Sample records for high resolution three-dimensional

  1. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; et al

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  2. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  3. High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae in multiple progenitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); O'Connor, Evan P., E-mail: smc@flash.uchicago.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are granting new insight into the as-yet-uncertain mechanism that drives successful explosions. While there is still debate about whether explosions are obtained more easily in 3D than in 2D, it is undeniable that there exist qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of 3D and 2D simulations. We present an extensive set of high-resolution 1D, 2D, and 3D CCSN simulations with multispecies neutrino leakage carried out in two different progenitors. Our simulations confirm the results of Couch indicating that 2D explodes more readily than 3D. We argue that this is due to the inadequacies of 2D to accurately capture important aspects of the 3D dynamics. We find that without artificially enhancing the neutrino heating rate, we do not obtain explosions in 3D. We examine the development of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and find that, in separate regimes, either instability can dominate. We find evidence for growth of the SASI for both 15 M {sub ?} and 27 M {sub ?} progenitors; however, it is weaker in 3D exploding models. The growth rate of both instabilities is artificially enhanced along the symmetry axis in 2D as compared with our axis-free 3D Cartesian simulations. Our work highlights the growing consensus that CCSNe must be studied in 3D if we hope to solve the mystery of how the explosions are powered.

  4. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  5. High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...

  6. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed ...

  7. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 17591 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Bernd

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 1759­1 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global ocean simulation Mark R. Petersen,1 Sean J. Williams,1,2 Mathew from a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution and a duration of 7 years. The census

  8. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu [Department 'Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Wegmann, Urs [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Maier, Urs [Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel [SPECS Zurich GmbH, Technoparkstr. 1, CH-8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  9. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of a high-resolution1 global ocean simulation2 Mark R. Petersen, 1 Sean J. Williams, 1,2 Mathew E. Maltrud census data set was obtained from3 a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution are at least 1000m tall, and many penetrate the14 full depth of the water column. The Antarctic Circumpolar

  10. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage Equipment C. Trinitis Lehrstuhl f The goal of finding an optimal electric field strength distribution for arbitrary three di­ mensional­ cal optimization algorithm. The package ob­ tained from these three components is then able

  11. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  12. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh [Materials Science and Engineering, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, ISTB4, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5604 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, ISTB4, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5604 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  13. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  14. High green density metal parts by vibrational compaction of dry powder in three dimensional printing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregorski, Steven Joseph

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material properties and dimensional accuracy of metal tooling produced by the Three Dimensional Printing process can be enhanced by increasing the green density of the 3D printed part. Green density is the ratio of ...

  15. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution I: data acquisition pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I: data acquisition pipeline The electronic version of thiswe describe an integrated pipeline of methods for studyingA three-dimensional analysis pipeline To be able to analyze

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS ON HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S., E-mail: tkataria@lpl.arizona.edu [NASA Ames Research Center 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.

  17. Preparation of the Crystal Complex of Phosphopantetheine Adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Coenzyme A and Investigation of Its Three-Dimensional Structure at 2.1-A Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Smirnova, E. A., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Chupova, L. A.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recombinant phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPAT Mt), which was produced by a high-producing strain and purified to 99%, was used for the crystal growth of the complex of the enzyme with coenzyme A (CoA). Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction study were obtained by cocrystallization. The crystals belong to sp. gr. R32 and have the unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.840 A, c = 112.880 A, {alpha} = {beta} = 90.00{sup o}, and {gamma} = 120.00{sup o}. The three-dimensional structure of the complex was determined based on X-ray diffraction data collected from the crystals to 2.1 A resolution and refined to Rf = 22.7% and Rfree = 25.93%. Active-site bound coenzyme A was found, and its nearest environment was described. The conformational changes of the enzyme due to ligand binding were revealed. The binding of CoA by tuberculosis phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase was characterized by comparing the structures of the title complex to a similar complex of PPAT from E. coli (PPAT Ec).

  18. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metal–insulator–metal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?°C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  19. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  20. High performance electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices enabled by three dimensionally ordered nanodots and nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN), Kang; Sukill (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  1. High performance superconducting devices enabled by three dimensionally ordered nanodots and/or nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  2. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Bryan

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...

  3. Visualization of high resolution, three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christon, M.A.; Spelce, T.E.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-pass surface extraction algorithm for adaptive finite element meshes is presented in the context of a visualization study for a particle impact and a turbine containment problem. The direct use of finite element data structures for the computation of external surfaces, surface normals, and derived physical quantities is discussed. An overview of the in-betweening algorithm which compensates for rigid body dynamics is presented with a brief discussion of a {open_quotes}direct-to-videodisk{close_quotes} animation strategy.

  4. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Jonge, Niels (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  5. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (CXIDB ID 15)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, Henry N.

    The file contains 125 images corresponding to different tilts of the sample around the y axis at 1 degree intervals. Each image is the result of 4 exposures merged together. For more details see the citation.

  6. Three-dimensional characterization of bainitic microstructures in low-carbon high-strength low-alloy steel studied by electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Jae-Bok, E-mail: j.seol@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Park, C.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of high strength low alloy steel, Fe–2.0Mn–0.15Si–0.05C (wt.%), by varying the continuous cooling rates from 1 K/s to 50 K/s using three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Granular bainitic microstructure was prevalent under a slow cooling rate of 1–10 K/s, while lath-type bainite was dominant at a high cooling rate of 50 K/s. The acicular ferrite that was the major microstructure under the intermediate ranges of cooling rates between 10 K/s and 30 K/s was tangled with each other, leading to a three-dimensional interwoven structure with highly misoriented grains. Because of the formation of three-dimensional structures, we propose that the terms “acicular ferrite” and “bainitic ferrite,” which are currently used in steel, be replaced by the terms “interwoven acicular bainite” and “lath bainite,” respectively. Moreover, we also confirmed that the cooling rate is an important factor in determining whether bainitic microstructures occur in the form of granular bainite, interwoven bainite, or lath bainite. - Highlights: • The morphology of bainitic grains was characterized by 3D-EBSD. • The ‘interwoven bainite’ and ‘lath bainite’ were suggested. • Interwoven bainite consisted of lenticular plates that were interlinked in 3D regime. • The packets of lath bainite were aligned in a specific direction.

  7. Acoustic grating fringe projector for high-speed and high-precision three-dimensional shape measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin Xuebing; Zhao Huijie; Zeng Junyu; Qu Yufu

    2007-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new acoustic grating fringe projector (AGFP) was developed for high-speed and high-precision 3D measurement. A new acoustic grating fringe projection theory is also proposed to describe the optical system. The AGFP instrument can adjust the spatial phase and period of fringes with unprecedented speed and accuracy. Using rf power proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and CCD synchronous control, we obtain fringes with fine sinusoidal characteristics and realize high-speed acquisition of image data. Using the device, we obtained a precise phase map for a 3D profile. In addition, the AGFP can work in running fringe mode, which could be applied in other measurement fields.

  8. High Resolution EELS | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EELS EMSL's ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface chemistry-high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) system is designed to study the molecular-level chemistry...

  9. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R.; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R. Vasant

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    state and a short chain configuration inside the narrow micropores are unstable due to their high energy state (low potential difference versus metallic lithium) as compared to large molecules of elemental sulfur with crown rings, which leads to 60... Ducati,a Stephan Hofmannb* and R. Vasant Kumar a* 5 Received (in XXX, XXX) Xth XXXXXXXXX 20XX, Accepted Xth XXXXXXXXX 20XX DOI: 10.1039/b000000x A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries...

  10. Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori, Warren, B.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from the grant entitled, ���¢��������Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.���¢������� The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

  11. Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamato, H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler,effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously withlongitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are

  12. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  13. Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    , such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

  14. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  15. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W. (Los Alamos, NM); Fuller, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  16. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, William A. (Framingham, MA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.

  17. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, W.A.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.

  18. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  19. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  20. Time-dependent approach to high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum dynamics of Rydberg atoms in crossed magnetic and electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general time-dependent approach for efficient and accurate treatment of high-resolution spectrocopy and quantum dynamics. The procedure is applied to an ab initio time-dependent study of three-dimensional ...

  1. High Resolution Nanoimprint for Nanophotonics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Youwei

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of SERS-active device depends on two main factors: good reproducibility and high enhancement factor. Ordered metallic nanostructures with high resolution are usually preferred for SERS application. Nanoimprint lithography can provide a low-cost and high...

  2. Received 12 Feb 2013 | Accepted 8 Aug 2013 | Published 6 Sep 2013 High-resolution three-dimensional mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Nils G.

    -dimensional (3D) pathway taken by mRNPs as they transit through the NPC, and the kinetics and selectivity. A 3D reconstruction of the export route indicates that mRNPs primarily interact with the periphery to facilitate mRNP export by interacting with the FG Nups22,23. After shuttling through the NPC, m

  3. Parallel finite element algorithm for three dimensional ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methods for electromagnetic induction. INTRODUCTION. N umerical modelling of three dimensional conductivity structures in the earth has experienced a rapid ...

  4. Copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuan-Neng, 1974-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration, in which multiple layers of devices are stacked with high density of interconnects between the layers, offers solutions for problems when the critical dimensions in integrated circuits ...

  5. Progress in Three-Dimensional Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Cui, C; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Noy, A; Hau-Riege, S P; Kinney, J M; Shapiro, D; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Lima, E; Minor, A M; He, H

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourier inversion of phased coherent diffraction patterns offers images without the resolution and depth-of-focus limitations of lens-based tomographic systems. We report on our recent experimental images inverted using recent developments in phase retrieval algorithms, and summarize efforts that led to these accomplishments. These include ab-initio reconstruction of a two-dimensional test pattern, infinite depth of focus image of a thick object, and its high-resolution ({approx}10 nm resolution) three-dimensional image. Developments on the structural imaging of low density aerogel samples are discussed.

  6. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  7. Coupled models and parallel simulations for three-dimensional full-Stokes ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Huai [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional full-Stokes computational model is considered for determining the dynamics, temperature, and thickness of ice sheets. The governing thermomechanical equations consist of the three-dimensional full-Stokes system with nonlinear rheology for the momentum, an advective-diffusion energy equation for temperature evolution, and a mass conservation equation for icethickness changes. Here, we discuss the variable resolution meshes, the finite element discretizations, and the parallel algorithms employed by the model components. The solvers are integrated through a well-designed coupler for the exchange of parametric data between components. The discretization utilizes high-quality, variable-resolution centroidal Voronoi Delaunay triangulation meshing and existing parallel solvers. We demonstrate the gridding technology, discretization schemes, and the efficiency and scalability of the parallel solvers through computational experiments using both simplified geometries arising from benchmark test problems and a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry.

  8. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  9. High-Order Weno Simulations of Three-Dimensional Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability to Late Times: Dynamics, Dependence on Initial Conditions, and Comparisons to Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of the reshocked multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated using 513 x 257{sup 2} three-dimensional ninth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing simulations. A two-mode initial perturbation with superposed random noise is used to model the Mach 1.5 air/SF{sub 6} Vetter-Sturtevant shock tube experiment. The mass fraction and enstrophy isosurfaces, and density cross-sections are utilized to show the detailed flow structure before, during, and after reshock. It is shown that the mixing layer growth agrees well with the experimentally measured growth rate before and after reshock. The post-reshock growth rate is also in good agreement with the prediction of the Mikaelian model. A parametric study of the sensitivity of the layer growth to the choice of amplitudes of the short and long wavelength initial interfacial perturbation is also presented. Finally, the amplification effects of reshock are quantified using the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent enstrophy spectra, as well as the evolution of the baroclinic enstrophy production, buoyancy production, and shear production terms in the enstrophy and turbulent kinetic transport equations.

  10. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M. [National Electrostatics Corp., Middleton, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 53562-0310 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  11. Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Acoustical Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Yaying

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an acoustic field visualization technique that can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic fields by projecting two-dimensional (2-D) data measured on a hologram surface. However, linear NAH...

  12. Bootstrapping the Three-Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobev, Nikolay; Mazac, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three-dimensional CFTs with $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the OPE of a chiral and an anti-chiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory.

  13. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  14. Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichert, Anke (Albany, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  15. Creating a three dimensional holographic movie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Marvin J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was carried out on the ability to create a three-dimensional holographic movie. Holograms were written on VRP-M emulsion film with the green line of an Argon-Ion laser. The type of hologram write setup ...

  16. advanced high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)...

  17. A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gary

    A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL MODELLING OF THE SHAPE CASTING a three dimensional, thermo-mechanical modelling approach to the cooling and solidi cation phases the non-linear material phenomena of creep and thermo-elasto-visco-plasticity at high temperatures

  18. Characterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro-Computed-Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    , Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 Three-dimensional (3-D) images of two ceramic-matrix textile composites were studied represent a new class of integrally woven ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature appliCharacterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro

  19. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  20. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Steven J. (Boston, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  1. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site.

  2. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  3. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA); York, Jeremy (Bothell, WA)

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  4. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

  5. Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

  6. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Abstract: The high resolution infrared spectrum of...

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROANALYSIS OF HIGH-STRENGTH SILICON CARBIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivanek, O.L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROANALYSIS OFCalifornia. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROANALYSIS OFhelium, by high resolution scanning Auger microanalysis and

  8. Surface Pressure Observations from Smartphones:3 A Potential Revolution for High-Resolution Weather Prediction?4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    -Resolution Weather Prediction?4 5 Clifford F. Mass1 and Luke E. Madaus6 Department of Atmospheric Sciences7 1 Corresponding author Professor Clifford F. Mass Department of Atmospheric Sciences Box 351640 about three-dimensional55 atmosph

  9. Sandia Energy - Three-Dimensional Graphene Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocumentsInstituteThree-Dimensional Graphene

  10. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  11. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  12. Two component-three dimensional catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.

  13. Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeder, Christopher Campbell

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    theoretical investigation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped aluminum clusters AI8N- and AI8N. Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped...

  15. Protein crystallography: From X-ray diffraction spots to a three dimensional image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T.C.; Berendzen, J.

    1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Proteins are remarkable molecular machines that are essential for life. They can do many things ranging from the precise control of blood clotting to synthesizing complex organic compounds. Pictures of protein molecules are in high demand in biotechnology because they are important for applications such as drug discovery and for engineering enzymes for commercial use. X-ray crystallography is the most common method for determining the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules. When a crystal of a protein is placed in an X-ray beam, scattering of X-rays off the ordered molecules produces a diffraction pattern that can be measured on a position-sensitive CCD or image-plate detector. Protein crystals typically contain thousands of atoms and the diffraction data are generally measured to relatively low resolution. Consequently the direct methods approaches generally cannot be applied. Instead, if the crystal is modified by adding metal atoms at specific sites or by tuning the wavelength of the X-rays to cross an absorption edge of a metal atom in the crystal, then the information from these additional measurements is sufficient to first identify the /locations of the metal atoms. This information is then used along with the diffraction data to make a three-dimensional picture of electron densities. This picture can be used to determine the position of most or all of the atoms in the protein.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation A.H. Koop #12;Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation A.H. Koop Thesis University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands #12;NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF UNSTEADY THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHEET CAVITATION PROEFSCHRIFT ter

  17. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  18. Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

  19. Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.

  20. A novel microfluidic platform for high-resolution imaging of a three-dimensional cell culture under a controlled hypoxic environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funamoto, Kenichi

    Low oxygen tensions experienced in various pathological and physiological conditions are a major stimulus for angiogenesis. Hypoxic conditions play a critical role in regulating cellular behaviour including migration, ...

  1. High resolution studies of massive primordial haloes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic cooling haloes with T_vir > 10^4 K are the most plausible sites for the formation of the first galaxies. In this article, we aim to study the implications of gravity driven turbulence in protogalactic haloes. By varying the resolution per Jeans length, we explore whether the turbulent cascade is resolved well enough to obtain converged results. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo including a subgrid-scale turbulence model to study the role of unresolved turbulence. We compared the results of three different Jeans resolutions from 16 to 64 cells. While radially averaged profiles roughly agree at different resolutions, differences in the morphology reveal that even the highest resolution employed provides no convergence. Moreover, taking into account unresolved turbulence significantly influences the morphology of a halo. We have quantified the properties of the high-density clumps in the halo. These clumps are gravitationally unbound wi...

  2. Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.

  3. arecibo high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84 Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Using Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  4. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  5. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak shear waves, while an explosion in low strength, high-porosity alluvium results in much weaker compressional waves and low-frequency compressional and shear waves of nearly equal amplitude. Further work will attempt to model available near-field seismic data from explosions conducted at NTS, where we have accurate characterization of the sub-surface from the wealth of geological and geophysical data from the former nuclear test program. Secondly, we are modeling seismic wave propagation with free-surface topography in WPP. We have model the October 9, 2006 and May 25, 2009 North Korean nuclear tests to investigate the impact of rugged topography on seismic waves. Preliminary results indicate that the topographic relief causes complexity in the direct P-waves that leads to azimuthally dependent behavior and the topographic gradient to the northeast, east and southeast of the presumed test locations generate stronger shear-waves, although each test gives a different pattern. Thirdly, we are modeling intermediate period motions (10-50 seconds) from earthquakes and explosions at regional distances. For these simulations we run SPECFEM3D{_}GLOBE (a spherical geometry spectral element code). We modeled broadband waveforms from well-characterized and well-observed events in the Middle East and central Asia, as well as the North Korean nuclear tests. For the recent North Korean test we found that the one-dimensional iasp91 model predicts the observed waveforms quite well in the band 20-50 seconds, while waveform fits for available 3D earth models are generally poor, with some exceptions. Interestingly 3D models can predict energy on the transverse component for an isotropic source presumably due to surface wave mode conversion and/or multipathing.

  6. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  7. Radiometry High Spectral Resolution Fourier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations:Radiological Threat Reduction2High

  8. Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.

  9. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.; Gallman, P.; Gaudreault, J.; Mosehauer, R.; Slotwinski, A.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This system (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. It is in the final phase of a 3-phase program to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and radioactive and organic contamination is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of dangerous inorganic materials such as asbestos and transite. 3D-ICAS robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected, using coherent laser radar tracking, which also provides 3D facility maps. High-speed automated organic analysis is provided by means of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer sensor which can process a sample without contact in one minute. Volatile organics are extracted directly from contaminated surfaces without sample removal; multiple stage focusing is used for high time resolution. Additional discrimination is obtained through a final stage time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The radionuclide sensors combines {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} counting with energy discrimination of the {alpha} channel; this quantifies isotopes of U, Pu, Th, Tc, Np, and Am in one minute. The Molecular Vibrational Spectrometry sensor is used to characterize substrate material such as concrete, transite, wood, or asbestos; this can be used to provide estimates of the depth of contamination. The 3D-ICAS will be available for real-time monitoring immediately after each 1 to 2 minute sample period. After surface mapping, 3-D displays will be provided showing contours of detected contaminant concentrations. Permanent measurement and contaminant level archiving will be provided, assuring data integrity and allowing regulatory review before and after D&D operations.

  10. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...

  11. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

  12. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control...

  13. Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC,...

  14. Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic Devices Seokwoo Jeon in which large numbers (>2000) of lithographically defined 3D nanofluidic pathways (50-300 nm wide

  15. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  16. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum and Assignment of Vibrational Fundamentals of Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  17. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce...

  18. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR...

  19. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectrosco...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectroscopy: A Comparison with the AirDMSO Liquid Interface. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear...

  20. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass...

  1. Sandia Energy - High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind High-Resolution...

  2. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  3. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  4. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  5. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of an Oxygen-Linked Fullerene Dimer Dianion: C120O2-. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

  6. A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination in Porous Media \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    A Three­Dimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination for transport of nuclear­waste contamination in three­dimensional porous media are presented with a description of contamination of groundwater by high­level nuclear waste and a wide variety of other sources makes a proper

  7. Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. Thomas

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.

  8. Accurate complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerioni, Alessandro [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Horowitz, BP220 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Genovese, Luigi; Duchemin, Ivan; Deutsch, Thierry [Laboratoire de simulation atomistique (L-Sim), SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble F-38054 (France)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex scaling method, which consists in continuing spatial coordinates into the complex plane, is a well-established method that allows to compute resonant eigenfunctions of the time-independent Schroedinger operator. Whenever it is desirable to apply the complex scaling to investigate resonances in physical systems defined on numerical discrete grids, the most direct approach relies on the application of a similarity transformation to the original, unscaled Hamiltonian. We show that such an approach can be conveniently implemented in the Daubechies wavelet basis set, featuring a very promising level of generality, high accuracy, and no need for artificial convergence parameters. Complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials can be efficiently and accurately performed. By carrying out an illustrative resonant state computation in the case of a one-dimensional model potential, we then show that our wavelet-based approach may disclose new exciting opportunities in the field of computational non-Hermitian quantum mechanics.

  9. Plasma-Ion Processing of Three-Dimensional Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Wei Ronghua [Surface Engineering Section, Materials Engineering Department, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78238-5166 (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII and D) technology has been developed rapidly in the past decade. This technique is especially promising for modifying three-dimensional components. In PBII and D, plasma is generated in the entire processing chamber and then surrounds the components. When a train of negative voltage pulses are applied to the parts, ions are drawn to all the surfaces exposed to the plasma. At a high energy, ions are implanted to the surfaces, but at a low energy and with a proper precursor gases, ions are deposited to form a film. This technology has found applications in many areas including semiconductors, automotive, aerospace, energy and biomedical. This article reviews PBII and D fundamentals, describes features of various PBII and D systems and plasma sources, and discusses implantation and deposition techniques. The paper will also present application examples of this technology.

  10. NMR Experiments on a Three-Dimensional Vibrofluidized Granular Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao Huan; Xiaoyu Yang; D. Candela; R. W. Mair; R. L. Walsworth

    2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional granular system fluidized by vertical container vibrations was studied using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR coupled with one-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 50 Hz, and the number of layers N_ell <= 4 was sufficiently low to achieve a nearly time-independent granular fluid. Using NMR, the vertical profiles of density and granular temperature were directly measured, along with the distributions of vertical and horizontal grain velocities. The velocity distributions showed modest deviations from Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, except for the vertical velocity distribution near the sample bottom which was highly skewed and non-Gaussian. Data taken for three values of N_ell and two dimensionless accelerations Gamma=15,18 were fit to a hydrodynamic theory, which successfully models the density and temperature profiles including a temperature inversion near the free upper surface.

  11. Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer with Multilevel Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fabiani Bendicho; J. Trujillo Bueno

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient numerical solution of Non-LTE multilevel transfer problems requires the combination of highly convergent iterative schemes with fast and accurate formal solution methods of the radiative transfer (RT) equation. This contribution begins presenting a method for the formal solution of the RT equation in three-dimensional (3D) media with horizontal periodic boundary conditions. This formal solver is suitable for both, unpolarized and polarized 3D radiative transfer and it can be easily combined with the iterative schemes for solving non-LTE multilevel transfer problems that we have developed over the last few years. We demonstrate this by showing some schematic 3D multilevel calculations that illustrate the physical effects of horizontal radiative transfer. These Non-LTE calculations have been carried out with our code MUGA 3D, a 3D multilevel Non-LTE code based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme that Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) developed for RT applications.

  12. High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1983 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to locate and characterize underground burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were based upon prior work in the area, and were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 ft) depths of interest. Data were obtained on two north-south lines along the test site boundary in addition to a three-dimensional grid over the Hanna IV experiment area. Processing included time varying filters, deconvolution, trace composition, and three-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. Anomalies were discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zones in the vicinity of the injection wells at the Hanna IV experiment area. The fault studies disclosed faults at the Hanna IV experiment area which may be responsible for the unexpected problems experienced in the early in-site gasification tests. For the test site the fault system was found to be a generally arcuate east-west trending graben complex with numerous antithetic faults. 15 references, 33 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Deflection Measurements of a Thermally Simulated Nuclear Core using a High-Resolution CCD-Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanojev, B.J. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Al, 35812 (United States); Houts, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space fission systems under consideration for near-term missions all use compact, fast-spectrum reactor cores. Reactor dimensional change with increasing temperature, which affects neutron leakage, is the dominant source of reactivity feedback in these systems. Accurately measuring core dimensional changes during realistic non-nuclear testing is therefore necessary in predicting the system 'nuclear' equivalent behavior. This paper discusses one key technique being evaluated for measuring such changes. The proposed technique is to use a Charged Couple Device (CCD) sensor to obtain deformation readings of electrically heated prototypic reactor core geometry. This paper introduces a technique by which a single high spatial resolution CCD camera is used to measure core deformation in Real-Time (RT). Initial system checkout results are presented along with a discussion on how additional cameras could be used to achieve a three-dimensional deformation profile of the core during test. (authors)

  14. A high resolution finite volume method for efficient parallel simulation of casting processes on unstructured meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kothe, D.B.; Turner, J.A.; Mosso, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferrell, R.C. [Cambridge Power Computer Assoc. (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss selected aspects of a new parallel three-dimensional (3-D) computational tool for the unstructured mesh simulation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) casting processes. This tool, known as {bold Telluride}, draws upon on robust, high resolution finite volume solutions of metal alloy mass, momentum, and enthalpy conservation equations to model the filling, cooling, and solidification of LANL castings. We briefly describe the current {bold Telluride} physical models and solution methods, then detail our parallelization strategy as implemented with Fortran 90 (F90). This strategy has yielded straightforward and efficient parallelization on distributed and shared memory architectures, aided in large part by new parallel libraries {bold JTpack9O} for Krylov-subspace iterative solution methods and {bold PGSLib} for efficient gather/scatter operations. We illustrate our methodology and current capabilities with source code examples and parallel efficiency results for a LANL casting simulation.

  15. Title of dissertation: THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF TURBULENT FLOWS Benjamin Wolf Zeff, Doctor of Philosophy, 2002 Dissertation directed by: Professor Daniel P. Lathrop the smallest relevant spatial and temporal scales in three dimensions. This dissertation details

  16. Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goumnerov, Hristo

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present research, the three dimensional particle tracking software OpenPTV is validated with synthetic images from the Standard PIV project by the Visualization Society of Japan, and with experimental data from the twin-jet facility...

  17. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  18. Origami nanofabrication of three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In, Hyun Jin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nanostructured (TM) 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process was developed as a novel method of creating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured devices using two- dimensional micro- and nanopatterning tools and techniques. ...

  19. Design and transformation of three dimensional pupils : diffractive and subwavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hanhong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional pupils are investigated in both diffractive and subwavelength regimes and in various applications to shape the flow of light. In diffractive regime, volume holograms are good candidates for pupils of ...

  20. Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Helen Jean

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...

  1. Three-dimensional object registration using wavelet features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalfant, Julie Steele

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in shape-based modeling and data acquisition have brought three-dimensional models to the forefront of computer graphics and visualization research. New data acquisition methods are producing large ...

  2. Tungsten carbide-cobalt by Three Dimensional Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Andrew, III

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing process for rapid prototyping ceramic and metallic parts [Sachs, et al, 1990]. Green (not sintered) tungsten carbide-cobalt parts must have a density greater than 50% ...

  3. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional electrical flow through geomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhtar, Anwar Saeed

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components in different arrangements (Mitchell 1993; Shang et al. 1995). These are very simple models and have been verified by experiments that consider only one-dimensional flow of current. In actual practice, current flow is three-dimensional around... the source. Methods do not exist to analyze three-dimensional current flow through circuit elements other than resistors. Thus, there is a need to develop methods to overcome these shortcomings. Electrical cone penetrometers have been used to convey...

  4. A novel three dimensional semimetallic MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhen-Kun [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Departments of Physics and Electronics, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, Hui; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Hao [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have many potential applications, while the performances of TMDs are generally limited by the less surface active sites and the poor electron transport efficiency. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) with larger surface area was proposed based on first-principle calculations. 3D layered MoS{sub 2} structure contains the basal surface and joint zone between the different nanoribbons, which is thermodynamically stable at room temperature, as confirmed by first principles molecular dynamics calculations. Compared the two-dimensional layered structures, the 3D MoS{sub 2} not only owns the large surface areas but also can effectively avoid the aggregation. Interestingly, although the basal surface remains the property of the intrinsic semiconductor as the bulk MoS{sub 2}, the joint zone of 3D MoS{sub 2} exhibits semimetallic, which is derived from degenerate 3d orbitals of the Mo atoms. The high stability, large surface area, and high conductivity make 3D MoS{sub 2} have great potentials as high performance catalyst.

  5. Interactive graphical tools for three-dimensional mesh redistribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobbs, L.A.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional meshes modeling nonlinear problems such as sheet metal forming, metal forging, heat transfer during welding, the propagation of microwaves through gases, and automobile crashes require highly refined meshes in local areas to accurately represent areas of high curvature, stress, and strain. These locally refined areas develop late in the simulation and/or move during the course of the simulation, thus making it difficult to predict their exact location. This thesis is a systematic study of new tools scientists can use with redistribution algorithms to enhance the solution results and reduce the time to build, solve, and analyze nonlinear finite element problems. Participatory design techniques including Contextual Inquiry and Design were used to study and analyze the process of solving such problems. This study and analysis led to the in-depth understanding of the types of interactions performed by FEM scientists. Based on this understanding, a prototype tool was designed to support these interactions. Scientists participated in evaluating the design as well as the implementation of the prototype tool. The study, analysis, prototype tool design, and the results of the evaluation of the prototype tool are described in this thesis.

  6. Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.

  7. Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a chip@physics.anu.edu.au Abstract: The quest for less costly and more compact high-energy particle accelerators of suggested concepts, the photonic accelerator design by B. M. Cowan [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 011301

  8. A Three-Dimensional Geographic and Storm Surge Data Integration System for Evacuation Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    @fiu.edu Abstract The rise of offshore water caused by the high winds of a low pressure weather system, or storm to construct a three-dimensional ocean po- sitioned over the terrain models. Ambient details such as wind, vegetation, ocean waves, and traffic are animated based on up-to-date wind and storm surge data. Videos

  9. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 14, Three-dimensional energetic ion sounding of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,4 Abstract. We present new results using energetic parti- cles to remotely sound the highGEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 1­4, Three-dimensional energetic ion sounding present a new technique to remotely sense the magnetopause in three dimensions as a function of time

  10. Three Dimensional Graphics Algorithms on the MicroGrain Array ProcessorII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Benjamin

    Three Dimensional Graphics Algorithms on the Micro­Grain Array Processor­II Benjamin Bishop Yan The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Abstract Three­dimensional graphics processors play tools, architectural CAD tools, and physical modeling. But high per­ formance graphics subsystems

  11. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS Accurate three-dimensional stress-strain constitutive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS Abstract Accurate three-dimensional stress for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. Among such materials, glass-fiber and carbon properties for composite materials, and that can enable a major shift toward accurate 3D material

  12. Earthquake Damage Identification using High-Resolution Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Earthquake Damage Identification using High-Resolution Satellite Images from the 2003 Northern & evaluation · High-resolution satellite imagery · Images from Boumerdes, Algeria · Semi-automated damage are most damaged? ­ Effects in less populated areas · Earthquake reconnaissance time wasted "looking

  13. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  14. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  15. Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: Resolving Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes...

  16. Three Dimensional Simulation of the Baneberry Nuclear Event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, I

    2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Baneberry, a 10-kiloton nuclear event, was detonated at a depth of 278 m at the Nevada Test Site on December 18, 1970. Shortly after detonation, radioactive gases emanating from the cavity were released into the atmosphere through a shock-induced fissure near surface ground zero. Extensive geophysical investigations, coupled with a series of 1D and 2D computational studies were used to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the catastrophic failure. However, the geological profile of the Baneberry site is complex and inherently three-dimensional, which meant that some geological features had to be simplified or ignored in the 2D simulations. This left open the possibility that features unaccounted for in the 2D simulations could have had an important influence on the eventual containment failure of the Baneberry event. This paper presents results from a high-fidelity 3D Baneberry simulation based on the most accurate geologic and geophysical data available. The results are compared with available data, and contrasted against the results of the previous 2D computational studies.

  17. New advances in three-dimensional controlled-sourceelectromagnetic inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commer, Michael; Newman, Gregory A.

    2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    New techniques for improving both the computational andimaging performance of the three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic inverseproblem are presented. A non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm is theframework of the inversion scheme. Full wave equation modelling forcontrolled sources is utilized for data simulation along with anefficient gradient computation approach for the model update. Improvingthe modelling efficiency of the 3D finite difference method involves theseparation of the potentially large modelling mesh, defining the set ofmodel parameters, from the computational finite difference meshes usedfor field simulation. Grid spacings and thus overall grid sizes can bereduced and optimized according to source frequencies and source-receiveroffsets of a given input data set. Further computational efficiency isobtained by combining different levels of parallelization. While theparallel scheme allows for an arbitrarily large number of parallel tasks,the relative amount of message passing is kept constant. Imageenhancement is achieved by model parameter transformation functions,which enforce bounded conductivity parameters and thus prevent parameterovershoots. Further, a remedy for treating distorted data within theinversion process is presented. Data distortions simulated here includepositioning errors and a highly conductive overburden, hiding the desiredtarget signal. The methods are demonstrated using both synthetic andfield data.

  18. Lyapunov modes in three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Romero-Bastida; E. Braun

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies on the phase-space dynamics of a one-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid reveal the existence of regular collective perturbations associated with the smallest positive Lyapunov exponents of the system, called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which previously could only be identified in hard-core fluids. In this work we present a systematic study of the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov vectors, i.e. perturbations along each direction of phase space, of a three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid. By performing the Fourier transform of the spatial density of the coordinate part of the Lyapunov vector components and then time-averaging this result we find convincing signatures of longitudinal modes, with inconclusive evidence of transverse modes for all studied densities. Furthermore, the longitudinal modes can be more clearly identified for the higher density values. Thus, according to our results, the mixing of modes induced both by the dynamics and the dimensionality induce a hitherto unknown type of order in the tangent space of the model herein studied at high density values.

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE High-resolution climate change mapping with gridded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    RESEARCH ARTICLE High-resolution climate change mapping with gridded historical climate products of climate research and adaptation efforts around the world. High-resolution gridded historical climate (GHC products to produce high-resolution temperature trend maps for the US Northeast from 1980 to 2009

  20. CLINICAL SCIENCES High-Speed UltraHigh-Resolution Optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    of the perifoveal pho- toreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction and thin- ning of the outer nuclear layer- velopedbyourgroupforuseintheophthal- mologyclinicattheNewEnglandEyeCen- ter,Boston,Mass.Thissystemusesspectral or­high-resolutionOCTenablessuperior visualizationofretinalmorphologyinanum- Author Affiliations: New England Eye Center, Tufts­New England Medical Center, Tufts University

  1. Surface electronic states in three-dimensional SnO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Baumann, T.F.; Sterne, P.A.; Wang, Y.M.; Buuren, T. van; Hamza, A.V.; Terminello, L.J.; Willey, T.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structure of three-dimensional SnO{sub 2} nanostructures (aerogels) is studied by soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. High-resolution O K-edge and Sn M{sub 3}- and M{sub 4,5}-edge XANES spectra of monolithic nanocrystalline rutile SnO{sub 2} aerogels with different surface areas (i.e., different surface-to-volume atom fractions) are compared with spectra of full-density rutile SnO{sub 2} and tetragonal SnO. Spectra are interpreted based on the electronic densities of states in SnO{sub 2} calculated with both cluster (self-consistent real-space multiple scattering) and band-structure (linear muffin-tin orbital) methods. Results show that, in contrast to the currently widely accepted picture, the presence of undercoordinated surface atoms not only affects the Fermi level position but also changes the structure of the conduction band by introducing additional Sn-related electronic states close to the conduction band minimum. These additional states are due to oxygen deficiency and are attributed to a surface reconstruction of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles forming the aerogel skeleton. Results of this study are important for understanding the physical processes underlying the performance of gas sensors based on SnO{sub 2} nanostructures.

  2. Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.

  3. Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.

  4. Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging using high resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herz, Paul Richard, 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in medical imaging have given researchers unprecedented capabilities to visualize, characterize and understand biological systems. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution imaging technique ...

  5. Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 {mu}m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

  6. Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model J#19;ozsef L this Gaussian measure space. KEYWORDS: Nelson's scalar #12;eld model, infrared regular representation, ground] of a spinless electron coupled to a scalar massless Bose #12;eld is infrared divergent in 3 space dimensions

  7. Automation of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture in Arrayed Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    . A Peltier cooler maintains the collagen as a liquid at 4 C during cell seeding, followed by polymerizationAutomation of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture in Arrayed Microfluidic Devices Sara I. Montanez of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI The increasing interest in studying the interactions between cells

  8. Structure Preserving Optimal Control of Three-Dimensional Compass Gait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leyendecker, Sigrid

    Structure Preserving Optimal Control of Three-Dimensional Compass Gait Sigrid Leyendecker, David con- siders the optimal control of a bipedal compass gait by modeling the double stance configuration compass biped model. This control task has been previously addressed with various biped models

  9. Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackledge, Todd

    LETTER Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Todd A. Blackledge1 *, Jonathan A-mail: tab42@cornell.edu Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting

  10. THREE DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATIONS FOR POWER SYSTEM CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS VOLTAGE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the power systems are now often operated closer to their limits to maximum transmission system utilizationTHREE DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATIONS FOR POWER SYSTEM CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS VOLTAGE DATA Y. Sun IEEE security assessment is critical for detecting underlying problems in a power system. More frequent CA

  11. A new acoustic three dimensional intensity and energy density probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A new acoustic three dimensional intensity and energy density probe F. Aymea , C. Carioub , M is a great advantage. In this frame, a new intensity acoustic probe has been developed to compute acoustic quantities which can be input data for energetic identification methods. 1 Introduction Noise matters

  12. Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods for Three Dimensional Linear Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterloo, University of

    Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods for Three Dimensional Linear Elasticity by John Kenneth. A brief review is also made of stopping criteria for conjugate gradient solvers. One method based and tested with poor results. iv #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods

  13. The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks Chi-Fu Huang, Yu-Chee Tseng- bedded micro-sensing MEMS technologies has made wireless sensor networks possible. Such environments may protocols [7], [8], [9]. Localization and positioning applications of wireless sensor networks are discussed

  14. Three dimensional visualization and comparison of impressions on fired bullets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    obtain fine 3D maps of striation surfaces. The shape of striation surface is expected to be printed utilize three dimensional (3D) geometric data of tool marks that are free from lighting condition. In this study, we focused on 3D geometric data of landmark impressions on fired bullets for identification. We

  15. Three-Dimensional Routing in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    Three-Dimensional Routing in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Dario Pompili and Tommaso Melodia applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention in a 3D underwa- ter acoustic sensor network is investigated at the network layer, by considering

  16. Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallay, Thierry

    Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier Universit´e de Grenoble I BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay@ujf-grenoble.fr Yasunori Maekawa and then in the general case by Gallay and Wayne [9], see also [2, 12, 13]. Moreover, a lot is known about the spectrum

  17. Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier Universit´e de Grenoble I BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay@ujf-grenoble.fr Yasunori Maekawa and then by Gallay and Wayne [11] in the general case. Moreover, a lot is known about the spectrum of the linearized

  18. Three-Dimensional and Multilayer Nanostructures Formed by Nanotransfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    ABSTRACT This letter describes the use of nanotransfer printing (nTP) for forming three-dimensional (3D to as nanotransfer printing (nTP),8-11 can be used to build a range of complex 3D structures with feature sizes patterning. Furthermore, the purely additive nature of nTP allows these 2D and 3D printing steps

  19. Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng-dimensional direct simulations due to obvious numerical difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other;3D Simulation of Parker's model · Magnetic energy limited by disruptions. ==0.000625(64x64x16) =0

  20. Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated simulation results. · Parker's nanoflare heating model vs observations · Energy distributions of nanoflares

  1. Strategies for three-dimensional particle tracking with holographic video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Strategies for three-dimensional particle tracking with holographic video microscopy Fook Chiong Research, New York University, New York, NY 10003 Abstract: The video stream captured by an in References and links 1. J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal

  2. Fabrication Technologies for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits Rafael Reif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    Fabrication Technologies for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits Rafael Reif Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT Cambridge, MA reif@mit.edu Andy Fan Dept. of Electrical Engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA knchen@mit.edu Shamik Das Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT

  3. Three Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Nanostructures on a Micromachined Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dokmeci, Mehmet

    Three Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Nanostructures on a Micromachined Platform University, Boston, MA-02115, USA ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce a novel platform for selectively. The microfabricated platform based nanoscale assembly is quite versatile and has potential applications in fabricating

  4. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako (Moraga, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  5. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  6. High resolution spectroscopy of ultracool M dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Neill Reid; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; J. Liebert; J. E. Gizis; C. C. Dahn; D. G. Monet

    2002-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of a photometricaly-selected sample if thirty-nine dwarfs with spectral types between M6.5 and L0.5. Two stars, 2MASSI 0253202+271333 and 2MASSW 0952219-192431, are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have used our observations to search for Li I 6708 A absorption, characteristic of sub-stellar mass; estimate the level of chromospheric activity through measurement of H-alpha emission fluxes; measure rotational velocities via line broadening; and determine radial velocities and Galactic space motions. Two dwarfs have strong lithium absorption, the previously-known brown dwarf, LP 944-20, and 2MASSI J0335020+234235, which we identify as a probable 0.06 M_sun brown dwarf, age ~1 Gyr. We have investigated the prospect of using the observed frequency of lithium absorption amongst ultracool M dwarfs (M7 to M9.5) as a probe of the initial mass function. The available observations are difficult to reconcile with Salpeter-like power-law mass functions (alpha > 2) for masses below 0.1M_Sun. A comparison between the rotational velocities and -alpha fluxes shows no evidence for significant correlation. Velocity dispersions are significantly lower than those measured for nearby M dwarfs, but show remarkable similarity to results for earlier-type emission-line (dMe) dwarfs. The latter are generally assigned ages of less than ~3 Gyrs.

  7. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  8. Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.

  9. A High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P B

    2001-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A major factor limiting the quality and usefulness of global climate models is the coarse spatial resolution of these models. Global climate models today are typically run at resolutions of {approx}300 km (or even coarser) meaning that the smallest features represented are 300 km across. As Figure 1 shows, this resolution does not allow adequate representation of small or even large topographic features (e.g. the Sierra Nevada mountains). As a result of this and other problems, coarse-resolution global models do not come close to accurately simulating climate on regional spatial scales (e.g. within California). Results on continental and larger sales are much more realistic. An important consequence of this inability to simulate regional climate is that global climate model results cannot be used as the basis of assessments of potential societal impacts of climate change (e.g. effects on agriculture in the Central Valley, on management of water resources, etc.).

  10. Design and Tailoring of a Three-Dimensional TiO2-Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite for Fast Lithium Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -5 The anatase TiO2 has become a highly promising anode material for LIBs. The titanium dioxide offers a greatDesign and Tailoring of a Three-Dimensional TiO2-Graphene- Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite for Fast a three- dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure for fast lithium storage. CNTs in the unique hybrid

  11. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  12. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  13. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MSMS experiments enabled...

  14. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic...

  15. Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buttes, Oregon Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to Reduce...

  16. High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different mechanisms of chemical aging. Citation: Laskin J, A Laskin, PJ Roach, GW Slysz, GA Anderson, S Nizkorodov, DL Bones, and L Nguyen.2010."High-Resolution...

  17. High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Helium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium-Rich Gases. High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Helium-Rich Gases. Abstract: Analyses of complex mixtures and characterization of ions increasingly...

  18. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon Patrick Walsh Ormat Nevada Inc. Innovative technologies May 19, 2010...

  19. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  20. Dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that there are seven types of solutions described in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT), the dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces. Solution of the equations of GRT, which describes the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, in the limiting case of vanishingly small effect of matter on the metric properties of space must go to one of them.

  1. Improved data representation for three-dimensional analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olah, Desiree Jeanine

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . OB JECTIVES The purpose of this research was to evaluate the capabilities of spatially-oriented software to improve data representation for three-dimensional analysis. The specific objectives were to: I) Select appropriate spatial analysis... to perform their study. Manley and Tallet (1990) found that the 1VM gave them the capability to calculate volumes between complex surfaces within user defined regions and to provide them with information about specific features or water masses that are far...

  2. Well correction factors for three-dimensional reservoir simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fjerstad, Paul Albert

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. D. Von Gonten A three-dimensional reservoir simulation model does not calculate the correct bottomhole flowing pressure, p f, for a partially penetrating well. The simulator well cell pressure must be corrected ro obtain... an accurate value for p f. Simulation model results have wf' been used in this part to develop a new inflow equation relating cell pressure to actual bottomhole flowing pressure for a partially penetrating well. Based on the new inflow equation, an equation...

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE ORDINATES REACTOR ASSEMBLY CALCULATIONS ON GPUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.

  4. Three-dimensional virtual environment for spatial development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Kathleen Suzanne

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    virtual three-dimensional scene and move through it, I developed a computer program called Viewpoints. The program's graphical interface presents a 3D perspective view of an environment. Simple geometric objects such as boxes and spheres can be placed... manipulations. Functions with similar purposes act and look similar. When appropriate, menu options matched in word choice and purpose to standard menu options available in other computer programs. Consistent use of color plays an important role in revealing...

  5. Particle acceleration in three-dimensional tearing configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Nodes; Guido T. Birk; Harald Lesch; R. Schopper

    2003-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In three-dimensional electromagnetic configurations that result from unstable resistive tearing modes particles can efficiently be accelerated to relativistic energies. To prove this resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used as input configurations for successive test particle simulations. The simulations show the capability of three-dimensional non-linearly evolved tearing modes to accelerate particles perpendicular to the plane of the reconnecting magnetic field components. The simulations differ considerably from analytical approaches by involving a realistic three-dimensional electric field with a non-homogenous component parallel to the current direction. The resulting particle spectra exhibit strong pitch-angle anisotropies. Typically, about 5-8 % of an initially Maxwellian distribution is accelerated to the maximum energy levels given by the macroscopic generalized electric potential structure. Results are shown for both, non-relativistic particle acceleration that is of interest, e.g., in the context of auroral arcs and solar flares, and relativistic particle energization that is relevant, e.g., in the context of active galactic nuclei.

  6. Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator, Bi 2Te3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemons, W.

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are a new state of quantum matter with a bulk gap and odd number of relativistic Dirac fermions on the surface. By investigating the surface state of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the surface state consists of a single nondegenerate Dirac cone. Furthermore, with appropriate hole doping, the Fermi level can be tuned to intersect only the surface states, indicating a full energy gap for the bulk states. Our results establish that Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is a simple model system for the three-dimensional topological insulator with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The large bulk gap of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} also points to promising potential for high-temperature spintronics applications.

  7. Construction and Evaluation of a High Spatial Resolution Wavefront Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Construction and Evaluation of a High Spatial Resolution Wavefront Sensor MARTIN BUSCHBECK Bachelor.3. Analysis program 3 Evaluation of the Hartmann-Shack sensor 3.1 Calibration of the sensor 3.1.1 Reference eyes. In this thesis a high spatial resolution Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, which allows the study

  8. assays high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Malbet 1995-09-14 31 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  9. analysing high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Malbet 1995-09-14 34 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  10. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  11. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold speed-up of the processing (from 1336 to 150 s). Conclusions: Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the potential to substantially improve image quality and/or reduce the radiation dose required for obtaining 3D image data using cone beam CT.

  12. A comparison of two- and three-dimensional neutrino-hydrodynamics simulations of core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Suwa, Yudai [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical results on two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic core-collapse simulations of an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. By changing numerical resolutions and seed perturbations systematically, we study how the postbounce dynamics are different in 2D and 3D. The calculations were performed with an energy-dependent treatment of the neutrino transport based on the isotropic diffusion source approximation scheme, which we have updated to achieve a very high computational efficiency. All of the computed models in this work, including nine 3D models and fifteen 2D models, exhibit the revival of the stalled bounce shock, leading to the possibility of explosion. All of them are driven by the neutrino-heating mechanism, which is fostered by neutrino-driven convection and the standing-accretion-shock instability. Reflecting the stochastic nature of multi-dimensional (multi-D) neutrino-driven explosions, the blast morphology changes from model to model. However, we find that the final fate of the multi-D models, whether an explosion is obtained or not, is little affected by the explosion stochasticity. In agreement with some previous studies, higher numerical resolutions lead to slower onset of the shock revival in both 2D and 3D. Based on the self-consistent supernova models leading to the possibility of explosions, our results systematically show that the revived shock expands more energetically in 2D than in 3D.

  13. Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Carlsbad, NM); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Artz, Gregory J. (Tucson, AZ); Gafner, Felix H. (Tucson, AZ); Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji (Tucson, AZ)

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.

  14. Three-Dimensional Hairy Black Holes in Teleparallel Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. González; Joel Saavedra; Yerko Vásquez

    2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider three-dimensional gravity based on torsion. Specifically, we consider an extension of the so-called Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity in the presence of a scalar field with a self-interacting potential, where the scalar field is non-minimally coupled with the torsion scalar. Then, we find asymptotically AdS hairy black hole solutions, which are characterized by a scalar field with a power-law behavior, being regular outside the event horizon and null at spatial infinity and by a self-interacting potential, which tends to an effective cosmological constant at spatial infinity.

  15. Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blazevski, Daniel [Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by numerically solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The main two problems addressed are: the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ?), and the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. The role of separatrix reconnection of resonant modes in the shear reversal region, and the role of shearless Cantori in the observed phenomena are also discussed.

  16. Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wen, E-mail: elechenw@nus.edu.sg; Chen, Xudong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works.

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2002-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the subsonic thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae. The burning front model contains no adjustable parameters so that variations of the explosion outcome can be linked directly to changes in the initial conditions. In particular, we investigate the influence of the initial flame geometry on the explosion energy and find that it appears to be weaker than in 2D. Most importantly, our models predict global properties such as the produced nickel masses and ejecta velocities within their observed ranges without any fine tuning.

  18. Three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinecke, M; Niemeyer, J C

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the subsonic thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae. The burning front model contains no adjustable parameters so that variations of the explosion outcome can be linked directly to changes in the initial conditions. In particular, we investigate the influence of the initial flame geometry on the explosion energy and find that it appears to be weaker than in 2D. Most importantly, our models predict global properties such as the produced nickel masses and ejecta velocities within their observed ranges without any fine tuning.

  19. Three-dimensional asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert; Pujian Mao

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with non trivial asymptotics at null infinity is solved. The symmetry algebra is a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra that extends the bms3 algebra of the purely gravitational case. Solution space involves logarithms and provides a tractable example of a polyhomogeneous solution space. The associated surface charges are non-integrable and non-conserved due to the presence of electromagnetic news. As in the four dimensional purely gravitational case, their algebra involves a field-dependent central charge.

  20. Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristiano L. Dias; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Martin Grant; Mikko Karttunen

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: the anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

  1. Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Berra-Montiel; J. E. Rosales-Quintero

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  2. analytical three-dimensional solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are two- or three-dimensional. Since the deviation from a one-dimensional solution is small, we call these slightly two-dimensional and slightly three-dimensional self-similar...

  3. Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, Rafael

    Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments

  4. NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration and Microstructure Development Modeling Package. Version 3.0 Dale P. Bentz #12;NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration

  5. High resolution linkage and association study of quantitative trait loci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Jeesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) of complex human disease. For many complex diseases, quantitative phenotype values contain more information than dichotomous traits do. Much research has been done on conducting high resolution mapping using information of linkage and linkage disequilibrium...

  6. High resolution linkage and association study of quantitative trait loci 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Jeesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellite markers are available, high resolution mapping employing multiple markers or multiple allele markers is an important step to identify quantitative ...

  7. Temperature dependent Raman scattering studies of three dimensional topological insulators Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irfan, Bushra; Chatterjee, Ratnamala, E-mail: rmala@physics.iitd.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India); Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Gaur, Anand P. S.; Ahmadi, Majid; Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Guinel, Maxime J.-F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the temperature dependent (83?K?T?523?K) frequency shift of 2A{sub g}{sup 1} and 1E{sub g}{sup 2} phonon modes in the three dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, using Raman spectroscopy. The high quality single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} were grown using a modified Bridgman technique and characterized by Laue diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. A significant broadening in the line shape and red-shift in the frequencies were observed with increase in temperature. Polarized Raman scattering measurement shows a strong polarization effect of A{sub g}{sup 1} and A{sub g}{sup 2} phonon modes which confirms the good quality single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Temperature co-efficient for A{sub 1g}{sup 1},?E{sub g}{sup 2}, and A{sub 1g}{sup 2} modes was estimated to be ?1.44?×?10{sup ?2}, ?1.94?×?10{sup ?2}, and ?1.95?×?10{sup ?2}?cm{sup ?1}?K, respectively. Our results shed light on anharmonic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.

  8. Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2 A. Hall,1 and K November 2006. [1] We developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer model simulating solar fluxes over (2006), Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D

  9. Development of a three-dimensional in vitro model to study the effect of vitamin D on bone metastatic breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Danda

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women and most patients suffer from metastasis to bone. The mechanisms involved in breast cancer bone metastasis are poorly understood. Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture systems are becoming a focus...

  10. Breaking the Crowther Limit: Combining Depth-Sectioning and Tilt Tomography for High-Resolution, Wide-Field 3D Reconstructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruna, Hector D; Elser, Veit; Muller, David A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, high-resolution ( 6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over one hundred dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability.

  11. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K.; Moxley, Michael A.; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J. (UNL); (UMC)

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in {Delta}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 {angstrom}) and S352L (2.85 {angstrom}) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 {angstrom} resolution), glutamate (1.5 {angstrom}), and NAD{sup +} (1.5 {angstrom}) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD{sup +} binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-{angstrom} rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD{sup +}, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  12. Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Vesicles in DC Electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebrahim M. Kolahdouz; David Salac

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical and systematic parameter study of three-dimensional vesicle electrohydrodynamics is presented to investigate the effects of different fluid and membrane properties. The dynamics of vesicles in the presence of DC electric fields is considered, both in the presence and absence of linear shear flow. For suspended vesicles it is shown that the conductivity ratio and viscosity ratio between the interior and exterior fluids, as well as the vesicle membrane capacitance, substantially affect the minimum electric field strength required to induce a full Prolate-Oblate-Prolate transition.In addition, there exists a critical electric field strength above which a vesicle will no longer tumble when exposed to linear shear flow.

  13. Higher Derivative Terms in Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adel Awad; Mir Faizal

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we systematically analyze higher derivative terms in the effective actions for three dimensional scalar field theories with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. In these effective actions, we show that the auxiliary fields do not acquire kinetic terms and their effective actions can be expressed in terms of physical fields. We use the derivative expansion to generate four, five and six dimensional terms for $\\phi^6$ scalar field theory with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. We show that along with pure fermionic terms, there are various five and six dimensional topological terms that contain bosonic and fermionic fields. Finally, we use these results to obtain higher derivative topological terms in the effective action for two M2-branes. Thus, using an off-shell formalism, we obtain several higher derivative topological terms, which we compare with an earlier study that was done using an on-shell formalism.

  14. Higher Derivative Terms in Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awad, Adel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we systematically analyze higher derivative terms in the effective actions for three dimensional scalar field theories with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. In these effective actions, we show that the auxiliary fields do not acquire kinetic terms and their effective actions can be expressed in terms of physical fields. We use the derivative expansion to generate four, five and six dimensional terms for $\\phi^6$ scalar field theory with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. We show that along with pure fermionic terms, there are various five and six dimensional topological terms that contain bosonic and fermionic fields. Finally, we use these results to obtain higher derivative topological terms in the effective action for two M2-branes. Thus, using an off-shell formalism, we obtain several higher derivative topological terms, which we compare with an earlier study that was done using an on-shell formalism.

  15. 3DD - Three Dimensional Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12449

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvorakova, Marketa; Slovak, Jiri [Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional disposal is being considered as a way in which to store long-term spent nuclear fuel in underground disposal facilities in the Czech Republic. This method involves a combination of the two most common internationally recognised disposal methods in order to practically apply the advantages of both whilst, at the same time, eliminating their weaknesses; the method also allows easy removal in case of potential re-use. The proposed method for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the areal requirements of future deep geological repositories by more than 30%. It will also simplify the container handling process by using gravitational forces in order to meet requirements concerning the controllability of processes and ensuring operational and nuclear safety. With regard to the issue of the efficient potential removal of waste containers, this project offers an ingenious solution which does not disrupt the overall stability of the original disposal complex. (authors)

  16. Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.

  17. Axionic superconductivity in three dimensional doped narrow gap semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallab Goswami; Bitan Roy

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the competition between the conventional s-wave and the triplet Balian-Werthamer or the B-phase pairings in the doped three dimensional narrow gap semiconductors, such as $\\mathrm{Cu}_x\\mathrm{Bi}_2\\mathrm{Se}_3$ and $\\mathrm{Sn}_{1-x}\\mathrm{In}_x\\mathrm{Te}$. When the coupling constants of the two contending channels are comparable, we find a simultaneously time-reversal and parity violating $p + is$ state at low temperatures, which provides an example of dynamic axionic state of matter. In contradistinction to the time-reversal invariant, topological B-phase, the $p + is$ state possesses gapped Majorana fermions as the surface Andreev bound states, which give rise to an anomalous surface thermal Hall effect. The anomalous gravitational and electrodynamic responses of the $p+is$ state can be described by the $\\theta$ vacuum structure, where $\\theta \

  18. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  19. THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTING FLOW. I. UNIFORMLY BUOYANT HORIZONTAL TUBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbett, Bill

    THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTING FLOW. I. UNIFORMLY BUOYANT HORIZONTAL TUBES Y. Fan High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric-dimensional numerical simulations of the dynamic evolution of uniformly buoyant, twisted horizontal magnetic flux tubes

  20. Sensitivity analysis of three-dimensional salinity simulations in North San Francisco Bay using the unstructured-grid SUNTANS model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringer, Oliver B.

    and the confluence of the Sacramento­San Joaquin Rivers and comprises San Pablo Bay, Suisun Bay and Central Bay and San Joaquin rivers, while high inflows result in enhanced salinity stratification and gravitationalSensitivity analysis of three-dimensional salinity simulations in North San Francisco Bay using

  1. Inverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during rolling process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is therefore needed. Therefore highly heterogeneous temperature fields and heat fluxes can be evaluating. Asymptotic developments enable to take into account variations of thermal properties depending on temperatureInverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during

  2. A three-dimensional fast solver for arbitrary vorton distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method which is capable of an efficient calculation of the three-dimensional flow field produced by a large system of vortons (discretized regions of vorticity) is presented in this report. The system of vortons can, in turn, be used to model body surfaces, container boundaries, free-surfaces, plumes, jets, and wakes in unsteady three-dimensional flow fields. This method takes advantage of multipole and local series expansions which enables one to make calculations for interactions between groups of vortons which are in well-separated spatial domains rather than having to consider interactions between every pair of vortons. In this work, series expansions for the vector potential of the vorton system are obtained. From such expansions, the three components of velocity can be obtained explicitly. A Fortran computer code FAST3D has been written to calculate the vector potential and the velocity components at selected points in the flow field. In this code, the evaluation points do not have to coincide with the location of the vortons themselves. Test cases have been run to benchmark the truncation errors and CPU time savings associated with the method. Non-dimensional truncation errors for the magnitudes of the vector potential and velocity fields are on the order of 10{sup {minus}4}and 10{sup {minus}3} respectively. Single precision accuracy produces errors in these quantities of up to 10{sup {minus}5}. For less than 1,000 to 2,000 vortons in the field, there is virtually no CPU time savings with the fast solver. For 100,000 vortons in the flow, the fast solver obtains solutions in 1 % to 10% of the time required for the direct solution technique depending upon the configuration.

  3. Porosity in millimeter-scale welds of stainless steel : three-dimensional characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagesen, Larry K. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Madison, Jonathan D.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of edge joints utilizing a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser have been produced and examined in a 304-L stainless steel to advance fundamental understanding of the linkage between processing and resultant microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Acquisition of three-dimensional reconstructions via micro-computed tomography combined with traditional metallography has allowed for qualitative and quantitative characterization of weld joints in a material system of wide use and broad applicability. The presence, variability and distribution of porosity, has been examined for average values, spatial distributions and morphology and then related back to fundamental processing parameters such as weld speed, weld power and laser focal length.

  4. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  5. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC,

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  6. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  7. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  8. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  9. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

  10. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.

  11. Edinburgh Research Explorer High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic, UH 2008, 'High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic parameter analysis date: 16. Jun. 2014 #12;METHOD High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic

  12. Resonant Interactions in Rotating Homogeneous Three-dimensional Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Chen; S. Chen; G. L. Eyink; D. D. Holm

    2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous turbulence under rapid rigid rotation are conducted to examine the predictions of resonant wave theory for both small Rossby number and large Reynolds number. The simulation results reveal that there is a clear inverse energy cascade to the large scales, as predicted by 2D Navier-Stokes equations for resonant interactions of slow modes. As the rotation rate increases, the vertically-averaged horizontal velocity field from 3D Navier-Stokes converges to the velocity field from 2D Navier-Stokes, as measured by the energy in their difference field. Likewise, the vertically-averaged vertical velocity from 3D Navier-Stokes converges to a solution of the 2D passive scalar equation. The energy flux directly into small wave numbers in the $k_z=0$ plane from non-resonant interactions decreases, while fast-mode energy concentrates closer to that plane. The simulations are consistent with an increasingly dominant role of resonant triads for more rapid rotation.

  13. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF CASSIOPEIA A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLaney, Tracey [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan College, 59 College Avenue, Buckhannon, WV 26201 (United States); Rudnick, Lawrence; Isensee, Karl, E-mail: delaney_t@wvwc.ed, E-mail: larry@astro.umn.ed, E-mail: isensee@astro.umn.ed [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to map nearly the entire extent of Cassiopeia A between 5 and 40 {mu}m. Using infrared and Chandra X-ray Doppler velocity measurements, along with the locations of optical ejecta beyond the forward shock, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the remnant. The structure of Cas A can be characterized into a spherical component, a tilted thick disk, and multiple ejecta jets/pistons and optical fast-moving knots all populating the thick disk plane. The Bright Ring in Cas A identifies the intersection between the thick plane/pistons and a roughly spherical reverse shock. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. Some ejecta pistons are bipolar with oppositely directed flows about the expansion center while some ejecta pistons show no such symmetry. Some ejecta pistons appear to maintain the integrity of the nuclear burning layers while others appear to have punched through the outer layers. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. In three dimensions, the Fe jet in the southeast occupies a 'hole' in the Si-group emission and does not represent 'overturning', as previously thought. Although interaction with the circumstellar medium affects the detailed appearance of the remnant and may affect the visibility of the southeast Fe jet, the bulk of the symmetries and asymmetries in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion.

  14. Three-dimensional Casimir piston for massive scalar fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, S.C. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: sclim@mmu.edu.my; Teo, L.P. [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: lpteo@mmu.edu.my

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider Casimir force acting on a three-dimensional rectangular piston due to a massive scalar field subject to periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Exponential cut-off method is used to derive the Casimir energy. It is shown that the divergent terms do not contribute to the Casimir force acting on the piston, thus render a finite well-defined Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit expressions for the total Casimir force acting on the piston is derived, which show that the Casimir force is always attractive for all the different boundary conditions considered. As a function of a - the distance from the piston to the opposite wall, it is found that the magnitude of the Casimir force behaves like 1/a{sup 4} when a{yields}0{sup +} and decays exponentially when a{yields}{infinity}. Moreover, the magnitude of the Casimir force is always a decreasing function of a. On the other hand, passing from massless to massive, we find that the effect of the mass is insignificant when a is small, but the magnitude of the force is decreased for large a in the massive case.

  15. Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smithpeter, Colin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoover, Eddie R. (Sandia Park, NM); Pain, Bedabrata (Los Angeles, CA); Hancock, Bruce R. (Altadena, CA); Nellums, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.

  16. Models of three-dimensional fractional topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph Maciejko; Xiao-Liang Qi; Andreas Karch; Shou-Cheng Zhang

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-reversal invariant three-dimensional topological insulators can be defined fundamentally by a topological field theory with a quantized axion angle theta of zero or pi. It was recently shown that fractional quantized values of theta are consistent with time-reversal invariance if deconfined, gapped, fractionally charged bulk excitations appear in the low-energy spectrum due to strong correlation effects, leading to the concept of a fractional topological insulator. These fractionally charged excitations are coupled to emergent gauge fields which ensure that the microscopic degrees of freedom, the original electrons, are gauge-invariant objects. A first step towards the construction of microscopic models of fractional topological insulators is to understand the nature of these emergent gauge theories and their corresponding phases. In this work, we show that low-energy effective gauge theories of both Abelian or non-Abelian type are consistent with a fractional quantized axion angle if they admit a Coulomb phase or a Higgs phase with gauge group broken down to a discrete subgroup. The Coulomb phases support gapless but electrically neutral bulk excitations while the Higgs phases are fully gapped. The Higgs and non-Abelian Coulomb phases exhibit multiple ground states on boundaryless spatial 3-manifolds with nontrivial first homology, while the Abelian Coulomb phase has a unique ground state. The ground state degeneracy receives an additional contribution on manifolds with boundary due to the induced boundary Chern-Simons term.

  17. Effective viscosity of active suspensions: Three-dimensional numerical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levan Jibuti; Walter Zimmermann; Salima Rafaď; Philippe Peyla

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of its two flagella. The model reveals unusual angular orbits of the active swimmer under a linear shear flow. Namely, the swimmer sustains orientation transiently across the flow when flagella plane is perpendicular to the shear plane, and amplify the shear-induced rotation along the flow. Such behavior is a result of the interplay between shear-induced deformation and swimmer's periodic beating motion that exerts internal torques on the torque-free swimmer. This particular behavior has some significant consequences on the rheological properties of the suspension that tends to confirm previous experimental results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 098102 (2010)]. We calculated the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension with such isolated modeled microswimmers (dilute case) in shear flow using numerical simulations based on Rotne-Prager approximation. The results show an increased intrinsic viscosity for active swimmer suspensions in comparison to non-active ones in accordance with previous experimental measurements. A major enhancement of the active swimmer viscosity occurs due to the effectively extended shape of the deformable swimming cells. We also recover the experimentally observed shear thinning behavior.

  18. Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Labany, S. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Sabry, R. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Alkharj University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.

  19. The three-dimensional matrix -- An evolution in project management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glidewell, D.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Functional Department Dimension, functional departments such as project management, design, and construction would be maintained to maximize consistency among project teams, evenly allocate training opportunities, and facilitate the crossfeeding of lessons learned and innovative ideas. Functional departments were also determined to be the surest way of complying uniformly with all project control systems required by the Department of Energy (Sandia`s primary external customer). The Technical Discipline dimension was maintained to enhance communication within the technical disciplines, such as electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, etc., and to evenly allocate technical training opportunities, reduce technical obsolescence, and enhance design standards. The third dimension, the Project Dimension, represents the next step in the project management evolution at Sandia, and together with Functional Department and Technical Discipline Dimensions constitutes the three-dimensional matrix. It is this Project Dimension that will be explored thoroughly in this paper, including a discussion of the specific roles and responsibilities of both management and the project team.

  20. Hamiltonian thermodynamics of three-dimensional dilatonic black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, Goncalo A. S.; Lemos, Jose P. S. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica-CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico-IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa-UTL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories with a negative cosmological constant can be recast in a Brans-Dicke type action, with its free {omega} parameter. These theories have static spherically symmetric black holes. Those with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity ({omega}{yields}{infinity}), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory ({omega}=0), and a theory representing a class of theories ({omega}=-3). The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti-de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with one pair of canonical coordinates (M,P{sub M}), M being the mass parameter and P{sub M} its conjugate momenta The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schroedinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the canonical ensemble is obtained. The black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.

  1. An Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy. An Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy....

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE IN AS-QUENCHED Fe-12Mn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, H.J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contents in Fe-Mn alloys. Scanning electron fractographsTransactions HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPICof Califomia. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC

  3. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles andHigh Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles andareas, and in a completely additive manner. In this work, a

  4. Development of Superconducting High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers for Nuclear Safeguards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Jonathan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Counting 2.4.3 High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry 2.5coincidence counting and gamma spectrometry system (CANEGA)High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Isotopic correlation

  5. High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens M. S, representing the highest resolution subsurface thermography to date. Keywords: thermal imaging, high

  6. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  7. Bounds on strong field magneto-transport in three-dimensional composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Briane; Graeme W. Milton

    2011-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with bounds satisfied by the effective non-symmetric conductivity of three-dimensional composites in the presence of a strong magnetic field. On the one hand, it is shown that for general composites the antisymmetric part of the effective conductivity cannot be bounded solely in terms of the antisymmetric part of the local conductivity, contrary to the columnar case. So, a suitable rank-two laminate the conductivity of which has a bounded antisymmetric part together with a high-contrast symmetric part, may generate an arbitrarily large antisymmetric part of the effective conductivity. On the other hand, bounds are provided which show that the antisymmetric part of the effective conductivity must go to zero if the upper bound on the antisymmetric part of the local conductivity goes to zero, and the symmetric part of the local conductivity remains bounded below and above. Elementary bounds on the effective moduli are derived assuming the local conductivity and effective conductivity have transverse isotropy in the plane orthogonal to the magnetic field. New Hashin-Shtrikman type bounds for two-phase three-dimensional composites with a non-symmetric conductivity are provided under geometric isotropy of the microstructure. The derivation of the bounds is based on a particular variational principle symmetrizing the problem, and the use of Y-tensors involving the averages of the fields in each phase.

  8. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkhant Suerfu; Christopher G. Tully

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials.

  9. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  10. High-resolution speech signal reconstruction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    High-resolution speech signal reconstruction in Wireless Sensor Networks Andria Pazarloglou, Radu With the recent growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received sig, rgutier}@cs.tamu.edu Abstract--Data streaming is an emerging class of applica- tions for sensor networks

  11. Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer D.G. Long', P.J. Hardin2, and RA to SASS data for the study of Greenland's ice sheet. We present a time series of the radar backscatter images over Greenland covering the time period July-September 1978. The images provide an island

  12. High-Resolution Computed Tomography Study of the Cranium of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allman, John M.

    High-Resolution Computed Tomography Study of the Cranium of a Fossil Anthropoid Primate of these characteristics may have important implications for brain evolution. Here computed tomography is used to examine in the evolutionary development of anthropoids did these characteristics evolve? We recently used X-ray computed

  13. A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genetic Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachman, Michael

    A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genetic Map of the Mouse Genome Sagiv Shifman1 humans. Using more than 10,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms evenly spaced across the mouse genome, we nucleotide polymorphism genetic map of the mouse genome. PLoS Biol 4(12): e395. DOI: 10.1371/journal

  14. Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal area, California, from...

  15. alter three-dimensional collagen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peeters, Arthur; Zarzoso, David; Poli, Emanuele; Casson, Francis 2014-01-01 499 NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration Engineering Websites Summary: NISTIR...

  16. advanced three-dimensional environmental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peeters, Arthur; Zarzoso, David; Poli, Emanuele; Casson, Francis 2014-01-01 498 NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration Engineering Websites Summary: NISTIR...

  17. anatomic-based three-dimensional planning: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peeters, Arthur; Zarzoso, David; Poli, Emanuele; Casson, Francis 2014-01-01 484 NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration Engineering Websites Summary: NISTIR...

  18. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  19. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  20. Manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional Euler equations with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.

  1. Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.

  2. Dynamical instabilities of two-fluid interfaces in a porous medium: A three-dimensional video imaging study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prerna Sharma; P. Aswathi; Anit Sane; Shankar Ghosh; S. Bhattacharya

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-fluid interfaces in porous media, an example of driven disordered systems, were studied by a real time three-dimensional imaging technique with pore scale resolution for a less viscous fluid displacing a more viscous one. With increasing flow rate the interface transforms from flat to fingers and thence to droplets for both drainage and imbibition. The results compare and contrast the effects of randomness, both physical (geometry of the pore space) and chemical (wettability of the fluids), on the dynamical instability and identify the origin of the pore-scale processes that govern them.

  3. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 011123 (2012) Anomalous critical behavior in the polymer collapse transition of three-dimensional lattice trails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prellberg, Thomas

    of three-dimensional lattice trails Andrea Bedini* and Aleksander L. Owczarek Department of Mathematics

  4. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  5. Ris-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , REACTOR KINETICS, ROD DROP ACCIDENTS, THREE- DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621 more or less by change. The calculation is there- fore not representative of any existing reactorRisø-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI; ROD EJECTION TEST CALCULATION A

  6. A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    A Three­Dimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina ABSTRACT: Model equations for transport of nuclear­waste based up on the inherent physics. A three­dimensional finite element method for nuclear waste

  7. ON THE DERIVATION OF NONLINEAR SHELL MODELS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 74G10, 74G65. Key words and phrases. Elasticity, shells, energy minimization, Koiter. hal-00392028ON THE DERIVATION OF NONLINEAR SHELL MODELS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELASTICITY Cristinel Mardare. A nonlinearly elastic shell is modeled either by the nonlinear three- dimensional shell model or by a nonlinear

  8. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Architecture Tulika Mitra Tzi-cker Chiueh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Tulika

    Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Architecture Tulika Mitra Tzi-cker Chiueh Computer Science,chiuehg@cs.sunysb.edu March 7, 2000 Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics hardware has emerged to become an integral part of mainstream desktop PC systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3D graphics

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy Jung to noninvasively obtain three-dimensional 3-D images of subcutaneous melanomas and their surrounding vasculature in nude mice in vivo. The absorption coefficients of blood and melanin- pigmented melanomas vary greatly

  10. Three-dimensional spectral element simulations of variable density and viscosity, miscible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meiburg, Eckart H.

    are encountered under a wide variety of circumstances, ranging from lubrication applications to enhanced oil very slow flows display significant three-dimensional effects. As a result, the early axisymmetric the observed differences. Hence, the possible role of three-dimensional flow effects in this parameter ran

  11. MICROFABRICATED, ULTRA-DENSE, THREE-DIMENSIONAL METAL COILS F. Herrault1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to form a three-dimensional coil device. The MEMS- fabricated, ultra-dense coils exhibited a 62% improvement in packing density over conventional wire-wound coils. KEYWORDS Micro-coils, chemical vapor of these microstructures to form a three-dimensional coil device. The polymer material provides electrical insulation

  12. Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Yaguang Wei, Chen to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by integrating planar optical waveguide cells that can be expanded to organic- and inorganic-based solar cells. KEYWORDS Dye-sensitized solar

  13. Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna Rui Guo*, Edward C. This paper describes an experimental three-dimensional optical near-field mapping of a bowtie nano. The experimental results also demonstrate the polarization dependence of the transmission through the bowtie

  14. Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport forecasts for a physical aquifer experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport forecasts, and D. M. Rizzo (2008), Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport. Introduction [2] Eigbe et al. [1998] provide an excellent review of groundwater applications of the linear

  15. Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung NORA T morphometric mod- els to predict function relations in the lung. These models, however, are not anatomically explicit. We have advanced a three-dimensional airway tree model to relate dynamic lung function

  16. Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical. (2006), Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical frequencies are calculated using the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. The GEOS-3 global cloud optical

  17. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  18. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  19. Striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes in three dimensional simulations for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Reiter, D. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany)] [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations results in a non-axisymmetric striation pattern of magnetic field lines from the plasma interior which intersect the divertor targets. The impact on related particle and heat fluxes is investigated by three dimensional computer simulations for two different recycling conditions (controlled via neutral gas pumping). It is demonstrated that a mismatch between the particle and heat flux striation pattern (splitting vs. no splitting), as is repeatedly observed in ITER similar shape H-mode plasmas at DIII-D, can be reproduced by the simulations for high recycling conditions at the onset of partial detachment. These results indicate that a detailed knowledge of the particle and energy balance is at least as important for realistic simulations as the consideration of a change in the magnetic field structure by plasma response effects.

  20. Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion GR-71110, Greece and Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion GR-71003 (Greece)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.

  1. Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.

  2. Disorder driven itinerant quantum criticality of three dimensional massless Dirac fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pixley, J H; Sarma, S Das

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimentally observed non-Fermi liquid behavior in many strange metals over a broad range of energy and temperature can often be understood by invoking their close proximity to a zero-temperature quantum critical point (e.g. high-temperature cuprate superconductors). Progress in our understanding of such quantum critical properties of itinerant electrons has been hindered by the lack of effective models which are amenable to controlled analytical and numerically exact calculations. Here we establish that the disorder driven semimetal to metal quantum phase transition of three dimensional massless Dirac fermions could serve as a paradigmatic toy model for studying itinerant quantum criticality, which is solved by exact numerical calculations and a controlled field theoretic analysis. As a result, we establish the robust existence of a non-Gaussian universality class, and also construct the relevant low energy effective field theory that could guide the understanding of quantum critical scaling for many s...

  3. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  4. Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagemann, Larry

    We use Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data to assess retinal blood oxygen saturation. Three-dimensional disk-centered retinal tissue volumes were assessed in 17 normal healthy subjects. After removing ...

  5. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark, E-mail: wlyra@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  6. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  7. Compact High-Velocity Clouds at High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Burton; Robert Braun

    1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Six examples of the compact, isolated high-velocity clouds catalogued by Braun & Burton (1999) and identified with a dynamically cold ensemble of primitive objects falling towards the barycenter of the Local Group have been imaged with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope; an additional ten have been imaged with the Arecibo telescope. The imaging reveals a characteristic core/halo morphology: one or several cores of cool, relatively high-column-density material, are embedded in an extended halo of warmer, lower-density material. Several of the cores show kinematic gradients consistent with rotation; these CHVCs are evidently rotationally supported and dark-matter dominated. The imaging data allows several independent estimates of the distances to these objects, which lie in the range 0.3 to 1.0 Mpc. The CHVC properties resemble what might be expected from very dark dwarf irregular galaxies.

  8. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  10. High-resolution imaging of compact high-velocity clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Braun; Butler Burton

    1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Six examples of the compact, isolated high-velocity HI clouds (CHVCs) identified by Braun and Burton (1999) have been imaged with the WSRT. The 65 confirmed objects in this class define a dynamically cold system, with a global minimum for the velocity dispersion of only 70 km/s, found in the Local Group Standard of Rest, while in-falling at 100 km/s toward the LG barycenter. These objects have a characteristic morphology, in which several compact cores are embedded in a diffuse halo. The compact cores typically account for 40% of the HI line flux while covering some 15% of the source area. The cores are the cool condensed phase of HI, the CNM, with temp. near 100 K, while the halos appear to be a shielding column of warm diffuse HI, the WNM, with temp. near 8000 K. We detect a core with one of the narrowest HI emission lines ever observed, with intrinsic FWHM of 2 km/s and 75 K brightness. From a comparison of column and volume densities we derive a distance in the range 0.5 to 1 Mpc. We determine a metallicity for this same object of 0.04 to 0.07 solar. Comparably high distances are implied by demanding the stability of objects with multiple cores, which show relative velocities as large as 70 km/s on 30 arcmin scales. Many compact cores show systematic velocity gradients along the major axis of their elliptical extent which are consistent with circular rotation. Several of the derived rotation curves are well-fit by Navarro, Frenk, and White (1997) cold dark matter profiles. These kinematic signatures imply a high dark-to-visible mass ratio of 10-50, for D=0.7Mpc, which scales as 1/D. The implied dark matter halos dominate the mass volume density within the central 2 kpc (10 arcmin) of each source, providing a sufficent hydrostatic pressure to allow local CNM condensation. (abridged)

  11. Visualizing multiphase flow and trapped fluid configurations in a model three-dimensional porous medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amber T. Krummel; Sujit S. Datta; Stefan Münster; David A. Weitz

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.

  12. Three dimensional thermal-solute phase field simulation of binary alloy solidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. Bollada; C. E. Goodyer; P. K. Jimack; A. M. Mullis; F. W. Yang

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time stepping, a nonlinear multigrid solver and parallel computation, to solve a multi-scale, time dependent, three dimensional, nonlinear set of coupled partial differential equations for three scalar field variables. The mathematical model represents the non-isothermal solidification of a metal alloy into a melt substantially cooled below its freezing point at the microscale. Underlying physical molecular forces are captured at this scale by a specification of the energy field. The time rate of change of the temperature, alloy concentration and an order parameter to govern the state of the material (liquid or solid) is controlled by the diffusion parameters and variational derivatives of the energy functional. The physical problem is important to material scientists for the development of solid metal alloys and, hitherto, this fully coupled thermal problem has not been simulated in three dimensions, due to its computationally demanding nature. By bringing together state of the art numerical techniques this problem is now shown here to be tractable at appropriate resolution with relatively moderate computational resources.

  13. Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.R.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.

  14. Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Heung-Rae (Dublin, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.

  15. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  16. Interpretation of three-dimensional seismic data in Nanyishan structure area in Chaidamu basin, and the geological result

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanjuan, Y.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interpretation of three-dimensional seismic data in Nanyishan structure area was finished in the following steps: 1. Seismic horizons are correlated with geological horizons by analyzing drilling data and various logging curves. 2. Seismic horizon picking and time structure map were achieved by using Apollo workstation's SEISTAR interpretation software package which can correlate vertical section with time slice. 3. Three-dimensional velocity data volume was made by performing various corrections of available sonic logging curves in the area. 4. Average velocity map for seismic horizon interpretation was plotted by using the three-dimensional velocity data volume and time structure map. 5. Depth structure map was drawn by making necessary mathematical operation of data files about time structure map and average velocity map with the use of corresponding module of Apollo workstation's MAPSTAR software package. The comprehensive analysis of drilling and seismic informations shows that the rich hydrocarbon seismic horizons in the Nanyishan structure are mainly characterized by low frequency, low velocity and high energy. So, the distributions of rich hydrocarbon reservoirs in top Oligocene (E{sub 3}) and mid pliocene (N{sub 2}) series were ascertained by using the seismic characteristics.

  17. Optimization of three-dimensional micropost microcavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelena Vuckovic; Matthew Pelton; Axel Scherer; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2002-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a detailed analysis, based on the first-principles finite-difference time-domain method, of the resonant frequency, quality factor (Q), mode volume (V), and radiation pattern of the fundamental (HE11) mode in a three-dimensional distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) micropost microcavity. By treating this structure as a one-dimensional cylindrical photonic crystal containing a single defect, we are able to push the limits of Q/V beyond those achievable by standard micropost designs, based on the simple rules established for planar DBR microcavities. We show that some of the rules that work well for designing large-diameter microposts (e.g., high-refractive index contrast) fail to provide high-quality cavities with small diameters. By tuning the thicknesses of mirror layers and the spacer, the number of mirror pairs, the refractive indices of high and low refractive index regions, and the cavity diameter, we are able to achieve Q as high as 10^4, together with a mode volume of 1.6 cubic wavelengths of light in the high-refractive-index material. The combination of high Q and small V makes these structures promising candidates for the observation of such cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena as strong coupling between a quantum dot and the cavity field, and single-quantum-dot lasing.

  18. A Multi-Layer Three Dimensional Superconducting Nanowire Photon Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Matthew Smith

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we propose a new design paradigm for a superconducting nanowire single photon detector that uses a multi-layer architecture that places the electric leads beneath the nanowires. This allows for a very large number of detector elements, which we will call pixels in analogy to a conventional CCD camera, to be placed in close proximity. This leads to significantly better photon number resolution than current single and multi-nanowire meanders, while maintaining similar detection areas. We discuss the reset time of the pixels and how the design can be modified to avoid the latching failure seen in extremely short superconducting nanowires. These advantages give a multi-layer superconducting number-resolving photon detector significant advantages over the current design paradigm of long superconducting nanowire meanders. Such advantages are desirable in a wide array of photonics applications.

  19. High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  1. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  2. High-resolution SIMS depth profiling of nanolayers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, S. V.; Zinovev, A. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Peng, Q.; Elam, J. W.; Veryovkin, I. V. (Energy Systems); ( MSD)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the fundamental physical limits for depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry are well understood in theory, the experimental work to achieve and demonstrate them is still ongoing. We report results of high-resolution TOF SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) depth profiling experiments on a nanolayered structure, a stack of 16 alternating MgO and ZnO {approx}5.5 nm layers grown on a Si substrate by atomic layer deposition. The measurements were performed using a newly developed approach implementing a low-energy direct current normally incident Ar{sup +} ion beam for ion milling (250 eV and 500 eV energy), in combination with a pulsed 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 60{sup o} incidence for TOF SIMS analysis. By this optimized arrangement, a noticeably improved version of the dual-beam (DB) approach to TOF SIMS depth profiling is introduced, which can be dubbed gentleDB. The mixing-roughness-information model was applied to detailed analysis of experimental results. It revealed that the gentleDB approach allows ultimate depth resolution by confining the ion beam mixing length to about two monolayers. This corresponds to the escape depth of secondary ions, the fundamental depth resolution limitation in SIMS. Other parameters deduced from the measured depth profiles indicated that a single layer thickness is equal to 6 nm so that the 'flat' layer thickness d is 3 nm and the interfacial roughness {sigma} is 1.5 nm, thus yielding d + 2{sigma} = 6 nm. We have demonstrated that gentleDB TOF SIMS depth profiling with noble gas ion beams is capable of revealing the structural features of a stack of nanolayers, resolving its original surface and estimating the roughness of interlayer interfaces, information which is difficult to obtain by traditional approaches.

  3. POWERWALL: International Workshop on Interactive, Ultra-High-Resolution Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, Chris; Endert, Alexander; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Hornbaek, Kasper; North, Chris

    2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-high-resolution (Powerwall) displays are becoming increasingly popular due to the ever decreasing cost of hardware. As a result they are appearing more frequently in research institutes, and making the jump out of the lab and into industry. Due to the amount of work in this research area that has been published in CHI over the last few years, we felt that this confernece would be the ideal host for the first opportunity for both academics and practitioners in this field to get together.

  4. High-resolution radio observations of X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Miller-Jones

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an overview of important results obtained using high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of X-ray binary systems. These results derive from both astrometric observations and resolved imaging of sources, from black holes to neutron star and even white dwarf systems. I outline a number of upcoming developments in instrumentation, both new facilities and ongoing upgrades to existing VLBI instruments, and I conclude by identifying a number of important areas of investigation where VLBI will be crucial in advancing our understanding of X-ray binaries.

  5. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingth Lomonosov1Compact high resolution isobar

  6. Three-dimensional mixed mode linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis using domain interaction integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esmen, Ekrem Alp, 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional mixed-mode linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis is presented using domain interaction integrals. An out-of-plane sinusoidal crack was analyzed using a commercially available finite element package ...

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY KEVIN interesting for photonic and energy storage applications. Sacrificial templates are commonly used metamaterial, and energy storage applications. 3D metallic architectures are useful for solar

  8. Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid Tracking electronic motion in a graphene-like bulk material shows fast electrons in all dimensions. Print Text Size: A A A...

  9. Fabrication of complex oral drug delivery forms by Three Dimensional Printing (tm)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katstra, Wendy E. (Wendy Ellen), 1974-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing 3DPTM is a novel solid freeform fabrication technology that has been applied to the fabrication of complex pharmaceutical drug devices. Limitations of the technology as relating to pharmaceuticals ...

  10. Bimetallic bars with local control of composition by three-dimensional printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a process that enables the fabrication of geometrically complex parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The success of 3DP as an alternative manufacturing technology to ...

  11. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks q Accepted 23 July 2008 Available online 7 August 2008 Keywords: Underwater acoustic sensor networks data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation

  12. Three-dimensional cardiac architecture determined by two-photon microtomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Hayden

    Cardiac architecture is inherently three-dimensional, yet most characterizations rely on two-dimensional histological slices or dissociated cells, which remove the native geometry of the heart. We previously developed a ...

  13. Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for sub-nanometer three-dimensional positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Euclid E. (Euclid Eberle), 1965-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current alignment technology is incapable of satisfying the needs of imminent generations of lithography. This dissertation delineates a novel method of alignment and three-dimensional position metrology that is compatible ...

  14. Green Water Flow Kinematics and Impact Pressure on a Three Dimensional Model Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage Kusalika Suranjani

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow kinematics of green water due to plunging breaking waves interacting with a simplified, three-dimensional model structure was investigated in laboratory. Two breaking wave conditions were tested: one with waves impinging and breaking...

  15. Three-dimensional acoustic propagation through shallow water internal, surface gravity and bottom sediment waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...

  16. Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farahat, Waleed A.

    We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...

  17. Three-dimensional nanostructures fabricated by stacking pre-patterned monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fucetola, Corey Patrick

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers the viability of nanomembrane handling and stacking approaches to enable the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured materials. Sequentially stacking previously-patterned membranes to ...

  18. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  19. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Hu, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut 06604 (United States)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.

  1. Characterization and requirements for Cu-Cu bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tadepalli, Rajappa, 1979-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) technology enables heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from different technologies, and reduces global RC delay by increasing the device density per unit chip area. ...

  2. Modeling of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows with free surfaces using a finite element method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian, David Joseph

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A framework and code have been developed to simulate fiber and film processes; the code can handle three-dimensional, isothermal, incompressible, creeping flow of a Giesekus fluid with free surfaces at infinite capillary ...

  3. Magnetically driven three-dimensional manipulation and inductive heating of magnetic-dispersion containing metal alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calabro, Joshua D.

    Fundamental to the development of three-dimensional microelectronic fabrication is a material that enables vertical geometries. Here we show low-melting-point metal alloys containing iron dispersions that can be remotely ...

  4. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1 Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution...

  5. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of trans-Hexatriene-1-13C1; a Semiexperimental Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  6. Three-Dimensional Anatomy of a Geothermal Field Coso Southeast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distribution. The anomalies also correlate with high heat flow in the field and the termination of geothermal production to the south. I speculate that an intrusion is present in...

  7. Three-dimensional anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distribution. The anomalies also correlate with high heat flow in the field and the termination of geothermal production to the south. I speculate that an intrusion is present in...

  8. Three-dimensional flow visualization in a centrifugal compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevillion, William Lee

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analogy studies. Soyce (1) utilized a mixture of kerosene and dibutyl phthalate colored with black paint. These liquids were mixed to yield a neutral density mixture which formed globules when injected into water. The globules were tracked on high speed... to determine points of extreme turbulence and separation. The mapping process was aided by watching the deformation of the kerosene- dibutyl globules. Globules would change from their normally spherical shape when flowing into high velocity streamlines...

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z J. R. Smith,* D. P In this initial study the electrochemically active region of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode an actual three-dimensional 3D model of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode and its interface

  10. Effect of pressure gradient on the drag reduction performance of two and three dimensional riblets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Aaron Chenault

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT ON THE DRAG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL RIBLETS A Thesis by AARON CHENAULT HALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering EFFECT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT ON THE DRAG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL RIBLETS A Thesis by AARON CHENAULT HALL Approved as to style and content by...

  11. Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J., E-mail: cch@berkeley.edu [Applied Science and Technology Group and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.

  12. Experimental study on bubble collapse phenomena in subcooled water with three-dimensional particle image velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yu-Hsiang

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BUBBLE COLLAPSE PHENOMENA IN SUBCOOLED WATER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A Thesis by YU-HSIANG YANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1998 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BUBBLE COLLAPSE PHENOMENA IN SUBCOOLED WATER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A Thesis by YU-HSIANG YANG Submitted...

  13. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  14. Vector drop-on-demand production of tungsten carbide-cobalt tooling inserts by three dimensional printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, David, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid freeform fabrication process used to generate solid parts directly from three-dimensional computer models. A part geometry is created by selectively depositing binder into ...

  15. Ironless Permanent Magnet Motors: Three-Dimensional Analytical Calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the magnetic torque exerted between a tile permanent magnet radially magnetized and a winding in ironless structures. Such an expression can be used for calculating the magnetic torque transmitted between the stator or winding dimensions. The ironless structure we consider in this paper is commonly used for high speed

  16. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M&O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M&O contractor at DOE`s most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes` HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M&Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M&Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M&O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M&Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M&Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner.

  17. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

    2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

  18. A three-dimensional characterization of a bearing pecan tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Gonzalez, Ricardo

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    de i'1onterrey Chairman of' Advisory Committee: Dr . J . Benton Storey A 26 year old 'Success' pecan tree was utilized in this research. A very high correlatior, coeff&cient was found among leaf area, leaflet area, 1 eaf dry wei ght, leaf fr esh... factors have been found to 26 Table 6. Duncan's multiple range test for the mean number of leaves per growing po1nt by the number of nuts developed on them. o = 0. 05. Nut No. per G. P. Leaves iio. Mean Population Si ze ii Group1ng 6. 58 146 6...

  19. Integrated Three-Dimensional Module Heat Exchange for Power Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other NewsSpin andInterim DataCooling - Energy Innovation

  20. Study of Fish Response Using Particle Image Velocimetry and High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2004-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing literature of previous particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of fish swimming has been reviewed. Historically, most of the studies focused on the performance evaluation of freely swimming fish. Technological advances over the last decade, especially the development of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, make possible more accurate, quantitative descriptions of the flow patterns adjacent to the fish and in the wake behind the fins and tail, which are imperative to decode the mechanisms of drag reduction and propulsive efficiency. For flows generated by different organisms, the related scales and flow regimes vary significantly. For small Reynolds numbers, viscosity dominates; for very high Reynolds numbers, inertia dominates, and three-dimensional complexity occurs. The majority of previous investigations dealt with the lower end of Reynolds number range. The fish of our interest, such as rainbow trout and spring and fall chinook salmon, fall into the middle range, in which neither viscosity nor inertia is negligible, and three-dimensionality has yet to dominate. Feasibility tests have proven the applicability of PIV to flows around fish. These tests have shown unsteady vortex shedding in the wake, high vorticity region and high stress region, with the highest in the pectoral area. This evident supports the observations by Nietzel et al. (2000) and Deng et al. (2004) that the operculum are most vulnerable to damage from the turbulent shear flow, because they are easily pried open, and the large vorticity and shear stress can lift and tear off scales, rupture or dislodge eyes, and damage gills. In addition, the unsteady behavior of the vortex shedding in the wake implies that injury to fish by the instantaneous flow structures would likely be much higher than the injury level estimated using the average values of the dynamics parameters. Based on existing literature, our technological capability, and relevance and practicability to Department of Energy's Hydropower Program, we identified three major research areas of interest: free swimming, the boundary layer over fish, and kinematic response of fish. We propose that the highest priority is to characterize the kinematic response of fish to different turbulent environments such as high shear/turbulence and hydrodynamic disturbances created by solid structures such as deflector and turbine runner blade; the next priority is to map the boundary layer over swimming fish; the last is to document the behavior of freely swimming fish, focusing on fish of our interest. Grid turbulence and Karman vortex street will be employed to map the boundary layers over fish and investigate the effects of environmental disturbances on the swimming performance of fish, because they are well established and documented in engineering literature and are representative of fish's swimming environments. Extreme conditions characteristic of turbine environments, such as strong shear environment and collision, will be investigated. Through controlled laboratory studies, the fish injury mechanism from different sources will be evaluated in isolation. The major goals are to: gain first-hand knowledge of the biological effects under such extreme hydraulic environments in which fish could lack the capability to overcome the perturbations and be vulnerable to injury; Better understand field results by integrating the laboratory studies with the responses of sensor fish device; More importantly, provide well-defined validation cases and boundary conditions for geometry-based computational fluid-structure interaction modeling in order to simulate the complex hydraulic environments in advanced hydropower systems and their effects on fish, greatly enhancing the potential to use CFD as a bio-hydraulic design alternative.

  1. Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on {Lambda}-type atomic ensembles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeuthen, Emil; Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Soerensen, Anders S. [QUANTOP, Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a three-dimensional theory for quantum memories based on light storage in ensembles of {Lambda}-type atoms, where two long-lived atomic ground states are employed. We consider light storage in an ensemble of finite spatial extent and we show that within the paraxial approximation the Fresnel number of the atomic ensemble and the optical depth are the only important physical parameters determining the quality of the quantum memory. We analyze the influence of these parameters on the storage of light followed by either forward or backward read-out from the quantum memory. We show that for small Fresnel numbers the forward memory provides higher efficiencies, whereas for large Fresnel numbers the backward memory is advantageous. The optimal light modes to store in the memory are presented together with the corresponding spin waves and outcoming light modes. We show that for high optical depths such {Lambda}-type atomic ensembles allow for highly efficient backward and forward memories even for small Fresnel numbers F(greater-or-similar sign)0.1.

  2. Three-dimensional airfoil performance measurements on a rotating wing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. This paper describes the flow angle sensor used to measure angle of attack (AOA) and how the sensor was calibrated, and it gives results of pressure integrations on the blade. Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements were made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind HAWT. A video camera was mounted on the rotor to record video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions and revealed pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. Results show evidence of stall hysteresis and unsteadiness at high AOA. Correlations with analytical predictions and wind tunnel tests show good agreement at low AOA and poor agreement at high AOA. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Intermittency and geometrical statistics of three-dimensional homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: A wavelet viewpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Kawahara, Yasuhiro [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Schneider, Kai [M2P2-CNRS and CMI, Universite de Provence, 39 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Okamoto, Naoya [Center for Computational Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Farge, Marie [LMD-IPSL-CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale-dependent and geometrical statistics of three-dimensional incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence without mean magnetic field are examined by means of the orthogonal wavelet decomposition. The flow is computed by direct numerical simulation with a Fourier spectral method at resolution 512{sup 3} and a unit magnetic Prandtl number. Scale-dependent second and higher order statistics of the velocity and magnetic fields allow to quantify their intermittency in terms of spatial fluctuations of the energy spectra, the flatness, and the probability distribution functions at different scales. Different scale-dependent relative helicities, e.g., kinetic, cross, and magnetic relative helicities, yield geometrical information on alignment between the different scale-dependent fields. At each scale, the alignment between the velocity and magnetic field is found to be more pronounced than the other alignments considered here, i.e., the scale-dependent alignment between the velocity and vorticity, the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and its vector potential, and the scale-dependent alignment between the magnetic field and the current density. Finally, statistical scale-dependent analyses of both Eulerian and Lagrangian accelerations and the corresponding time-derivatives of the magnetic field are performed. It is found that the Lagrangian acceleration does not exhibit substantially stronger intermittency compared to the Eulerian acceleration, in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulence where the Lagrangian acceleration shows much stronger intermittency than the Eulerian acceleration. The Eulerian time-derivative of the magnetic field is more intermittent than the Lagrangian time-derivative of the magnetic field.

  4. Towards wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adaptive optical correction is an efficient technique to obtain high-resolution images of the retinal surface. A main limitation of adaptive optical correction, however, is the small size of the corrected image. For medical purposes it is important to increase the size of the corrected images. This can be done through composite imaging, but a major difficulty is then the introduction of reconstruction artifacts. Another approach is multi-conjugate adaptive optics. MCAO comes in two flavors. The star- oriented approach has been demonstrated on the eye and allows to increase the diameter of the corrected image by a factor of approximately 2-3. Difficulties in the tomographic reconstruction precludes the correction of larger fields. Here we have investigate the possibility to apply a layer-oriented MCAO approach to retinal imaging.

  5. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  6. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  7. Novel Power Electronics Three-Dimensional Heat Exchanger: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Lustbader, J.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric drive systems for vehicle propulsion enable technologies critical to meeting challenges for energy, environmental, and economic security. Enabling cost-effective electric drive systems requires reductions in inverter power semiconductor area. As critical components of the electric drive system are made smaller, heat removal becomes an increasing challenge. In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated approach to the design of thermal management systems for power semiconductors that matches the passive thermal resistance of the packaging with the active convective cooling performance of the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger concept builds on existing semiconductor thermal management improvements described in literature and patents, which include improved bonded interface materials, direct cooling of the semiconductor packages, and double-sided cooling. The key difference in the described concept is the achievement of high heat transfer performance with less aggressive cooling techniques by optimizing the passive and active heat transfer paths. An extruded aluminum design was selected because of its lower tooling cost, higher performance, and scalability in comparison to cast aluminum. Results demonstrated a heat flux improvement of a factor of two, and a package heat density improvement over 30%, which achieved the thermal performance targets.

  8. Preparation of three-dimensional entanglement for distant atoms in coupled cavities via atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi-Lei Su; Xiao-Qiang Shao; Hong-Fu Wang; Shou Zhang

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a dissipative scheme to prepare a three-dimensional entangled state for two atoms trapped in separate coupled cavities. Our work shows that both atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay, which are two typical obstacles in unitary-dynamics-based schemes, could be utilized as resources for high-dimensional entangled state preparation without specifying initial state and controlling time precisely. Final numerical simulation with one group of experimental parameters indicates that the performance of our scheme is better than the unitary-dynamics-based scheme.

  9. Coexistence of Two- and Three-dimensional Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Ar^+ -irradiated KTaO_3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harashima, S.; Bell, C.; Kim, M.; Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the electron doping in the surface vicinity of KTaO{sub 3} by inducing oxygen-vacancies via Ar{sup +}-irradiation. The doped electrons have high mobility (> 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/Vs) at low temperatures, and exhibit Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with both two- and three-dimensional components. A disparity of the extracted in-plane effective mass, compared to the bulk values, suggests mixing of the orbital characters. Our observations demonstrate that Ar{sup +}-irradiation serves as a flexible tool to study low dimensional quantum transport in 5d semiconducting oxides.

  10. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  11. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  12. The Joint Cascade of Energy and Helicity in Three-Dimensional Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiaoning Chen; Shiyi Chen; Gregory L. Eyink

    2002-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence has both energy and helicity as inviscid constants of motion. In contrast to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, where a second inviscid invariant--the enstrophy--blocks the energy cascade to small scales, in 3D there is a joint cascade of both energy and helicity simultaneously to small scales. The basic cancellation mechanism which permits a joint cascade of energy and helicity is illuminated by means of the helical decomposition of the velocity into positively and negatively polarized waves. This decomposition is employed in the present study both theoretically and also in a numerical simulation of homogeneous and isotropic 3D turbulence. It is shown that the transfer of energy to small scales produces a tremendous growth of helicity separately in the + and - helical modes at high wavenumbers, diverging in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. However, because of a tendency to restore reflection invariance at small scales, the net helicity from both modes remains finite in that limit. The net helicity flux is shown to be constant all the way up to the Kolmogorov wavenumber: there is no shorter inertial-range for helicity cascade than for energy cascade. The transfer of energy and helicity between + and - modes, which permits the joint cascade, is shown to be due to two distinct physical processes, advection and vortex stretching.

  13. Structure and trapping of three-dimensional dust clouds in a capacitively coupled rf-discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, O.; Block, D.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this survey the recently found 'Coulomb balls' are discussed, which show an unusual kind of crystalline order. These three-dimensional dust clouds consisting of hundreds or thousands of micrometer-sized dust particles have a spherical shape and exist in a wide range of plasma conditions. Coulomb balls are optically highly transparent and have macroscopic dimensions of several millimeters in diameter. The clouds allow for the observation of each single particle and thus the complete reconstruction of the crystal structure by means of video microscopy techniques. The particles are arranged in distinct nested shells in which they form patterns with mostly five and six neighbors. The confinement of Coulomb balls by dielectric walls involves electric forces, surface charges, ion drag forces, and thermophoretic levitation. The thermophoretic force field is measured with tracer particles and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The electric forces are derived from simulations with the two-dimensional SIGLO-2D code. It is shown the the sum of all confining forces results in a stable potential well that describes levitation and spherical confinement of the Coulomb ball.

  14. SOLA-DM: A numerical solution algorithm for transient three-dimensional flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, T.L.; Nichols, B.D.; Hirt, C.W.; Stein, L.R.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLA-DM is a three-dimensional time-explicit, finite-difference, Eulerian, fluid-dynamics computer code for solving the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm (SOLA) evolved from the marker-and-cell (MAC) method, and the code is highly vectorized for efficient performance on a Cray computer. The computational domain is discretized by a mesh of parallelepiped cells in either cartesian or cylindrical geometry. The primary hydrodynamic variables for approximating the solution of the momentum equations are cell-face-centered velocity components and cell-centered pressures. Spatial accuracy is selected by the user to be first or second order; the time differencing is first-order accurate. The incompressibility condition results in an elliptic equation for pressure that is solved by a conjugate gradient method. Boundary conditions of five general types may be chosen: free-slip, no-slip, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure. In addition, internal mesh specifications to model obstacles and walls are provided. SOLA-DM also solves the equations for discrete particle dynamics, permitting the transport of marker particles or other solid particles through the fluid to be modeled. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euaggelos E. Zotos

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.

  16. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitry L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16. Yu. Shvyd’ko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

  17. Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourcedrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber stamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourceŐdrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber resolution rubber stamps bilayers of two different types of the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane 3,4 by casting

  18. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  19. Nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of three dimensional current shear instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Das, Amita; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with detailed nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a three dimensional current shear driven instability in slab geometry. The simulations show the development of the instability in the current shear layer in the linear regime leading to the generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the nonlinear regime. The electromagnetic turbulence is first generated in the unstable shear layer and then spreads into the stable regions. The turbulence spectrum shows a new kind of anisotropy in which power transfer towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow. Results of the present three dimensional simulations of the current shear instability are compared with those of our earlier two dimensional simulations of sausage instability. It is found that the flattening of the mean velocity profile and thus reduction in the electron current due to generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the three dimensional case is more effective as compared to that in the two dimensional case.

  20. Synthetic magnetic field effects on neutral bosonic condensates in quasi-three-dimensional anisotropic layered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaleski, T. A.; Polak, T. P. [Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, POB 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Faculty of Physics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a system of dilute Bose gas confined in a layered structure of stacked square lattices (slab geometry). A derived phase diagram reveals a nonmonotonic dependence of the ratio of tunneling to on-site repulsion on the artificial magnetic field applied to the system. The effect is reduced when more layers are added, which mimics a two- to quasi-three-dimensional geometry crossover. Furthermore, we establish a correspondence between anisotropic infinite (quasi-three-dimensional) and isotropic finite (slab geometry) systems that share exactly the same critical values, which can be an important clue for choosing experimental setups that are less demanding, but still leading to the identical results. Finally, we show that the properties of the ideal Bose gas in a three-dimensional optical lattice can be closely mimicked by finite (slab) systems when the number of two-dimensional layers is larger than 10 for isotropic interactions, or even less when the layers are weakly coupled.

  1. Three-dimensional conceptual model for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system, FY 1993 status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.; Webber, W.D.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground water underlying parts of the Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) contains radioactive and chemical contaminants at concentrations exceeding regulatory standards (Dresel et al. 1993). The Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is responsible for monitoring the movement of these contaminants to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring effort, a sitewide three-dimensional ground-water flow model is being developed. This report provides an update on the status of the conceptual model that will form the basis for constructing a numerical three-dimensional flow model for, the site. Thorne and Chamness (1992) provide additional information on the initial development of the three-dimensional conceptual model.

  2. System and method for representing and manipulating three-dimensional objects on massively parallel architectures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.

  3. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  4. Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a hierarchical data structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. In this example embodiment, the hierarchical data structure includes at least a parent node and a corresponding plurality of child nodes. The method includes a first act of determining that a first active ray in the packet hits the parent node and a second act of descending to each of the plurality of child nodes.

  5. Geometry and scaling of tangled vortex lines in three-dimensional random wave fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander J. Taylor; Mark R. Dennis

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The short- and long-scale behaviour of tangled wave vortices (nodal lines) in random three-dimensional wave fields is studied via computer experiment. The zero lines are tracked in numerical simulations of periodic superpositions of three-dimensional complex plane waves. The probability distribution of local geometric quantities such as curvature and torsion are compared to previous analytical and new Monte Carlo results from the isotropic Gaussian random wave model. We further examine the scaling and self-similarity of tangled wave vortex lines individually and in the bulk, drawing comparisons with other physical systems of tangled filaments.

  6. Waveguides in three-dimensional metallic photonic band-gap materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigalas, M.M.; Biswas, R.; Ho, K.M.; Soukoulis, C.M. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Crouch, D.D. [Advanced Electromagnetic Technologies Center, Raytheon Corporation, Rancho Cucamonga, California 91729 (United States)] [Advanced Electromagnetic Technologies Center, Raytheon Corporation, Rancho Cucamonga, California 91729 (United States)

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate waveguide structures in three-dimensional metallic photonic band-gap (MPBG) materials. The MPBG materials used in this study consist of a three-dimensional mesh of metallic wires embedded in a dielectric. An {ital L}-shaped waveguide is created by removing part of the metallic wires. Using finite difference time domain simulations, we found that an 85{percent} transmission efficiency can be achieved through the 90{degree} bend with just three unit cell thickness MPBG structures. thinsp {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Approaches to Three-Dimensional Transformation Optical Media Using Quasi-Conformal Coordinate Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landy, N I; Smith, D R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce an approach to the design of three-dimensional transformation optical (TO) media based on a generalized quasi-conformal mapping approach. The generalized quasi-conformal TO (QCTO) approach enables the design of media that can, in principle, be broadband and low-loss, while controlling the propagation of waves with arbitrary angles of incidence and polarization. We illustrate the method in the design of a three-dimensional "carpet" ground plane cloak and of a flattened Luneburg lens. Ray-trace studies provide a confirmation of the performance of the QCTO media, while also revealing the limited performance of index-only versions of these devices.

  8. Chandra High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of AM Her

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Girish; V. R. Rana; K. P. Singh

    2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of high resolution spectroscopy of the prototype polar AM Herculis observed with Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The X-ray spectrum contains hydrogen-like and helium-like lines of Fe, S, Si, Mg, Ne and O with several Fe L-shell emission lines. The forbidden lines in the spectrum are generally weak whereas the hydrogen-like lines are stronger suggesting that emission from a multi-temperature, collisionally ionized plasma dominates. The helium-like line flux ratios yield a plasma temperature of 2 MK and a plasma density 1 - 9 x10^12 cm^-3, whereas the line flux ratio of Fe XXVI to Fe XXV gives an ionization temperature of 12.4 +1.1 -1.4 keV. We present the differential emission measure distribution of AM Her whose shape is consistent with the volume emission measure obtained by multi-temperature APEC model. The multi-temperature plasma model fit to the average X-ray spectrum indicates the mass of the white dwarf to be ~1.15 M_sun. From phase resolved spectroscopy, we find the line centers of Mg XII, S XVI, resonance line of Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI emission modulated by a few hundred to 1000 km/s from the theoretically expected values indicating bulk motion of ionized matter in the accretion column of AM Her. The observed velocities of Fe XXVI ions are close to the expected shock velocity for a 0.6 M_sun white dwarf. The observed velocity modulation is consistent with that expected from a single pole accreting binary system.

  9. Equilibrium vortex motion in two- and three-dimensional superconductors studied with a dc SQUID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, T.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium motion of vortices in two- and three-dimensional superconductors has been studied with a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). This technique has the advantage of probing the system in a non-invasive manner as well as providing dynamic information over many decades in frequency. Through measurements of the spectral density of magnetic flux noise, S{sub {Phi}}({omega}), as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, the effects of proton and heavy ion irradiation on flux noise in crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} have been measured and compared with the effects on the critical current, J{sub c}. Both proton and heavy ion irradiation proved effective at reducing S{sub {Phi}}({omega}), with proton irradiation having a larger effect. Measurement of S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) due to the equilibrium Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii transition in two-dimensional Josephson Junction Arrays (JJAs) was studied as a function of temperature for three different arrays and using three different sensors. S{sub {Phi}} is shown to obey dynamic scaling over as many as five decades in frequency, and estimates are made for the dynamic critical exponent z. An analytic theory for the high- and low-frequency behavior of S{sub {Phi}}({omega}) is presented and compared to the measured data, with the result that the low-frequency behavior is well described by the theory but the high-frequency behavior is not. Other theories and numerical simulations are described and compared with the data, but none are completely satisfactory. Lastly, suggestions for necessary further theoretical work and possible future experimental work are suggested.

  10. INNER SHELL EXCITATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES BY ELECTRON IMPACT WITH HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INNER SHELL EXCITATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES BY ELECTRON IMPACT WITH HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION F. H resolution energy loss spectra for inner shell excited states, (2) the observa- tion of inner shell excited are the subject of the present review. The inner shell states that can usefully be studied with energy resolutions

  11. High intrinsic energy resolution photon number resolving detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lolli, L; Portesi, C; Monticone, E; Rajteri, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) are characterized by the intrinsic figure of merit to resolve both the energy and the statistical distribution of the incident photons. These properties lead TES devices to become the best single photon detector for quantum technology experiments. For a TES based on titanium and gold has been reached, at telecommunication wavelength, an unprecedented intrinsic energy resolution (0.113 eV). The uncertainties analysis of both energy resolution and photon state assignment has been discussed. The thermal properties of the superconductive device have been studied by fitting the bias curve to evaluate theoretical limit of the energy resolution.

  12. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

  13. Three-dimensional Modeling of Acid Transport and Etching in a Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oeth, Cassandra V

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ’s conductivity, which is based on the etched width created by the injected acid. Etching occurs along the fracture surface but is based on acid flowing through the fracture, so an evaluation tool should describe three-dimensional physics and chemistry. Current...

  14. MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M'Closkey, Robert T.

    MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS M. Kanik.S. Abstract-- A novel use of bulk metallic glasses in microresonator applications is reported and a method scale glass blowmolding using quartz [2] and Pyrex [3], as well as the isotropic etching of silicon

  15. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Peter C.

    1 1 Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column-coordinate), cylinder's main-axis following coordinate (M-coordinate), and hydrodynamic force following coordinate (F-coordinate system. The hydrodynamic forces (such as the drag and lift forces) and their moments are easily computed

  16. Rapid three-dimensional manufacturing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapid three-dimensional manufacturing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system Biao-dimensional manufacturing approach to the rapid processing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system. The scanning laser manufacturing technique could be potentially applied to a wide range of materials,10

  17. Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amit

    is cycloning, where particles are separated from a fluid owing to centrifugal forces imparted by a swirling axial. But a few cylin- drical cyclones of the type described here have been used to separate liquid Abstract Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were

  18. Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve

  19. An Effective Approach for Identifying Evolving Three-Dimensional Structural Motifs in Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hui

    have been employed to study the protein folding process, in which a protein acquires its func- tional three-dimensional structure. This has resulted in a large number of protein folding trajectories of the protein folding mechanism. In this paper, we focus on identifying im- portant 3D structural motifs

  20. Three Dimensional Simulations of the Parker's Model of Solar Coronal Heating: Lundquist Number Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Three Dimensional Simulations of the Parker's Model of Solar Coronal Heating: Lundquist Number analysis as well as 2D simulations. In the same limit the average magnetic energy built up by the random by NSF grant AST-0434322, NASA grant NNX08BA71G, and DOE. #12;Parker's model of coronal heating through

  1. RIS-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , PWR TYPE REACTORS, REACTOR KINETICS, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621.039.514 : 621 calculations for the PWR core. It combines a nodal theory neutron kinetics calculation with transient sub calculations. The present report describes the input for ANTI. INIS descriptors; A CODES, BURNUP, HYDRAULICS

  2. An H-Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Weiying

    An H- Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures Peijun Li-dimensional eddy currents in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel laminations since the coating film is only several to the smallest scale can be up to 106. In this paper, we study an H- formulation for the nonlinear eddy current

  3. Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models with Lagrangian Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION OF UNTWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES M. G. Linton1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priest, Eric

    ). Reconnection prob- ably plays an important role as an energy source for coronal heating (e.g., Parker 1972 direction. These studies generally focus on the small-scale dynamics in the immediate neighborhood in which these local reconnection regions connect to the larger scale, global, three-dimensional magnetic

  5. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of the South Room Block of the NAN Ruin archaeological site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Kirk Lee

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...

  6. Adaptive fast multipole boundary element method for three-dimensional half-space acoustic wave problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    Adaptive fast multipole boundary element method for three-dimensional half-space acoustic wave: Acoustics 3D half space Fast multipole BEM Windmill models a b s t r a c t A new adaptive fast multipole. This procedure simplifies the implementation of the adaptive fast multipole BEM and reduces the CPU time

  7. Uplift of Beta Regio: Three-dimensional models A. V. Vezolainen and V. S. Solomatov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomatov, Slava

    Uplift of Beta Regio: Three-dimensional models A. V. Vezolainen and V. S. Solomatov Department of Beta Regio caused by a mantle plume satisfy constraints on gravity, topography, rheology, and the uplift rate substantially better than two-dimensional models. In particular, the uplift time of Beta

  8. he edge of a torn plastic sheet forms a complex three-dimensional fractal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    T he edge of a torn plastic sheet forms a complex three-dimensional fractal shape. We have found to the generation of characteristic wavy shapes. We used rectangular plastic sheets pulled from the sides (in the y produce an irreversible plastic deforma- tion of the sheet and, as they are relieved, the deformed sheet

  9. A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5...

  10. Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional Shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three- Dimensional Shaping Ji Li,, Ting, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States ABSTRACT: Graphene has many promising physical properties. It has been discovered that local strain in a graphene sheet can alter its conducting properties

  11. Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind S to the well--known thermal expansion of the solar corona [Parker, 1958, 1963, 1991]. In particular Alfv'en waves in the solar atmosphere and wind, taking into account relevant physical effects

  12. Three-dimensional seismic stratigraphic study of downdip Yegua sandstones, Edna Field, Jackson County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trikania, Andra

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study reports an investigation of the structure and stratigraphy of the downdip Yegua sandstones at Edna Field, Jackson County, South Texas. The study is based on 22.9 square miles of three dimensional (3-D) seismic data, well-logs from 15...

  13. Self-Organizing Fault-Tolerant Topology Control in Large-Scale Three-Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    be deployed in three-dimensional (3D) space, such as under water wireless sensor networks in ocean or mobile to investigate self-organizing fault-tolerant topology control protocols for large- scale 3D wireless networks networks. Our simulation confirms our theoretical proofs for all proposed 3D topologies. Categories

  14. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, NO. , PAGES 125, Three Dimensional Coronal Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the dominance of magnetic forces in most of the corona, recent studies show that plasma beta in the core Abstract. The three-dimensional density structure of the solar corona is a fundamental boundary condition dependence of the neutral lines implicit beneath the streamer cores. Nonradiality of streamers and solar B

  15. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions

  16. Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic-000 Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil, {lcalado, ana.claudia}@ieapm.mar.mil.br Acoustic tomography is now a well for an instantaneous sound speed field constructed from dynamical predictions for Cabo Frio, Brazil. The results show

  17. Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LETTER Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs risk in the evolution of web architecture. The ecological success of spiders has been attributed to key

  18. Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three-dimensional Echocardiography: Can Measurement Lead to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Kenneth K.Y.

    ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three- dimensional Echocardiography. of Medicine & Therapeutics Keywords: mitral valve, echocardiography, imaging Category: Diagnostic imaging/Nuclear medicine Japanese Circulation Society Circulation Journal #12;ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve

  19. Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayache, Nicholas

    Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion Paul M. Novotnya results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR EMJSSWITY EFFECTS USING RAY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    . These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic

  1. Optics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . A pyrometer, an infrared radiation sensor, is used to monitor surface temperature variation in laser brazingOptics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625­631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation of laser-processing performance using optical coherence tomography Youngseop Kima , Eun Seo Choia

  2. A novel three-dimensional model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    A novel three-dimensional model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion Cyrus M. Ghajar,1 Vinod. Culturing melanomas of different meta- static capacities within the system showed that each cell type (i.e., matrix components, interstitial cell presence) on planar and vertical melanoma invasion. We

  3. Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties Laifa Shen,, Evan Uchaker, Changzhou Yuan, Ping Nie, Ming Zhang, Xiaogang Zhang,*, and Guozhong into the channels of surface- oxidized mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) by means of electrostatic interaction, followed

  4. The Effects of Three-Dimensional Canopy Management on Overseeded Warm-Season Fairway Turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a sustainable warm-season turfgrass but a lack of cultural management data has hindered its acceptance. FineThe Effects of Three-Dimensional Canopy Management on Overseeded Warm-Season Fairway Turf Scientist: Kurt Steinke, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Funding: $7,000 The objectives are to 1) discover

  5. Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits and integrated cooling systems. For heat fluxes of 50­100 W/cm2 on each side of a chip in a 3D IC package outstanding issues in the cooling system design were outlined. Before reviewing available literature

  6. Predicting Three-Dimensional Structures of Transmembrane Domains of -Barrel Membrane Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yang

    for -barrel membrane proteins, and the lack of an overall quantitative theoretical understandingPredicting Three-Dimensional Structures of Transmembrane Domains of -Barrel Membrane Proteins Information ABSTRACT: -Barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria

  7. Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iooss, GĂ©rard

    Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves G´erard Iooss , Pavel of Sciences, Lavryentyev pr. 15, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia gerard.iooss@inln.cnrs.fr, plotnikov@hydro of small divisors, the main difficulty is the inversion of the linearized operator at a non trivial point

  8. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Agrobacterium VirE2 Protein with Single-stranded DNA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citovsky, Vitaly

    for publication, February 18, 2004, and in revised form, March 29, 2004 Published, JBC Papers in Press, March 30 ("telephone coil") organization of the VirE2- DNA complex. Here we report a three-dimensional re- construction breeding (16­18). Upon induction of the vir region by detection of plant-specific wound signals, the VirD1

  9. PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECONNECTING CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isliker, Heinz

    PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECONNECTING CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS PETER J in final form 18 October 2005) Abstract. Particle acceleration in large-scale turbulent coronal magnetic to be addressed, such as feedback between particle acceleration and MHD, are discussed. Keywords: particle

  10. Direct three-dimensional visualization of membrane disruption by amyloid fibrils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelinek, Raz

    Direct three-dimensional visualization of membrane disruption by amyloid fibrils Lilia Milanesia damage by specific interactions of a lipid bilayer with amyloid-like fibrils formed in vitro from 2-microglobulin (2m). Using cryoelectron tomography, we demonstrate that frag- mented 2m amyloid fibrils interact

  11. Two-and three-dimensional folding of thin film single-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Jennifer

    Two- and three-dimensional folding of thin film single-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic power of a functional, nonpla- nar photovoltaic (PV) device. A mechanics model based on the theory of thin plates self-folding photovoltaics capillary force Silicon, in crystalline and amorphous forms, is currently

  12. Computations of Three-Dimensional Overturning Waves in Shallow Water: Dynamics and Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grilli, Stéphan T.

    Computations of Three-Dimensional Overturning Waves in Shallow Water: Dynamics and Kinematics P. A detailed analysis of wave profiles and wave kinematics (both on the free surface and within the flow waves over constant depth, greatly contributed to our understandingof breakingwave kinemat- ics

  13. Fast three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography using real-time line projection of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography using real-time line projection of intense terahertz computed tomography by using real-time line projection of intense terahertz beam generated). 4. B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett

  14. Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak September 2011) Recent counter-helicity spheromak merging experiments in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment spheromak- and FRC-like characteristics. In this paper, the SSX merging process is studied in detail using

  15. Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Joseph

    010103-1 Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation our recently proposed single-channel optical system for generating digital Fresnel holograms of 3-D of spherical beams creates the Fresnel hologram of the observed 3-D object. When this hologram is reconstructed

  16. Fourier, Fresnel and Image CGHs of three-dimensional objects observed from many different projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Joseph

    Fourier, Fresnel and Image CGHs of three-dimensional objects observed from many different of synthesizing three types of computer-generated hologram (CGH); Fourier, Fresnel and image CGHs. These holograms in the computer as a Fourier hologram. Then, it can be converted to either Fresnel or image holograms by computing

  17. Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janke, Wolfhard

    Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins Reinhard Schiemann 17 March 2005 We have exactly enumerated all sequences and conformations of hydrophobic-polar HP sequences, i.e., sequences that have a nondegenerate ground state. Furthermore we were interested

  18. Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment on deformation associated with the Mw ÂĽ 6.5 Bam earthquake in Iran determined using the SAR data from the ERS

  19. The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three

  20. Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina

    2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model accounts for important transport phenomena in a fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LUNG DENSITOMETER USING CdTe DETECTORS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    369 THREE-DIMENSIONAL LUNG DENSITOMETER USING CdTe DETECTORS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND EVALUATION is optimized for lung densitometry, similar configurations can be used for bone densito- metry. - The measurement of absolute lung density by a non-invasive technique is of impor- tance in assessing the status

  3. Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2 ,Nadjette to compute their physical properties. We focus here on base catalyzed and colloidal silica aerogels, which are fractal materials and we use an original method for the reconstruction of these aerogels from TEM images

  4. Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of the South Room Block of the NAN Ruin archaeological site 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Kirk Lee

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...

  5. A three-dimensional adaptive method based on the iterative grid redistribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Desheng

    grid equation systems and an efficient method for inverting a map by computing isoA three-dimensional adaptive method based on the iterative grid redistribution Desheng Wang on iterative grid redistribution technique introduced in [J. Comput. Phys. 159 (2000) 246]. The key step

  6. Three Dimensional Simulation of Jet Formation in Collapsing Condensates Weizhu Bao1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    Three Dimensional Simulation of Jet Formation in Collapsing Condensates Weizhu Bao1 , D. Jaksch2, 2003) We numerically study the behavior of collapsing and exploding condensates using the parameters body loss rate from the number of remnant condensate atoms and collapse times and obtain only one

  7. Towards Printable Robotics: Origami-Inspired Planar Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    a fast and low-cost fabrication method to modern, real-world robotic applications. To this end, we employTowards Printable Robotics: Origami-Inspired Planar Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Mechanisms in the way engineers develop robotic hardware with speed and low cost in a straightforward procedure

  8. Surface storage dynamics in large rivers: Comparing three-dimensional particle transport, one-dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    expense between a one-dimensional (1-D) advection-dispersion model and a fully three-dimensional (3-D-dimensional fractional derivative, and multirate transient storage models Eric J. Anderson1 and Mantha S. Phanikumar2] Large rivers are major conduits for sediment and nutrient transport and play an important role in global

  9. Three dimensional controlled assembly of gold nanoparticles using a micromachined platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dokmeci, Mehmet

    Three dimensional controlled assembly of gold nanoparticles using a micromachined platform Nishant By using optical lithographic procedures, the authors present a micromachined platform for large scale to vary the height of the 3D platform for meeting different application requirements. This research

  10. A Stochastic Model of Transport in Three-Dimensional Porous Media1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lee2 Modeling of solute transport remains a key issue in the area of groundwater contamination transport, non-Fickian dispersion, random walk, stochastic processes. INTRODUCTION Solute transport modelA Stochastic Model of Transport in Three-Dimensional Porous Media1 Cyril Fleurant2 and Jan van der

  11. 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt distribution in 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt;© 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Abstract We determine the 3-D melt geometry

  12. applying high-resolution detectors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    since Spring 1999. Stereo 3 Using High-Resolution Detector and Signal Data to Support Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: data collection and storage...

  13. area high-resolution ccd-based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CCD-Based Thermoreflectance Techniques for High-Resolution Transient Thermal Imaging Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: on the small but detectable...

  14. (SO2)-S-34-O-16: High-resolution analysis of the (030),(101)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (111), (002) and (201) vibrational states; determination of Abstract: High resolution Fourier transform spectra of a sample of sulfur dioxide, enriched in 34S (95.3%). were...

  15. Three-dimensional analytic probabilities of coupled vibrational-rotational-translational energy transfer for DSMC modeling of nonequilibrium flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamovich, Igor V. [Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes.

  16. New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.

  17. FORMATION AND RECONNECTION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, J. K. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); DeVore, C. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zurbuchen, T. H., E-mail: jkedmond@umich.ed [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun's corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to directly apply the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of two-dimensional (2D) reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet-Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona.

  18. SASI ACTIVITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEUTRINO-HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas, E-mail: fhanke@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: annop@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: amarek@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, {+-}1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M{sub Sun} progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.

  19. Molecular-scale investigations of structures and surface charge distribution of surfactant aggregates by three-dimensional force mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vapor. During the Summer of 2009, five scanning microwave radiometers were deployed along an eight conditions. The high-resolution tomographic retrievals provide a unique opportunity for investigating Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher

  1. High resolution non-contact thermal characterization of semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    imaging can have spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit of an infrared camera and can work infrared microscopes. Also, since the thermoreflectance technique does not rely upon the emitted black body measured the heating on a 35x35 micron MOS transistor, and Mansanares5 who measured temperature

  2. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  3. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  4. A Steerable Laser System for Atmospheric Monitoring at the High Resolution Flys Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and radiometer . The energy 2 released into the sky is determined by multiplying this measurementOG 4.5.10 A Steerable Laser System for Atmospheric Monitoring at the High Resolution Flys Eye J. R. Mumford , R. C. Gray , L. R. Wiencke for the 1 1 1 High Resolution Flys Eye Collaboration 1. Physics

  5. High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumlak, Uri

    High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations Ammar H. Hakim Information and Learning, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346, 1-800-521-0600, to whom the author Abstract High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations Ammar H. Hakim Chair

  6. ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR In this paper, an attempt of Alpine glacier flow modeling is performed based on a series of high resolution TerraSAR-X SAR images and a Digital Elevation Model. First, a glacier flow model is established

  7. Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor Rohan Isaac the focused beam profile to broaden and decrease its peak intensity Project: Evaluation of a compact CCD-based high resolution autocollimator with a small probe beam for potential use as a slope sensor Optics Group

  8. A NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Laboratory P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, New York 12301-1072 A new high energy resolution modular neutronA NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY capabilities at the Laboratory in and above the resolved resonance energy region from 1 keV to 600 ke

  9. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  10. Experimental measurement of human head motion for high-resolution computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    Experimental measurement of human head motion for high-resolution computed tomography system design experimentally measured for high-resolution computed tomography CT design using a Canon digital camera. Our goal-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3454379 Subject terms: head motion; computed tomography CT ; image

  11. A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    on biomass potential in western Europe; Rotmans A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe;1 A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: the observed record

  12. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue mapped grid approach for the efficient numerical simula- tion of compressible multiphase flow in general problems, J. Comput. Phys. 142 (1998) 208-242). A standard high-resolution mapped grid method in wave

  13. alto high-resolution search: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-10-22 7 The Search for Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye Detector in Monocular Mode...

  14. alveolitis high-resolution computed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geiger, Cathleen 45 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  15. Numerical study of three-dimensional PIC for the surface plasmon excitation based on Drude model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, La-Qun; Wang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Da-Gang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the time-domain equations of noble metals, in which Drude model is adopted to describe the dielectric constant, to implement three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the surface plasmon excitation with the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). A three-dimensional model for an electron bunch movement near the metal film is constructed, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out with various metal films of different thicknesses. The frequency of surface plasmon obtained from PIC simulation is agreed with that from theory. Furthermore, the surface plasmon wave properties of excitation and propagation with the metal film is summarized by PIC results.

  16. Analytical Derivation of Three Dimensional Vorticity Function for wave breaking in Surf Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, Mathematical model for generalized nonlinear three dimensional wave breaking equations was de- veloped analytically using fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The three dimensional equations for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations. Vorticity transport equations are also developed for wave breaking zone. This equations are basic model tools for numerical simulation of surf zone to explain wave breaking phenomena. The model reproduces most of the dynamics in the surf zone. Non linearity for wave height predictions is also shown close to the breaking both in shoaling as well as surf zone. Keyword Wave breaking, Boussinesq equation, shallow water, surf zone. PACS : 47.32-y

  17. Three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabry, R. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Alkharj University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta, 34517 Damietta (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta, 34517 Damietta (Egypt); Shukla, P. K. [RUB International Chair, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional ion-acoustic envelope soliton excitations in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas are interpreted. This is accomplished through the derivation of three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation, where the nonlinearity is balancing with the dispersive terms. The latter contains both an external magnetic field besides the usual plasma parameter effects. Based on the balance between the nonlinearity and the dispersion terms, the regions for possible envelope solitons are investigated indicating that new regimes for modulational instability of envelope ion-acoustic waves could be obtained, which cannot exist in the unmagnetized case. This will allow us to establish additional new regimes, different from the usual unmagnetized plasma, for envelope ion-acoustic waves to propagate in multicomponent plasma that may be observed in space or astrophysics.

  18. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, Laura N. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  19. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  20. CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh

    2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.

  1. A three dimensional corner balance method for spatial discretization of the transport equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Rebecca Lynn

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    discretization. NUMERICAL RESULTS Benchmark Problems The two dimensional corner balance method and the code SNAC have been extensively tested. For the purposes of this project, it was assumed that two dimensonal results produced by SNAC are correct... OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Marvin Adams (Chair of Committee) aytcho Lazarov (Member) Paul Nelson (Member) Joh W. Poston (Head of Department) May 1994 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering ABSTRACT A Three Dimensional Corner...

  2. The ground state energy of the three dimensional Ginzburg-Landau model in the mixed phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayman Kachmar

    2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Ginzburg-Landau functional defined over a bounded and smooth three dimensional domain. Supposing that the strength of the applied magnetic field varies between the first and second critical fields, in such a way that $H_{C_1}\\ll H\\ll H_{C_2}$, we estimate the ground state energy to leading order as the Ginzburg-Landau parameter tends to infinity.

  3. Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    presentations were controlled by an experimenter behind a curtain from a Dell Precision M6400 laptop computer with a Windows XP operating system. The Tobii T60 XL monitor was set to 32-bit color and screen size to 12 1024 x 768 pixels. A Logitech Webcam Pro... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Psychology Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy Copyright 2012 Amy Hirshkowitz...

  4. Three dimensional simulation of the microstructure development in Ni-20%Fe nanocrystalline deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H.; Czerwinski, F.; Szpunar, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Monte-Carlo computer model was applied to simulate a development of the three dimensional microstructure during electrodeposition of nanocrystalline alloys. The driving force for this process was the minimization of free energy of the system. For a particular deposit of Ni-20%Fe, the influence of the overpotential and current density on the grain size was tested. A strong decrease in grain size with increasing overpotential and current density obtained from the simulation is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  5. A three-dimensional model for particle dissolution in binary alloys F.J. Vermolen a,*, E. Javierre a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    A three-dimensional model for particle dissolution in binary alloys F.J. Vermolen a,*, E. Javierre, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands Received 13 September 2006; accepted 20 September 2006 Abstract A three-dimensional model for particle dissolution in binary alloys

  6. Three-dimensional morphology of cementite in steel studied by X-ray phase-contrast tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Sjoerd

    Three-dimensional morphology of cementite in steel studied by X-ray phase-contrast tomography-destructive, in-line X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) can be used to study the three-dimensional mor- phology- and cold-forming operations of the steel. Studying the evolution of the morphology of cement- ite in 3-D

  7. The Accuracy of Determining Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effects in Cumulus Clouds Using Ground-Based Profiling Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    The Accuracy of Determining Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effects in Cumulus Clouds Using. Three-dimensional radiative transfer effects and why one might estimate them in two-dimensional clouds expensive independent column approximation is called the 3D radiative transfer effect. Assessing

  8. Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Castles; F. V. Day; S. M. Morris; D. -H. Ko; D. J. Gardiner; M. M. Qasim; S. Nosheen; P. J. W. Hands; S. S. Choi; R. H. Friend; H. J. Coles

    2013-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A promising approach to the fabrication of materials with nanoscale features is the transfer of liquid-crystalline structure to polymers. However, this has not been achieved in systems with full three-dimensional periodicity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures by polymer templating blue phase I, a chiral liquid crystal with cubic symmetry. Blue phase I was photopolymerized and the remaining liquid crystal removed to create a porous free-standing cast which retains the chiral three-dimensional structure of the blue phase, yet contains no chiral additive molecules. The cast may in turn be used as a hard template for the fabrication of new materials. By refilling the cast with an achiral nematic liquid crystal, we created templated blue phases which have unprecedented thermal stability in the range -125 to 125 [degrees symbol]C, and that act both as mirrorless lasers and switchable electro-optic devices. Blue-phase templated materials will facilitate advances in device architectures for photonics applications in particular.

  9. Resolving three-dimensional shape of sub-50?nm wide lines with nanometer-scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attota, Ravikiran, E-mail: Ravikiran.attota@nist.gov; Dixson, Ronald G. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations of nanometer-scale objects can be resolved and measured with sub-nanometer scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes by analyzing 4-D optical data using the through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) method. These initial results show that TSOM-determined cross-sectional (3-D) shape differences of 30?nm–40?nm wide lines agree well with critical-dimension atomic force microscope measurements. The TSOM method showed a linewidth uncertainty of 1.22?nm (k?=?2). Complex optical simulations are not needed for analysis using the TSOM method, making the process simple, economical, fast, and ideally suited for high volume nanomanufacturing process monitoring.

  10. Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jae-Hwang Lee

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.

  11. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Werner, John S. (Davis, CA); Zawadzki, Robert J. (Sacramento, CA); Laut, Sophie P. (Pasedena, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  12. Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)] [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Wang, Ge [Biomedical Imaging Cluster and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Biomedical Imaging Cluster and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Wu, Xizeng [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose : X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a promising technique with sufficient specificity and sensitivity for identifying and quantifying features in small samples containing high atomic number (Z) materials such as iodine, gadolinium, and gold. In this study, the feasibility of applying XRF to early breast cancer diagnosis and treatment is studied using a novel approach for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) of gold nanoparticle (GNP)-loaded objects in a physical phantom at the technical level. Methods : All the theoretical analysis and experiments are conducted under the condition of using x-ray pencil beam and a compactly integrated x-ray spectrometer. The penetrability of the fluorescence x-rays from GNPs is first investigated by adopting a combination of BR12 with 70 mm/50 mm in thickness on the excitation/emission path to mimic the possible position of tumor goldin vivo. Then, a physical phantom made of BR12 is designed to translate in 3D space with three precise linear stages and subsequently the step by step XFM scanning is performed. The experimental technique named as background subtraction is applied to isolate the gold fluorescence from each spectrum obtained by the spectrometer. Afterwards, the attenuations of both the incident primary x-ray beam with energies beyond the gold K-edge energy (80.725 keV) and the isolated gold K{sub ?} fluorescence x-rays (65.99 –69.80 keV) acquired after background subtraction are well calibrated, and finally the unattenuated K{sub ?} fluorescence counts are used to realize mapping reconstruction and to describe the linear relationship between gold fluorescence counts and corresponding concentration of gold solutions. Results : The penetration results show that the goldK{sub ?} fluorescence x-rays have sufficient penetrability for this phantom study, and the reconstructed mapping results indicate that both the spatial distribution and relative concentration of GNPs within the designed BR12 phantom can be well identified and quantified. Conclusions : Although the XFM method in this investigation is still studied at the technical level and is not yet practical for routinein vivo mapping tasks with GNPs, the current penetrability measurements and phantom study strongly suggest the feasibility to establish and develop a 3D XFM system.

  13. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  14. The three-dimensional structure of MAP kinase p38[beta]: different features of the ATP-binding site in p38[beta] compared with p38[alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Sangita B.; Cameron, Patricia M.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy; Thompson, Jed; O'Neill, Edward A.; Tennis, Trevor; Liu, Luping; Becker, Joseph W.; Scapin, Giovanna; Merck

    2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in response to environmental stress and cytokines and play a significant role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. Of the four p38 isoforms known to date, two (p38{alpha} and p38{beta}) have been identified as targets for cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, it was reported that specific inhibition of the p38{alpha} isoform is necessary and sufficient for anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo, while further inhibition of p38{beta} may not provide any additional benefit. In order to aid the development of p38{alpha}-selective compounds, the three-dimensional structure of p38{beta} was determined. To do so, the C162S and C119S,C162S mutants of human MAP kinase p38{beta} were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening hits in crystallization trials in the presence of an inhibitor led upon optimization to crystals that diffracted to 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and allowed structure determination (PDB codes 3gc8 and 3gc9 for the single and double mutant, respectively). The structure of the p38{alpha} C162S mutant in complex with the same inhibitor is also reported (PDB code 3gc7). A comparison between the structures of the two kinases showed that they are highly similar overall but that there are differences in the relative orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains that causes a reduction in the size of the ATP-binding pocket in p38{beta}. This difference in size between the two pockets could be exploited in order to achieve selectivity.

  15. Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xumu

    Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation James resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate was observed during alkylation. In addition, the reactivity and enantioselectivity showed a strong dependence on the acetate salt with the BSA/MOAc (M=alkali metal) base system

  16. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Source geometry from exceptionally high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    resolution Long Period event observations at Mt Etna during the 2008 eruption. Louis De Barros 1 to the summit, allowing us to observe seismic activity with exceptionally high resolution. 129 Long Period. These events form two families of similar wave- forms with different temporal distributions. Event locations

  17. High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens Shawn inspection alone, it is necessary to develop techniques, such as thermography, with the capability ­solid immersion lens microscopy and thermography. Standard non-contact optical resolution is limited

  18. Collimator selection for SPECT brain imaging: the advantage of high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S.P.; Polak, J.F.; Kijewski, M.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compared a prototype long-bore (LB) high-resolution collimator with a low-energy, general-purpose collimator (LEGP) using 99mTc and /sup 123/I. The LB collimator provided a 56% improvement in tomographic resolution (autocorrelation width) over the LEGP for 99mTc; for /sup 123/I, the gain was 79%, providing substantially improved contrast for small structures. The sensitivity of the LB collimator, however, is only 32% of that of the LEGP. The imaging tasks to be performed on (/sup 123/I)IMP brain scans involve localization and discrimination of small, high-contrast brain structures and detection of abnormalities in shape, size, or uptake, rather than simple detection of lesions. Observer performance in such higher-order imaging tasks is known to depend on high spatial resolution, even at the cost of sensitivity. Patient studies confirmed that, for resolution-limited tasks, the increase in resolution outweighs the increased noise due to a loss in sensitivity. When the tomographic resolution of the LB collimator was degraded by smoothing to that of the LEGP, the noise in the LB images was lower than that of the LEGP by a factor of 2.9 for the same imaging time, demonstrating the advantage of high-resolution detectors and a smooth reconstruction filter over low-resolution detectors without smoothing. Therefore, collimators designed for high resolution, even at substantial cost in sensitivity, are expected to yield significant improvements for brain SPECT. Geometric calculations show that commercially available low-energy, high-resolution cast collimators promise to meet these requirements.

  19. A Warm Near-Infrared High-Resolution Spectrograph with Very High Throughput (WINERED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondo, Sohei; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako; Mito, Hiroyuki; Fukue, Kei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Kitano, Ayaka; Hamano, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Misaki; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WINERED is a newly built high-efficiency (throughput$ > 25-30\\%$) and high-resolution spectrograph customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 ${\\rm \\mu}$m. WINERED is equipped with ambient temperature optics and a cryogenic camera using a 1.7 ${\\rm \\mu}$m cut-off HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG array detector. WINERED has two grating modes: one with a conventional reflective echelle grating (R$\\sim$28,300), which covers 0.9-1.35 $\\mu$m simultaneously, the other with ZnSe or ZnS immersion grating (R$\\sim$100,000). We have completed the development of WINERED except for the immersion grating, and started engineering and science observations at the Nasmyth platform of the 1.3 m Araki Telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory of Kyoto-Sangyo University in Japan. We confirmed that the spectral resolution ($R\\sim$ 28,300) and the throughput ($>$ 40\\% w/o telescope/atmosphere/array QE) meet our specifications. We measured ambient thermal backgrounds (e.g., 0.06 ${\\rm [e^{-}/sec/pixel]}$ at 287 K), which are roughly consistent ...

  20. Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

  1. Three-dimensional NDE of VHTR core components via simulation-based testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzina, Bojan; Kunerth, Dennis

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A next generation, simulation-driven-and-enabled testing platform is developed for the 3D detection and characterization of defects and damage in nuclear graphite and composite structures in Very High Tempera- ture Reactors (VHTRs). The proposed work addresses the critical need for the development of high-fidelity Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) technologies for as-manufactured and replaceable in-service VHTR com- ponents. Centered around the novel use of elastic (sonic and ultrasonic) waves, this project deploys a robust, non-iterative inverse solution for the 3D defect reconstruction together with a non-contact, laser-based ap- proach to the measurement of experimental waveforms in VHTR core components. In particular, this research (1) deploys three-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (3D SLDV) as a means to accurately and remotely measure 3D displacement waveforms over the accessible surface of a VHTR core component excited by mechanical vibratory source; (2) implements a powerful new inverse technique, based on the concept of Topological Sensitivity (TS), for non-iterative elastic waveform tomography of internal defects – that permits robust 3D detection, reconstruction and characterization of discrete damage (e.g. holes and fractures) in nuclear graphite from limited-aperture NDE measurements; (3) implements state-of-the art computational (finite element) model that caters for accurately simulating elastic wave propagation in 3D blocks of nuclear graphite; (4) integrates the SLDV testing methodology with the TS imaging algorithm into a non-contact, high-fidelity NDE platform for the 3D reconstruction and characterization of defects and damage in VHTR core components; and (5) applies the proposed methodology to VHTR core component samples (both two- and three-timensional) with a priori induced, discrete damage in the form of holes and fractures. Overall, the newly established SLDV-TS testing platform represents a next-generation NDE tool that surpasses all exist- ing techniques for the 3D ultrasonic imaging of material damage from non-contact, limited-aperture waveform measurements. Outlook. The next stage in the development of this technology includes items such as (a) non-contact generation of mechanical vibrations in VHTR components via thermal expansion created by high-intensity laser; (b) development and incorporation of Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) for elevating the accuracy of 3D imaging in highly noisy environments with minimal accessible surface; (c) further analytical and computational developments to facilitate the reconstruction of diffuse damage (e.g. microcracks) in nuclear graphite as they lead to the dispersion of elastic waves, (d) concept of model updating for accurate tracking of the evolution of material damage via periodic inspections; (d) adoption of the Bayesian framework to obtain information on the certainty of obtained images; and (e) optimization of the computational scheme toward real-time, model-based imaging of damage in VHTR core components.

  2. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W., E-mail: khill@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, J. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  3. High resolution ion Doppler spectroscopy at Prairie View Rotamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houshmandyar, Saeid; Yang Xiaokang [Solar Observatory Department, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Magee, Richard [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) diagnostic system is installed on the Prairie View Rotamak to measure ion temperature and plasma flow. The diagnostic employs a single channel photomultiplier tube and a Jarrell-Ash 50 monochromator with a diffraction grating line density of 1180 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra of 200-600 nm. The motorized gear of the monochromator allows spectral resolution of 0.01 nm. Equal IDS measurements are observed for various impurity emission lines of which carbon lines exhibit stronger intensities. Furthermore, the diagnostics is examined in an experiment where plasma experiences sudden disruption and quick recovery. In this case, the IDS measurements show {approx}130% increase in ion temperature. Flow measurements are shown to be consistent with plasma rotation.

  4. Morphological Characteristics of Compact High-Velocity Clouds Revealed by High-Resolution WSRT Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Burton; Robert Braun

    1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of compact, isolated high-velocity clouds which plausibly represents a homogeneous subsample of the HVC phenomenon in a single physical state was objectively identified by Braun and Burton (1999). Six examples of the CHVCs, unresolved in single-dish data, have been imaged with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The high-resolution imaging reveals the morphology of these objects, including a core/halo distribution of fluxes, signatures of rotation indicating dark matter, and narrow linewidths constraining the kinetic temperature of several opaque cores. In these regards, as well as in their kinematic and spatial deployment on the sky, the CHVC objects are evidently a dynamically cold ensemble of dark-matter-dominated HI clouds accreting onto the Local Group in a continuing process of galactic evolution.

  5. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF FOUR CANDIDATE BLAST HIGH-MASS STARLESS CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmi, Luca; Poventud, Carlos M. [Physics Department, Rio Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico (United States); Araya, Esteban D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hofner, Peter [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Martin, Peter G., E-mail: olmi.luca@gmail.co, E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss high angular resolution observations of ammonia toward four candidate high-mass starless cores (HMSCs). The cores were identified by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during its 2005 survey of the Vulpecula region where 60 compact sources were detected simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. Four of these cores, with no IRAS-PSC or MSX counterparts, were mapped with the NRAO Very Large Array and observed with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope in the NH{sub 3}(1,1) and (2,2) spectral lines. Our observations indicate that the four cores are cold (T {sub k} < 16 K) and show a filamentary and/or clumpy structure. They also show a significant velocity substructure within {approx}1 km s{sup -1}. The four BLAST cores appear to be colder and more quiescent than other previously observed HMSC candidates, suggesting an earlier stage of evolution.

  6. automatic high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun Melvin, Stephen 24 Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics CERN Preprints Summary: Bibliographic databases were developed from the...

  7. High-resolution imaging of compact high-velocity clouds (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. de Heij; R. Braun; W. B. Burton

    2002-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We have imaged five compact high-velocity clouds in HI with arcmin angular- and km/s spectral-resolution using the WSRT. Supplementary total-power data, which is fully sensitive to both the cool and warm components of HI, is available for comparison for all the sources, albeit with angular resolutions that vary from 3' to 36'. The fractional HI flux in compact CNM components varies from 4% to 16% in our sample. All objects have at least one local peak in the CNM column which exceeds about 10^19 cm^-2 when observed with arcmin resolution. It is plausible that a peak column density of 1-2x10^19 cm^-2 is a prerequisite for the long-term survival of these sources. One object in our sample, CHVC120-20-443 (Davies' cloud), lies in close projected proximity to the disk of M31. This object is characterized by exceptionally broad linewidths in its CNM concentrations (more than 5 times greater than the median value). These CNM concentrations lie in an arc on the edge of the source facing the M31 disk, while the diffuse HI component of this source has a position offset in the direction of the disk. All of these attributes suggest that CHVC120-20-443 is in a different evolutionary state than most of the other CHVCs which have been studied. Similarly broad CNM linewidths have only been detected in one other object, CHVC111-07-466, which also lies in the Local Group barycenter direction and has the most extreme radial velocity known. A distinct possibility for Davies' cloud seems to be physical interaction of some type with M31. The most likely form of this interaction might be the ram-pressure or tidal- stripping by either one of M31's visible dwarf companions, M32 or NGC205, or else by a dark companion with an associated HI condensation.

  8. A new TriBeam system for three-dimensional multimodal materials analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echlin, McLean P.; Mottura, Alessandro; Torbet, Christopher J.; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93101 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique capabilities of ultrashort pulse femtosecond lasers have been integrated with a focused ion beam (FIB) platform to create a new system for rapid 3D materials analysis. The femtosecond laser allows for in situ layer-by-layer material ablation with high material removal rates. The high pulse frequency (1 kHz) of ultrashort (150 fs) laser pulses can induce material ablation with virtually no thermal damage to the surrounding area, permitting high resolution imaging, as well as crystallographic and elemental analysis, without intermediate surface preparation or removal of the sample from the chamber. The TriBeam system combines the high resolution and broad detector capabilities of the DualBeam{sup TM} microscope with the high material removal rates of the femtosecond laser, allowing 3D datasets to be acquired at rates 4-6 orders of magnitude faster than 3D FIB datasets. Design features that permit coupling of laser and electron optics systems and positioning of a stage in the multiple analysis positions are discussed. Initial in situ multilayer data are presented.

  9. Design of electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Joyce G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer were designed and implemented. The driver for a piezoelectric inkjet print head can fire its nozzles with one of three droplet sizes ranging from 6 ...

  10. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI diffusion imaging at 4 Tesla, we scanned 234 young adult twins and siblings (mean age: 23.4 ± 2.0 SD years

  11. A machine learning model of Manhattan air pollution at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeler, Rachel H. (Rachel Heiden)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A machine-learning model was created to predict air pollution at high spatial resolution in Manhattan, New York using taxi trip data. Urban air pollution increases morbidity and mortality through respiratory and cardiovascular ...

  12. High resolution laser spectroscopy of cesium and rubidium molecules with optically induced coherence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to the study of the quantum coherent effects in diatomic molecular systems by using high resolution laser spectroscopy. In particular, we have studied the rubidium diatomic molecular gaseous medium's absorption spectrum...

  13. High-resolution 7-Tesla fMRI of Human Hippocampal Subfields during Associative Learning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fMRI in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla: Combining Reduced Field-High-resolution 7-Tesla fMRI of Human Hippocampal Subfieldsrobustly using FMRI at 7 tesla. Journal of Neuroimaging, 23(

  14. High resolution CMRO2 in visual cortex of macaca mulatta Y. Bohraus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the contribution of the vascular system and neural energy consumption. Measuring CMRO2 allows one to determine with previous MR and PET results such as reviewed in [7]. In conclusion, we showed that high resolution CMRO2

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE MULTIPHASE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM TOWARD Cyg X-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz, Norbert S.

    High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing chemical and physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) at various phases. We present detections of K transition absorption ...

  16. New optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level hard X-ray studies June 8, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint An international collaboration involving two U.S. Department of Energy...

  17. Identification of honeycomb sandwich properties by high-resolution modal analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    implementations. The high-resolution modal analysis (HRMA) technique [5] is an alternative to the FT of the modal analysis of a large panel (lx,y/h 80). The HRMA technique is used to estimate modal frequencies

  18. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of CRISPR indels Andrew Bassett 19th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of CRISPR indels Andrew Bassett 19th June 2013 approximately 1 ul per 10 ul PCR reaction HRMA analysis 1. Design primers to amplify 100-200 bp product across

  19. High-Resolution Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity and Connectivity in Clastic Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Thomas Frederick

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed new concepts and interpretative methods for mapping reservoir heterogeneity and connectivity of a fault controlled Wilcox clastic reservoir in Texas, USA. The application of high-resolution seismic enhancement in this study...

  20. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...