Sample records for high solids anaerobic

  1. High-solids anaerobic digestion of mixed municipal and industrial waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory studies on dry anaerobic digestion of mixture of paper, kitchen food waste, and sewage sludge have demonstrated the optimum performance at total solids (TS) at the range of 30--35% TS. The thermophilic process (at 55 C) was found to be superior to a mesophilic (35 C) one, both in terms of volatile solid (VS) reduction and specific gas production, but was somewhat less stable at short mass retention times (MRT). The efficiency of total volatile solids destruction and the decrease in the oxygen demand were found to be proportional to the product of the mass retention time and temperature (d {center_dot} C). Pilot studies, conducted on a mixture of sewage sludge, mixed paper, food waste, and solids from a potato processing conducted on site in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada, have demonstrated the feasibility of running the process at loads exceeding 9 kg TS/m{sup 3} {center_dot} d and producing biogas at 140 m{sup 3} of wet solids fed to the composter. The residual oxygen demand per unit mass of the dry compost was 20 mg O{sub 2}/g {center_dot} h, which indicated a need for aerobic postcuring of the anaerobically produced compost.

  2. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  3. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  4. Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA ABSTRACT: Composting industry is a progressive and innovative industry that has been and processes on composting and anaerobic digestion are compiled, showing the versatility and multivariable

  5. An environmental assessment of recovering methane from municipal solid waste by anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, P.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an experimental process which produces synthetic natural gas (SNG) or biogas by anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is evaluated. This technology, if implemented, would be utilized in lieu of incineration or directly landfilling waste. An environmental assessment describing the principal impacts associated with operating the MSW anaerobic digestion process is presented. Variations in process configurations provide for SNG or electricity production and digester residue incineration, composting, or landfilling. Four process configuration are compared to the conventional solid waste disposal alternative of mass burn incineration and landfilling. Emissions are characterized, effluents quantified, and landfill areas predicted. The quantity of SNG and electricity recovered, and aluminum and ferrous metals recycled is predicted along with the emissions and effluents avoided by recovering energy and recycling metals. Air emissions are the primary on-site concern with the anaerobic digestion process. However, when compared to mass burn incineration, the projected particulate emissions for the anaerobic digestion process range from 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.6 {times} {sup 10{minus}5} pounds per ton of waste vs. 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} pounds per ton for mass burn. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and PCCD emissions have a similar relationship.

  6. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  7. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stabnikova, O. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: costab@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  9. A Review of Today's Anaerobic Diges6on Technology of Organic Municipal Solid Waste and Its Implementa6on in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    . Organic Municipal Solid Waste Management · 19.74 million tons of organic waste or 4,935 kWh can be produced from organic municipal solid waste per yearA Review of Today's Anaerobic Diges6on Technology of Organic Municipal Solid

  10. April 16, 2013 Webinar: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar was held April 16, 2013, and provided information on San Jose, California's, commercial-scale, high solids dry fermentation anaerobic digestion system, and the Forest County Potawatomi...

  11. ANAEROBIC RESISTANCE TO HIGH LEVELS OF CADMIUM AND OTHER TOXIC METALS IN A FACULTATIVE ANAEROBE ISOLATED FROM PRISTINE SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHARMA,P.K.; VAIRAVAMURTHY,A.; KIELECZAWA,J.

    1999-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have isolated many Cd (II) resistant bacterial strains from relatively pristine sediments collected from salt marshes in Shelter Island, New York. Detailed studies are being performed on one isolate, strain Cd-1. Strain Cd-1 is metabolically diverse, halotolerant, Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe. It can resist high amounts of Cd (II), Cr (VI), As (V), Se (IV), Co (II), Pb (II), or Zn (II) under defined anaerobic conditions. With pyruvate as the energy source, Cd-1 can grow well at examined Cd (II) concentrations ranging up to 15 mM. It can resist Cd (II) with or without marine level NaCl concentration, under acidic or neutral conditions. It can resist Cd (II) under aerobic conditions as well. These features are novel for a heavy metal resistant bacterium.

  12. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L., E-mail: lucia.martin@uab.ca [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Colturato, L.F. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, X.; Vicent, T. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA) Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  14. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  15. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  16. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  17. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  18. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  19. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  20. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the â??anti-quenchingâ?ť behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, â??largeâ?ť nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

  1. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  2. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  3. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  4. The Anaerobic Digestion of Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Separation in California 2.3. Biochemical Process 2.4. End-use 2.4.1. Biogas 2.4.1. Biomethane 2.5. Current and commercialization. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic municipal solid waste and subsequent biogas and methane as biomethane production; by emphasizing these benefits and implementing certain policies, expanding

  5. Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    samples are overwhelmingly in favor of AD technology. Keywords Anaerobic digester, biogas, electricityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase II - A Survey who took concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation

  6. High power solid state laser modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  7. Characterization and environmental studies of Pompano Beach anaerobic digestion facility. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S; Gerrish, H P; Wong, K F; Nemerow, N; Daly, Jr, E L; Farooq, S; Chriswell, C

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. If centralized anaerobic digestion plants are to be environmentally viable, the characteristics and environmental effects of effluents from these plants must be acceptable. The environmental concerns are particularly acute where ground water supplies are precariously low and the water table is high, South Florida is such a location. A characterization and environmental study was initiated by the Resource Recovery Group on August 1978. The specific objectives are: (1) systematic characterization of solid, liquid and gaseous inputs and outputs; (2) investigations of leaching characteristic of output solid and liquid effluents, and the transport of pollutants to and through ground water systems; and (3) analysis of environmental and process parameters to obtain causal relationships.

  8. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  9. High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Molybdenum Solid Solution Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, I.; Murty, K.L. [College of Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demanding material requirements for space nuclear power systems have called for the use of refractory alloys. Molybdenum alloys are such candidate materials because of their good mechanical properties at fairly high temperatures, low neutron capture cross-section, and superior resistance to the attack of liquid metals. However, conventional Mo alloys have low ductility at lower temperatures. Hence, there have been several attempts to improve their viability. One of those approaches has been to alloy Mo with various alloying additions in solid solution, most notably with rhenium (Re). In this study the high temperature deformation behavior of various Mo-X (X Re, W, Nb, Hf) alloys is reviewed. High temperature deformation data for these solid solution alloys are analyzed in the light of existing deformation theories. Alloys with both Class-M and -A type behavior are identified and thus, various mechanisms are found to operate. Sometimes data interpretation becomes difficult due to the presence of second phase particles. Results are compared with unalloyed Mo to bring out the importance of solid solution alloying. (authors)

  10. High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide unstable cavity: Misprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

    1 High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide unstable cavity: Misprints D. Kouznetsov. Kouznetsov, J.-F. Bisson, K. Takaichi K. Ueda. High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide

  11. Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

  12. Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum-Contaminated Harbor Sediments under Sulfate of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in- situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum- contaminated did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    technology. Keywords Anaerobic digester, biogas, electricity production, manure management #12;4 TableArnold Schwarzenegger Governor ANAEROBIC DIGESTER IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Phase I - A Survey of U concrete steps to install an anaerobic digestion (AD) facility and documentation of the factors

  14. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL’s test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

  15. Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow, Christopher

    be as efficient as bioethanol production, which reaches commercial viability through anaerobic, high

  16. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  17. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  18. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zhuang; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  19. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  20. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  1. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, A. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall,the first and second enrichments increased 4-fold for

  2. Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Andrzej J. Fiedler ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in an open-air wind tunnel facility to investigate the effects of preset toe-in and toe-out turbine blade

  3. Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar Sohal

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

  4. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

  5. High harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mengxi; Reis, David A; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the generation of high harmonic radiation by Bloch electrons in a model transparent solid driven by a strong mid-infrared laser field. We solve the single-electron time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (TDSE) using a velocity-gauge method [New J. Phys. 15, 013006 (2013)] that is numerically stable as the laser intensity and number of energy bands are increased. The resulting harmonic spectrum exhibits a primary plateau due to the coupling of the valence band to the first conduction band, with a cutoff energy that scales linearly with field strength and laser wavelength. We also find a weaker second plateau due to coupling to higher-lying conduction bands, with a cutoff that is also approximately linear in the field strength. To facilitate the analysis of the time-frequency characteristics of the emitted harmonics, we also solve the TDSE in a time-dependent basis set, the Houston states [Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986)], which allows us to separate inter-band and intra-band contributions to the time-depe...

  6. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

  7. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  8. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  9. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  10. High-Solids Enzymatic Saccharification Screening Method for Lignocellulosic Biomass (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roche, C. M.; Stickel, J. J.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to screen new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions is key to developing economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. While much research is being invested in developing pretreatment technologies and enzyme systems that will more efficiently convert cellulosic biomass to sugars, the current standard reactor vessel, a shake flask, that is used for screening enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass is inadequate at high-solids conditions. Shake flasks do not provide adequate mixing at high solids conditions. In this work, a roller bottle reactor was identified as a small-scale high-solids saccharification reaction vessel, and a method was developed for use in screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. This new method addresses mixing issues observed in high-solids saccharifications. In addition, yield calculations from sugar concentrations on a mass basis were used to account for the two-phase nature of the saccharification slurry, which eliminates discontinuities in comparing high-solids to low-solids saccharifications that occur when using concentrations on a volume basis. The roller bottle reactors out-performed the shake flasks by 5% for an initial insoluble solids loading of 15% and 140% for an initial soluble solids loading of 30%. The reactor system and method was compared at bench and floor scales and determined to be scalable for initial insoluble solids loading in the range of 15% to 30%. Pretreatment and enzyme screening results indicate that mid severity pretreated biomass is more digestible than the low and high severity biomass and GC220 is a superior enzyme to Spezyme CP.

  11. EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  13. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

  14. Determination of moisture in solids using high frequency methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Melven Boyd

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~, An induction-Ccpacit Oscillator of Unusual Fre uenc Stabi lit-, Proc ~ I. -". ". , larch, 1948 ~ (14) Glass':one, Samuel, Textbook of Physical Chemistry? D. Tan Nostrand Companv, Ino. , New York, 1947 pp 417 (15) Ibid, pp, 333 ... and low melting solids ~ . '. :eascrement of a change in a physical consL'ant ro deucrcc ne moisture content is incorporated in many methods' The chango in dielectric constant has been used with some success (0, 7 ' 8), 'cut s. "a' n it has boon more...

  15. Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labscale Evaluation of Biomass-Derived Elements Used in Anaerobic Digestion This report presents performance data for an anaerobic digestion system (at a 10-liter scale) utilizing corncob biochar as biofilm support. The system operated on grease-trap wastewater and high-rate anaerobic digestion of this material

  16. Bibliography on anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishna, J.; Pruett, D.M.; Santerre, M.T.; Toyoshiba, T.S.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The priority assigned to biogas systems by participants in A.I.D's Energy for Rural Development Program spurred the compilation of this 373-item bibliography on anaerobic digestion. The materials focus on energy technologies that are especially suited to the social, economic, and institutional concerns of rural Asia and the Pacific. Entries are presented in two sections. The first presents largely non-technical reports on anaerobic digesters in South and Southeast Asia, for the years 1956-80, with emphasis on the period 1970-80. The second section, which includes both technical and non-technical references, is a condensation of a computerized search of the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Research Abstracts published during the period 1977-80. The search revealed a lack of reliable data, pointing to the need for further research on the technology and potential of anaerobic digestion.

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  18. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  19. High temperature thermoelectric properties of the solid-solution zintl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs BosonAccurate knowledgeHighHigh

  20. Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    as food-processing wastes) to increase biogas productivity, improve digester performance, and increase with the manure--a process that has been shown to enhance digester performance and notably increase biogas1 Anaerobic Co-Digestion on Dairies in Washington State The solid waste handling permit exemption W

  1. Self-powered micro-structured solid state neutron detector with very low leakage current and high efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Self-powered micro-structured solid state neutron detector with very low leakage current and high, fabrication, and performance of solid-state neutron detector based on three-dimensional honeycomb-like silicon supply of 3 He gas.2 Solid state neutron detectors (SSND) can overcome many short- comings of gas tube

  2. High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

  3. Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and SuhImpact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams ImpactTerephthalate) Microcellular Foams Vipin KurnaW, Richard P Juntunena, and Chris Barlowb University of Washington, Seattle

  4. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1993-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the Shell staff who thought that esters of perfluoro salicylic acid might be an excellent antifriction additive for motor oil fuels. One of the best additives currently used in motor oils is the hydrocarbon ester of salicylic acid.

  5. ARTIFACT FORMATION IN HIGH VOLUME SAMPLING OF VOC's AND SOLID ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    when sampling polluted air. Purified air containing 180 ppbv ozone seems to destroy PAH according Atmospheriques, Boite 7059, UNIVERSITE PARIS 7, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 PARIS Cedex 05 ABSTRACT Pollutants from well äs solid (SOC's) organic compounds. High volume samplers are commonly used m air quality

  6. Two-beam high-order harmonics from solids: Coupling mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarasevitch, A.; Wieczorek, J.; Kohn, R.; Bovensiepen, U.; Linde, D. von der [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The polarization of the two beam (driver-probe) high-order harmonic generation from solids is measured. The experiments, together with computer simulations, allow us to distinguish two different coupling mechanisms of the driver and the probe, resulting in different harmonic efficiencies and spectral slopes. We find that in the nonrelativistic regime the coupling is mostly due to the nonlinear plasma density modulation.

  7. DNS AND LES WITH STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF SUBGRID ACCELERATION APPLIED TO SOLID PARTICLES IN A HIGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    implications for many environmental systems, from sediment transport to at- mospheric dispersion of pollutantsDNS AND LES WITH STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF SUBGRID ACCELERATION APPLIED TO SOLID PARTICLES IN A HIGH Stochastic Acceleration Model), in which an approximation to the instantaneous non-filtered velocity field

  8. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  9. A focusable, convergent fast-electron beam from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, R H H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel scheme for the creation of a convergent, or focussing, fast-electron beam generated from ultra-high-intensity laser-solid interactions is described. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are used to demonstrate the efficacy of this scheme in two dimensions. It is shown that a beam of fast-electrons of energy 500 keV - 3 MeV propagates within a solid-density plasma, focussing at depth. The depth of focus of the fast-electron beam is controlled via the target dimensions and focussing optics.

  10. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE (HID) SOLID STATE BALLAST PROGRAM PHASE I FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ailing, W.R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change in the output power for the solid state ballast asof the solid state ballast's constant output power withswitching power supplies such as the solid state ballast.

  11. Energy savings with solid-state ballasted high-pressure sodium lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of three types of solid-state ballasts used to operate high-pressure sodium lamps is discussed. Each type of solid-state ballast has been designed to operate an HPS lamp of a different wattage (150, 200, and 400 watts). The performance of these ballasts compared to standard core-coil ballasts operating the same HPS lamps shows that system efficiency improves as much as 17%. The solid-state ballasted HPS system also demonstrates excellent regulation with respect to input voltage and output power. These new ballasts can dim the HPS lamps and reduce flicker from more than 60% to less than 3%. Refitting street lighting with these new HPS systims provides an attractive return on initial capital investment.

  12. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  13. System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Akhilesh, E-mail: ajain@rrcat.gov.in; Sharma, D. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Lad, M. R.; Hannurkar, P. R. [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Pathak, S. K. [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)] [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8?MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

  14. Properties of molecular solids and fluids at high pressure and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etters, R.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This renewal request for DOE grant DE-FG02-86ER45238, is dedicated to providing a complete thermodynamic profile of solids fluids, and fluid mixtures, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. We are partially motivated by technological interest in detonation, combustion, superhard high pressure materials, and high temperature superconductors, which are important components of interest of various DOE laboratories. Our work on fluids and solids, composed of simple molecules, involves the determination of structures, phase transitions, pressure-volume relations, phonon, vibron, and libron modes of excitation, sound velocities, specific heats, thermal expansion, virial coefficients, sublimation energies, and orientational translational, and magnetic correlations. We hope that the study of these systems under extreme thermodynamic conditions will lead to exotic new materials of value, as well as enhanced fundamental understanding.

  15. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  16. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  17. REMOVAL OF SOLIDS FROM HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SOLUTIONS USING THE H-CANYON CENTRIFUGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T; Fernando Fondeur, F

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to the dissolution of Pu-containing materials in HB-Line, highly enriched uranium (HEU) solutions stored in Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 of H-Canyon must be transferred to provide storage space. The proposed plan is to centrifuge the solutions to remove solids which may present downstream criticality concerns or cause operational problems with the 1st Cycle solvent extraction due to the formation of stable emulsions. An evaluation of the efficiency of the H-Canyon centrifuge concluded that a sufficient amount (> 90%) of the solids in the Tank 11.1 and 12.2 solutions will be removed to prevent any problems. We based this conclusion on the particle size distribution of the solids isolated from samples of the solutions and the calculation of particle settling times in the centrifuge. The particle size distributions were calculated from images generated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean particle diameters for the distributions were 1-3 {micro}m. A significant fraction (30-50%) of the particles had diameters which were < 1 {micro}m; however, the mass of these solids is insignificant (< 1% of the total solids mass) when compared to particles with larger diameters. It is also probable that the number of submicron particles was overestimated by the software used to generate the particle distribution due to the morphology of the filter paper used to isolate the solids. The settling times calculated for the H-Canyon centrifuge showed that particles with diameters less than 1 to 0.5 {micro}m will not have sufficient time to settle. For this reason, we recommend the use of a gelatin strike to coagulate the submicron particles and facilitate their removal from the solution; although we have no experimental basis to estimate the level of improvement. Incomplete removal of particles with diameters < 1 {micro}m should not cause problems during purification of the HEU in the 1st Cycle solvent extraction. Particles with diameters > 1 {micro}m account for > 99% of the solid mass and will be efficiently removed by the centrifuge; therefore, the formation of emulsions during solvent extraction operations is not an issue. Under the current processing plan, the solutions from Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 will be transferred to the enriched uranium storage (EUS) tank following centrifugation. The solution from Tanks 11.1 and 12.2 may remain in the EUS tank for an extended time prior to purification. The effects of extended storage on the solution were not evaluated as part of this study.

  18. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) enable direct use of higher hydrocarbons4­6 , but have not been seriously con- sidered

  19. High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Mei

    High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1 H Revised 13 May 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Low-power decoupling Lipid membranes Solid such as WALTZ-16. We demonstrate this moderate MAS low-power decoupling technique on hydrated POPC lipid

  20. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  1. Air-Stable, High-Conduction Solid Electrolytes of Arsenic-Substituted Li4SnS4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion-conducting solid electrolytes show promise for enabling high-energy secondary battery chemistries and solving safety issues associated with conventional lithium batteries. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and outstanding chemical stability in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of solid electrolytes. Herein we report the design of aliovalent substitution of Li4SnS4 to achieve high conduction and excellent air stability based on the hard and soft acids and bases theory. The composition of Li3.833Sn0.833As 0.166S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.39 mS/cm 1 at 25 C. Considering the high Li+ transference number, this phase conducts Li+ as well as carbonate-based liquid electrolytes. This research also addresses the compatibility of the sulfide-based solid electrolytes through chemical passivation.

  2. Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara; Jian-Qiang Lu, James

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications; these detectors require high-voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when multiple detectors are used. In addition, due to recent increase in homeland security activity and the nuclear renaissance, there is a shortage of He-3, and these detectors become more expensive. Instead, cheap solid-state detectors that can be mass produced like any other computer chips will be developed. The new detector does not require a bias for operation, has low gamma sensitivity, and a fast response. The detection system is based on a honeycomb-like silicon device, which is filled with B-10 as the neutron converter; while a silicon p-n diode (i.e., solar cell type device) formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic charged particles emitted from the B-10 conversion layer. Such a detector has ~40% calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency with an overall detector thickness of about 200 ?m. Stacking of these devices allows over 90% thermal neutron detection efficiency. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a high-efficiency, low-noise, self-powered solid-state neutron detector system based on the promising results of the existing research program. A prototype of this solid-state neutron detector system with sufficient detector size (up to 8-inch diam., but still portable and inexpensive) and integrated with interface electronics (e.g., preamplifier) will be designed, fabricated, and tested as a coincidence counter for MPACT applications. All fabrications proposed are based on silicon-compatible processing; thus, an extremely cheap detector system could be massively produced like any other silicon chips. Such detectors will revolutionize current neutron detection systems by providing a solid-state alternative to traditional gas-based neutron detectors.

  3. Effect of pulping conditions and black liquor composition on Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of black liquor composition and solids concentrations on the Newtonian viscosity of slash pine black liquors over wide ranges of temperature (up to 140 C) and solids concentrations (between 50% and 83% solids) has been studied. It was found that the zero shear rate viscosity of high solids black liquors depends strongly on the cooking conditions and/or black liquor composition. Not only is high solids viscosity affected by lignin molecular weight and lignin concentration in the liquor but other organic and inorganic constituents of black liquor also make a significant contribution to viscosity. The dependency of zero shear rate viscosity on solids concentrations, and temperature is defined. The Newtonian viscosities vary over a wide range depending on temperature, solids concentrations and solids composition. The results indicate that, at fixed levels of effective alkali and sulfidity, the zero shear rate viscosities can be described as a function of both lignin concentration and lignin molecular weight. The viscosity of black liquor is an increasing function of the organics-to-inorganics ratio and is a decreasing function of the concentration of sodium and chloride ions and pH of the liquor.

  4. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials.

  5. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  6. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  7. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  8. New Composite Membranes for High Throughput Solid-Liquid Separations at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhave, Ramesh R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Composite Membranes for High Throughput Solid-Liquid Separations at the Savannah River Site R. Bhave (Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, TN) and M. R. Poirier* (Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC) Solid-liquid separation is the limiting step for many waste treatment processes at the Savannah River Site. SRNL researchers have identified the rotary microfilter as a technology to improve the rate of solid-liquid separation processes. SRNL is currently developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service and plans to deploy the technology as part of the small column ion exchange process. The rotary microfilter can utilize any filter media that is available as a flat sheet. The current baseline membrane is a 0.5 micron (nominal) porous metal filter (Pall PMM050). Previous testing with tubular filters showed that filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produce higher flux than filters composed only of porous metal. The authors are working to develop flat sheet filter media composed of a ceramic membrane and/or ceramic-metal composite on top of a porous stainless steel support that can be used with the rotary microfilter to substantially increase filter flux resulting in a more compact, energy efficient and cost-effective high level radioactive waste treatment system. Composite membranes with precisely controlled pore size distribution were fabricated on porous metal supports. High quality uniform porous metal (316SS) supports were fabricated to achieve high water permeability. Separative layers of several different materials such as ultrafine metal particles and ceramic oxides were used to fabricate composite membranes. The fabrication process involved several high temperature heat treatments followed by characterization of gas and liquid permeability measurements and membrane integrity analysis. The fabricated composite membrane samples were evaluated in a static test cell manufactured by SpinTek. The composite membranes were evaluated on several feed slurries: 1 wt. % strontium carbonate in deionized water, 1 wt. % monosodium titanate in simulated salt solution, and 1 wt. % simulated sludge in simulated salt solution and deionized water. Flux as a function of feed flow rate and transmembrane pressure was measured for each of the above described feed slurries. The authors will discuss the new membrane development efforts, waste slurry filtration performance evaluations and scale-up considerations.

  9. High energy electrons and nuclear phenomena in petawatt laser-solid experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, T. E.; Ditmire, T.; Hatchett, S.; Pennington, D. M.; Perry, M. D.; Phillips, T. W.; Wilks, S. C.; Young, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Dong, B.; Takahashi, Y. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Fountain, W.; Parnell, T. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Hunt, A. W. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Johnson, J. [University Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Kuehl, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petawatt laser at LLNL has opened a new regime of laser-matter interactions in which the quiver motion of plasma electrons is fully relativistic with energies extending well above the threshold for nuclear processes. We have developed broad-band magnetic spectrometers to measure the spectrum of high-energy electrons produced in laser-solid target experiments at the Petawatt, and have found that in addition to the expected flux of {approx}few MeV electrons characteristic of the ponderomotive potential, there is a high energy component extending to {approx}100 MeV apparently from plasma acceleration in the underdense pre-formed plasma. The generation of hard bremsstrahlung, photo-nuclear reactions, and preliminary evidence for positron-electron pair production will be discussed.

  10. High energy electrons and nuclear phenomena in petawatt laser-solid experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, T.E.; Ditmire, T.; Hatchett, S.; Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Phillips, T.W.; Wilks, S.C.; Young, P.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)] Dong, B. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Parnell, T.; Takahashi, Y. [Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)] Hunt, A.W. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] Johnson, J. [University Space Research Association, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)] Kuehl, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petawatt laser at LLNL has opened a new regime of laser-matter interactions in which the quiver motion of plasma electrons is fully relativistic with energies extending well above the threshold for nuclear processes. We have developed broad-band magnetic spectrometers to measure the spectrum of high-energy electrons produced in laser-solid target experiments at the Petawatt, and have found that in addition to the expected flux of {approximately}few MeV electrons characteristic of the ponderomotive potential, there is a high energy component extending to {approximately}100 MeV apparently from plasma acceleration in the underdense pre-formed plasma. The generation of hard bremsstrahlung, photo-nuclear reactions, and preliminary evidence for positron-electron pair production will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. 2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

  12. High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Stoots; James O'Brien; Stephen Herring; Keith Condie; Lisa Moore-McAteer; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Dennis Larsen

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.

  13. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  14. Solid-State Lighting with High Brightness, High Efficiency, and Low Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    -based lamp for lighthouse application were discussed at the system level ("Implementation and test of a LED- based lamp for a lighthouse" by L. Mercatelli et al.). Such applications of LED in lighthouse have-emitting diode (LED) is the most popular technique due to its advantages of small volume, long lifetime, high

  15. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  16. High-fidelity projective readout of a solid-state spin quantum register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucio Robledo; Lilian Childress; Hannes Bernien; Bas Hensen; Paul F. A. Alkemade; Ronald Hanson

    2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Initialization and readout of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. If the state of a multi-qubit register can be read out in a single shot, this enables further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation, as well as direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement). While spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, thus far single-shot detection has only been achieved for isolated qubits. Here, we demonstrate preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity readout of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond at low temperature, and exploit this readout to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto and subsequently measuring the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control by demonstrating initialization, coherent manipulation, and single-shot readout in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for the first test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols.

  17. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  18. NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  19. Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The ?rst part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries Practical Information and Case Studies Sandec: Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries #12;Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste-3-906484-58-7 Bibliographic reference: Vögeli Y., Lohri C. R., Gallardo A., Diener S., Zurbrügg C. (2014). Anaerobic Digestion

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent: Significant Energy Savings over Traditional Activated Sludge Treatment This report presents results for an anaerobic digestion system operated;Anaerobic Digestion of Primary Sewage Effluent Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  3. Data Management Plan GOALI: Novel 3-dimensional microphotonics for high-efficiency color-mixing to enable solid-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Data Management Plan GOALI: Novel 3-dimensional microphotonics for high-efficiency color-mixing to enable solid-state lighting. The objective of this GOALI proposal is to enable high-efficiency white and backed up on stand-alone computers in the (locked) lab of the PI. Research data will be stored in USpace

  4. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  5. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  6. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  7. High fidelity readout scheme for rare-earth solid state quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Walther; L. Rippe; Y. Yan; J. Karlsson; D. Serrano; A. N. Nilsson; S. Bengtsson; S. Kröll

    2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and analyze a high fidelity readout scheme for a single instance approach to quantum computing in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. The scheme is based on using different species of qubit and readout ions, and it is shown that by allowing the closest qubit ion to act as a readout buffer, the readout error can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The scheme is shown to be robust against certain experimental variations, such as varying detection efficiencies, and we use the scheme to predict the expected quantum fidelity of a CNOT gate in these solid state systems. In addition, we discuss the potential scalability of the protocol to larger qubit systems. The results are based on parameters which we believed are experimentally feasible with current technology, and which can be simultaneously realized.

  8. Development of solid-state induction modulators for high PRF accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirbie, H.; Hawkins, S.; Hickman, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and EG&G Energy Measurements are developing a new solid-state power system for two proposed accelerators. One of the accelerators is a circular arrangement of induction cells called a recirculator. It is designed to accelerate heavy ions for an inertial fusion study that proposes to substitute heavy-ion beams for laser beams as the driver for fusion targets. The other accelerator is a linear induction accelerator for electron beams called the Advanced Radiographic Machine (ARM). Both accelerators require their induction cells to be pulsed at a very high repetition frequency (prf) for a short burst containing 5 to 15 pulses. The recirculator has a pulse schedule that varies in pulse width from 1 {mu}s to 400 ns and in prf from 50 to 150 kHz. The ARM accelerator has a pulse schedule that varies in pulse width from 1 {mu}s to 200 ns and in prf from 150 kHz to 1 MHz. The need for complex pulse agility in these accelerators led the authors to examine solid-state switching components that have an on/off capability. The intrinsic speed of solid-state switching satisfies the high prf requirements, while the on/off switching action of some semiconductor devices enables the authors to select an arbitrary pulse width. To accommodate these requirements, they selected field effect transistors (FETs) as the preferred switching elements. The same FET switching technology applies to both accelerators due to their similar pulse requirements. However, these two accelerators differ greatly in peak power and prf range. For example, the power system for the ARM accelerator must supply over 3 kA of beam-current loading to a 150-kV induction cell. For the authors research, two full-scale prototypes were built - a 5-kV induction recirculator cell and a single 15-kV induction modulator for the ARM accelerator. The authors discuss the general network features that are common to both machines, followed by performance and modeling data.

  9. A High-Conduction Ge Substituted Li3AsS4 Solid Electrolyte with Exceptional Low Activation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Chen, Yan [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes show potential to enable high-energy-density secondary batteries and offer distinctive safety features as an advantage over traditional liquid electrolytes. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity, low activation energy, and outstanding electrochemical stability in crystalline solid electrolytes is a challenge for the synthesis of novel solid electrolytes. Herein we report an exceptionally low activation energy (Ea) and high room temperature superionic conductivity via facile aliovalent substitution of Li3AsS4 by Ge, which increased the conductivity by two orders of magnitude as compared to the parent compound. The composition Li3.334Ge0.334As0.666S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.12 mScm-1 at 27oC. Local Li+ hopping in this material is accompanied by distinctive low activation energy Ea of 0.17 eV being the lowest of Li+ solid conductors. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the efficacy of surface passivation of solid electrolyte to achieve compatibility with metallic lithium electrodes.

  10. Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

  11. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

  12. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 µs at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle.

  13. Synthesis and crystallographic study of Pb-Sr hydroxyapatite solid solutions by high temperature mixing method under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Kongjun, E-mail: kjzhu@nuaa.edu.cn [Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Smart Materials and Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi-shi 780-8520 (Japan); Shimanouchi, Rie [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi-shi, 780-8520 (Japan); Onda, Ayumu; Kajiyoshi, Koji [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Kochi-shi 780-8520 (Japan); Qiu Jinhao [Aeronautical Key Laboratory for Smart Materials and Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid solutions in the system of Pb and Sr hydroxyapatite, Sr{sub 10-x}Pb{sub x}HAp (x = 0-10), were successfully synthesized by high-temperature mixing method (HTMM) at 160 deg. C for 12 h under hydrothermal conditions. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and electron microscopic observation, and the site of the metal ions in the solid solutions was analyzed with the Rietveld method. The lattice constants, both a and c, of the solid solutions varied linearly with Pb content. It was found that Pb ions in the solid solutions preferentially occupied the M(2) site in the apatite structure. HTMM gives Sr-Pb HAp solid solutions much better crystallization. However, due to the formation of intermediate compound of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} in the Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O solution before mixing with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution at 160 deg. C, HTMM causes the decrease of crystallization of the samples with high Pb content.

  14. High-Resolved X-ray Spectra of Hollow Atoms in a Femtosecond Laser-Produced Solid Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    High-Resolved X-ray Spectra of Hollow Atoms in a Femtosecond Laser-Produced Solid Plasma A. Ya and interpreted for the ¢rst time. It is shown that such spectra were generated by multicharged hollow ions-ray spectra of nano- and subnanosecond laser produced plasmas were intensively investigated during the last 20

  15. Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques have been applied to hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses: simple as to completely exclude any of the different previously proposed models for water incorporation in silicate

  16. High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites fabricated by layer-by-layer assemblyw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites: 10.1039/b803915a Electrochromic Ruthenium Purple­polymer nanocomposite films, fabricated by multilayer assembly, were found to exhibit sub-second switching speed and the highest electrochromic con

  17. Solid-State, Flexible, High Strength Paper-Based Supercapacitors Xiaodan Zhang, Ziyin Lin, Bo Chen, Yulin Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Solid-State, Flexible, High Strength Paper-Based Supercapacitors Xiaodan Zhang, Ziyin Lin, Bo Chen Supercapacitors are one of the main energy storage devices and are key technological enablers ranging from transportation to customer electronics. Compared to their competitors--batteries, supercapacitors have superior

  18. Solid particle acceleration in a high Reynolds number channel flow: DNS and LES with stochastic modelling of subgrid acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    sediment transport to atmospheric dispersion of pollutants or solid deposition in marine flows. Previous modelling of subgrid acceleration This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down in a high Reynolds number channel flow: DNS and LES with stochastic modelling of subgrid acceleration R

  19. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  20. The Curie-Weiss constant of solid 3He on the melting curve at high magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    magnetic fields. A plastic Pomeranchuk cell [9] was precooled down to 3 mK by a dilution refrigerator [10JL-625 The Curie-Weiss constant of solid 3He on the melting curve at high magnetic fields H. Godfrin by NMR at high magnetic fields (7.2 teslas). The result (03B8 ~ - 3 mK) is in agreement with low field

  1. Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bimal Kad

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep performance compared to the base material creep performance. Similar and dissimilar butt joints were fabricated of MA956, IN740 alloys and using inertia welding techniques. We evaluated joining process details and heat treatments and its overall effect on creep response. Fixed and incrementally accelerated temperature creep tests were performed for similar and dissimilar joints and such incremental creep life data is compiled and reported. Long term MA956-MA556 joint tests indicate a firm 2Ksi creep stress threshold performance at 850{degree}C with a maximum exposure of over 9725 hours recorded in the current program. A Larsen Miller Parameter (LMP) of 48.50 for a 2Ksi test at 850{degree}C was further corroborated with tests at 2Ksi stress at 900{degree}C yielding a LMP=48.80. Despite this threshold the joints exhibit immense temperature sensitivity and fail promptly when test temperature raised above 900{degree}C. In comparison the performance of dissimilar joints was inferior, perhaps dictated by the creep characteristics of the mating nickel-base alloys. We describe a parametric window of joint development, and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in dissimilar joints with solid solution (IN601, IN617) and precipitate strengthened (IN740) materials. Some concerns are evident regarding the diffusion of aluminum in dissimilar joints during high temperature recrystallization treatments. It is noted that aggressive treatments rapidly deplete the corrosion protecting aluminum reservoir in the vicinity of the joint interface. Subsequently, the impact of varying PWHT has been evaluated in the context on ensuing creep performance.

  2. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

  3. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and PuEDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xun, Luying

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria. Although our goal is to isolate anaerobic EDTA degraders, we initiated the experiments to include nitrilotriacetate (NTA), which is a structure homologue of EDTA. All the aerobic EDTA degraders can degrade NTA, but the isolated NTA degraders cannot degrade EDTA. Since NTA is a simpler structure homologue, it is likely that EDTA-degrading ability is evolved from NTA degradation. This hypothesis is further supported from our characterization of EDTA and NTA-degrading enzymes and genes (J. Bact. 179:1112-1116; and Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:688-695). The EDTA monooxygenase and NTA monooxygenase are highly homologous. EDTA monooxygenase can use both EDTA and NTA as substrates, but NTA monooxygenase can only use NTA as a substrate. Thus, we put our effort to isolate both NTA and EDTA degraders. In case, an anaerobic EDTA degrader is not immediately enriched, we will try to evolve the NTA degraders to use EDTA. Both aerobic and anaerobic enrichment cultures were set.

  4. An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. Moreover, the principle...

  5. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  6. Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

  7. anaerobic treatment process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROCESSES Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: on a pilot-scale anaerobic bioreactor with computer monitoring system. Key words: Anaerobic digestion...

  8. Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries DOE...

  9. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse...

  10. anaerobic culture system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry MIT - DSpace Summary: Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial...

  11. anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of anaerobic digestion MIT - DSpace Summary: Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into...

  12. anaerobic chloroethene-dehalogenating activity: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecology Websites Summary: ANAEROBIC METABOLISM DURING ACTIVITY IN AMPHIBIANS ALBERT F. BENNETT and PAUL LICHT Department of Zoology production (anaerobic energetic generation)...

  13. anaerobic reactors treating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a destabilisation. Key words: Haldane model, Anaerobic Bernard, Olivier 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

  14. anaerobic reactor treating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a destabilisation. Key words: Haldane model, Anaerobic Bernard, Olivier 20 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

  15. Removal of polychlorinated phenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.; Yoo, K.S.; Park, J.K.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap vehicle tire chips were used as packing material for sequential anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors to remove persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. Adsorption capacity of scrap tires was greater under acidic conditions than under basic conditions. However, it was only approximately 0.04 to 0.3% of that of activated carbon. The amount of biomass that attached to the surface of scrap tires was 3.16 and 3.72 mg volatile suspended solids/cm{sup 2} after 14 and 37 days, respectively. Two laboratory-scale, down-flow anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactors packed with tire chips were operated to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP). More than 98% of DCP was dehalogenated to CP in the anaerobic reactor, 70 to 98% of which was subsequently degraded in the aerobic reactor. Scrap tires did not cause any operational problems when used as biofilter media.

  16. Properties of molecular solids and fluids at high pressure and temperatures. Progress report, July 1, 1989--July 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etters, R.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This renewal request for DOE grant DE-FG02-86ER45238, is dedicated to providing a complete thermodynamic profile of solids fluids, and fluid mixtures, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. We are partially motivated by technological interest in detonation, combustion, superhard high pressure materials, and high temperature superconductors, which are important components of interest of various DOE laboratories. Our work on fluids and solids, composed of simple molecules, involves the determination of structures, phase transitions, pressure-volume relations, phonon, vibron, and libron modes of excitation, sound velocities, specific heats, thermal expansion, virial coefficients, sublimation energies, and orientational translational, and magnetic correlations. We hope that the study of these systems under extreme thermodynamic conditions will lead to exotic new materials of value, as well as enhanced fundamental understanding.

  17. High-field half-cycle terahertz radiation from relativistic laser interaction with thin solid targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, W. J.; Koh, W. S. [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)] [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Sheng, Z. M. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    It is found that half-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses with the peak field over 100 MV/cm can be produced in ultrashort intense laser interactions with thin solid targets. These THz pulses are shown to emit from both the front and rear sides of the solid target and are attributed to the coherent transition radiation by laser-produced ultrashort fast electron bunches. After the primary THz pulses, subsequent secondary half-cycle pulses are generated while some refluxing electrons cross the vacuum-target interfaces. Since such strong THz radiation is well synchronized with the driving lasers, it is particularly suitable for applications in various pump-probe experiments.

  18. High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    combustors Lydie Le Forestier a,*, Guy Libourel b,c a ISTO, UMR 6113 CNRS-Université d'Orléans, Polytech, a destruction of pathogenic agents and a possible recovery of energy. Whatever MSW combustor used, combustion of MSW produces two kinds of solid residues: (i) bottom ashes recovered from the primary combustor

  19. Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

  20. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Anil V. Virkar

    2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

  1. High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

  2. REDUCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF HIGH-DENSITY FISH PRODUCTION: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SOLIDS TREATMENT FOR RECIRCULATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    competition and increased mass-transfer resistance. Nitrification appears to be optimized with solids indicate that biofiltration can be optimized in the presence of solids capture, by manipulating

  3. The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hess, Richard Kenneth

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES...

  4. Ultra-high-contrast laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in solid targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Higginson, et al. , Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Rise-TimeTHE DISSERTATION Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration ofCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration

  5. Kinetic modeling and experimentation of anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, Jonathan (Jonathan E.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digesters convert organic waste (agricultural and food waste, animal or human manure, and other organic waste), into energy (in the form of biogas or electricity). An added benefit to bio-digestion is a leftover ...

  6. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  7. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  8. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  9. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

  10. Ultra-high-contrast laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in solid targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensities with Short-Pulse Lasers 1.2 Inertial Confinementhigh-power, short laser pulse, D. . . . . . . . . . Figurea high-intensity short-pulse laser to produce relativistic

  11. all-solid-state high repetiton: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we obser... Eismann, Ulrich; Salomon, Christophe; Chevy, Frdric 2013-01-01 17 High energy density, thin-lm, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine eld operations Materials...

  12. High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid-state NMR study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid 2014 Keywords: Steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, PEKK Solid-state NMR Water and D2O uptake polymers a b with D2O steam at temperatures of 150 and 315 C. All samples are studied by TGA, IR, 13 C CP/MAS, 1 H

  13. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  14. High Solids Enzymatic Hydrolysis Reactors (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork at High

  15. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

  16. High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gann, Sheryl Lee

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

  17. FLOW OF A FLUID THROUGH A POROUS SOLID DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE GRADIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonito, Andrea

    or carbon diox- ide sequestration where very high pressure differentials are involved. Another important and geotechnical engineering, for example problems such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon di-oxide sequestration

  18. acidogenic anaerobic reactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a pilot-scale setup was designed and constructed at a wastewater treatment plant in Giza, Egypt. It consists of an up-flow anaerobic reactor; down-flow anaerobic...

  19. anaerobic gac reactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a pilot-scale setup was designed and constructed at a wastewater treatment plant in Giza, Egypt. It consists of an up-flow anaerobic reactor; down-flow anaerobic...

  20. anaerobic biofilm reactors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a pilot-scale setup was designed and constructed at a wastewater treatment plant in Giza, Egypt. It consists of an up-flow anaerobic reactor; down-flow anaerobic...

  1. anaerobic contact reactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a pilot-scale setup was designed and constructed at a wastewater treatment plant in Giza, Egypt. It consists of an up-flow anaerobic reactor; down-flow anaerobic...

  2. anaerobic odontogenic infections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological knowhow and for the cost of a conventional (more) Giard, David 2011-01-01 13 ANAEROBIC CULTURE METHODS IN A...

  3. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  4. anaerobic bacterial aggregates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems Setia, Sanjeev 73 Biogeochemistry of Isoprenoid Production and Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodgeradation. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This dissertation...

  5. Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

  6. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  7. High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

  8. Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion Sudeep C Thermophilic anaerobic digestion Pathogen inactivation Ascaris suum Helminth eggs Poliovirus Enteric viruses a b s t r a c t Thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion is a promising process to divert waste

  9. High pressure and synchrotron radiation studies of solid state electronic instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pifer, J.H.; Croft, M.C.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses Eu and General Valence Instabilities; Ce Problem: L{sub 3} Spectroscopy Emphasis; Bulk Property Emphasis; Transition Metal Compound Electronic Structure; Electronic Structure-Phonon Coupling Studies; High Temperature Superconductivity and Oxide Materials; and Novel Materials Collaboration with Chemistry.

  10. Characterization of Cr poisoning in a solid oxide fuel cell cathode using a high-energy x-ray microbeam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D. J.; Almer, J.; Cruse, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key feature of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the feasibility of using metallic interconnects made of high temperature ferritic stainless steels, which reduce system cost while providing excellent electric conductivity. Such interconnects, however, contain high levels of chromium, which has been found to be associated with SOFC cathode performance degradation at SOFC operating temperatures; a phenomenon known as Cr poisoning. Here, we demonstrate an accurate measurement of the phase and concentration distributions of Cr species in a degraded SOFC, as well as related properties including deviatoric strain, integrated porosity, and lattice parameter variation, using high energy microbeam X-ray diffraction and radiography. We unambiguously identify (MnCr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the two main contaminant phases and find that their concentrations correlate strongly with the cathode layer composition. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition within the active cathode region reduces porosity and produces compressive residual strains, which hinders the reactant gas percolation and can cause structural breakdown of the SOFC cathode. The information obtained through this study can be used to better understand the Cr-poisoning mechanism and improve SOFC design.

  11. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  12. A cryogenic high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present our new development of a high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of helium at ultra-low temperatures. The cell has a large sample volume of ~140 cm3, and a working pressure of ~70 bar, with a relatively thin wall-thickness (1.1 mm) - thanks to the high yield strength aluminum used in the design. Two variants of this cell have been developed; one with permanently joined components using electron-beam welding and explosion welding, methods that have little or no impact on the global heat treatment of the cell, and another with modular and interchangeable components, which include a capacitance pressure gauge, that can be sealed using traditional indium wire technique. The performance of the cell has been tested in recent measurements on superfluid liquid helium near the solidification line.

  13. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen, E-mail: espen.govasmark@bioforsk.no [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Soil and Environment, Fredrik A. Dahlsvei 20, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Staeb, Jessica [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft, Abteilung Hydrochemie, Bandtaele 2, D-70569 Stuttgart (Buesnau) (Germany); Holen, Borge [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research - Plant Health, Hogskoleveien 7, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Hoornstra, Douwe [University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Biocenter, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 (Finland); Nesbakk, Tommy [Mjosanlegget AS, Roverudmyra Miljostasjon, Asmarkveien 301, NO-2600 Lillehammer (Norway); Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja [University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Biocenter, Viikinkaari 9, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  14. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu, B.T.V.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}K) and high density plasmas (10{sup 22}-10{sup 24}cm{sup {minus}3}) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (10{sup 13} - 10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2}) and subpicosecond (10{sup {minus}12}-10{sup {minus}13}s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature ({approximately}40eV) super-critical density ({approximately}10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical ({approximately}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

  15. Solid Target Options S. Childress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite beam power) · High beam power solid targets frequently use higher z materials for increased yield plusSolid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam

  16. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

  17. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggsmiddlewareHigh-PressureOffice

  18. High Performance Mica-based Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartmentInnovationHigh Flux Isotopethe Role

  19. Quantitative Analyses of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timmer, Jens

    -knit community of bacteria cooperate to form a stable, self- regulating fermentation that transforms organic-chain fatty acids); fermentation of aminoacids and sugars; anaero- bic oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols; anaerobic oxidation of intermediary products such as volatile fatty acids; conversion of acetate

  20. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  1. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  2. Tritium trapping in silicon carbide in contact with solid breeder under high flux isotope reactor irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Katsui; Y. Katoh; A. Hasegawa; M. Shimada; Y. Hatano; T. Hinoki; S. Nogami; T. Tanaka; S. Nagata; T. Shikama

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The trapping of tritium in silicon carbide (SiC) injected from ceramic breeding materials was examined via tritium measurements using imaging plate (IP) techniques. Monolithic SiC in contact with ternary lithium oxide (lithium titanate and lithium aluminate) as a ceramic breeder was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The distribution of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) of tritium in SiC was successfully obtained, which separated the contribution of 14C ß-rays to the PSL. The tritium incident from ceramic breeders was retained in the vicinity of the SiC surface even after irradiation at 1073 K over the duration of ~3000 h, while trapping of tritium was not observed in the bulk region. The PSL intensity near the SiC surface in contact with lithium titanate was higher than that obtained with lithium aluminate. The amount of the incident tritium and/or the formation of a Li2SiO3 phase on SiC due to the reaction with lithium aluminate under irradiation likely were responsible for this observation.

  3. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. Rapid Microwave Preparation of Highly Efficient Ce[superscript 3+]-Substituted Garnet Phosphors for Solid State White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkel, Alexander; Denault, Kristin A.; George, Nathan C.; Doll, Courtney E.; Héry, Bathylle; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Birkel, Christina S.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (Mitsubishi)

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ce{sup 3+}-substituted aluminum garnet compounds of yttrium (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and lutetium (Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) - both important compounds in the generation of (In,Ga)N-based solid state white lighting - have been prepared using a simple microwave heating technique involving the use of a microwave susceptor to provide the initial heat source. Carbon used as the susceptor additionally creates a reducing atmosphere around the sample that helps stabilize the desired luminescent compound. High quality, phase-pure materials are prepared within a fraction of the time and using a fraction of the energy required in a conventional ceramic preparation; the microwave technique allows for a reduction of about 95% in preparation time, making it possible to obtain phase pure, Ce{sup 3+}-substituted garnet compounds in under 20 min of reaction time. It is estimated that the overall reduction in energy compared with ceramic routes as practiced in the lab is close to 99%. Conventionally prepared material is compared with material prepared using microwave heating in terms of structure, morphology, and optical properties, including quantum yield and thermal quenching of luminescence. Finally, the microwave-prepared compounds have been incorporated into light-emitting diode 'caps' to test their performance characteristics in a real device, in terms of their photon efficiency and color coordinates.

  6. Infrared absorption of solid nitrogen at high pressures M. D. McCluskey, L. Hsu, L. Wang, and E. E. Haller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    as high as 7 GPa at liquid-helium temperatures. The shift in the AlSb:12 CSb local vibrational mode mode of CO2 impurities. For pressures greater than 1.9 GPa, a peak appears which we attribute to a N on the properties of high-density molecular solids.1 N2 is in many respects a model molecular system because its

  7. HELIUM, SOLID 1 Helium, Solid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    HELIUM, SOLID 1 Helium, Solid Henry R. Glyde Introduction Helium was first solidified at the famous focused on the melting curve, the specific heat, and the thermal conductivity of solid helium as a test criterion of melting does not hold in solid helium. This pioneering work up to 1957 is elegantly

  8. Solid Flame: Fundamentals and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    ;Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) Or Combustion Synthesis TECHNOLOGY FOR MATERIAL (solid) ignition front propagation cooling The Phenomenon of Wave Localization for Solid State Self-propagating) 1.0000 Temperature (K) 2744 Gas products amount (mol) 6.00E-15 Products heat capacity (J/K) 74

  9. High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5×10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

  10. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underly- ing a former refinery. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization

  11. Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    Directed Evolution of a Cellodextrin Transporter for Improved Biofuel Production Under Anaerobic that anaerobic biofuel production could be significantly improved via directed evolution of a sugar transporter: cellodextrin transporter; cellobiose utilization; cellulosic biofuel; anaerobic fermentation; directed

  12. A Design-Builder's Perspective: Anaerobic Digestion, Forest County...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    County Potawatomi Community - A Case Study Presented by Jason Rieth, Industrial Construction Executive at Miron Construction at the April 16, 2013, Community-Scale Anaerobic...

  13. anaerobic biological reactors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peter R. 97 Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions Materials Science Websites Summary: with less...

  14. anaerobic biological treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results for an anaerobic digestion system operated at an existing wastewater treatment plant. Based on scale-up evaluation, the test system should yield an energy balance with...

  15. anaerobic conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrated Angenent, Lars T. 25 Evaluation of Anaerobic-Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations CiteSeer Summary: Seven small wastewater treatment plants were chosen for...

  16. anaerobic enrichment culture: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producers to operate an anaerobic digester with minimum technological knowhow and for the cost of a conventional (more) Giard, David 2011-01-01 34 Parameter identification in...

  17. anaerobic process effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  18. anaerobic processes occurring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  19. anaerobic continuously stirred: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  20. anaerobic aquifer polluted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  1. Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amandine Aftalion

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 13, 2013 ... We extend this analysis, based on the equation of motion and aerobic energy, to include a balance of anaerobic energy (or accumulated ...

  2. anaerobic contact filter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: gaining accep- tance as a green alternative to conventional methods such incineration, adsorption onto trichloroethene (TCE) vapors anaerobically is presented and...

  3. Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagoons. Abstract: This study evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus (P) from dairy lagoons. The ADF was...

  4. anaerobic digestion heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    brown water; biogas; co-digestion INTRODUCTION Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 15 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

  5. anaerobic mixed microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a one of the essential parameter as it has significant adverse impacts on the environment. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) is a novel process in which nitrite is used...

  6. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksEnhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage...

  7. High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid-State NMR Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    1 High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid Supplementary Information Figure S1. TGA of melt-molded PBI after stirring in H2O at RT and steam-treatment with H2O at 150 °C and 315 °C. Figure S2. TGA of melt-molded PEEK after stirring in D2O at RT and steam

  8. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  9. Doctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Energy Recovery from Domestic such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are emerging as one option to recover energy during domestic highlighting microbial community shifts in the bioreactor and biofilm during changes in membrane fouling

  10. Anaerobic Digestion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat 1 Table of ContentsAnthe Department'sAnaerobic

  11. Speciation of Arsenic in An Anaerobic Treatment System at a Pb-Zn Smelter Site, Gold Roaster Products, Cu Smelter Stack Dust And Impacted Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paktunc, D.

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base metal ores often results in solid wastes and effluents containing high concentrations of arsenic. In addition, arsenic can be released to the atmosphere from gold roasters and base metal smelters. Speciation of arsenic in roaster products, in a stack sample from a copper smelter, in organic soils impacted by smelter emissions, and in an anaerobic effluent treatment system at a smelter site was determined in order to broaden our understanding of the nature and occurrence of arsenic in a wider range of metallurgical wastes. Micro-XANES spectra obtained from iron oxide particles forming in a gold roaster indicate preferential enrichment of As{sup 3+} species in maghemite-rich domains and microlayers. In comparison, haematite-rich iron oxide particles are dominated by As{sup 5+} species. It appears that maghemite is retarding oxidation of arsenic and its volatilisation during roasting. Arsenic occurs as both As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} species in a stack sample emitted from a Cu smelter, confined to fine-grained secondary product layers accumulated on the surfaces of spherical Cu particles. This is probably resulting from condensation of As species upon cooling following their volatilisation during the combustion process. Soil samples collected at various distances from the Cu smelter are dominated by As{sup 5+} species including monomethylarsonic acid and tetramethylarsonium iodide as the organic arsenic species. The presence of reduced As{sup 3+} species highlights the importance of organic material influencing the speciation of arsenic and mineralogical transformations taking place within the soil profile. The XANES spectra indicate that arsenic occurs predominantly as aqueous arsenite species in the anaerobic treatment system, contrary to the conventional thinking of As retention by the formation of secondary sulfides.

  12. Speciation of arsenic in an anaerobic treatment system at a Pb-Zn smelter site, gold roaster products, Cu smelter stack dust and impacted soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paktunc, D. (CCM)

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base metal ores often results in solid wastes and effluents containing high concentrations of arsenic. In addition, arsenic can be released to the atmosphere from gold roasters and base metal smelters. Speciation of arsenic in roaster products, in a stack sample from a copper smelter, in organic soils impacted by smelter emissions, and in an anaerobic effluent treatment system at a smelter site was determined in order to broaden our understanding of the nature and occurrence of arsenic in a wider range of metallurgical wastes. Micro-XANES spectra obtained from iron oxide particles forming in a gold roaster indicate preferential enrichment of As{sup 3+} species in maghemite-rich domains and microlayers. In comparison, haematite-rich iron oxide particles are dominated by As{sup 5+} species. It appears that maghemite is retarding oxidation of arsenic and its volatilisation during roasting. Arsenic occurs as both As{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} species in a stack sample emitted from a Cu smelter, confined to fine-grained secondary product layers accumulated on the surfaces of spherical Cu particles. This is probably resulting from condensation of As species upon cooling following their volatilisation during the combustion process. Soil samples collected at various distances from the Cu smelter are dominated by As{sup 5+} species including monomethylarsonic acid and tetramethylarsonium iodide as the organic arsenic species. The presence of reduced As{sup 3+} species highlights the importance of organic material influencing the speciation of arsenic and mineralogical transformations taking place within the soil profile. The XANES spectra indicate that arsenic occurs predominantly as aqueous arsenite species in the anaerobic treatment system, contrary to the conventional thinking of As retention by the formation of secondary sulfides.

  13. Analysis of the rate-limiting step of an anaerobic biotrickling filter removing Sudeep C. Popat a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of attainable performance are not known. For example, reports on H2S removal in biological reactors show a vast of H2S in biotrickling filters. This paved the way for the development of high performance biotricklingAnalysis of the rate-limiting step of an anaerobic biotrickling filter removing TCE vapors Sudeep C

  14. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Desch, S. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ?few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ?}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  15. Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jianguo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China)], E-mail: jianguoj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China (China); Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping [Xiaping Solid Waste Landfill, Shenzhen 518019, PR China (China)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

  16. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  17. BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0high temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstan, Marita; Thieme, Christian; Grosch, Matthias; Müller, Matthias; Rüssel, Christian, E-mail: ccr@rz.uni-jena.de

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For sealing of solid oxide fuel cells, glasses from which crystalline phases with high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be crystallized are required. In this paper, a new solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0high CTE. The prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and high-temperature X-ray diffraction (BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}). Sintered specimens were characterized by dilatometry. The introduction of Co{sup 2+} does not lead to a change in the space group. All compounds show a transition of a low to a high temperature modification. The attributed temperature increases from 300 °C for BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} to 850 °C for BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The volume expansion which runs parallel to the phase transition decreases with increasing cobalt concentration. The phase BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows the largest CTE and a steep volume effect during phase transition. For the compound BaZn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 1.75}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} the CTE is minimum (8.6×10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50–900 °C)) and increases again until for the compound BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} a CTE of 16.6×10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50–900 °C) is reached. In the cobalt rich composition range, the CTEs are in the right range for high temperature fuel cells and can be adjusted by the composition. - Graphical abstract: The composition of the solid solution BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} strongly affects the thermal expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined the thermal expansion of solid solutions BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0solid solutions should be suitable for solid oxide fuel cells.

  18. High-Temperature Processing of Solids Through Solar Nebular Bow Shocks: 3D Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations with Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boley, A C; Desch, S J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in Solar System formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks has been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H$_2$ is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulati...

  19. anaerobic bacteria thermoanaerobacter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for methane production by anaerobic digestion of animal manures. Experiences with design, construction, and operation of a two-stage heated continuous-feed digester for a herd of...

  20. anaerobic thermophiles final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for methane production by anaerobic digestion of animal manures. Experiences with design, construction, and operation of a two-stage heated continuous-feed digester for a herd of...

  1. anaerobic extreme thermophilic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for methane production by anaerobic digestion of animal manures. Experiences with design, construction, and operation of a two-stage heated continuous-feed digester for a herd of...

  2. anaerobic sulfide oxidation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of an energy balance around a hypothetical cane energy estate producing only ethanol and power. Zizhou N; Purchase Bs 243 Anaerobic uptake and utilization of free glycine-2-C?...

  3. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane ?13C values increased from about...

  4. Design of an anaerobic digester in Quebec, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouaziz, Alexandre N. (Alexandre Nathanel)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .In response to the future Quebec, Canada regulations prohibiting landfilling of organic matter by 2020, EBI, a waste management company located near Montreal is considering constructing an anaerobic digester. This thesis ...

  5. anaerobic digestion concept: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into a three Boyer, Edmond 32 FACT SHEET Agriculture and Natural Resources AEX-653.1-11 Manure to Energy Through Anaerobic Digestion CiteSeer Summary: Manure is one of the most...

  6. anaerobic digestion technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into a three Boyer, Edmond 35 FACT SHEET Agriculture and Natural Resources AEX-653.1-11 Manure to Energy Through Anaerobic Digestion CiteSeer Summary: Manure is one of the most...

  7. anaerobic energy metabolism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  8. anaerobe acetobacterium dehalogenans: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  9. anaerobic betaproteobacterium georgfuchsia: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  10. anaerobic digestor methanothrix: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  11. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  13. Anaerobic Redox Cycling of Iron by Freshwater Sediment Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Churchill, Perry F.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for microbially-mediated anaerobic redox cycling of iron (Fe) was examined in a first-generation enrichment culture of freshwater wetland sediment microorganisms. MPN enumerations revealed the presence of significant populations of Fe(III)-reducing (ca. 108 cells mL-1) and Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organisms (ca. 105 cells mL-1) in the sediment used to inoculate the enrichment cultures. Nitrate reduction commenced immediately following inoculation of acetate-containing (ca. 1 mM) medium with a small quantity (1% vol/vol) of wetland sediment, and resulted in the transient accumulation of NO2- and production of a mixture of end-products including NH4+. Fe(III) oxide (high surface area goethite) reduction took place - after NO3- was depleted and continued until all the acetate was utilized. Addition of NO3 after Fe(III) reduction ceased resulted in the immediate oxidation of Fe(II) coupled to reduction of + NO3-to NH4 . No significant NO2- accumulation was observed during nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. No Fe(II) oxidation occurred in pasteurized controls. Microbial community structure in the enrichment was monitored by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16s rDNA and RT-PCR amplified 16S rRNA, as well as by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries for four different time points during the experiment. Strong similarities in dominant members of the microbial community were observed in the Fe(III) reduction and nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation phases of the experiment, specifically the common presence of organisms closely related (= 95% sequence similarity) to the genera Geobacter and Dechloromonas. These results indicate that the wetland sediments contained organisms such as Geobacter sp. which are capable of both + dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction and oxidation of Fe(II) with reduction of NO3-reduction to NH4 . Our findings suggest that microbially-catalyzed nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation has the potential to contribute to a dynamic anaerobic Fe redox cycle in freshwater sediments.

  14. Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

  15. Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupuis, Russell

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

  16. Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

  17. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  18. High pressure and synchrotron radiation studies of solid state electronic instabilities. Final technial report, May 1, 1984--April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pifer, J.H.; Croft, M.C.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses Eu and General Valence Instabilities; Ce Problem: L{sub 3} Spectroscopy Emphasis; Bulk Property Emphasis; Transition Metal Compound Electronic Structure; Electronic Structure-Phonon Coupling Studies; High Temperature Superconductivity and Oxide Materials; and Novel Materials Collaboration with Chemistry.

  19. Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    produced in large quantities globally as a viable feedstock for producing biofuel and bioproducts through; for example, it can leverage the technological advances, infra- structure, and human capital from the mature processing for high-titer biofuel production, to reduce separation cost and improve energy efficiency

  20. Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments by providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Stimulating the anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments to simulate the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic contaminated sediments was investigated as the sole electron acceptor. Providing graphite electrodes as an electron acceptor in hydrocarbon

  1. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treatment of wastewater from the brewery industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scampini, Amanda C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digestion can be utilized to convert industrial wastewater into clean water and energy. The goal of this project was to set up lab-scale anaerobic digesters to collect data that will be used to develop and validate ...

  2. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Community-Scale Anaerobic Digesters," originally presented on April 16, 2013.

  3. Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor Treatment of Low-Strength Wastewater at Low Temperatures Largus anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was studied for the treatment of low- strength soluble wastewater). KEYWORDS: anaerobic treatment, low-strength wastewater, low-tem- perature conditions, compartmentalized

  4. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  5. High-resolution spectroscopy of the impurity-induced Q3,,0... transition of solid parahydrogen Robert M. Dickson,* Takamasa Momose,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takeshi

    . In a solid environment, however, the molecules are held in place, thus allowing long-term intermolecular envi- ronment provides a medium that can yield much more de- tailed and accurate information The hexagonal close packed hcp crystalline environment of solid p-H2 provides an anisotropic environment

  6. anaerobic potency test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anaerobic potency test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A DOG TEST FOR MEASURING THE...

  7. High temperature phase stabilities and electrochemical properties of InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InBaCo4-xZnxO7 oxides have been synthesized and characterized as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). The effect of Zn substitution for Co on the structure, phase stability, thermal expansion, and electrochemical properties of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 has been investigated. The increase in the Zn content from x = 1 to 1.5 improves the high temperature phase stability at 600 oC and 700 oC for 100 h, and chemical stability against a Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) values of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) specimens were determined to be 8.6 10-6 9.6 10-6 /oC in the range of 80 900 oC, which provides good thermal expansion compatibility with the standard SOFC electrolyte materials. The InBaCo4-xZnxO7 + GDC (50:50 wt. %) composite cathodes exhibit improved cathode performances compared to those obtained from the simple InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes due to the extended triple-phase boundary (TPB) and enhanced oxide-ion conductivity through the GDC portion in the composites.

  8. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}: A new compound discovered with the application of solid-state and high temperature NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gave, Matthew A.; Canlas, Christian G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chung, In [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Weliky, David P. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: weliky@chemistry.msu.edu

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was serendipitously produced in high purity during a high-temperature synthesis done in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of the products of the synthesis revealed that the dominant phosphorus-containing product had a chemical shift of -52.8 ppm that could not be assigned to any known compound. Deep reddish brown well-formed plate-like crystals were isolated from the NMR reaction ampoule and the structure was solved with X-ray diffraction. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} has the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.3587(11) A, b=7.4546(11) A, c=10.1420(15) A, {alpha}=85.938(2){sup o}, {beta}=88.055(2){sup o}, and {gamma}=85.609(2){sup o} and contains the [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion. To our knowledge, this is the first compound containing this anion that is composed of two tetrahedral (PSe{sub 4}) units connected by a diselenide linkage. It was also possible to form a glass by quenching the melt in ice water, and Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was recovered upon annealing. The static {sup 31}P NMR spectrum at 350 deg. C contained a single peak with a -35 ppm chemical shift and a {approx}7 ppm peak width. This study highlights the potential of solid-state and high-temperature NMR for aiding discovery of new compounds and for probing the species that exist at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was discovered following a high-temperature in situ synthesis in the NMR spectrometer and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It contains the new [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion.

  9. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  10. Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation andvisualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique; Jacobsen, Janet; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hazen, Terry C.

    2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the physiology of an uncharacterized wild-type organism or the physiology/phenotype of a newly created mutant of that organism. Given recent advances in genetic characterization and targeted mutations to elucidate genetic networks and metabolic pathways, high-throughput methods for determining phenotypic differences are essential. Here we outline challenges presented in studying the physiology and phenotype of a sulfate reducing anaerobic delta proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Modifications of the commercially available OmniLog(TM) system (Hayward, CA) for experimental setup, and configuration, as well as considerations in PM data analysis are presented. Also highlighted here is data viewing software that enables users to view and compare multiple PM data sets. The PM method promises to be a valuable strategy in our systems biology approach to D. vulgaris studies and is readily applicable to other anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.

  11. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    the inlet of a function- ing plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals cab- bage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor. Introduction Micro-scale biomethanation (0.1­1.0 ton per day, tpd) is increasingly being tried

  12. anaerobic solid-liquid system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    economic and effective method to reduce the biogas desulfurization cost by removing hydrogen sulfide more than 90 % without external desulfurization equipments. KeywordsBiogas,...

  13. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

  14. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the...

  15. (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

  16. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth pre-treated at 80 {sup o}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, Ivet, E-mail: ivet.ferrer@upc.ed [Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Catalonia, C/ Jordi Girona 1-3, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Palatsi, Jordi [GIRO Technological Centre, Rambla Pompeu Fabra 1, E-08100 Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Campos, Elena [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Centre UdL-IRTA, Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Flotats, Xavier [GIRO Technological Centre, Rambla Pompeu Fabra 1, E-08100 Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Agrifood Engineering and Biotechnology, Technical University of Catalonia, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia Edifici D-4, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is a fast growing aquatic plant which causes environmental problems in continental water bodies. Harvesting and handling this plant becomes an issue, and focus has been put on the research of treatment alternatives. Amongst others, energy production through biomethanation has been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic biodegradability of water hyacinth under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The effect of a thermal sludge pre-treatment at 80 {sup o}C was also evaluated. To this end, anaerobic biodegradability tests were carried out at 35 {sup o}C and 55 {sup o}C, with raw and pre-treated water hyacinth. According to the results, the thermal pre-treatment enhanced the solubilisation of water hyacinth (i.e. increase in the soluble to total chemical oxygen demand (COD)) from 4% to 12% after 30 min. However, no significant effect was observed on the methane yields (150-190 L CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids). Initial methane production rates for thermophilic treatments were two fold those of mesophilic ones (6-6.5 L vs. 3-3.5 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD.day). Thus, higher methane production rates might be expected from thermophilic reactors working at short retention times. The study of longer low temperature pre-treatments or pre-treatments at elevated temperatures coupled to thermophilic reactors should be considered in the future.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l t t PNNLSystem Development at PNNLSystem Development at PNNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l;Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CharacteristicsSolid Oxide Fuel Cell Characteristics High temperature (~700 ­ 800

  18. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of the Solid–Solution Zintl Phase Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazem, Nasrin; Xie, Weiwei; Ohno, Saneyuki; Zevalkink, Alexandra; Miller, Gordon J; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Zintl phases are compounds that have shown promise for thermoelectric applications. The title solid–solution Zintl compounds were prepared from the elements as single crystals using a tin flux for compositions x = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx (x < 3) crystallize isostructurally in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12, Z = 2) as the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type (Pearson symbol mC58). Efforts to make the As compositions for x exceeding ?3 resulted in structures other than the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that As does not randomly substitute for Sb in the structure but is site specific for each composition. The amount of As determined by structural refinement was verified by electron microprobe analysis. Electronic structures and energies calculated for various model structures of Eu11Cd6Sb10As2 (x = 2) indicated that the preferred As substitution pattern involves a mixture of three of the six pnicogen sites in the asymmetric unit. In addition, As substitution at the Pn4 site opens an energy gap at the Fermi level, whereas substitution at the other five pnicogen sites remains semimetallic with a pseudo gap. Thermoelectric properties of these compounds were measured on hot-pressed, fully densified pellets. Samples show exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivities from room temperature to 775 K: 0.78–0.49 W/mK for x = 0; 0.72–0.53 W/mK for x = 1; and 0.70–0.56 W/mK for x = 2. Eu11Cd6Sb12 shows a high p-type Seebeck coefficient (from +118 to 153 ? V/K) but also high electrical resistivity (6.8 to 12.8 m?·cm). The value of zT reaches 0.23 at 774 K. The properties of Eu11Cd6Sb12–xAsx are interpreted in discussion with the As site substitution.

  19. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  20. Solid Waste (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Solid Waste Bureau manages solid waste in the state. The Bureau implements and enforces the rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board.

  1. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzoate degradation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Idaho Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material Summary: the...

  3. Treatment program of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Program for processing of organic matter by anaerobic digestion and composting (PTMOBC) provides financial assistance to municipalities and the private sector for the installation of...

  4. anaerobic filter ufaf-subsurface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: gaining accep- tance as a green alternative to conventional methods such incineration, adsorption onto trichloroethene (TCE) vapors anaerobically is presented and...

  5. anaerobic up-flow bioreactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    penicillin Recombinant m.o., mammalian (or insect) cells Grossmann, Ignacio E. 10 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES EXPOSED TO REPEATED HEAT TREATMENTS...

  6. anaerobic iron-reducing bacterium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in oxygen deficient zones of the oceans: No evidence for the predominance of anaerobes Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: is unknown. Since it is known...

  7. anaerobic bioreactor landfills: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy recovery; sustainability; management Management of Municipal Solid Wastes (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction unknown authors 10 Mathematical...

  8. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  9. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVACEnforcementEngaging Students in20HighDepartment of

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF RUNNING STRATEGIES BASED ON ANAEROBIC ENERGY AND VARIATIONS OF VELOCITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMIZATION OF RUNNING STRATEGIES BASED ON ANAEROBIC ENERGY AND VARIATIONS OF VELOCITY AMANDINE extend this analysis, based on the equation of motion and aerobic energy, to include a balance of anaerobic energy (or accumulated oxygen deficit) and an energy recreation term when the speed decreases. We

  11. Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    by wood-fired boilers. By generating biogas through anaerobic digestion of swine manure, fuel can: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hook Digestion by PENERGY Solutions Overview For most farmers in Pennsylvania, the growing season ends

  12. Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Video Article Continuously-Stirred Anaerobic Digester to Convert Organic Wastes into Biogas: System@cornell.edu URL: http://www.jove.com/video/3978/ DOI: 10.3791/3978 Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Bioenergy, Biogas, Methane, Organic Waste, Methanogenesis, Energy Crops, Date Published: // Citation: Usack

  13. Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled Terence Bayen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    substrate) are digested and converted into biogas. One essential feature of the model is that the evolutionOptimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen , Francis by light and an anaerobic digester. The mathematical model for the dynamics of the reactors takes

  14. Anaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000,000 digesters, 2000 [14]), among other places [15,16]. These digesters operate to generate biogas, comprisingAnaerobic digestion for methane generation and ammonia reforming for hydrogen production Accepted 24 May 2013 Available online Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Ammonia Bioenergy Bioammonia Hydrogen

  15. Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation in the Fe(III) Reduction Zone of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation in the Fe(III) Reduction Zone of Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifers R O B North, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 The potential for anaerobic benzene. [14C]Benzene was not oxidized to 14CO2 at most sites examined, which is consistent with previous

  16. Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Olivier

    Design and study of a risk management criterion for an unstable anaerobic wastewater treatment an unstable biological process used for wastewater treat- ment. This anaerobic digestion ecosystem can have digestion, Nonlinear systems diagnosis 1 Introduction and motivation Control of biological systems is a very

  17. Supplementary Information Pre-enrichment procedure for enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Supplementary Information Pre-enrichment procedure for enhanced start-up of anaerobic-814-963-7908, Fax 1-814-863-7304, E-mail blogan@psu.edu #12;2 Fig. S1 Steps for (a) general pre-enrichment procedure for development of anaerobic biocathodes and (b) pre-enrichment for development of facultatively autotrophic

  18. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  19. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  20. EA-1907: Biogas Anaerobic Digester Facility, Oakley, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal by DOE and USDA to provide funding to Western Plains Energy, LLC (WPE) to construct, purchase equipment, and operate a new Biogas Anaerobic Digester at WPE's existing Ethanol Facility, located at 3022 County Road 18, Grinnell Township (Oakley), Gove County, Kansas. The proposed facility will include a receiving building, digester, and related infrastructure. Based on the analysis in USDA's Final EA and FONSI, DOE has determined that DOE's proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human or natural environment.

  1. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  2. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  3. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  4. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  5. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  7. High characteristics temperature of strain-compensated 1.3 {micro}m InAsP/InGaP/InP multi-quantum well lasers grown by all solid source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savolainen, P.; Toivonen, M.; Salokatve, A. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Asonen, H. [Tutcore Ltd., Tampere (Finland); Murison, R. [EG and G Optoelectronics Canada, Vaudreuil, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present lasers have very good characteristic temperature values for the threshold current. In order to maintain such performance in cw mode, one should either use narrow waveguide (buried) type of laser structure or reduce the number of QWs. If the number of QW`s is reduced, total gain decreases and this should be compensated by increasing the optical confinement factor. In this paper the authors have demonstrated the suitability of InAsP/InGaP strain-compensated system for high temperature lasers emitting 1.3 {micro}m and the potential of all solid source molecular beam epitaxy for growth of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  9. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1997-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetraphenylborate solids provide a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene.

  10. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. High figure of merit and thermoelectric properties of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} solid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Kang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chi, Hang; Zhou, Xiaoyuan [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tang, Xinfeng, E-mail: tangxf@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Uher, Ctirad, E-mail: cuher@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x}-based thermoelectric materials has received widespread attention due to a potentially high thermoelectric performance, abundant raw materials, relatively low cost of modules, and non-toxic character of compounds. In this research, Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}Bi{sub y} solid solutions with the nominal Bi content of 0?y?0.03 are prepared using a two-step solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering consolidation. Within this range of Bi concentrations, no evidence of second phase segregation was found. Bi is confirmed to occupy the Si/Sn sites in the crystal lattice and behaves as an efficient n-type dopant in Mg{sub 2}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}. Similar to the effect of Sb, Bi doping greatly increases the electron density and the power factor, and reduces the lattice thermal conductivity of Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} solid solutions. Overall, the thermoelectric figure of merit of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} solid solutions is improved by about 10% in comparison to values obtained with Sb-doped materials of comparable dopant content. This improvement comes chiefly from a marginally higher Seebeck coefficient of Bi-doped solid solutions. The highest ZT?1.4 is achieved for the y=0.03 composition at 800 K. - Graphical abstract: (a)The relationship between electrical conductivity and power factor for Sb/Bi-doped Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}(Sb/Bi){sub y} (0solid solutions. (b)The correlation between temperature and the combination of the lattice and the bipolar terms of thermal conductivity of Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}Bi{sub y} (0?y?0.03) solid solutions. (c)Temperature dependent dimensionless figure of merit ZT of Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 1?y}Bi{sub y} (0?y?0.03) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Bi doped Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} showed 15% enhancement in the power factor as compared to Sb doped samples. • Bi doping reduced ?{sub ph} of Mg{sub 2.16}Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6} due to stronger point defect scattering. • The highest ZT=1.4 at 800 K was achieved for Mg{sub 2.16}(Si{sub 0.4}Sn{sub 0.6}){sub 0.97}Bi{sub 0.03}.

  12. Low-Cost High-Performance Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on MnO2 Nanowires and Fe2O3 Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , super- capacitors (SCs) have attracted much attention due to their high power density and exceptionally

  13. Novel phosphors for solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, Joshua D

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

  14. Solid Waste Management Written Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Solid Waste Management Program Written Program Cornell University 8/28/2012 #12;Solid Waste.................................................................... 4 4.2.1 Compost Solid Waste Treatment Facility.................................................................... 4 4.2.2 Pathological Solid Waste Treatment Facility

  15. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  16. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  17. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  18. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) with high detection threshold to search for rare events in cosmic rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dey; D. Gupta; A. Maulik; Sibaji Raha; Swapan K. Saha; D. Syam; J. Pakarinen; D. Voulot; F. Wenander

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated a commercially available polymer for its suitability as a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). We identified that polymer to be polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and found that it has a higher detection threshold compared to many other widely used SSNTDs which makes this detector particularly suitable for rare event search in cosmic rays as it eliminates the dominant low Z background. Systematic studies were carried out to determine its charge response which is essential before any new material can be used as an SSNTD. In this paper we describe the charge response of PET to 129Xe, 78Kr and 49Ti ions from the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN, present the calibration curve for PET and characterize it as a nuclear track detector.

  19. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  20. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.

    1986-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of solubilizing lead, in the form of lead oxide, found in industrial wastes, before these wastes are dumped into the environment. The lead is solubilized by dissolving the lead oxide in the wastes through contact with an anaerobic bacterial culture containing the bacterium ATCC No. 53464. The solubilized lead can then be removed from the wastes by chemical separation. It could also be removed by extending the contact period with the bacterial culture. As the culture grows, the solubilized lead is removed from the wastes by bioaccumulation by the microorganism or by immobilization by a polymer-like material produced by the microorganism. At this point, the lead is then removed from the wastes when the waste material is separated from the bacterial culture. If desired, the bacterial culture could be digested at this point to yield relatively pure lead for further industrial use.

  1. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.wimmer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? The isotopic signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ? Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ? In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ? The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ? ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of ?{sup 13}C, ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (?{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of ?20‰ to ?25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in ?{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of about ?20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation–reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  2. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge Processing Gas Scrubber Intermediate BTU Gas (System) 3 TPD 55.779 TPD I Scrubber H2 0 = 48 T Waste SludgeSystem Solids 28.11T (To Scrubber) 48 TPD) Fluidized Bed

  3. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N nature of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) they are mostly bound to the sludge and escape aerobic

  4. Culturing Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria and Mammalian Cells with a Microfluidic Differential Oxygenator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Raymond H. W.

    In this manuscript, we report on the culture of anaerobic and aerobic species within a disposable multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with an integrated differential oxygenator. A gas-filled microchannel ...

  5. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaks, David P. M.

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

  6. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Chicken Processing Wastewater and Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foucault, Lucas Jose

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater from a chicken processing facility and of crude glycerol from local biodiesel operations. The AD of these substrates was conducted in bench-scale reactors...

  7. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  8. anaerobic feiii-reducer rhodoferax: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  9. anaerobic uiv bio-oxidation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did...

  10. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Dieckman, Stephen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  11. The effect of counterface on the tribological performance of a high temperature solid lubricant composite from 25 to 650{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of counterface selection on the tribological performance of a Ag/BaF{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} containing composite coating is studied. Ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and metal (Inconel X-750) pins are slid against PS300 (a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with Ag and BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} lubricant additives) in a pin-on-disk tribometer at 25, 500 and 650 C. Compared to the ceramic counterface, the metal counterface generally exhibited lower friction and wear at 25 C but higher friction and wear at 650 C. Friction coefficients, for example, for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination at 25 C were 0.64 compared to 0.23 for the Inconel/PS300 sliding couple. At 650 C the ranking was reversed. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination gave a friction coefficient of 0.19 while the friction for the metal counterface increased slightly to about 0.3. Based upon these tribological results and other information found in the literature, it appears that the performance of each counterface/PS300 combination is affected by the ability of the solid lubricant additives to form an adequate transfer film. The effects of surface wettability and tribological compatibility are discussed in relation to the observed tribological results.

  12. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  13. The incidence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in the equine uterus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Dean Roger

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE EQUINE UTERUS A Thesis by DEAN ROGER BOLINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCF.... December I 987 Major Subject: Veterinary Medical Sciences THE INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE EQUINE UTERUS A Thesis by DEAN ROGER BOLINGER Approved as to style and content by: Ronnie G. Elmore (Chairman of Committee...

  14. Solid Waste Management (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solid waste facilities operating in Connecticut must abide by these regulations, which describe requirements and procedures for issuing construction and operating permits; environmental...

  15. Solid Waste Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the rules and regulations governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery, and reuse of solid waste protect the air,...

  16. Solid Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

  17. Solid Waste Management (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act encourages the Department of Environmental Quality and Health Department representatives to develop and encourage methods for disposing solid waste that are environmentally sound, that...

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  19. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid...

  20. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  1. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

  2. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  3. High-resolution radial Ka spectra obtained from a multi-keV electron distribution in solid-density titanium foils generated by relativistic laserematter interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroupp, Eyal

    -density titanium foils generated by relativistic laserematter interaction U. Zastrau a,*, A. Sengebusch b , P s t r a c t We studied temperature and Ka yield radial profiles of thin titanium foils as a result in novel experiments generating high energy plasma in materials and will be of particular importance

  4. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have synthesized a new series of brownmillerite solid electrolyte phases Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} (x = 0,0.2,0.4) with the x = 0.2 phase exhibiting an unusually low E. relative to both the observed ionic conductivity in this phase and to E{sub a}s observed in similar compounds. We attribute measured ionic conductivities to a lack of available charge carriers in Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}O{sub 5}. However, the low E{sub a} supports the premise that brownmillerite solid electrolyte structures are suitable for supporting high ionic conductivity. Current work is focusing on enhancing the amount of charge carriers in these materials by systematically introducing disorder into the brownmillerite lattice.

  5. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive thermodynamic description of the chemical evolution of organic matter with increasing depth in sedimentary basins.

  6. Rates of microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in anaerobic sediments from Waukegan Harbor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Risatti, J.B.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediments from 19 stations in Waukegan Harbor, Waukegan, Illinois were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from a high of 17,251 ppm in slip 3 near the former drainage pipe from which PCB contaminated fluids entered the slip to a low of 5 ppm near the harbor mouth. The narrow range of values in slip 3 and at the mouth of the slip contrasts with values from previous studies that reported higher levels toward the mouth of the slip. PCB values also appear to be higher than expected on the west side of the harbor-this may be due to the resuspension and movement of sediments by boat traffic. Sediments from three stations in the harbor with varying levels of PCB contamination were incubated at 8 and 22 C for periods of 0 to 12 months. Data from these experiments indicate that anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs probably occurs in harbor sediments and that 50 percent dechlorination of many congeners occurs in less that 30 days.

  7. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The results obtained from this study showed that the test area contamination is extremely heterogeneous, and that it contains extremely high levels of the three major contaminants, HMX, RDX and TNT. The potential for success of a bioremediation strategy is discussed.

  8. Effects of TNT and its metabolites on anaerobic TNT degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pendharkar, S. [Computron, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Ahmad, F. [Booz, Allen and Hamilton, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of the presence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene on the anaerobic treatment procedure developed for munitions-contaminated soil were examined. When 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene was spiked in increasing levels into cultures containing TNT, inhibition of the rate of TNT degradation was observed. The degradation of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene did not proceed while TNT was present in the cultures. When 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was spiked into cultures that also contained TNT, TNT degradation rates were inhibited, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene were not degraded at all. When 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was spiked into cultures containing 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, degradation of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene was not effected but 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was not degraded. These results suggest that the rapid removal of TNT from the treatment system, before the intermediates have a chance to accumulate, or the rapid removal of the intermediates of TNT degradation is of utmost importance during the remediation of TNT-contaminated soils. If these intermediates are allowed to accumulate above inhibitory levels, the degradation of TNT will be slowed and the removal of the intermediates will halt completely.

  9. Optimal Solid Space Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory and computations are provided for building of optimal (minimum weight) solid space towers (mast) up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth surface, weather and upper atmosphere experiment, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch spaceships and Earth satellites. These macroprojects are not expensive. They require strong hard material (steel). Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require human work at high altitudes; the tower is separated into sections; all construction can be done at the Earth surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth surface. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other cited publications.

  10. Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid...

  11. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  12. Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Carlos Joel

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    lubrication modes. ..................... 10 Figure 5. Typical Stribeck Curve [22]. ..................................................................... 11 Figure 6. This figure illustrates the lamellar structure of graphite. ........................... 13... or low pressures, and high and low operating speeds. For purposes of this research, the extreme conditions will refer to high temperatures, and low pressures. The most common types of solid lubricants encompass four materials: graphite, molybdenum...

  13. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal Solid Waste-Sewage Sludge. b 4.15 SCF CH 4 / cu ftUP I j methane 31.5 scf sludge 18.61b water 161b Btu/scfsewer 65.3 lb ( 7.9 gal) sludge ash 1.74 lb stack emissions

  14. Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid...

  15. Solid Waste Management Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act establishes rules for the permitting, posting of security, construction, operation, closure, maintenance and remediation of solid waste disposal sites; disposal of solid waste in ways that...

  16. Solid Waste Rules (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The solid waste statute applies to construction and demolition debris, appliances, recyclables, and the facilities that collect, process, and dispose of solid waste. DES oversees the management of...

  17. Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

  18. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction evaluation of thermal deoxidation of chemically cleaned Si, SiGe, and Ge layers for solid-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present a study on the thermal evolution of the reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern of chemically cleaned (001)-oriented Si, Ge, and SiGe surfaces, associating observed changes in the reconstructions with the desorption of known residual contaminants for Si and Ge surfaces. The implications of residual oxides prior to epitaxy on stacking fault densities in the grown films are presented. Further evidence for the two-phase nature of oxides on SiGe surfaces is provided, demonstrating that it is necessary to heat a SiGe surface up to the thermal deoxidation temperature of a Si surface to obtain stacking fault-free growth.

  19. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  20. A high-pressure route to thermoelectrics with low thermal conductivity: The solid solution series AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2} (x=0.1–0.6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schröder, Thorsten; Rosenthal, Tobias; Souchay, Daniel; Petermayer, Christian; Grott, Sebastian [LMU Munich, Department of Chemistry, Butenandtstraße 5-13 (D), 81377 Munich (Germany); Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Gold, Christian; Scherer, Wolfgang [University of Augsburg, Institut für Physik, Universitätsstraße 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Oeckler, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.oeckler@gmx.de [Leipzig University, IMKM, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable rocksalt-type phases of the solid solution series AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2} (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) were prepared by high-pressure synthesis at 2.5 GPa and 400 °C. In these structures, the coordination number of In{sup 3+} is six, in contrast to chalcopyrite ambient-pressure AgInTe{sub 2} with fourfold In{sup 3+} coordination. Transmission electron microscopy shows that real-structure phenomena and a certain degree of short-range order are present, yet not very pronounced. All three cations are statistically disordered. The high degree of disorder is probably the reason why AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2} samples with 0.4high Seebeck coefficient of 160 µV/K. Temperature-dependent X-ray powder patterns indicate that the solid solutions are metastable at ambient pressure. At 150 °C, the quaternary compounds decompose into chalcopyrite-type AgInTe{sub 2} and rocksalt-type AgSbTe{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Reaction scheme, temperature characteristics of the ZT value and a selected-area electron diffraction pattern (background) of AgIn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}Te{sub 2}, which crystallizes in a rocksalt-type structure with statistical cation disorder. Display Omitted - Highlights: • High-pressure synthesis yields the novel solid solution series AgIn{sub x}Sb{sub 1?x}Te{sub 2}. • In contrast to AgInTe{sub 2}, the compounds are inert at ambient pressure. • HRTEM shows no pronounced short-range order in the disordered NaCl-type structure. • The metastable phases exhibit very low total thermal conductivities <0.5 W/K m. • ZT values of 0.15 at room temperature were measured for AgIn{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 0.5}Te{sub 2}.

  1. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe [Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi (Japan)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  3. Solid Waste Management (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct,...

  4. Comparison of a One-Dimensional Model of a High-Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Stack with CFD and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional model has been developed to predict the thermal and electrochemical behavior of a high-temperature steam electrolysis stack. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The model includes a temperature-dependent area-specific resistance (ASR) that accounts for the significant increase in electrolyte ionic conductivity that occurs with increasing temperature. Model predictions are shown to compare favorably with results obtained from a fully 3-D computational fluid dynamics model. The one-dimensional model was also employed to demonstrate the expected trends in electrolyzer performance over a range of operating conditions including isothermal, adiabatic, constant steam utilization, constant flow rate, and the effects of operating temperature.

  5. Solid model design simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.

  6. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  7. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  9. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  10. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor that is currently required for typical activated sludge or aerobic membrane bioreactor processes. In addition, MFCs

  11. Structural Integrity Program for INTEC Calcined Solids Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Bryant

    2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual'. Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  12. Investigation of anaerobic bacteria associated with mortality in grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and redfish (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Michael Waite

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVEST1GATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH NDRTALITY IN GREY MULLET t~N' I ~*h I ) AND REDYIRH (~H' o ll t A Thesis MICHAEL WAITE HENLEY f Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology INVESTIGATION OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED NITH liIIH NDR IlDIIY IN GREY NUDE EI 1M~I ~ll END REDPI H l~R' ll t 1 A Thesis !G!ICHAEL WAITE HENLEY...

  13. Design and development of a cooling device for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandi, Asis

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell (PAFC), (iv) molten carbonate I'uel cell (AICFC j, and (vj solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). One of the most promising, in respect to achieving the high energy efficiencies and the high power densities. uses a, solid polyiner electrolyte. The solid...

  14. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  15. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Han, “W-band, 5W Solid-State Power Amplifier/Combiner,”materials have made high-power solid-state power amplifiersCMOS RF power amplifier for GSM-EDGE,” IEEE J. Solid-State

  16. Structure and dynamics studies by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itin, Boris

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goal of this work is the development of high resolution solid state 205T1 NMR techniques and their application to the elucidation of the mechanism and dynamics of ion exchange in biological solids. The thesis ...

  17. Novel Solid Base Catalysts for the Production of Biodiesel from Lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lina

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary commercial biodiesel production processes use homogeneous base catalysts which cause separation and wastewater discharge problems. Solid base catalysts can overcome these drawbacks. However, a solid base catalyst with high activity...

  18. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  19. Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

  20. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  1. High sensitivity, solid state neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Branz, Howard M.; Wang, Qi; McHugh, Harold R.

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus (200) for detecting slow or thermal neutrons (160) including an alpha particle-detecting layer (240) that is a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode structure. The apparatus includes a bottom metal contact (220) and a top metal contact (250) with the diode structure (240) positioned between the two contacts (220, 250) to facilitate detection of alpha particles (170). The apparatus (200) includes a neutron conversion layer (230) formed of a material containing boron-10 isotopes. The top contact (250) is pixilated with each contact pixel extending to or proximate to an edge of the apparatus to facilitate electrical contacting. The contact pixels have elongated bodies to allow them to extend across the apparatus surface (242) with each pixel having a small surface area to match capacitance based upon a current spike detecting circuit or amplifier connected to each pixel. The neutron conversion layer (860) may be deposited on the contact pixels (830) such as with use of inkjet printing of nanoparticle ink.

  2. Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in termsUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical of the SOFC system cost per unit power ($/kW). In this work, anode-supported planar SOFCs were fabricated

  3. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  4. Design, construction and operational results of the IGBT controlled solid state modulator high voltage power supply used in the high power RF systems of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, J.T. III; Rees, D.; Przeklasa, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Scott, M.C. [Continental Electronics Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1700 MeV, 100 mA Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Proton Linac will require 244 1 MW, continuous wave RF systems. 1 MW continuous wave klystrons are used as the RF source and each klystron requires 95 kV, 17 A of beam voltage and current. The cost of the DC power supplies is the single largest percentage of the total RF system cost. Power supply reliability is crucial to overall RF system availability and AC to DC conversion efficiency affects the operating cost. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will serve as the prototype and test bed for APT. The design of the RF systems used in LEDA is driven by the need to field test high efficiency systems with extremely high reliability before APT is built. The authors present a detailed description and test results of one type of advanced high voltage power supply system using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) that has been used with the LEDA High Power RF systems. The authors also present some of the distinctive features offered by this power supply topology, including crowbarless tube protection and modular construction which allows graceful degradation of power supply operation.

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  6. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological

  7. Prolixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    ferment sugars by using a mixed acid fermentation pathway and it can grow over a wide range with oxygen. Several organisms that are able to oxidize organic acids, such as acetate, to CO2 and utilizeProlixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe

  8. Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Column Studies of Anaerobic Carbon Tetrachloride Biotransformation with Hanford Aquifer Material bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at the Hanford site in south- central Washington state. Benzoate in south- central Washington state has been a defense materials pro- duction complex since 1943. Carbon

  9. Natural attenuation of PAHs under anaerobic conditions C.Rollin (V, T. Heidi2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the PAH concentrations between the soil and the water phase. The decrease of the PAH concentrations water-bound PAH took place. In a first, orientating microcosm experiment, the hypothesis that PAHNatural attenuation of PAHs under anaerobic conditions C.Rollin (V, T. Heidi2 ), J. Laversanne (V

  10. Calculated Proton Uptake on Anaerobic Reduction of Cytochrome c Oxidase: Is the Reaction Electroneutral?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunner, Marilyn

    Calculated Proton Uptake on Anaerobic Reduction of Cytochrome c Oxidase: Is the ReactionVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 17, 2006 ABSTRACT: Cytochrome c oxidase is a transmembrane proton pump that builds ranging from fully oxidized to fully reduced. One long-standing problem is how proton uptake is coupled

  11. Simulation of low temperature anaerobic digestion of dairy and swine manure q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the primary biogas component at approximately 10°C. Thus, digestion Bioresource Technology 78 (2001) 127±131 qSimulation of low temperature anaerobic digestion of dairy and swine manure q D.T. Hill *, S performance data from digesters using animal waste in this temperature range have been lacking, thus allowing

  12. A dynamic estimation scheme of specific growth rates of bacteria for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ­ the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. I. Introduction Before it may. The dynamics of this process are the ones of standard anaerobic digestion, and depend on the type of organic quantities such as the dilution rate and the flow rates of methane and carbon dioxide in the biogas. In [1, 2

  13. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Brown Water and Food Waste for Energy Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in a decentralized reactor via anaerobic digestion. The bio-methane potential of these substrates at different feed/inoculum ratios (F/Is) was studied using 100-mL serum bottles and biogas and methane production, pH and VS-digestion was also investigated to determine if further improvement of biogas yield could be achieved. Preliminary

  14. Research review paper1 Anaerobic digestion of microalgae as a necessary step to make3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Research review paper1 2 Anaerobic digestion of microalgae as a necessary step to make3 Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100, France11 12 Abstract13 14 The potential of microalgae process that can recover more energy than the energy from the cell lipids. Three main21 bottlenecks

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  16. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  17. Solid Waste Act (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The main purpose of the Solid Waste Act is to authorize and direct the establishment of a comprehensive solid waste management program. The act states details about specific waste management...

  18. Solid Waste Management Program (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Program in the Department of Natural Resources regulates the management of solid waste in the state of Missouri. A permit is required prior to the construction or...

  19. Delaware Solid Waste Authority (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) runs three landfills, all of which recover methane and generate electricity with a total capacity of 24 MWs. The DSWA Solid Waste Plan includes goals,...

  20. Solid Waste Disposal Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is responsible for the regulation and management of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste. A fee is applied to all solid waste disposed in the...

  1. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De Jonghe TWO-AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De JongheAND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard C. De Jonghe

  2. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  3. Heat Recovery From Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, O. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc....

  4. Fabricating the Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ring, Peter J.; Sayre, Edwin D. [Advanced Methods and Materials, Inc., 1190 Mountain View-Alviso Road, Suite P, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Houts, Mike [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid core heatpipe nuclear reactor has the potential to be the most dependable concept for the nuclear space power system. The design of the conversion system employed permits multiple failure modes instead of the single failure mode of other concepts. Regardless of the material used for the reactor, either stainless steel, high-temperature alloys, Nb1Zr, Tantalum Alloys or MoRe Alloys, making the solid core by machining holes in a large diameter billet is not satisfactory. This is because the large diameter billet will have large grains that are detrimental to the performance of the reactor due to grain boundary diffusion. The ideal fabrication method for the solid core is by hot isostatic pressure diffusion bonding (HIPing). By this technique, wrought fine-grained tubes of the alloy chosen are assembled into the final shape with solid cusps and seal welded so that there is a vacuum in between all surfaces to be diffusion bonded. This welded structure is then HIPed for diffusion bonding. A solid core made of Type 321 stainless steel has been satisfactorily produced by Advanced Methods and Materials and is undergoing evaluation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  6. A blurred interface formulation of The Reference Map Technique for Fluid-Solid Interactions and Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkov, Boris Ivanov

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a blurred interface method for Fluid-Solid Interactions (FSI) and multiple solids immersed in a fluid or FSSI (Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions) based on the reference map technique as presented by ...

  7. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

  8. Modeling and design of semi-solid flow batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunini, Victor Eric

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional dynamic model of the recently introduced semi-solid flow battery system is developed and applied to address issues with important design and operation implications. Because of the high viscosity of ...

  9. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  10. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  11. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  12. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  13. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  14. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  15. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  16. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  17. A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas.brault@univ-orleans.fr Abstract Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest due to their high energy efficiency, low, a mathematical model of a co - flow planar anode - supported solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming

  18. In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design

  19. anaerobic upflow column: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we have detected, in high-quality observations from Hinode SOTNFI, ubiquitous small-scale upflows which move horizontally with supersonic velocities in the quiet Sun. We...

  20. anaerobic fluidized bed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    program considerably facilitated its operation which can now be remotely done. The gasification of sorghum, CGT and manure showed that they contained high amounts of...

  1. anaerobic hydrogen producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (No Carbon Capture) Electrolysis Water (Grid) Coal Gasification (Carbon Capture) Biomass Gasification Water Electrolysis (Wind) High-Temp Water 73 1 Production of Biosurfactant by...

  2. anaerobically digested cattle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  3. anaerobic digesters treating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  4. anaerobic digestion final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  5. anaerobic digester gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  6. anaerobic digestion held: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  7. anaerobic digestion role: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  8. anaerobic digestion model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  9. anaerobically digested municipal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  10. anaerobic thermophilic biogas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  11. anaerobic closed digester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  12. anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  13. anaerobic chelate bioegradation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  14. anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment...

  15. anaerobic bacterium anaerocellum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  16. anaerobic digestion program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  17. anaerobic digester sludge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  18. anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment...

  19. anaerobic biogas reactors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  20. anaerobic digestion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  1. anaerobic digestion processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  2. anaerobic sludge digestion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  3. anaerobic digestion process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  4. anaerobic digestion systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  5. anaerobic digester performance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  6. anaerobic methanotrophic archaea: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  7. anaerobic digestion system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  8. anaerobic digestion performance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  9. anaerobic digesters current: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  10. anaerobically digested sludge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  11. anaerobic digester treating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  12. anaerobe clostridium acetobutylicum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  13. anaerobic digestion analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal...

  14. A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

  15. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others] [and others

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  16. Greenhouse and laboratory studies on the effects of an anaerobic digester sludge on growth and nutrient uptake of sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, John Cooper

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORI STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis By John Cooper Vincent Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Agronomy GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORy STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis by John Cooper Vincent Approved...

  17. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhanguang; Zhou Xuefei [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Pollution and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Yalei, E-mail: zhangyalei2003@163.com [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Pollution and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu Hongguang [Institute of Modern Agricultural Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center of Protected Agriculture, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was key controlling factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The threshold of the SCOD/TAN ratio was 2.4 at an influent pH of 8.5-9. - Abstract: The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700 m{sup 3} chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3 L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35 {+-} 1 Degree-Sign C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5 d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250 mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  18. 1. A vertical post 2.5-meters high must support a lateral load P = 12 kN at its upper end. Two plans are proposed -a solid wood post and a hollow aluminum tube. (a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    plans are proposed -a solid wood post and a hollow aluminum tube. (a) What is the minimum required is the minimum diameter d2of the aluminum tube if its wall thickness is to be one-eight of the outer diameter and the allowable bending stress in the aluminum is 50Mpa ? (20 points) 2. The composite beam shown in figure below

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Han (Waltham, MA); LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA); Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Natick, MA); McCallum, Thomas J. (Ashland, MA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  20. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Final performance report, June 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site.

  1. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated defect and DSA map overlay to failed die identified using end product probe test results. Results from our two year effort have led to “automated end-to-end defect detection” with full defect traceability and the ability to unambiguously correlate device killer defects to optically detected features and their point of origin within the process. Success of the program can be measured by yield improvements at our partner’s facilities and new product orders.

  2. Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Slifer

    2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  5. Solid Waste Management (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling...

  6. Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

  7. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  8. Thermal and electrical stabilities of solid nitrogen (SN2) cooled YBCO coated conductors for HTS magnet applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, J. B.

    Recently, a cooling system using a solid cryogen such as solid nitrogen (SN2), was introduced for high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet applications. In order to apply the SN2 cooling system successfully to HTS ...

  9. SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

  10. Solid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Frommell, E.A.; Flenory, P.B.

    1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids covered during the period of October 1984 through Sept 30, 1986. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as the reference sources. In most categories the volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review.

  11. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  12. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72.

  13. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  14. Harmonic waves in a fluid-solid waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yapura, Carlos Ludwig

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    branches for a water-loaded aluminum plate have been obtained for different fluid-to-solid layer thickness ratios. The results are checked with well-known solutions in the low &equency gong wavelength) and high frequency (short wavelength) limits... . . 45 . . . . . 47 LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the fluid-solid bilayer. Fig. 2 Dispersion diagram for a &ee aluminum plate Page 19 Fig. 3 Phase velocity as a function of &equency for a &ee aluminum plate. . . . . . . . . . 20 Fig...

  15. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  16. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  17. SOLIDS PRECIPITATION EVENT IN MCU CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM SOLIDS RECOVERY TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, A.; Aponte, C.

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process upset occurred in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility on April 6th, 2014. During recovery efforts, a significant amount of solids were found in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Salt Solution Receipt Tanks (SSRTs), two extraction contactors, and scrub contactors. The solids were identified by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as primarily sodium oxalate and sodium alumina silicate (NAS) with the presence of some aluminum hydroxide. NAS solids have been present in the SSFT since simulant runs during cold chemical startup of MCU in 2007, and have not hindered operations since that time. During the process upset in April 2014, the oxalate solids partially blocked the aqueous outlet of the extraction contactors, causing salt solution to exit through the contactor organic outlet to the scrub contactors with the organic phase. This salt solution overwhelmed the scrub contactors and passed with the organic phase to the strip section of MCU. The partially reversed flow of salt solution resulted in a Strip Effluent (SE) stream that was high in Isopar™ L, pH and sodium. The primary cause of the excessive solids accumulation in the SSRTs and SSFT at MCU is attributed to an increase in the frequency of oxalic acid cleaning of the 512-S primary filter. Agitation in the SSRTs at MCU in response to cold weather likely provided the primary mechanism to transfer the solids to the contactors. Sources of the sodium oxalate solids are attributed to the oxalic acid cleaning solution used to clean the primary filter at the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) filtration at 512-S, as well as precipitation from the salt batch feed, which is at or near oxalate saturation. The Solids Recovery Team was formed to determine the cause of the solids formation and develop recommendations to prevent or mitigate this event in the future. A total of 53 recommendations were generated. These recommendations were organized into 4 focus areas: • Improve understanding of oxalate equilibrium and kinetics in salt solutions • Reduction/elimination of oxalic acid cleaning in 512-S • Flowsheet optimization • Improving diagnostic capability The recommendations implemented prior to resumption of MCU operations provide a risk mitigation or detection function through additional sampling and observation. The longer term recommendations provide a framework to increase the basic process knowledge of both oxalate chemistry and filtration behavior and then facilitate decisions that improve the salt flowsheet as a system.

  18. Solid state electrochemical composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (Moraga, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  19. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  20. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  1. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek [University of Florida (United States); Mahapatra, Rupak [Texas A and M University (United States); Yoo, Jonghee [FNAL (United States)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  2. Illinois Solid Waste Management Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     It is the purpose of this Act to reduce reliance on land disposal of solid waste, to encourage and promote alternative means of managing solid waste, and to assist local governments with solid...

  3. Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis Prepared By: Mitchell Johnson Alex Sonnichsen #12;Eugene Solid Waste Management Market Analysis May 2012 Page 1 Summary This study examines the economic impact of the solid waste management system

  4. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  5. Resource recovery and epidemiology of anaerobic wastewater treatment process in a controlled ecological life support system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Hunt, M.D.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of work accomplished under two different areas: (1) Resource Recovery of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment process, and (2) Epidemiological Study of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Process are documented. The first part of the work was to set up and test three anaerobic digesters and then run these three digesters with a NASA-simulated wastewater. The second part of the work was to use a multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis as the indicator bacteria for the epidemiological study. Details of these two parts can be found in two master`s theses and are described in Sections 3 and 4 of this report. Several important results condensed from these two parts are summarized in Section 2.

  6. Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A, GRAETZ, AND K. R. REDDY2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Decomposition of Fresh and Anaerobically Digested Plant Biomass in Soil1 K. K. MOORHEAD, D. A to produce CH4 or added to soil directly as an amendment.In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested. The fresh plant biomassand digested biomasssludgewere freeze- dried and groundto passa0.84-mm sieve

  7. Optimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen1,4 and Francis Mairet2 and Pierre Martinon3 and Matthieu Sebbah4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    microalgae biomass into biogas [4]. This process not only recovers the energy stored in biomass, but alsoOptimizing the anaerobic digestion of microalgae in a coupled process Terence Bayen1,4 and Francis the production of methane in a bioreactor coupling an anaerobic digester and a culture of micro-algae limited

  8. Investigation of possible alternate end products of anaerobic metabolism in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trant, John Miller

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accumulated due to anoxia in the fish was lactate. Succinate and alanine showed slight or no accumulation with t1me. Alanine actually showed reduced pool size due to anox1a and hypoxia as compared to 1n vitro aerobic tissue pool-size. Even though in vivo... anaerobic tissues showed only slightly elevated and time constant lactate concentrat1ons compared to 1n vitro aerob1c tissue, a C tracer ind1cated accumulation and an efflux 14 w1th1n the lactate pool. Total act1vity decreased with t1me. There- fore...

  9. Performance evaluation of a completely stirred anaerobic reactor treating pig manure at a low range of mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianbin, E-mail: jianbinguo@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Dong, Renjie [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, P.O. Box 184, Beijing 100083 (China); Clemens, Joachim [Institute of Crop Science and Resource Reservation (INRES), University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Strasse 13, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Wang, Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • The biogas process can run stably at 20 °C at extremely low OLR after long-term acclimation of bacteria. • A biogas plant running at 28 °C seems as efficient as that operated at 38 °C at low OLR of 1.3 g ODM L{sup ?1} d{sup ?1}. • Lower temperature operation is inadvisable for the commercial biogas plant running at rather high OLR. • The estimated sludge yield at 28 °C is higher than that at 38 °C. - Abstract: Many Chinese biogas plants run in the lower range of mesophilic conditions. This study evaluated the performance of a completely stirred anaerobic reactor treating pig manure at different temperatures (20, 28 and 38 °C). The start-up phase of the reactor at 20 °C was very long and extremely poor performance was observed with increasing organic loading rate (OLR). At an OLR of 4.3 g ODM L{sup ?1} d{sup ?1}, methane production at 28 °C was comparable (3% less) with that at 38 °C, but the risk of acidification was high at 28 °C. At low OLR (1.3 g ODM L{sup ?1} d{sup ?1}), the biogas process appeared stable at 28 °C and gave same methane yields as compared to the reactor operating at 38 °C. The estimated sludge yield at 28 °C was 0.065 g VSS g{sup ?1} COD{sub removed,} which was higher than that at 38 °C (0.016 g VSS g{sup ?1} COD{sub removed})

  10. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly, into the nanometer regime, can lead to rapid self-discharge of the battery even when the electrolyte layer

  11. Solid Waste Management Act (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to establishing a comprehensive program of controlling all phases of solid waste management and assigning responsibilities for solid waste management to the Secretary of Department of...

  12. 100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) 100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) Research applications Samples containing paramagnetics Soils (SOM and NOM) Metal oxide materials for catalysis...

  13. Solid Waste Management Program (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Dakota's Solid Waste Management Program offers loans and grants for solid waste disposal, recycling, and waste tire projects. Funds are available for private or public projects, and...

  14. Chapter 47 Solid Waste Facilities (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter establishes the permitting standards for solid waste sites or facilities, the standards applicable to all solid waste sites or facilities, and the standards for certification of...

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  16. High-pressure synthesis of electronic materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, George B. S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure techniques have become increasingly important in the synthesis of ceramic and metallic solids allowing the discovery of new materials with interesting properties. In this research dense solid oxides have ...

  17. Cogeneration/Cogeneration - Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyle, F. B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the rationale for cogeneration and basic turbine types available. Special considerations for cogeneration in conjunction with solid waste firing are outlined. Optimum throttle conditions for cogeneration are significantly...

  18. Solid Waste Disposal Facilities (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections articulate rules for the maintenance and operation of solid waste disposal facilities, as well as site assignment procedures. Applications for site assignment will be reviewed by the...

  19. Solid Waste Facilities Regulations (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the Massachusetts General Laws governs the operation of solid waste facilities. It seeks to encourage sustainable waste management practices and to mitigate adverse effects, such as...

  20. Solid Waste Management Rules (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules establish procedures and standards to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safe, proper, and sustainable management of solid waste in Vermont. The rules apply to...

  1. Cogeneration/Cogeneration - Solid Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyle, F. B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the rationale for cogeneration and basic turbine types available. Special considerations for cogeneration in conjunction with solid waste firing are outlined. Optimum throttle conditions for cogeneration are significantly...

  2. Plasma Physics Challenges of MMPlasma Physics Challenges of MM--toto--THz and High Power MicrowaveTHz and High Power Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid StateSolid State Microwave Power ElectronicsMicrowave Power Electronics · Both convert kinetic Devices (Avg) Vacuum HPM (Peak) Solid State Lasers (Peak) Solid State Devices (Avg) Power(W) (Single ...BUT ... For f > 100 GHz VEDs frontier 1/f2P High power limit for Solid State 1/f 2 and HPM Frontier

  3. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

  4. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  5. Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a continental hot spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slobodkin, A.; Wiegel, J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Reysenbach, A.L. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strain of a thermophilic, anaerobic, dissimilatory, Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, Thermoterrabacterium ferrireducens gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/AS-Y7{sup T}; DSM 11255), was isolated from hot springs in Yellowstone National Park and New Zealand. The gram-positive-staining cells occurred singly or in pairs as straight to slightly curved rods, 0.3 to 0.4 by 1.6 to 2.7 {mu}m, with rounded ends and exhibited a tumbling motility. Spores were not observed. The temperature range for growth was 50 to 74{degrees}C with an optimum at 65{degrees}C. The pH range for growth at 65{degrees}C was from 5.5 to 7.6, with an optimum at 6.0 to 6.2. The organism coupled the oxidation of glycerol to reduction of amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as an electron acceptor. In the presence as well as in the absence of Fe(III) and in the presence of CO{sub 2}, glycerol was metabolized by incomplete oxidation to acetate as the only organic metabolic product; no H{sub 2} was produced during growth. The organism utilized glycerol, lactate, 1,2-propanediol, glycerate, pyruvate, glucose, fructose, mannose, and yeast extract as substrates. In the presence of Fe(III) the bacterium utilized molecular hydrogen. The organism reduced 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, fumarate (to succinate), and thiosulfate (to elemental sulfur) but did not reduce MnO{sub 2}, nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur. The G+C content of the DNA was 41 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography). The 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis placed the isolated strain as a member of a new genus within the gram-type positive Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum.

  6. DNA adsorption at liquid/solid interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carine Douarche; Robert Cortčs; Steven J. Roser; Jean-Louis Sikorav; Alan Braslau

    2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA adsorption on solid or liquid surfaces is a topic of broad fundamental and applied interest. Here we study by x-ray reflectivity the adsorption of monodisperse double-stranded DNA molecules a positively-charged surface, obtained through chemical grafting of a homogeneous organicmonomolecular layer of N-(2-aminoethyl) dodecanamide on an oxide-free monocrystalline Si(111) wafer. The adsorbed dsDNA is found to embed into the soft monolayer which is deformed in the process. The surface coverage is very high and this adsorbed layer is expected to display 2D nematic ordering.

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Weber

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

  8. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  9. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    2007 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-08-010 November 2008 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID ............................................................................................................................... 1 WHAT IS INCLUDED IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  11. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2011 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-13-001 May 2013 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2011 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  12. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  13. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  14. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  15. A Novel Anaerobic Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor (AnEMBR) with Conductive Hollow-fiber Membrane for Treatment of Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Novel Anaerobic Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor (AnEMBR) with Conductive Hollow electro- chemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR). The Ni-HFM served the dual function as the cathode that typically needed for wastewater treatment using aerobic membrane bioreactors (1-2 kWh/m3 ). INTRODUCTION

  16. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    no date) Use of biogas from anaerobic sludge digestion for2010). The biogas produced by sludge anaerobic digestion canThickener Sludge pretreatment Biogas Digester Residual

  17. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  18. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  19. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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