bacterium similar to Magnetospirillum was identified among the dominant community members, which could play a key role in the anaerobic breakdown of aromatic compounds. We suggest that these compounds are released from the lignin fraction in poplar hardwood during the decay process, which would point to lignin-modification or depolymerization under anaerobic conditions.

van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Li, L.-L.; Malfatti, S. A.; Monteleone, D.; Donohoe, B. S.; Ding, S.-Y.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Tringe, S. G.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Anaerobic Redox Cycling of Iron by Freshwater Sediment Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for microbially-mediated anaerobic redox cycling of iron (Fe) was examined in a first-generation enrichment culture of freshwater wetland sediment microorganisms. MPN enumerations revealed the presence of significant populations of Fe(III)-reducing (ca. 108 cells mL-1) and Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organisms (ca. 105 cells mL-1) in the sediment used to inoculate the enrichment cultures. Nitrate reduction commenced immediately following inoculation of acetate-containing (ca. 1 mM) medium with a small quantity (1% vol/vol) of wetland sediment, and resulted in the transient accumulation of NO2- and production of a mixture of end-products including NH4+. Fe(III) oxide (high surface area goethite) reduction took place - after NO3- was depleted and continued until all the acetate was utilized. Addition of NO3 after Fe(III) reduction ceased resulted in the immediate oxidation of Fe(II) coupled to reduction of + NO3-to NH4 . No significant NO2- accumulation was observed during nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. No Fe(II) oxidation occurred in pasteurized controls. Microbial community structure in the enrichment was monitored by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16s rDNA and RT-PCR amplified 16S rRNA, as well as by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries for four different time points during the experiment. Strong similarities in dominant members of the microbial community were observed in the Fe(III) reduction and nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation phases of the experiment, specifically the common presence of organisms closely related (= 95% sequence similarity) to the genera Geobacter and Dechloromonas. These results indicate that the wetland sediments contained organisms such as Geobacter sp. which are capable of both + dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction and oxidation of Fe(II) with reduction of NO3-reduction to NH4 . Our findings suggest that microbially-catalyzed nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation has the potential to contribute to a dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle in freshwater sediments.

Weber, Karrie A.; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Churchill, Perry F.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

none,

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it to energy is not a new phenomenon in India. Rural India has gained considerable experience in anaerobic1 Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to- Energy Industries Perinaz Bhada concern is the inadequate supply of energy and increasing demand for electricity, amplified by a booming

Columbia University

222

Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

Dupuis, Russell

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

224

Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work, synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. The majority of reactions will be conducted in microautoclaves. If this research is successful, a new market for high sulfur, high mineral Illinois coal would emerge. Samples needed for this project have been obtained and sample preparation have been completed. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 was employed to study pyrolysis. significant interactions have been observed. About 200 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400-450{degrees}C. Synergism occurs at short reaction time. High temperature and long reaction times result in higher residue yields and a loss of synergisms. Reactive species may be required to stabilize intermediate products.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been… (more)

Wu, Yen-Chin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced in large quantities globally as a viable feedstock for producing biofuel and bioproducts through; for example, it can leverage the technological advances, infra- structure, and human capital from the mature processing for high-titer biofuel production, to reduce separation cost and improve energy efficiency

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobe und anaerobe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of GI, tissue, cavity or wound anaerobes. Aerobic and fungal... to avoid loss of oxygen-excluding gas cap. Blood Culture Bottles for Aerobic and Anaerobic Culture... are used...

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacteria adapted Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

yield a b s t r a c t Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors... , and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During...

229

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

Scampini, Amanda C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidogenic anaerobic reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: anaerobic digestion in the inlet of the pre-treatment zone of a plug-flow biogas reactor for biomass... -flow anaerobic reactor for domestic organic waste treatment...

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biogas reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biogas reactors Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic biogas reactors Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Anaerobic Co-digestion of...

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic degradation pathways Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Biotechnology 22 Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic...

233

Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

234

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic feiii-reducer rhodoferax Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and agricultural wastewater, includ- ing methanogenic anaerobic digestion, biological hydro- gen production... material in industrial and agricultural wastewater Methanogenic...

235

Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

236

Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 Thermogravimetric Analyzer was employed to study pyrolysis. Significant interactions have been observed. Very preliminary microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of some products for analysis has been achieved. Although, these results are preliminary they are also very encouraging.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A high dynamic range data acquisition system for a solid-state electron Electric Dipole Moment experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have built a high precision (24-bit) data acquisition (DAQ) system with eight simultaneously sampling input channels for the measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The DAQ system consists of two main components, a master board and eight individual analog-to-digital converter (ADC) boards. This custom DAQ system provides galvanic isolation, with fiber optic communication, between the master board and each ADC board to reduce the possibility of ground loop pickups. In addition, each ADC board is enclosed in its own heavy-duty radio frequency shielding enclosure and powered by DC batteries, to attain the ultimate low levels of channel cross-talk. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the DAQ system and scrutinize its performance.

Young Jin Kim; Brandon Kunkler; Chen-Yu Liu; Gerard Visser

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Solid-phase synthesis of high-alumina cements by high-temperature treatment on the surface of molten cast iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of block and monolithic concreting technology in the construction of thermal power plants together with the technical and economic advantages arising from the use of high-alumina cements in the production of refractory concretes have made the development of new methods for the production of high-alumina cement clinkers mandatory. To this end the authors of this paper study the kinetics of synthesis of such clinkers obtained by their firing on the surface of molten cast iron as the heat transfer agent. Among the results presented are a structural and quantitative analysis of the clinker along with phase and activation energy studies.

Fedorov, N.F.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Ivanov, N.I.; Khalina, O.M.

1986-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as food-processing wastes) to increase biogas productivity, improve digester performance, and increase in manure and other feedstock to methane-rich biogas, a source of renewable energy (US-EPA 2006) (Figure 1-EPA 2005; US-EPA 2008). In addition to biogas, AD generates fiber and Figure 1. Overview of anaerobic

Collins, Gary S.

240

High-resolution spectroscopy of the impurity-induced Q3,,0... transition of solid parahydrogen Robert M. Dickson,* Takamasa Momose,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In a solid environment, however, the molecules are held in place, thus allowing long-term intermolecular envi- ronment provides a medium that can yield much more de- tailed and accurate information The hexagonal close packed hcp crystalline environment of solid p-H2 provides an anisotropic environment

Oka, Takeshi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

PAFC fed by biogas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste waters of a beet-sugar refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beet-washing waters of a beet-sugar refinery carry a high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and their conditioning to meet legal constraints before disposal considerably contributes to the operation costs of the refinery. Their fermentation in an anaerobic digestor could instead produce readily disposable non-polluting waters, fertilizers and biogas, useful to feed a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) heat and power generator system. A real refinery case is considered in this work, where the electrical characteristics V = V(I) of a laboratory PAFC stack, fueled with a dry simulated reforming gas (having the same H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} content as the biogas obtainable by the above said anaerobic digestion), are determined. The encouraging results show that a possible market niche for fuel cells, in the food-industry waste partial recovery and residual disposal, deserves attention.

Ascoli, A.; Elias, G. [Univ. Diegli Studi di Milano (Italy); Bigoni, L. [CISE Tecnologie Innovative S.p.A., Segrate (Italy); Giachero, R. [Du Pont Pharma Italia, Firenze (Italy)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}: A new compound discovered with the application of solid-state and high temperature NMR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was serendipitously produced in high purity during a high-temperature synthesis done in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of the products of the synthesis revealed that the dominant phosphorus-containing product had a chemical shift of -52.8 ppm that could not be assigned to any known compound. Deep reddish brown well-formed plate-like crystals were isolated from the NMR reaction ampoule and the structure was solved with X-ray diffraction. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} has the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.3587(11) A, b=7.4546(11) A, c=10.1420(15) A, {alpha}=85.938(2){sup o}, {beta}=88.055(2){sup o}, and {gamma}=85.609(2){sup o} and contains the [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion. To our knowledge, this is the first compound containing this anion that is composed of two tetrahedral (PSe{sub 4}) units connected by a diselenide linkage. It was also possible to form a glass by quenching the melt in ice water, and Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was recovered upon annealing. The static {sup 31}P NMR spectrum at 350 deg. C contained a single peak with a -35 ppm chemical shift and a {approx}7 ppm peak width. This study highlights the potential of solid-state and high-temperature NMR for aiding discovery of new compounds and for probing the species that exist at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was discovered following a high-temperature in situ synthesis in the NMR spectrometer and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It contains the new [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion.

Gave, Matthew A.; Canlas, Christian G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chung, In [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Weliky, David P. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: weliky@chemistry.msu.edu

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation andvisualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the physiology of an uncharacterized wild-type organism or the physiology/phenotype of a newly created mutant of that organism. Given recent advances in genetic characterization and targeted mutations to elucidate genetic networks and metabolic pathways, high-throughput methods for determining phenotypic differences are essential. Here we outline challenges presented in studying the physiology and phenotype of a sulfate reducing anaerobic delta proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Modifications of the commercially available OmniLog(TM) system (Hayward, CA) for experimental setup, and configuration, as well as considerations in PM data analysis are presented. Also highlighted here is data viewing software that enables users to view and compare multiple PM data sets. The PM method promises to be a valuable strategy in our systems biology approach to D. vulgaris studies and is readily applicable to other anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.

Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique; Jacobsen, Janet; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hazen, Terry C.

2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

anaerobic bioreactor landfills: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 10 Mathematical...

247

High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of the Solid–Solution Zintl Phase Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zintl phases are compounds that have shown promise for thermoelectric applications. The title solid–solution Zintl compounds were prepared from the elements as single crystals using a tin flux for compositions x = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3) crystallize isostructurally in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12, Z = 2) as the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type (Pearson symbol mC58). Efforts to make the As compositions for x exceeding ?3 resulted in structures other than the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that As does not randomly substitute for Sb in the structure but is site specific for each composition. The amount of As determined by structural refinement was verified by electron microprobe analysis. Electronic structures and energies calculated for various model structures of Eu11Cd6Sb10As2 (x = 2) indicated that the preferred As substitution pattern involves a mixture of three of the six pnicogen sites in the asymmetric unit. In addition, As substitution at the Pn4 site opens an energy gap at the Fermi level, whereas substitution at the other five pnicogen sites remains semimetallic with a pseudo gap. Thermoelectric properties of these compounds were measured on hot-pressed, fully densified pellets. Samples show exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivities from room temperature to 775 K: 0.78–0.49 W/mK for x = 0; 0.72–0.53 W/mK for x = 1; and 0.70–0.56 W/mK for x = 2. Eu11Cd6Sb12 shows a high p-type Seebeck coefficient (from +118 to 153 ? V/K) but also high electrical resistivity (6.8 to 12.8 m?·cm). The value of zT reaches 0.23 at 774 K. The properties of Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx are interpreted in discussion with the As site substitution.

Kazem, Nasrin; Xie, Weiwei; Ohno, Saneyuki; Zevalkink, Alexandra; Miller, Gordon J.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

Solid Waste (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The New Mexico Environment Department's Solid Waste Bureau manages solid waste in the state. The Bureau implements and enforces the rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board.

249

Treatment program of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) (Quebec, Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program for processing of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) provides financial assistance to municipalities and the private sector for the installation of...

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic feiii reduction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OCt. 1986, p. 751-757 0099-224086100751-0702.000 Summary: ) reduction in sediments incubated under anaerobic conditions and depth profiles of oxalate-extractable...

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic toluene degraders Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mixed waste undergoing anaerobic decomposition. We hypothesize that both covalent... of PCE and toluene, and that these associations will become increasingly important as the...

252

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic respiration isolation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was the result of aerobic but not anaerobic Source: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 48 2. Banded iron formations...

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic aqueous solutions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

%), accumulated from anaerobic toluene metabolism. These same products were also produced when ... Source: Williams, Martin M. II - Department of Crop Sciences, University of...

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic cometabolic conversion Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N... treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biofilm reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrochemically active bacteria on an electrode were therefore studied using anaerobic sewage sludge in a two... . By applying biofilm scraped from the anode of a working MFC to...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic contact filter Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clarifier 1 Clarifier Sludge1 Clarifier Sludge FinalFinal FilterUVFilterUV Sludge... Supernatant 2 Clarifier Anaerobic Digested Sludge 1 Sludge Bar Screen...

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic filter ufaf-subsurface Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Clarifier 1 Clarifier Sludge1 Clarifier Sludge FinalFinal FilterUVFilterUV Sludge... Supernatant 2 Clarifier Anaerobic Digested Sludge 1 Sludge Bar Screen...

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fungus piromyces Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acetic... acid concentrations and (2) prolonged anaerobic continuous cultivation without pH control, in which Source: Wagner, Andreas - Department of Biochemistry, Universitt...

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic exercise performance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

words: anaerobic metabolism, critical swimming speed, sub- maximal swimming, exercise, energy... of lactate 1mol of glycosyl unit; Arthur et al. 1992; Moyes et al. 1993). During...

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobe acetobacterium dehalogenans Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Needs for Evaluating the Summary: , and compost) could retain previously-trapped pollutants even under anaerobic conditions. The results indicated... that permanent retention...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic upflow column Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were hermetically sealed. Only the filter was heated... , pyrolysis, and biological gaSification by anaerobic digestion have been in vestigated. Due to the very... heterogeneous...

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sewage sludge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Process, " Symposium on Clean Fuels From Biomas... , pyrolysis, and biological gaSification by anaerobic digestion ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research...

264

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hybrid reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is an anaerobic process, commercial techniques usually add air... just steam as gasification medium in a hybrid process in order to further reduce tar and hydrocarbon... steam...

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically induced small Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic potency test Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

267

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene communities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

268

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ammonia oxidation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical treatment steps on the waste streams produced... incineration or co-frring), pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or methanation. From a water pollution control... , centrate...

269

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic treatment process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering Summary: .R. Hall (1992) Towards a useful dynamic model of the anaerobic wastewater treatment process: a practical... .M. and E.R. Hall (1989) Assessment of dynamic...

270

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic wastewater treatment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

wastewater treatment Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic wastewater treatment Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Impact of EPS on...

271

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzoate degradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Idaho Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material Summary: the...

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic aquifer column Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic aquifer column Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic...

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene degradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic benzene degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic...

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic microbial degradation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Summary: . 107 Anaerobic benzene degradation Derek R. Lovley Department of...

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic carbon degradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Summary: . 107 Anaerobic benzene degradation Derek R. Lovley Department of...

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic protein-degrading hyperthermophilic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

protein-degrading hyperthermophilic Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic protein-degrading hyperthermophilic Page: << < 1 2 3...

277

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-22409704.00 0 Summary: . Rabus, R., and F. Widdel. 1995....

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic work capacity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: lost some of its biogas production potential. Anaerobic digesters work best when the digestion pro... at...

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic mixed microflora Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

280

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic energy release Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source produced through the anaerobic... at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic chloroethene-dehalogenating activity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic continuously stirred Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

or thermophilic... ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic waste water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recovery Jun Wei LIM... waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION... of brown water and food ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion technology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

technology on livestock farms... dioxide (EPA AgStar 2006). Benefits and Challenges of Biogas Technology Anaerobic digestion can convert... digester. Resources which ... Source:...

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic process effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

based on headspace gas chromatography. Submitted. Paper III Boe... . 12;12;4 2. The biogas process Anaerobic digestion is a multi-step biological process where... . The...

286

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hydrogen producing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a small percentage of hydrogen sulfide, water vapor, carbon... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source produced through the anaerobic... are...

287

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion program Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic matter and the management ... Source: Liskiewicz,...

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reactor systems Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sources of organic matter... -processing wastes, and industrial wastes. A typical biogas system consists of manure collection, anaerobic digestion... and carbon credits. The...

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic stirred sequencing-batch Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fitness markers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic ... Source: Liskiewicz, Maciej - Institut fr...

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically corroding iron Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

294

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion role Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic mesophilic granular Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic chlorophenol-degrading community...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

297

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions model Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

298

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic interval training Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

299

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic conditions improve Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

online VFA monitoring system is presented, as well as the methods for improving biogas production... monitoring system for the anaerobic process, based on headspace gas...

300

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic soil slurry Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aberystwyth Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 2 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry Summary: scenarios. In fact, anaerobic digestion of animal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fixed bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophilic biogas Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biogas Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic thermophilic biogas Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Institute for Renewable Energy Ltd...

303

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic aggregates determined Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Environment & Resources Online monitoring and control Summary: determines the biogas yield. Anaerobic substrate input is often measured in term of total chemical oxygen......

304

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles annual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digester sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... on the source of the organic ... Source: Liskiewicz, Maciej - Institut fr...

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic reactor star Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

overview of anaero- Summary: dioxide (EPA AgStar 2006). Benefits and Challenges of Biogas Technology Anaerobic digestion can convert... at Virginia Tech. Most of the discussion...

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic contact reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation of Summary: ;12;Abstract Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure produces biogas that can be captured and used for fuel while... offering environmental benefits. Dairy...

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically growing xylose-utilizing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

309

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested municipal Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic bacterial community Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

311

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic baffled reactor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

312

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic gac reactor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources which provide more detailed infor- mation on anaerobic digesters are listed. Biogas... Technology Biomethane (biogas) is an alternative and renewable energy source...

313

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobe ammoniakoxidation von Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Otto-Von-Guericke-UniVersitat Magdeburg, UniVersitatsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany... acid (MA) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was investigated. The Ce(IV)...

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic thermophiles progress Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

due to various... returns from energy and byproduct sales. Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, biogas, cooperatives, carbon Source: Laughlin, Robert B. - Department of Physics, Stanford...

315

anaerobic iron-reducing bacterium: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: is unknown. Since it is known...

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic acid resistance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1972 Anaerobic Metabolism during Activity... . An estimated 80-90% of the total energy utilized during initial vigorous activity comes from ... Source: Bennett, Albert F. -...

317

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and maintenance 44 4. Utilisation of Biogas 49 4.1 Biogas storage 49 4.1.1 Low-pressure storage systems 49 4.1.2 Medium-pressure storage 52 4.1.3 High-pressure storage 52 4.2 Biogas flares 53 4.3 Conditioning of biogas 53 4.3.1 Dewatering 54 4.3.2 Desulphurisation (removal of H2 S) 55 4.3.3 Removal of CO2 57 4.4 Biogas

Wehrli, Bernhard

318

Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCof Energy 12, 2004DepartmentWaste HeatStructuresHigh

319

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solids fluidizer-injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ecovation Inc formerly AnAerobics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It is classified asThisEcoGrid EU (SmartEcovation Inc formerly AnAerobics

326

EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

327

Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and Opportunities | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas:Austin,AnAn Exploration ofAnaerobic MBR:

328

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by wood-fired boilers. By generating biogas through anaerobic digestion of swine manure, fuel can: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hook Digestion by PENERGY Solutions Overview For most farmers in Pennsylvania, the growing season ends

Demirel, Melik C.

329

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waste. Keywords Anaerobic digestion; food waste; brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION-cal/m3 , biogas has been widely used in heating digesters and gas engines (Wang et al., 2007LIM J.W. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery Jun Wei LIM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System@cornell.edu URL: http://www.jove.com/video/3978/ DOI: 10.3791/3978 Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Bioenergy, Biogas, Methane, Organic Waste, Methanogenesis, Energy Crops, Date Published: // Citation: Usack

Angenent, Lars T.

331

Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled Terence Bayen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

substrate) are digested and converted into biogas. One essential feature of the model is that the evolutionOptimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen , Francis by light and an anaerobic digester. The mathematical model for the dynamics of the reactors takes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,000,000 digesters, 2000 [14]), among other places [15,16]. These digesters operate to generate biogas, comprisingAnaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production Accepted 24 May 2013 Available online Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Ammonia Bioenergy Bioammonia Hydrogen

333

Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater at Low Temperatures Largus anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was studied for the treatment of low- strength soluble wastewater milk substrate as a synthetic wastewater at low temperatures (15 and 20 °C). The concentration

Angenent, Lars T.

334

Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater treatment an unstable biological process used for wastewater treat- ment. This anaerobic digestion ecosystem can have popular bioprocess (Angelidaki et al., 2003) that treats wastewater and at the same time produces energy

Bernard, Olivier

335

Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3636, USA. Summary The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a glo- bally significant sink that regulates methane flux from sediments into the oceans and atmosphere. Here we examine

Girguis, Peter R.

336

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Anaerobic Digestion Frederick C. Michel, Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering Zhongtang Yu, Animal digestion and composting at mesophilic or moderate temperature significantly reduced the antimicrobial concluded that both anaerobic digestion and composting--especially at elevated temperatures--are effective

Jones, Michelle

337

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

339

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Solid-state lithium battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

Rotary bulk solids divider  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene.

Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

1997-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

345

Solid State Division  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

High figure of merit and thermoelectric properties of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} solid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x}-based thermoelectric materials has received widespread attention due to a potentially high thermoelectric performance, abundant raw materials, relatively low cost of modules, and non-toxic character of compounds. In this research, Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}Bi{sub y} solid solutions with the nominal Bi content of 0?y?0.03 are prepared using a two-step solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering consolidation. Within this range of Bi concentrations, no evidence of second phase segregation was found. Bi is confirmed to occupy the Si/Sn sites in the crystal lattice and behaves as an efficient n-type dopant in Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}. Similar to the effect of Sb, Bi doping greatly increases the electron density and the power factor, and reduces the lattice thermal conductivity of Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} solid solutions. Overall, the thermoelectric figure of merit of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} solid solutions is improved by about 10% in comparison to values obtained with Sb-doped materials of comparable dopant content. This improvement comes chiefly from a marginally higher Seebeck coefficient of Bi-doped solid solutions. The highest ZT?1.4 is achieved for the y=0.03 composition at 800 K. - Graphical abstract: (a)The relationship between electrical conductivity and power factor for Sb/Bi-doped Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}(Sb/Bi){sub y} (0solid solutions. (b)The correlation between temperature and the combination of the lattice and the bipolar terms of thermal conductivity of Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}Bi{sub y} (0?y?0.03) solid solutions. (c)Temperature dependent dimensionless figure of merit ZT of Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}Bi{sub y} (0?y?0.03) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Bi doped Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} showed 15% enhancement in the power factor as compared to Sb doped samples. • Bi doping reduced ?{sub ph} of Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} due to stronger point defect scattering. • The highest ZT=1.4 at 800 K was achieved for Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 0.97}Bi{sub 0.03}.

Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Kang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chi, Hang; Zhou, Xiaoyuan [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tang, Xinfeng, E-mail: tangxf@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Uher, Ctirad, E-mail: cuher@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Low-Cost High-Performance Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on MnO2 Nanowires and Fe2O3 Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, super- capacitors (SCs) have attracted much attention due to their high power density and exceptionally

Wang, Zhong L.

348

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

349

Novel phosphors for solid state lighting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

Furman, Joshua D

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

350

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The...

351

Solid Waste Management Written Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid Waste Management Program Written Program Cornell University 8/28/2012 #12;Solid Waste.................................................................... 4 4.2.1 Compost Solid Waste Treatment Facility.................................................................... 4 4.2.2 Pathological Solid Waste Treatment Facility

Pawlowski, Wojtek

352

Subdue solids in towers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many distillation, absorption, and stripping columns operate with solids present in the system. The presence of solids may be either intentional or unintentional. But, in all cases, the solids must be handled or tolerated by the vapor/liquid mass-transfer equipment. Such solids should be dealt with by a combination of four methods. From most favorable to least favorable, these are: (1) keep the solids out; (2) keep the solids moving; (3) put the solids somewhere harmless; and (4) make it easier to clean the hardware. The key precept for all these approaches is the realization that solids present in a system just don't disappear. In this article, the authors review the techniques and design issues involved in making a vapor/liquid mass-transfer system operate with solids present. They assume that the solids cannot be kept out, eliminating the first choice. The type of mass-transfer service does not matter. The same principles apply equally well to distillation, adsorption, and stripping. They include equipment design criteria based on the methods outlined above, as well as detailed recommendations for each of the major equipment choices that can be made for mass-transfer devices. Then, they illustrate the approach via an example--a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) unit having solids as an inherent part of its feed.

Sloley, A.W.; Martin, G.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Solids fluidizer-injector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

Bulicz, T.R.

1990-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

Scalar operators in solid-state NMR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

Sun, Boqin

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Passivation-free solid state battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

356

Passivation-free solid state battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Trichloroethene Removal From Waste Gases in Anaerobic Biotrickling Filters Through Reductive Dechlorination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reductive dechlorination of PCE. Environ. Sci. Technol 2003,588. Kim, J. O. Gaseous TCE and PCE removal by an activatedTsotsis, T. T. Degradation of PCE in an anaerobic waste gas

Popat, Sudeep Chandrakant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

Foucault, Lucas Jose

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

activity and tlie pattern of oxygen debt in the West African caecilian... ;BENNETT AND WAKE-METABOLISM IN A CAECILIAN 767 its energetic production is anaerobic, or 7.3 times as...

360

Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

Lam, Raymond H. W.

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic digestion held Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

anaerobic digestion held Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook Summary: 1 www.manuremanagement.cornell.edu Biogas Casebook: NYS On-farm...

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic biological reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Environment & Resources Online monitoring and control Summary: . 12;12;4 2. The biogas process Anaerobic digestion is a multi-step biological process where... H drop (<6)...

364

Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

Zaks, David P. M.

365

The incidence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in the equine uterus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that anaerobic bacteria may participate in inflammatory processes of the equine uterus (Kenney 1978a, Reynolds 1978, Ricketts 1981, Brook 1984). Elliott et al. (1971) conducted a study to obtain uterine cultures under anaerobic conditions but failed to obtain... not definitively been proven whether the normal equine uterine environment is sterile (Peterson et al. 1969, Hughes 1978) or if bacteria may normally be present in the non-inflamed uterus (Farrelly and Mullaney 1964, Kenney 1978a, Samuel et al. 1979). Knudsen...

Bolinger, Dean Roger

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Layed Perovskite PRBA0.5SR0.5CO205 as High Performance Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuels Using Photon Conducting Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The layered perovskite PrBa{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} (PBSC) was investigated as a cathode material for a solid oxide fuel cell using a proton-conducting electrolyte based on BaCe{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.2}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCYZ). The sintering conditions for the PBSC-BCYZ composite cathode were optimized resulting in the lowest area-specific resistance and apparent activation energy obtained with the cathode sintered at 1200 C for 2h. The maximum power densities of the PBSC-BCYZ/BZCY/NiO-BCYZ cell were 0.179, 0.274, 0.395, and 0.522 Wcm{sup -2} at 550, 600, 650, and 700 C, respectively with a 15{micro}m thick electrolyte. A relatively low cell interfacial polarization resistance of 0.132 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 700 C indicated that the PBSC-BCYZ could be a good cathode candidate for intermediate temperature SOFCs with proton-conducting electrolyte.

Brinkman, K.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

367

The effect of counterface on the tribological performance of a high temperature solid lubricant composite from 25 to 650{degree}C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of counterface selection on the tribological performance of a Ag/BaF{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} containing composite coating is studied. Ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and metal (Inconel X-750) pins are slid against PS300 (a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with Ag and BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} lubricant additives) in a pin-on-disk tribometer at 25, 500 and 650 C. Compared to the ceramic counterface, the metal counterface generally exhibited lower friction and wear at 25 C but higher friction and wear at 650 C. Friction coefficients, for example, for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination at 25 C were 0.64 compared to 0.23 for the Inconel/PS300 sliding couple. At 650 C the ranking was reversed. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination gave a friction coefficient of 0.19 while the friction for the metal counterface increased slightly to about 0.3. Based upon these tribological results and other information found in the literature, it appears that the performance of each counterface/PS300 combination is affected by the ability of the solid lubricant additives to form an adequate transfer film. The effects of surface wettability and tribological compatibility are discussed in relation to the observed tribological results.

DellaCorte, C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Solid Waste Management (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Solid waste facilities operating in Connecticut must abide by these regulations, which describe requirements and procedures for issuing construction and operating permits; environmental...

369

Solid Electrolyte Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kim Texas Materials Institute The University of Texas at Austin Solid Electrolyte Batteries This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. DOE...

370

Solid Waste Management (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

371

Solid Waste Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the rules and regulations governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery, and reuse of solid waste protect the air,...

372

Solid-State Lighting  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

research and design. Quality LED luminaires require program designed to successfully move solid-state lighting precise design of several components -LED arrays, electronic into the...

373

Solid Waste Management (Michigan)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that...

374

Solid-state NMR imaging system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Dieckman, Stephen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Solid fuel applications to transportation engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

5500XL SOLiD Sequencers | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

its ability to persist for the... Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1. The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter...

378

SYNERGIA Forum Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ERT Germany "Biogas utilization: Comparison between sanitary landfills and anaerobic digestionERT Germany, WTE Plants in Germany" Michael Jakuttis, Dipl.Ing. Wt

Columbia University

379

Effects of TNT and its metabolites on anaerobic TNT degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of the presence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene on the anaerobic treatment procedure developed for munitions-contaminated soil were examined. When 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene was spiked in increasing levels into cultures containing TNT, inhibition of the rate of TNT degradation was observed. The degradation of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene did not proceed while TNT was present in the cultures. When 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was spiked into cultures that also contained TNT, TNT degradation rates were inhibited, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene were not degraded at all. When 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was spiked into cultures containing 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, degradation of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene was not effected but 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was not degraded. These results suggest that the rapid removal of TNT from the treatment system, before the intermediates have a chance to accumulate, or the rapid removal of the intermediates of TNT degradation is of utmost importance during the remediation of TNT-contaminated soils. If these intermediates are allowed to accumulate above inhibitory levels, the degradation of TNT will be slowed and the removal of the intermediates will halt completely.

Roberts, D.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pendharkar, S. [Computron, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Ahmad, F. [Booz, Allen and Hamilton, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Municipal Solid Waste-Sewage Sludge. b 4.15 SCF CH 4 / cu ftUP I j methane 31.5 scf sludge 18.61b water 161b Btu/scfsewer 65.3 lb ( 7.9 gal) sludge ash 1.74 lb stack emissions

Haven, Kendall F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid...

384

Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Is., SC, June 4-8, 2000 1 DEMONSTRATION OF A MICROFABRICATED HIGH-SPEED TURBINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as it accelerates. The turbine rotor blades turn the flow back toward radial, extracting angular momentum-bonded stack of five aligned, through-etched wafers. The rotor is a planar disk with radial turbine blades OF A MICROFABRICATED HIGH-SPEED TURBINE SUPPORTED ON GAS BEARINGS Luc G. Fréchette, Stuart A. Jacobson, Kenneth S

Frechette, Luc G.

385

System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive thermodynamic description of the chemical evolution of organic matter with increasing depth in sedimentary basins.

Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid...

388

Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

389

Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The results obtained from this study showed that the test area contamination is extremely heterogeneous, and that it contains extremely high levels of the three major contaminants, HMX, RDX and TNT. The potential for success of a bioremediation strategy is discussed.

Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly to their high-energy density, Li ion batteries (LIBs) are attractive for these applications, and all-solid-state

Rubloff, Gary W.

391

Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act establishes rules for the permitting, posting of security, construction, operation, closure, maintenance and remediation of solid waste disposal sites; disposal of solid waste in ways that...

392

Solid Waste Rules (New Hampshire)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The solid waste statute applies to construction and demolition debris, appliances, recyclables, and the facilities that collect, process, and dispose of solid waste. DES oversees the management of...

393

Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

394

SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE SCHEDULES ON NARP IN SOUTHERN YELLOW-temperature (ET) from ET and HT schedules. and a high-temperature (HT) schedule. Wood properties including juvenile wood content, density, ring count, largest knot area, presence of pith, moisture content

395

Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. Over 100 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400--450{degrees}C. The use of higher temperatures should be avoided if liquids are the.desired product. Although, these results are preliminary they are also very encouraging.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solid Waste Management (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct,...

398

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Comparison of a One-Dimensional Model of a High-Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Stack with CFD and Experimental Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional model has been developed to predict the thermal and electrochemical behavior of a high-temperature steam electrolysis stack. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The model includes a temperature-dependent area-specific resistance (ASR) that accounts for the significant increase in electrolyte ionic conductivity that occurs with increasing temperature. Model predictions are shown to compare favorably with results obtained from a fully 3-D computational fluid dynamics model. The one-dimensional model was also employed to demonstrate the expected trends in electrolyzer performance over a range of operating conditions including isothermal, adiabatic, constant steam utilization, constant flow rate, and the effects of operating temperature.

J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

403

Solid state switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

A 58.4mW Solid-State Power Amplifier at 220 GHz using InP HBTs Abstract --A 220 GHz solid state power amplifier MMIC is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 58.4mW Solid-State Power Amplifier at 220 GHz using InP HBTs Abstract -- A 220 GHz solid state, Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA). I. INTRODUCTION Future high resolution imaging systems and high bandwidth communications systems will benefit from the continued development of solid-state power amplifiers

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

405

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate, chelated ferric iron or nitrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate-mail: alvarez@rice.edu) Key words: anaerobic biostimulation, bioremediation, BTEX, ethanol, natural attenuation­Fe(III) or nitrate to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX and ethanol mixtures. The rapid biodegradation of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

406

Solid phase microextraction field kit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solid-state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, I.T.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Structural Integrity Program for INTEC Calcined Solids Storage Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual'. Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

Jeffrey Bryant

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated solid-state synthesis Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is published by the American Chemical Summary: Article High-Contrast Solid-State Electrochromic Devices of Viologen-Bridged Polysilsesquioxane... this article 12;High-Contrast...

410

Simulation of low temperature anaerobic digestion of dairy and swine manure q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the primary biogas component at approximately 10°C. Thus, digestion Bioresource Technology 78 (2001) 127±131 qSimulation of low temperature anaerobic digestion of dairy and swine manure q D.T. Hill *, S performance data from digesters using animal waste in this temperature range have been lacking, thus allowing

411

Testing the profitability of Anaerobic Digestion in a large-scale UK dairy farm   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Digestion (AD) consists in the transformation of any organic non-woody material by micro-organisms into biogas. This biogas, composed of approximately 60 per cent methane can be further burnt and converted into electricity and heat. The UK...

Coz Leniz, Luis Fernando

2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

412

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced allow recycling of nutrients. Hence, bioprocessed sewage sludge application on agricultural soilRemoval of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N

413

Effect of a liquid multi-vitamin-mineral supplement on anaerobic exercise performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with a liquid multi-vitamin/mineral would improve anaerobic exercise performance. Fourteen resistance-trained men performed a 30-second cycle sprint and one set of squat exercise on 2...

Fry, Andrew C.; Bloomer, Richard J.; Falvo, Michael J.; Moore, Chris A.; Schilling, Brian K.; Weiss, Lawrence W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model N1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater Carlos García-Diéguez 1 , Olivier Bernard 2 , Enrique Roca 1, * 1 USC ­ PRODES for winery effluent wastewater. A new reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters

Boyer, Edmond

415

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used

Richner, Heinz

416

The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at the Hanford site in south- central Washington state. Benzoate in south- central Washington state has been a defense materials pro- duction complex since 1943. Carbon

Semprini, Lewis

418

ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and treatment structures. In a lagoon, organic waste is diluted with water and bacteria decompose the organic as fertilizer. Effluent also can be recycled for manure handling in a flush system. Efficiency To be efficient

Mukhtar, Saqib

419

Prolixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ferment sugars by using a mixed acid fermentation pathway and it can grow over a wide range with oxygen. Several organisms that are able to oxidize organic acids, such as acetate, to CO2 and utilizeProlixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe

Lovley, Derek

420

Solid state switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K. Han, “W-band, 5W Solid-State Power Amplifier/Combiner,”materials have made high-power solid-state power amplifiersCMOS RF power amplifier for GSM-EDGE,” IEEE J. Solid-State

Agah, Amir

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High sensitivity, solid state neutron detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus (200) for detecting slow or thermal neutrons (160) including an alpha particle-detecting layer (240) that is a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode structure. The apparatus includes a bottom metal contact (220) and a top metal contact (250) with the diode structure (240) positioned between the two contacts (220, 250) to facilitate detection of alpha particles (170). The apparatus (200) includes a neutron conversion layer (230) formed of a material containing boron-10 isotopes. The top contact (250) is pixilated with each contact pixel extending to or proximate to an edge of the apparatus to facilitate electrical contacting. The contact pixels have elongated bodies to allow them to extend across the apparatus surface (242) with each pixel having a small surface area to match capacitance based upon a current spike detecting circuit or amplifier connected to each pixel. The neutron conversion layer (860) may be deposited on the contact pixels (830) such as with use of inkjet printing of nanoparticle ink.

Stradins, Pauls; Branz, Howard M.; Wang, Qi; McHugh, Harold R.

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

Structure and dynamics studies by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The major goal of this work is the development of high resolution solid state 205T1 NMR techniques and their application to the elucidation of the mechanism and dynamics of ion exchange in biological solids. The thesis ...

Itin, Boris

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Novel Solid Base Catalysts for the Production of Biodiesel from Lipids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary commercial biodiesel production processes use homogeneous base catalysts which cause separation and wastewater discharge problems. Solid base catalysts can overcome these drawbacks. However, a solid base catalyst with high activity...

Zhao, Lina

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

425

A numerical framework for the direct simulation of solid-fluid systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our understanding of solid-fluid dynamics has been severely limited by the nonexistence of a high-fidelity modeling capability for these multiphase systems. Continuum modeling approaches overlook the microscale solid-fluid ...

Cook, Benjamin Koger, 1965-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Frustrated Organic Solids Display Unexpected Gas Sorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calixarene based organic solid can hold guests such as toluene and other organic molecules we have discovered a new type of material which believe involves a frustration of the solvate lattice as it moves toward the thermodynamically stable desolvated state. The intermediated phase with partial solvent content unexpectedly sorbs gases such as carbon dioxide and highly explosive acetylene deep inside the crystal lattice.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

427

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

429

Solid polymer electrolyte compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

Skotheim, T.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

431

Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and storage and green manufacturing. Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science BostonUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in terms

Lin, Xi

432

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Solid Waste Management Program (Missouri)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Solid Waste Management Program in the Department of Natural Resources regulates the management of solid waste in the state of Missouri. A permit is required prior to the construction or...

435

Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

436

Solid Waste Act (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The main purpose of the Solid Waste Act is to authorize and direct the establishment of a comprehensive solid waste management program. The act states details about specific waste management...

437

Delaware Solid Waste Authority (Delaware)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) runs three landfills, all of which recover methane and generate electricity with a total capacity of 24 MWs. The DSWA Solid Waste Plan includes goals,...

438

Heat Recovery From Solid Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc....

Underwood, O. W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

anaerobic chelate bioegradation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

440

anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment...

442

anaerobic digestion processes: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

443

anaerobic sludge digestion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

444

anaerobic digestion process: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

445

anaerobic digestion systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

446

anaerobic methanotrophic archaea: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

447

anaerobic digestion system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

448

anaerobe clostridium acetobutylicum: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

449

Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D. [Advanced Methods and Materials, Inc., 1190 Mountain View-Alviso Road, Suite P, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Houts, Mike [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

450

A blurred interface formulation of The Reference Map Technique for Fluid-Solid Interactions and Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we present a blurred interface method for Fluid-Solid Interactions (FSI) and multiple solids immersed in a fluid or FSSI (Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions) based on the reference map technique as presented by ...

Valkov, Boris Ivanov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solar solids reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

Yudow, B.D.

1986-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

452

Solar solids reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

Su, Qing

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

455

Thermodynamic optimization of a planar solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high temperature (600C-1000C) composite metallic/ceramic-cermet electrochemical devices. There is a need to effectively manage the heat transfer through the… (more)

Ford, James Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

Yoon, Jongsik

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Modeling and design of semi-solid flow batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A three-dimensional dynamic model of the recently introduced semi-solid flow battery system is developed and applied to address issues with important design and operation implications. Because of the high viscosity of ...

Brunini, Victor Eric

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Low dimensional model of heart rhythm dynamics as a tool for diagnosing the anaerobic threshold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report preliminary results on describing the dependence of the heart rhythm variability on the stress level by using qualitative, low dimensional models. The reconstruction of macroscopic heart models yielding cardio cycles (RR-intervals) duration was based on actual clinical data. Our results show that the coefficients of the low dimensional models are sensitive to metabolic changes. In particular, at the transition between aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic metabolism, there are pronounced extrema in the functional dependence of the coefficients on the stress level. This strong sensitivity can be used to design an easy indirect method for determining the anaerobic threshold. This method could replace costly and invasive traditional methods such as gas analysis and blood tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Anosov, O.L. [Institute of Physiology, Charite Humboldt-University at Berlin, Berlin, D-10117 (Germany)] [Regional. Cardio Center, Vladimir, (Russia); Butkovskii, O.Y. [Vladimir State Technical University, 87, Gorki St., Vladimir, 600026 (Russia); Kadtke, J. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Science University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Kravtsov, Y.A. [Space Research Institute of RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaja St., Moscow, 117810 (Russia); Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6364 (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

Unknown

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Calcined solids storage facility closure study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others] [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Modeling a distribution of point defects as misfitting inclusions in stressed solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as in the case of solid solution strengthening, or undesirable effects, as with hydrogen embrittlement-stress limit. Key words: solute, point defect, hydrogen, inclusion, dislocation 1 Introduction Solid solutions and Physics of Solids (2014) #12;or processing, or via attack by highly permeable contaminants (e.g. hydrogen

Cai, Wei

464

Fully conservative leak-proof treatment of thin solid structures immersed in compressible fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, embedded moving solid structures. The scheme works by coupling together a high order flux-based methodFully conservative leak-proof treatment of thin solid structures immersed in compressible fluids cells and partial volumes that arise near a thin solid structure. The conservative semi

Fedkiw, Ron

465

Anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater and substrate interactions with isopropanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modified biological methane-potential tests were used to study the treatment of wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 40,000 mg/L and a sulfate concentration of 5,000 mg/L. The effects of wastewater concentrations on biodegradation and substrate interactions between sulfate reducers and methanogens were studied. Isopropanol (IPA) degradation was studied since isopropyl acetate was the major organic component in the wastewater. Six sets of batch tests were done, including a series of tests with varying concentrations of wastewater; wastewater and glucose; glucose and sulfate; IPA; IPA and glucose; and IPA, glucose, and sulfate. Sulfur and electron balances were used to analyze data to determine the extent of biodegradation from both methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. IPA did not appear to be inhibitory to methanogenesis or sulfate reduction. In comparison to glucose, the presence of wastewater or isopropanol stimulated greater sulfate-reduction efficiency. Evidence for IPA degradation was observed, and IPA degradation was stimulated in the presence of sulfate. Continuous feed-reactor results corroborated batch-test observations.

Fox, P.; Ketha, S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Final performance report, June 1, 1990--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

1. A vertical post 2.5-meters high must support a lateral load P = 12 kN at its upper end. Two plans are proposed -a solid wood post and a hollow aluminum tube. (a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plans are proposed -a solid wood post and a hollow aluminum tube. (a) What is the minimum required is the minimum diameter d2of the aluminum tube if its wall thickness is to be one-eight of the outer diameter and the allowable bending stress in the aluminum is 50Mpa ? (20 points) 2. The composite beam shown in figure below

Huang, Haimei

470

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wells ranging in depth from 1.3 to 11 m that were oriented parallel to the flow path. The center of the leachate plume was characterized by (1) high alkalinity and elevated concentrations of total dissolved organic carbon, reduced iron, and methane...

Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated defect and DSA map overlay to failed die identified using end product probe test results. Results from our two year effort have led to “automated end-to-end defect detection” with full defect traceability and the ability to unambiguously correlate device killer defects to optically detected features and their point of origin within the process. Success of the program can be measured by yield improvements at our partner’s facilities and new product orders.

Meeks, Steven

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

Liu, Han (Waltham, MA); LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA); Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Natick, MA); McCallum, Thomas J. (Ashland, MA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

473

Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

K. Slifer

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

474

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

476

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

478

Solid Waste Management (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling...

479

Solid state 13C NMR in conducting polymers F. Devreux (*), G. Bidan (**), A. A. Syed(**,+) and C. Tsintavis (**)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1595 Solid state 13C NMR in conducting polymers F. Devreux (*), G. Bidan (**), A. A. Syed al. [1], the so-called solid-state high-resolution 13C NMR (CMR) could be a promis- ing way material for battery appli- cations. 2. Experimental High resolution CMR is achieved in solids by averag

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

480

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high solids anaerobic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste Landfills In CitiesLandfills In Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waste by windrow composting, in-vessel composting, vermi-composting, anaerobic digestion, pelletisation etc. Processing of MSW #12;Processing of MSW · Windrow composting · In-vessel composting · Vermi-composting

Columbia University

482

Solid state rapid thermocycling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

483

Solid and gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids covered during the period of October 1984 through Sept 30, 1986. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as the reference sources. In most categories the volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review.

Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Frommell, E.A.; Flenory, P.B.

1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72.

Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

485

Thermal and electrical stabilities of solid nitrogen (SN2) cooled YBCO coated conductors for HTS magnet applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, a cooling system using a solid cryogen such as solid nitrogen (SN2), was introduced for high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet applications. In order to apply the SN2 cooling system successfully to HTS ...

Song, J. B.

486

Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

Kurtz, S.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

SOLIDS PRECIPITATION EVENT IN MCU CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM SOLIDS RECOVERY TEAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process upset occurred in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility on April 6th, 2014. During recovery efforts, a significant amount of solids were found in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Salt Solution Receipt Tanks (SSRTs), two extraction contactors, and scrub contactors. The solids were identified by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as primarily sodium oxalate and sodium alumina silicate (NAS) with the presence of some aluminum hydroxide. NAS solids have been present in the SSFT since simulant runs during cold chemical startup of MCU in 2007, and have not hindered operations since that time. During the process upset in April 2014, the oxalate solids partially blocked the aqueous outlet of the extraction contactors, causing salt solution to exit through the contactor organic outlet to the scrub contactors with the organic phase. This salt solution overwhelmed the scrub contactors and passed with the organic phase to the strip section of MCU. The partially reversed flow of salt solution resulted in a Strip Effluent (SE) stream that was high in Isopar™ L, pH and sodium. The primary cause of the excessive solids accumulation in the SSRTs and SSFT at MCU is attributed to an increase in the frequency of oxalic acid cleaning of the 512-S primary filter. Agitation in the SSRTs at MCU in response to cold weather likely provided the primary mechanism to transfer the solids to the contactors. Sources of the sodium oxalate solids are attributed to the oxalic acid cleaning solution used to clean the primary filter at the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) filtration at 512-S, as well as precipitation from the salt batch feed, which is at or near oxalate saturation. The Solids Recovery Team was formed to determine the cause of the solids formation and develop recommendations to prevent or mitigate this event in the future. A total of 53 recommendations were generated. These recommendations were organized into 4 focus areas: • Improve understanding of oxalate equilibrium and kinetics in salt solutions • Reduction/elimination of oxalic acid cleaning in 512-S • Flowsheet optimization • Improving diagnostic capability The recommendations implemented prior to resumption of MCU operations provide a risk mitigation or detection function through additional sampling and observation. The longer term recommendations provide a framework to increase the basic process knowledge of both oxalate chemistry and filtration behavior and then facilitate decisions that improve the salt flowsheet as a system.

Garrison, A.; Aponte, C.

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

488

Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

489

Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

490

Investigation of possible alternate end products of anaerobic metabolism in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

accumulated due to anoxia in the fish was lactate. Succinate and alanine showed slight or no accumulation with t1me. Alanine actually showed reduced pool size due to anox1a and hypoxia as compared to 1n vitro aerobic tissue pool-size. Even though in vivo... anaerobic tissues showed only slightly elevated and time constant lactate concentrat1ons compared to 1n vitro aerob1c tissue, a C tracer ind1cated accumulation and an efflux 14 w1th1n the lactate pool. Total act1vity decreased with t1me. There- fore...

Trant, John Miller

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Resource recovery and epidemiology of anaerobic wastewater treatment process in a controlled ecological life support system. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of work accomplished under two different areas: (1) Resource Recovery of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment process, and (2) Epidemiological Study of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Process are documented. The first part of the work was to set up and test three anaerobic digesters and then run these three digesters with a NASA-simulated wastewater. The second part of the work was to use a multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis as the indicator bacteria for the epidemiological study. Details of these two parts can be found in two master`s theses and are described in Sections 3 and 4 of this report. Several important results condensed from these two parts are summarized in Section 2.

Li, K.; Hunt, M.D.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A, GRAETZ, AND K. R. REDDY2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

information deals with land ap- plication of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and on- ly limited data such as plant biomass, sewage sludge, or animal wastes is used to generate CH4 and stabilized organic waste, or preferably utilized, in an environmentally safe manner. Disposal of the anaerobically digested sludge by land

Florida, University of

493

Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen1,4 and Francis Mairet2 and Pierre Martinon3 and Matthieu Sebbah4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen1,4 and Francis the production of methane in a bioreactor coupling an anaerobic digester and a culture of micro-algae limited-dimensional system taking into account a day-night model of the light in the culture of micro-algae. Applying

Boyer, Edmond

494

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in an iron-rich Danish freshwater lake sediment Katrin a. Nori,a,* Bo Thamdrup,a and Carsten J. Schubert b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic oxidation of methane in an iron-rich Danish freshwater lake sediment Katrin a´. Norði Freshwater systems are identified as one of the main natural methane sources, but little is known about the importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in these systems. We investigated AOM in a lake sediment

Wehrli, Bernhard

495

Solid state safety jumper cables  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

496

Solid state safety jumper cables  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Solid Xenon Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek [University of Florida (United States); Mahapatra, Rupak [Texas A and M University (United States); Yoo, Jonghee [FNAL (United States)

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

498

Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis Prepared By: Mitchell Johnson Alex Sonnichsen #12;Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis May 2012 Page 1 Summary This study examines the economic impact of the solid waste management system

Oregon, University of

499

Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

 It is the purpose of this Act to reduce reliance on land disposal of solid waste, to encourage and promote alternative means of managing solid waste, and to assist local governments with solid...

500

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy