Sample records for high resolution solar

  1. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  2. TOWARDS AN IMPROVED HIGH RESOLUTION GLOBAL LONG-TERM SOLAR RESOURCE DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    TOWARDS AN IMPROVED HIGH RESOLUTION GLOBAL LONG- TERM SOLAR RESOURCE DATABASE Paul W. Stackhouse 80401 251 Fuller Road david.renne@nrel.gov Albany, NY 12203 perez@asrc.cestm.albany.edu John Bates.knapp@noaa.gov ABSTRACT This paper presents an overview of an ongoing project to develop and deliver a solar mapping

  3. STATUS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SOLAR IRRADIANCE MAPPING FROM SATELLITE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Semi arid 39.75 -105.18 1706 5 years Natl. Renewable Energy Lab Caico, RG do Norte, Brazil CAIC Vignola Solar Energy Laboratory University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403 fev@darkwing.uoregon.edu Pierre Tropical -6.6 -36.85 175 5 months INPE, Brazil Florianopolis, SC, Brazil FLOR Sub-tropical -27.35 -48.63 12

  4. High time resolution observations of the solar wind and backstreaming ions in the earth's foreshock region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Formisano, V.; Orsini, S.; Bonifazi, C.; Egidi, A.; Moreno, G.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of the solar wind with ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock is studied at high time resolution. It turns out that the bulk velocity of the solar wind oscillates, both in magnitude and direction, with typical periods of approx.1 minute in presence of the 'diffuse' ion population. Oscillations of comparable periods are also observed in the angular distribution and energy spectrum of the diffuse ions.

  5. High resolution spectroscopic characterization of the FGK stars in the Solar neighbourhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complutense de Madrid, Universidad

    the EW #12;FIGURE 1. Left panel: EW Li I vs. (B-V). Different colors and symbols are used for stars). The obtained values are plotted in the EW(Li I) vs. spectral type diagram in Fig. 1 (left panel). ComparingHigh resolution spectroscopic characterization of the FGK stars in the Solar neighbourhood R. M

  6. Current Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST ASP Conference Series, Vol. ???, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observatory, China derived with a solar scintillometer (Seykora 1992) and a Solar Differential Image MotionCurrent Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST ASP-Site Observatory Carsten Denker New Jersey Institute of Technology, Center for Solar Research 323 Martin Luther

  7. Solar wind turbulence from MHD to sub-ion scales: high-resolution hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wave numbers. The simulation results exhibit simultaneously several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm's law.

  8. A short timescale for changing oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula revealed by high-resolution 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    A short timescale for changing oxygen fugacity in the solar nebula revealed by high-resolution 26 of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road London, SW7 7BD, UK Received 4 April 2005; received Abstract Most rocky objects in the solar system, including the primitive chondrites and the terrestrial

  9. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  10. Solar coronal magnetic field topology inferred from high resolution optical and x-ray movies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Hurlburt, N.; Morrison, M.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Acton, L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors are using high resolution digital movies of solar active regions in optical and X-ray wavelengths to study solar flares and other transients. The optical movies were collected at the Swedish Solar Observatory on La Palma using the Lockheed tunable filtergraph system, in May-July, 1992. They include longitudinal and transverse magnetograms, H-alpha Doppler and intensity images at many wavelengths, Ca K, Na D, and white light images. Simultaneous X-ray images from Yohkoh are available much of the time. Several ways to establish the connectivity of some coronal magnetic field lines are being explored. Some of the clues available are: magnetic footpoint polarities and transverse field direction; H-alpha fibrils and loops seen in several wavelengths; proper motion and Dopper shifts of blobs moving along field lines; footprint brightening in micro-flares; spreading of flare ribbons during gradual phases of flares; X-ray morphology and correlations with H-alpha; and draining of flare loops. Examples of each of these will be shown on video.

  11. A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for mapping the heliopause and 3-D Solar Wind using He+ 30.4nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for mapping the heliopause and 3-D Solar Wind using Entrance slit farm with ~ 1000 slits Photon counting imager Concave grating used near normal incidence >> Need a higher throughput diffuse EUV spectrometer solar wind respond to coronal

  12. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  13. "High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. Balasubramiam and R. Radick, Procs. NSO/SP Summer Workshop Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    using 90-degree beam folding, or behind the primary mirror by deflecting the secondary beam around"High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science validation

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION HELIOSEISMIC IMAGING OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES AND FLOWS OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Junwei; Kosovichev, Alexander G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Sekii, Takashi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a solar active region observed by the Hinode Ca II H line using the time-distance helioseismology technique, and infer wave-speed perturbation structures and flow fields beneath the active region with a high spatial resolution. The general subsurface wave-speed structure is similar to the previous results obtained from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager observations. The general subsurface flow structure is also similar, and the downward flows beneath the sunspot and the mass circulations around the sunspot are clearly resolved. Below the sunspot, some organized divergent flow cells are observed, and these structures may indicate the existence of mesoscale convective motions. Near the light bridge inside the sunspot, hotter plasma is found beneath, and flows divergent from this area are observed. The Hinode data also allow us to investigate potential uncertainties caused by the use of phase-speed filter for short travel distances. Comparing the measurements with and without the phase-speed filtering, we find out that inside the sunspot, mean acoustic travel times are in basic agreement, but the values are underestimated by a factor of 20%-40% inside the sunspot umbra for measurements with the filtering. The initial acoustic tomography results from Hinode show a great potential of using high-resolution observations for probing the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.

  15. High-resolution spectra of solar magnetic features. I. Analysis of penumbral fine structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lites, B.W.; Skumanich, A.; Scharmer, G.B. (High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (USA) Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Swedish Vacuum Telescope on La Palma was used to obtain spectra of the magnetic-sensitive Fe I 630.25 nm line under conditions of exceptional angular resolution (0.32 arcsec) and high spectral resolution (FWHM 2.5 pm). Simultaneous 0.02 s CCD exposures of both the spectrum and the slit-jaw image effectively 'freeze' the atmospheric seeing motions and permit unambiguous identification of the spectra of the various penumbral structures. These spectra reveal the magnetic field strength in penumbral filaments through an intensity fit of the Zeeman splitting of this line. The observations show that: (1) the field strength varies from about 2100 G near the umbra-penumbra boundary to about 900 G at the outer edge of the penumbra, (2) the observed fluctuation of penumbral magnetic field is much less dramatic than the fluctuation in intensity, (3) there is a suggestion of a rapid change in field inclination between some light and dark filaments near the edge of the penumbra, and (4) there is no obvious correlation between Doppler shift (in part due to the Evershed flow) and filament intensity. 43 refs.

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARE RIBBONS AND ITS IMPLICATION ON THE THICK-TARGET BEAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krucker, Saem; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Battaglia, M.; Kontar, E. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Benz, A. O.; Csillaghy, A., E-mail: krucker@ssl.berkeley.edu [Institute of 4D Technologies, School of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on high-resolution optical and hard X-ray observations of solar flare ribbons seen during the GOES X6.5 class white-light flare of 2006 December 6. The data consist of imaging observations at 430 nm (the Fraunhofer G band) taken by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope with the hard X-rays observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. The two sets of data show closely similar ribbon structures, strongly suggesting that the flare emissions in white light and in hard X-rays have physically linked emission mechanisms. While the source structure along the ribbons is resolved at both wavelengths (length {approx} 30''), only the G-band observations resolve the width of the ribbon, with values between {approx}0.''5 and {approx}1.''8. The unresolved hard X-ray observations reveal an even narrower ribbon in hard X-rays (the main footpoint has a width perpendicular to the ribbon of <1.''1 compared to the G-band width of {approx}1.''8) suggesting that the hard X-ray emission comes from the sharp leading edge of the G-band ribbon. Applying the thick-target beam model, the derived energy deposition rate is >5 x 10{sup 12} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} provided by an electron flux of 1 x 10{sup 20} electrons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} above 18 keV. This requires that the beam density of electrons above 18 keV be at least 1 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. Even if field lines converge toward the chromospheric footpoints, the required beam in the corona has too high a density to be described as a dilute tail population on top of a Maxwellian core. We discuss this issue and others associated with this extreme event, which poses serious questions to the standard thick target beam interpretation of solar flares.

  17. High Resolution EELS | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EELS EMSL's ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface chemistry-high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) system is designed to study the molecular-level chemistry...

  18. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  19. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W. (Los Alamos, NM); Fuller, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  20. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huenemoerder, David P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Phillips, Kenneth J. H. [Visiting Scientist, Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara, E-mail: dph@space.mit.edu, E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com, E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl, E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization potential (FIP) values. The low FIP elements do not show enhancement in the stellar coronae as they do in the Sun, except perhaps for K in {sigma} Gem. While {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 differ in their emission measure distributions, they have very similar elemental abundances.

  1. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  2. The solar chromosphere at high resolution with IBIS. IV. Dual-line evidence of heating in chromospheric network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauzzi, G; Rutten, R J; Tritschler, A; Uitenbroek, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and energy balance of the solar chromosphere remain poorly known. We have used the imaging spectrometer IBIS at the Dunn Solar Telescope to obtain fast-cadence, multi-wavelength profile sampling of Halpha and Ca II 854.2 nm over a sizable two-dimensional field of view encompassing quiet-Sun network. We provide a first inventory of how the quiet chromosphere appears in these two lines by comparing basic profile measurements in the form of image displays, temporal-average displays, time slices, and pixel-by-pixel correlations. We find that the two lines can be markedly dissimilar in their rendering of the chromosphere, but that, nevertheless, both show evidence of chromospheric heating, particularly in and around network: Halpha in its core width, Ca II 854.2 in its brightness. We discuss venues for improved modeling.

  3. High Resolution Nanoimprint for Nanophotonics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Youwei

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of SERS-active device depends on two main factors: good reproducibility and high enhancement factor. Ordered metallic nanostructures with high resolution are usually preferred for SERS application. Nanoimprint lithography can provide a low-cost and high...

  4. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  5. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M. [National Electrostatics Corp., Middleton, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 53562-0310 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  6. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  7. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly designed...

  8. advanced high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)...

  9. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Abstract: The high resolution infrared spectrum of...

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROANALYSIS OF HIGH-STRENGTH SILICON CARBIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivanek, O.L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROANALYSIS OFCalifornia. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROANALYSIS OFhelium, by high resolution scanning Auger microanalysis and

  11. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  13. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  14. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  15. Current theoretical models and future high resolution solar observations: preparing for ATST ASP Conference Series, Vol. 286, pp. 211 -226, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf

    of the umbra, FU, amounts to some 25% of that of the overall solar surface, F , while the penumbra of the umbra and decreases gradually outwards, reaches some 800 Gauss at the outer continuum = 211 #12;212 Schlichenmaier p-g . A model that incorporates three stratifications (the umbra, the penum

  16. Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeder, Christopher Campbell

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

  17. High resolution studies of massive primordial haloes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic cooling haloes with T_vir > 10^4 K are the most plausible sites for the formation of the first galaxies. In this article, we aim to study the implications of gravity driven turbulence in protogalactic haloes. By varying the resolution per Jeans length, we explore whether the turbulent cascade is resolved well enough to obtain converged results. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo including a subgrid-scale turbulence model to study the role of unresolved turbulence. We compared the results of three different Jeans resolutions from 16 to 64 cells. While radially averaged profiles roughly agree at different resolutions, differences in the morphology reveal that even the highest resolution employed provides no convergence. Moreover, taking into account unresolved turbulence significantly influences the morphology of a halo. We have quantified the properties of the high-density clumps in the halo. These clumps are gravitationally unbound wi...

  18. arecibo high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84 Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer Geosciences Websites Summary: Using Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  19. Radiometry High Spectral Resolution Fourier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations:Radiological Threat Reduction2High

  20. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  1. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum and Assignment of Vibrational Fundamentals of Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  2. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce...

  3. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR...

  4. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectrosco...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectroscopy: A Comparison with the AirDMSO Liquid Interface. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear...

  5. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass...

  6. Sandia Energy - High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind High-Resolution...

  7. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  8. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  9. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  10. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of an Oxygen-Linked Fullerene Dimer Dianion: C120O2-. High Resolution and Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy...

  11. THE USE OF THE HIGH RESOLUTION VISIBLE IN SAFNWC/MSG Marcel Derrien, Herv Le Glau, Marie-Paule Raoul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in this paper is an output of this task. HRV IMAGERY CHARACTERISTICS SEVIRI has one high resolution (HRes) broadband solar channel (0.3-1.1 m) and 11 lower resolution (LRes) channels; 3 narrowband solar channels (0 scheme of HRV data.

  12. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  13. Sunshot Initiative High Penetration Solar Portal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the installed cost of solar energy systems by about 75% will drive widespread large-scale adoption of this renewable energy and restore U.S. leadership in the global clean energy race. The High Penetration Solar Portal was created as a resource to aggregate the most relevant and timely information related to high penetration solar scenarios and integrating solar into the grid. The site is designed so that utilities, grant awardees, regulators, researchers, and other solar professionals can easily share data, case studies, lessons learned, and demonstration project findings. [from https://solarhighpen.energy.gov/about_the_high_penetration_solar_portal

  14. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems," originally presented on January 13, 2015.

  15. High-Efficiency, Self-Concentrating Nanoscale Solar Cell - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High-Efficiency, Self-Concentrating Nanoscale Solar Cell Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact...

  16. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  17. High frequency and high wavenumber solar oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

    1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the frequencies of solar oscillations covering a wide range of degree (100< l <4000) and frequency (1.5 <\

  18. Earthquake Damage Identification using High-Resolution Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Earthquake Damage Identification using High-Resolution Satellite Images from the 2003 Northern & evaluation · High-resolution satellite imagery · Images from Boumerdes, Algeria · Semi-automated damage are most damaged? ­ Effects in less populated areas · Earthquake reconnaissance time wasted "looking

  19. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  20. Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes in high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy: Resolving Communication: Spectroscopic phase and lineshapes...

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE High-resolution climate change mapping with gridded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    RESEARCH ARTICLE High-resolution climate change mapping with gridded historical climate products of climate research and adaptation efforts around the world. High-resolution gridded historical climate (GHC products to produce high-resolution temperature trend maps for the US Northeast from 1980 to 2009

  2. CLINICAL SCIENCES High-Speed UltraHigh-Resolution Optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    of the perifoveal pho- toreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction and thin- ning of the outer nuclear layer- velopedbyourgroupforuseintheophthal- mologyclinicattheNewEnglandEyeCen- ter,Boston,Mass.Thissystemusesspectral or­high-resolutionOCTenablessuperior visualizationofretinalmorphologyinanum- Author Affiliations: New England Eye Center, Tufts­New England Medical Center, Tufts University

  3. Very High Efficiency Solar Cell Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, A.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Honsberg, C.; Moore, D.; Wanlass, M.; Emery, K.; Schwartz, R.; Carlson, D.; Bowden, S.; Aiken, D.; Gray, A.; Kurtz, S.; Kazmerski, L., et al

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program is developing integrated optical system - PV modules for portable applications that operate at greater than 50% efficiency. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design, and the integration of these designs. Optical systems efficiency with an optical efficiency of 93% and solar cell device results under ideal dichroic splitting optics summing to 42.7 {+-} 2.5% are described.

  4. Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging using high resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herz, Paul Richard, 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in medical imaging have given researchers unprecedented capabilities to visualize, characterize and understand biological systems. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution imaging technique ...

  5. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers This presentation was...

  6. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of Electricity Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System for High Efficiency Production of...

  7. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  8. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. F. Geisz, “Superior radiation resistance of In 1-x Ga x Nand H. Itoh, “Proton radiation analysis of multi-junction56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Final

  9. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  10. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Efficient, Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems (2014 R&D 100 Award Winner) U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your...

  11. Webinar: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar titled "Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems" on Tuesday, January 13, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  12. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  13. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako (Moraga, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  14. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy of ultracool M dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Neill Reid; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; J. Liebert; J. E. Gizis; C. C. Dahn; D. G. Monet

    2002-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of a photometricaly-selected sample if thirty-nine dwarfs with spectral types between M6.5 and L0.5. Two stars, 2MASSI 0253202+271333 and 2MASSW 0952219-192431, are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have used our observations to search for Li I 6708 A absorption, characteristic of sub-stellar mass; estimate the level of chromospheric activity through measurement of H-alpha emission fluxes; measure rotational velocities via line broadening; and determine radial velocities and Galactic space motions. Two dwarfs have strong lithium absorption, the previously-known brown dwarf, LP 944-20, and 2MASSI J0335020+234235, which we identify as a probable 0.06 M_sun brown dwarf, age ~1 Gyr. We have investigated the prospect of using the observed frequency of lithium absorption amongst ultracool M dwarfs (M7 to M9.5) as a probe of the initial mass function. The available observations are difficult to reconcile with Salpeter-like power-law mass functions (alpha > 2) for masses below 0.1M_Sun. A comparison between the rotational velocities and -alpha fluxes shows no evidence for significant correlation. Velocity dispersions are significantly lower than those measured for nearby M dwarfs, but show remarkable similarity to results for earlier-type emission-line (dMe) dwarfs. The latter are generally assigned ages of less than ~3 Gyrs.

  16. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  17. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  18. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

    2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

  19. A High-Resolution Global Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P B

    2001-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A major factor limiting the quality and usefulness of global climate models is the coarse spatial resolution of these models. Global climate models today are typically run at resolutions of {approx}300 km (or even coarser) meaning that the smallest features represented are 300 km across. As Figure 1 shows, this resolution does not allow adequate representation of small or even large topographic features (e.g. the Sierra Nevada mountains). As a result of this and other problems, coarse-resolution global models do not come close to accurately simulating climate on regional spatial scales (e.g. within California). Results on continental and larger sales are much more realistic. An important consequence of this inability to simulate regional climate is that global climate model results cannot be used as the basis of assessments of potential societal impacts of climate change (e.g. effects on agriculture in the Central Valley, on management of water resources, etc.).

  20. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 2: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  1. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during MILAGRO using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0). Part 1: Abstract: Submicron aerosol was analyzed during...

  2. An Automated Platform for High-Resolution Tissue Imaging Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    entire image is acquired. The performance of the system is demonstrated by imaging rat brain tissue sections. High resolution mass analysis combined with MSMS experiments enabled...

  3. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic...

  4. Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buttes, Oregon Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to Reduce...

  5. High-Resolution Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different mechanisms of chemical aging. Citation: Laskin J, A Laskin, PJ Roach, GW Slysz, GA Anderson, S Nizkorodov, DL Bones, and L Nguyen.2010."High-Resolution...

  6. High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Helium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium-Rich Gases. High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Helium-Rich Gases. Abstract: Analyses of complex mixtures and characterization of ions increasingly...

  7. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon Patrick Walsh Ormat Nevada Inc. Innovative technologies May 19, 2010...

  8. ALMA's high-cadence imaging capabilities for solar observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array offers an unprecedented view of our Sun at sub-/millimeter wavelengths. The high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution facilitates the measurement of gas temperatures and magnetic fields in the solar chromosphere with high precision. The anticipated results will revolutionize our understanding of the solar atmosphere and may in particular result in major steps towards solving the coronal heating problem. Based on state-of-the-art 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we calculate the emergent continuum intensity (and thus brightness temperature maps) in the wavelength range accessed by ALMA and simulate instrumental effects for different array configurations. First results show that the local gas temperature can be closely mapped with ALMA and that much of the complex small-scale chromospheric pattern can be resolved.

  9. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  10. Construction and Evaluation of a High Spatial Resolution Wavefront Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Construction and Evaluation of a High Spatial Resolution Wavefront Sensor MARTIN BUSCHBECK Bachelor.3. Analysis program 3 Evaluation of the Hartmann-Shack sensor 3.1 Calibration of the sensor 3.1.1 Reference eyes. In this thesis a high spatial resolution Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, which allows the study

  11. assays high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Malbet 1995-09-14 31 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  12. analysing high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Malbet 1995-09-14 34 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  13. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  14. City of Knoxville, Tennessee City Council Resolution for solar PV system

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a scan of the resolution, dated July 26, 2011, for the approval of the City of Knoxville, Tennessee to use $250,000 of EECBG funding for finding innovative financing mechanisms for a planned installation of a 90-kW solar PV system.

  15. First observations of the second solar spectrum with spatial resolution at the Lunette Jean Rsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    First observations of the second solar spectrum with spatial resolution at the Lunette Jean Rösch analysis is achieved before transmission to the spectrograph by a flat mirror at 45° (Fig. 1). Therefore at the secondary focus F2 where the slit of the spectrograph is located, according to the magnification lens

  16. First observations of the second solar spectrum with spatial resolution at the Lunette Jean Rsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demoulin, Pascal

    First observations of the second solar spectrum with spatial resolution at the Lunette Jean Rösch. Polarization analysis is achieved before transmission to the spectrograph by a flat mirror at 45° (Fig. 1 at the secondary focus F2 where the slit of the spectrograph is located, according to the magnification lens

  17. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  18. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Mat. and Solar Cells 75, 261-9 (2003) andD. J. , “Advanced Space Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res.Igari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version

  19. 36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    36Super-fast solar flares ! NASA's Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) satellite has been studying solar flares since 2002. The sequence of figures to the left shows a flaring region hr/3600 sec = 0.98 kilometers/sec. The solar flare blob was traveling at 207 kilometers per second

  20. Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    . CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

  1. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11, 2009 -...

  2. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1...

  3. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2...

  4. High resolution linkage and association study of quantitative trait loci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Jeesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) of complex human disease. For many complex diseases, quantitative phenotype values contain more information than dichotomous traits do. Much research has been done on conducting high resolution mapping using information of linkage and linkage disequilibrium...

  5. High resolution linkage and association study of quantitative trait loci 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Jeesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellite markers are available, high resolution mapping employing multiple markers or multiple allele markers is an important step to identify quantitative ...

  6. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  7. High-resolution imaging of compact high-velocity clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Braun; Butler Burton

    1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Six examples of the compact, isolated high-velocity HI clouds (CHVCs) identified by Braun and Burton (1999) have been imaged with the WSRT. The 65 confirmed objects in this class define a dynamically cold system, with a global minimum for the velocity dispersion of only 70 km/s, found in the Local Group Standard of Rest, while in-falling at 100 km/s toward the LG barycenter. These objects have a characteristic morphology, in which several compact cores are embedded in a diffuse halo. The compact cores typically account for 40% of the HI line flux while covering some 15% of the source area. The cores are the cool condensed phase of HI, the CNM, with temp. near 100 K, while the halos appear to be a shielding column of warm diffuse HI, the WNM, with temp. near 8000 K. We detect a core with one of the narrowest HI emission lines ever observed, with intrinsic FWHM of 2 km/s and 75 K brightness. From a comparison of column and volume densities we derive a distance in the range 0.5 to 1 Mpc. We determine a metallicity for this same object of 0.04 to 0.07 solar. Comparably high distances are implied by demanding the stability of objects with multiple cores, which show relative velocities as large as 70 km/s on 30 arcmin scales. Many compact cores show systematic velocity gradients along the major axis of their elliptical extent which are consistent with circular rotation. Several of the derived rotation curves are well-fit by Navarro, Frenk, and White (1997) cold dark matter profiles. These kinematic signatures imply a high dark-to-visible mass ratio of 10-50, for D=0.7Mpc, which scales as 1/D. The implied dark matter halos dominate the mass volume density within the central 2 kpc (10 arcmin) of each source, providing a sufficent hydrostatic pressure to allow local CNM condensation. (abridged)

  8. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Mission R. P. fla B. Dennis, G mission is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through-ray/gamma-ray spectroscopy 1. INTRODUCTION The primary scientific objective of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar

  9. Nanofluid-based receivers for high-temperature, high-flux direct solar collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar power plants with surface receivers have low overall energy conversion efficiencies due to large emissive losses at high temperatures. Alternatively, volumetric receivers promise increased performance because solar ...

  10. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  11. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC,

    2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  12. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  13. Development of a high-efficiency solar micro-inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayman, Alexander Khaled

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In typical solar power installations, multiple modules are connected to the grid through a single high-power inverter. However, an alternative approach is to connect each solar module directly to the grid through a ...

  14. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Optical and Raman Spectroscopy of Photoinduced Spin Crossover: Temporal Resolution of Low-to-High Spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, James K.

    an intriguing class of compounds in this regard due to their potential utility in solar energy conversion Resolution of Low-to-High Spin Optical Switching Amanda L. Smeigh, Mark Creelman, Richard A. Mathies(tren(6-R-py)3)]2+ (R ) H (1), CH3 (2)), which is illustrated in Chart 1 along with a simplified energy

  15. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  16. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  17. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

  18. Edinburgh Research Explorer High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic, UH 2008, 'High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic parameter analysis date: 16. Jun. 2014 #12;METHOD High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic

  19. An Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy. An Investigation of the Rotamers of Butadiene by High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy....

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE IN AS-QUENCHED Fe-12Mn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, H.J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contents in Fe-Mn alloys. Scanning electron fractographsTransactions HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPICof Califomia. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC

  1. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles andHigh Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles andareas, and in a completely additive manner. In this work, a

  2. Development of Superconducting High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers for Nuclear Safeguards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Jonathan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Counting 2.4.3 High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry 2.5coincidence counting and gamma spectrometry system (CANEGA)High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Isotopic correlation

  3. High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens M. S, representing the highest resolution subsurface thermography to date. Keywords: thermal imaging, high

  4. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Gao, Z.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.

  5. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkhant Suerfu; Christopher G. Tully

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials.

  6. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  7. High-resolution speech signal reconstruction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    High-resolution speech signal reconstruction in Wireless Sensor Networks Andria Pazarloglou, Radu With the recent growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received sig, rgutier}@cs.tamu.edu Abstract--Data streaming is an emerging class of applica- tions for sensor networks

  8. Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer D.G. Long', P.J. Hardin2, and RA to SASS data for the study of Greenland's ice sheet. We present a time series of the radar backscatter images over Greenland covering the time period July-September 1978. The images provide an island

  9. High-Resolution Computed Tomography Study of the Cranium of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allman, John M.

    High-Resolution Computed Tomography Study of the Cranium of a Fossil Anthropoid Primate of these characteristics may have important implications for brain evolution. Here computed tomography is used to examine in the evolutionary development of anthropoids did these characteristics evolve? We recently used X-ray computed

  10. A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genetic Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachman, Michael

    A High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genetic Map of the Mouse Genome Sagiv Shifman1 humans. Using more than 10,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms evenly spaced across the mouse genome, we nucleotide polymorphism genetic map of the mouse genome. PLoS Biol 4(12): e395. DOI: 10.1371/journal

  11. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    must maintain high absorptance in the solar spectrum but lower emittance in the infrared spectrum. It must also be stable in air, easily applied at large scales, cost...

  12. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

  13. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in each of the volumes. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems More Documents & Publications Building America Whole-House Solutions for...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: very high solar energy conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    very high solar energy conversion efficiency ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy...

  15. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  16. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  17. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  18. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  19. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  20. High-Efficiency Solar Cogeneration with Thermophotovoltaic &...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    system are produced, including, Lighting Luminary Fixtures, weatherized building-mounted solar receiver, fiber cables, IR electricity generation. System performance will be...

  1. High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  2. High Efficiency Solar Fuels Reactor Concept

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  4. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  5. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  6. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  7. Compact High-Velocity Clouds at High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Burton; Robert Braun

    1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Six examples of the compact, isolated high-velocity clouds catalogued by Braun & Burton (1999) and identified with a dynamically cold ensemble of primitive objects falling towards the barycenter of the Local Group have been imaged with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope; an additional ten have been imaged with the Arecibo telescope. The imaging reveals a characteristic core/halo morphology: one or several cores of cool, relatively high-column-density material, are embedded in an extended halo of warmer, lower-density material. Several of the cores show kinematic gradients consistent with rotation; these CHVCs are evidently rotationally supported and dark-matter dominated. The imaging data allows several independent estimates of the distances to these objects, which lie in the range 0.3 to 1.0 Mpc. The CHVC properties resemble what might be expected from very dark dwarf irregular galaxies.

  8. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  9. Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, A. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number_sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

  10. Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, A [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

  11. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  12. High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  14. High-resolution SIMS depth profiling of nanolayers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, S. V.; Zinovev, A. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Peng, Q.; Elam, J. W.; Veryovkin, I. V. (Energy Systems); ( MSD)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the fundamental physical limits for depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry are well understood in theory, the experimental work to achieve and demonstrate them is still ongoing. We report results of high-resolution TOF SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) depth profiling experiments on a nanolayered structure, a stack of 16 alternating MgO and ZnO {approx}5.5 nm layers grown on a Si substrate by atomic layer deposition. The measurements were performed using a newly developed approach implementing a low-energy direct current normally incident Ar{sup +} ion beam for ion milling (250 eV and 500 eV energy), in combination with a pulsed 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 60{sup o} incidence for TOF SIMS analysis. By this optimized arrangement, a noticeably improved version of the dual-beam (DB) approach to TOF SIMS depth profiling is introduced, which can be dubbed gentleDB. The mixing-roughness-information model was applied to detailed analysis of experimental results. It revealed that the gentleDB approach allows ultimate depth resolution by confining the ion beam mixing length to about two monolayers. This corresponds to the escape depth of secondary ions, the fundamental depth resolution limitation in SIMS. Other parameters deduced from the measured depth profiles indicated that a single layer thickness is equal to 6 nm so that the 'flat' layer thickness d is 3 nm and the interfacial roughness {sigma} is 1.5 nm, thus yielding d + 2{sigma} = 6 nm. We have demonstrated that gentleDB TOF SIMS depth profiling with noble gas ion beams is capable of revealing the structural features of a stack of nanolayers, resolving its original surface and estimating the roughness of interlayer interfaces, information which is difficult to obtain by traditional approaches.

  15. POWERWALL: International Workshop on Interactive, Ultra-High-Resolution Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, Chris; Endert, Alexander; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Hornbaek, Kasper; North, Chris

    2013-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-high-resolution (Powerwall) displays are becoming increasingly popular due to the ever decreasing cost of hardware. As a result they are appearing more frequently in research institutes, and making the jump out of the lab and into industry. Due to the amount of work in this research area that has been published in CHI over the last few years, we felt that this confernece would be the ideal host for the first opportunity for both academics and practitioners in this field to get together.

  16. High-resolution radio observations of X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Miller-Jones

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an overview of important results obtained using high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of X-ray binary systems. These results derive from both astrometric observations and resolved imaging of sources, from black holes to neutron star and even white dwarf systems. I outline a number of upcoming developments in instrumentation, both new facilities and ongoing upgrades to existing VLBI instruments, and I conclude by identifying a number of important areas of investigation where VLBI will be crucial in advancing our understanding of X-ray binaries.

  17. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingth Lomonosov1Compact high resolution isobar

  18. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  19. High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

  20. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  1. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  2. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  3. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  4. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1 Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution...

  5. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of trans-Hexatriene-1-13C1; a Semiexperimental Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  6. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  7. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during high. Smith (2005), Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling leading to relativistic electron energization during. Using observations during a period of persistent high-speed, corotating, solar wind streams, we

  8. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M&O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M&O contractor at DOE`s most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes` HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M&Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M&Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M&O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M&Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M&Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner.

  9. Towards wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adaptive optical correction is an efficient technique to obtain high-resolution images of the retinal surface. A main limitation of adaptive optical correction, however, is the small size of the corrected image. For medical purposes it is important to increase the size of the corrected images. This can be done through composite imaging, but a major difficulty is then the introduction of reconstruction artifacts. Another approach is multi-conjugate adaptive optics. MCAO comes in two flavors. The star- oriented approach has been demonstrated on the eye and allows to increase the diameter of the corrected image by a factor of approximately 2-3. Difficulties in the tomographic reconstruction precludes the correction of larger fields. Here we have investigate the possibility to apply a layer-oriented MCAO approach to retinal imaging.

  10. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  11. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  12. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  13. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni- acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by plasmonic: Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping and demonstration of a new ultra-thin high- efficiency organic solar cell (SC), termed "plasmonic cavity

  14. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  15. Solar Wind Sources in the Late Declining Phase of Cycle 23: Effects of the Weak Solar Polar Field on High Speed Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isenberg, P.A. (eds. ) Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471,AT SOLAR MINIMUM Solar Wind Sources in the Late Decliningfor their high speed solar wind streams that dominate the

  16. High Efficiency Solar Power via Separated Photo and Voltaic Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Naughton

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project demonstrates a novel nanostructured solar cell architecture capable of achieving high efficiency levels that is relatively simple and inexpensive to manufacture. The high efficiency will be achieved by the novel structure that separates the path of the photons from the path of the generated charge carriers. In this way, the photon path can be long for maximum light absorption, while the path for carriers can be short for maximum electronic energy harvesting. The combination of maximum light absorption coupled with maximum carrier harvesting is the basis for the expected high efficiency. The project will develop high efficiency solar cell prototypes utilizing this unique nanostructured architecture. The project addresses the fundamental limitation inherent in all current solar cell designs, and which opens a pathway to development for high efficiency solar cells at low cost. Realizing this goal will result in a levelized cost of electricity in the range of 10¢/kWh, which would achieve the long-sought goal of making photovoltaic electricity cost competitive with fossil-fuel generated electricity without any governmental subsidies. This breakthrough would spur the already rapid growth in the photovoltaic industry to an explosive pace, with significant, widespread benefit to the national economy and the nation’s energy security. The initial target of the program is to develop single-junction solar cells using ultrathin amorphous silicon with the performance approaching that of single crystal silicon cells.

  17. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitry L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16. Yu. Shvyd’ko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

  18. Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourcedrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber stamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourceÕdrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber resolution rubber stamps bilayers of two different types of the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane 3,4 by casting

  19. Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    near-term (2015) and longer-term (2025) cost projections for eight solar thermochemical hydrogen production reaction cycles. Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High...

  20. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar PV and distributed generation. UTILITY RATE DESIGN ANDutility concerns that a high penetration of inverter-based solar energy systems along with other distributed generation

  1. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, David A.

    Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have high maximum theoretical efficiencies; experimental systems fall short because of losses by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To ...

  2. Detecting Extra-Solar Planets via Microlensing at High Magnification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas J. Rattenbury; Ian A. Bond; Jovan Skuljan; Phil Yock

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Extra-solar planets can be efficiently detected in gravitational microlensing events of high magnification. High accuracy photometry is required over a short, well-defined time interval only, of order 10-30 hours. Most planets orbiting the lens star are evidenced by perturbations of the microlensing light curve in this time.

  3. Highly-Efficient Selective Metamaterial Absorber for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary; Phelan, Patrick; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a metamaterial selective solar absorber made of nanostructured titanium gratings deposited on an ultrathin MgF2 spacer and a tungsten ground film is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Normal absorptance of the fabricated solar absorber is characterized to be higher than 90% in the UV, visible and, near infrared (IR) regime, while the mid-IR emittance is around 20%. The high broadband absorption in the solar spectrum is realized by the excitation of surface plasmon and magnetic polariton resonances, while the low mid-IR emittance is due to the highly reflective nature of the metallic components. Further directional and polarized reflectance measurements show wide-angle and polarization-insensitive high absorption within solar spectrum. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic characterization indicates that the optical properties barely change at elevated temperatures up to 350{\\deg}C. The solar-to-heat conversion efficiency with the fabricated metamaterial solar absorber is predicted to be 78%...

  4. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  5. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  6. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, R J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The \\textit{High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C)} has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads, that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of $440\\pm190$~km (Full Width Half Maximum). {The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere.} The emission decreases along the features implying the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation {of physical displacements of the moss fine-structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic b...

  7. Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot-and dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot- and dye-sensitized solar cells Hongsik Choi Interface control Light harvesting Tandem solar cell a b s t r a c t Dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar technologies of silicon-based solar cells should be resolved [7]. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been

  8. Studying Thermoelectric Oxides using High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Figure 4: a) Atomic resolution Z-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    the environmental impact, and deliver energy continuously, such as thermo-electric power generation, have often been as distinct peaks. The environmental impact of global climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuels is focused on either carbon-based fuels or wind and solar energy, approaches that are portable, minimize

  9. Chandra High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of AM Her

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Girish; V. R. Rana; K. P. Singh

    2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of high resolution spectroscopy of the prototype polar AM Herculis observed with Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The X-ray spectrum contains hydrogen-like and helium-like lines of Fe, S, Si, Mg, Ne and O with several Fe L-shell emission lines. The forbidden lines in the spectrum are generally weak whereas the hydrogen-like lines are stronger suggesting that emission from a multi-temperature, collisionally ionized plasma dominates. The helium-like line flux ratios yield a plasma temperature of 2 MK and a plasma density 1 - 9 x10^12 cm^-3, whereas the line flux ratio of Fe XXVI to Fe XXV gives an ionization temperature of 12.4 +1.1 -1.4 keV. We present the differential emission measure distribution of AM Her whose shape is consistent with the volume emission measure obtained by multi-temperature APEC model. The multi-temperature plasma model fit to the average X-ray spectrum indicates the mass of the white dwarf to be ~1.15 M_sun. From phase resolved spectroscopy, we find the line centers of Mg XII, S XVI, resonance line of Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI emission modulated by a few hundred to 1000 km/s from the theoretically expected values indicating bulk motion of ionized matter in the accretion column of AM Her. The observed velocities of Fe XXVI ions are close to the expected shock velocity for a 0.6 M_sun white dwarf. The observed velocity modulation is consistent with that expected from a single pole accreting binary system.

  10. INNER SHELL EXCITATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES BY ELECTRON IMPACT WITH HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INNER SHELL EXCITATION OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES BY ELECTRON IMPACT WITH HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION F. H resolution energy loss spectra for inner shell excited states, (2) the observa- tion of inner shell excited are the subject of the present review. The inner shell states that can usefully be studied with energy resolutions

  11. High intrinsic energy resolution photon number resolving detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lolli, L; Portesi, C; Monticone, E; Rajteri, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) are characterized by the intrinsic figure of merit to resolve both the energy and the statistical distribution of the incident photons. These properties lead TES devices to become the best single photon detector for quantum technology experiments. For a TES based on titanium and gold has been reached, at telecommunication wavelength, an unprecedented intrinsic energy resolution (0.113 eV). The uncertainties analysis of both energy resolution and photon state assignment has been discussed. The thermal properties of the superconductive device have been studied by fitting the bias curve to evaluate theoretical limit of the energy resolution.

  12. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

  13. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  14. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

  15. Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering Center for Advanced Molecular Photovoltaics Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium Precourt Institute for Energy Stanford University #12;Source: US DOE report "$1/W Photovoltaic Systems," August 2010. DOE

  16. 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt distribution in 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt;© 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Abstract We determine the 3-D melt geometry

  17. applying high-resolution detectors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    since Spring 1999. Stereo 3 Using High-Resolution Detector and Signal Data to Support Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: data collection and storage...

  18. area high-resolution ccd-based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CCD-Based Thermoreflectance Techniques for High-Resolution Transient Thermal Imaging Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: on the small but detectable...

  19. (SO2)-S-34-O-16: High-resolution analysis of the (030),(101)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (111), (002) and (201) vibrational states; determination of Abstract: High resolution Fourier transform spectra of a sample of sulfur dioxide, enriched in 34S (95.3%). were...

  20. HIGH PRECISION ABUNDANCES OF THE OLD SOLAR TWIN HIP 102152: INSIGHTS ON Li DEPLETION FROM THE OLDEST SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Melendez, Jorge; Tucci Maia, Marcelo; Freitas, Fabricio C. [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, Ivan [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yong, David; Asplund, Martin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Casagrande, Luca [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bergemann, Maria [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lind, Karin [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Castro, Matthieu; Do Nascimento, Jose-Dias [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bazot, Michael, E-mail: tmonroe@usp.br [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of the old 8.2 Gyr solar twin, HIP 102152. We derive differential abundances of 21 elements relative to the Sun with precisions as high as 0.004 dex ({approx}<1%), using ultra high-resolution (R = 110,000), high S/N UVES spectra obtained on the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope. Our determined metallicity of HIP 102152 is [Fe/H] = -0.013 {+-} 0.004. The atmospheric parameters of the star were determined to be 54 K cooler than the Sun, 0.09 dex lower in surface gravity, and a microturbulence identical to our derived solar value. Elemental abundance ratios examined versus dust condensation temperature reveal a solar abundance pattern for this star, in contrast to most solar twins. The abundance pattern of HIP 102152 appears to be the most similar to solar of any known solar twin. Abundances of the younger, 2.9 Gyr solar twin, 18 Sco, were also determined from UVES spectra to serve as a comparison for HIP 102152. The solar chemical pattern of HIP 102152 makes it a potential candidate to host terrestrial planets, which is reinforced by the lack of giant planets in its terrestrial planet region. The following non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Li abundances were obtained for HIP 102152, 18 Sco, and the Sun: log {epsilon} (Li) = 0.48 {+-} 0.07, 1.62 {+-} 0.02, and 1.07 {+-} 0.02, respectively. The Li abundance of HIP 102152 is the lowest reported to date for a solar twin, and allows us to consider an emerging, tightly constrained Li-age trend for solar twin stars.

  1. Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south...

  2. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHigh Penetration Solar

  3. R2 Solar Forcing and Climate Change of the last 1000 years SOLAR [Depending on funding available; 1 PhD only in relation to WP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    56 R2 Solar Forcing and Climate Change of the last 1000 years SOLAR [Depending on funding available can the high-resolution solar variability during the last millennium be quantified? How can solar variability be converted into solar forcing? How can solar forcing be detected and attributed in climate

  4. High Penetration Solar Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh

  5. Improved Modeling Tools Development for High Penetration Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washom, Byron

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the significant objectives of the High Penetration solar research is to help the DOE understand, anticipate, and minimize grid operation impacts as more solar resources are added to the electric power system. For Task 2.2, an effective, reliable approach to predicting solar energy availability for energy generation forecasts using the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager technology has been demonstrated. Granular cloud and ramp forecasts for the next 5 to 20 minutes over an area of 10 square miles were developed. Sky images taken every 30 seconds are processed to determine cloud locations and cloud motion vectors yielding future cloud shadow locations respective to distributed generation or utility solar power plants in the area. The performance of the method depends on cloud characteristics. On days with more advective cloud conditions, the developed method outperforms persistence forecasts by up to 30% (based on mean absolute error). On days with dynamic conditions, the method performs worse than persistence. Sky Imagers hold promise for ramp forecasting and ramp mitigation in conjunction with inverter controls and energy storage. The pre-commercial Sky Imager solar forecasting algorithm was documented with licensing information and was a Sunshot website highlight

  6. New approaches for high-efficiency solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedair, S.M.; El-Masry, N.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities carried out in this subcontract. These activities cover, first the atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) growth of GaAs, AlGaAs and InGaP at fairly low growth temperatures. This was followed by using ALE to achieve high levels of doping both n-type and p-type required for tunnel junctions (Tj) in the cascade solar cell structures. Then the authors studied the properties of AlGaAs/InGaP and AlGaAs/GaAs tunnel junctions and their performances at different growth conditions. This is followed by the use of these tunnel junctions in stacked solar cell structures. The effect of these tunnel junctions on the performance of stacked solar cells was studied at different temperatures and different solar fluences. Finally, the authors studied the effect of different types of black surface fields (BSF), both p/n and n/p GaInP solar cell structures, and their potential for window layer applications. Parts of these activities were carried in close cooperation with Dr. Mike Timmons of the Research Triangle Institute.

  7. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  8. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Guo, Q. L., E-mail: kdf@ynao.ac.cn [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  9. High resolution non-contact thermal characterization of semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    imaging can have spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit of an infrared camera and can work infrared microscopes. Also, since the thermoreflectance technique does not rely upon the emitted black body measured the heating on a 35x35 micron MOS transistor, and Mansanares5 who measured temperature

  10. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  11. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  12. A Steerable Laser System for Atmospheric Monitoring at the High Resolution Flys Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and radiometer . The energy 2 released into the sky is determined by multiplying this measurementOG 4.5.10 A Steerable Laser System for Atmospheric Monitoring at the High Resolution Flys Eye J. R. Mumford , R. C. Gray , L. R. Wiencke for the 1 1 1 High Resolution Flys Eye Collaboration 1. Physics

  13. High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumlak, Uri

    High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations Ammar H. Hakim Information and Learning, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346, 1-800-521-0600, to whom the author Abstract High Resolution Wave Propagation Schemes for Two-Fluid Plasma Simulations Ammar H. Hakim Chair

  14. ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR In this paper, an attempt of Alpine glacier flow modeling is performed based on a series of high resolution TerraSAR-X SAR images and a Digital Elevation Model. First, a glacier flow model is established

  15. Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor Rohan Isaac the focused beam profile to broaden and decrease its peak intensity Project: Evaluation of a compact CCD-based high resolution autocollimator with a small probe beam for potential use as a slope sensor Optics Group

  16. A NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Laboratory P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, New York 12301-1072 A new high energy resolution modular neutronA NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY capabilities at the Laboratory in and above the resolved resonance energy region from 1 keV to 600 ke

  17. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  18. Experimental measurement of human head motion for high-resolution computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    Experimental measurement of human head motion for high-resolution computed tomography system design experimentally measured for high-resolution computed tomography CT design using a Canon digital camera. Our goal-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3454379 Subject terms: head motion; computed tomography CT ; image

  19. A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    on biomass potential in western Europe; Rotmans A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe;1 A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: the observed record

  20. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue mapped grid approach for the efficient numerical simula- tion of compressible multiphase flow in general problems, J. Comput. Phys. 142 (1998) 208-242). A standard high-resolution mapped grid method in wave

  1. High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2...

  2. alto high-resolution search: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-10-22 7 The Search for Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye Detector in Monocular Mode...

  3. alveolitis high-resolution computed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geiger, Cathleen 45 High-resolution x-ray telescopes CERN Preprints Summary: High-energy astrophysics is a relatively young scientific field, made possible by space-borne...

  4. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -called third generation of solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs2,3 and organic phoEnhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 nanotubes can be effectively controlled for the suitable use for a hybrid solar cell by varying the diameter

  5. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, Laura N. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  6. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V Coronae Australis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light arediscussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e., the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system $^{12}$C$^{13}$C bandhead indicating that $^{13}$C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C is about 3 to 4. Absorption line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 km s$^{-1}$. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C$_2$ molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blue-shifted absorption components of the Na {\\sc i} D and K {\\sc i} 7698 \\AA resonance lines.

  8. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R. (LaCanada-Flintridge, CA); Hale, Robert R. (Upland, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  9. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Werner, John S. (Davis, CA); Zawadzki, Robert J. (Sacramento, CA); Laut, Sophie P. (Pasedena, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  10. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  11. Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xumu

    Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation James resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate was observed during alkylation. In addition, the reactivity and enantioselectivity showed a strong dependence on the acetate salt with the BSA/MOAc (M=alkali metal) base system

  12. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Source geometry from exceptionally high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    resolution Long Period event observations at Mt Etna during the 2008 eruption. Louis De Barros 1 to the summit, allowing us to observe seismic activity with exceptionally high resolution. 129 Long Period. These events form two families of similar wave- forms with different temporal distributions. Event locations

  13. High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Resolution Backside Imaging and Thermography using a Numerical Aperture Increasing Lens Shawn inspection alone, it is necessary to develop techniques, such as thermography, with the capability ­solid immersion lens microscopy and thermography. Standard non-contact optical resolution is limited

  14. Collimator selection for SPECT brain imaging: the advantage of high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S.P.; Polak, J.F.; Kijewski, M.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compared a prototype long-bore (LB) high-resolution collimator with a low-energy, general-purpose collimator (LEGP) using 99mTc and /sup 123/I. The LB collimator provided a 56% improvement in tomographic resolution (autocorrelation width) over the LEGP for 99mTc; for /sup 123/I, the gain was 79%, providing substantially improved contrast for small structures. The sensitivity of the LB collimator, however, is only 32% of that of the LEGP. The imaging tasks to be performed on (/sup 123/I)IMP brain scans involve localization and discrimination of small, high-contrast brain structures and detection of abnormalities in shape, size, or uptake, rather than simple detection of lesions. Observer performance in such higher-order imaging tasks is known to depend on high spatial resolution, even at the cost of sensitivity. Patient studies confirmed that, for resolution-limited tasks, the increase in resolution outweighs the increased noise due to a loss in sensitivity. When the tomographic resolution of the LB collimator was degraded by smoothing to that of the LEGP, the noise in the LB images was lower than that of the LEGP by a factor of 2.9 for the same imaging time, demonstrating the advantage of high-resolution detectors and a smooth reconstruction filter over low-resolution detectors without smoothing. Therefore, collimators designed for high resolution, even at substantial cost in sensitivity, are expected to yield significant improvements for brain SPECT. Geometric calculations show that commercially available low-energy, high-resolution cast collimators promise to meet these requirements.

  15. Highly Mismatched Alloys for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Intermediate Band Solar Cells W. Walukiewicz 1 , K. M.single-junction intermediate band solar cells. Figure 5:conversion efficiency for a solar cell fabricated from a Zn

  16. A Warm Near-Infrared High-Resolution Spectrograph with Very High Throughput (WINERED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondo, Sohei; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako; Mito, Hiroyuki; Fukue, Kei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Kitano, Ayaka; Hamano, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Misaki; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WINERED is a newly built high-efficiency (throughput$ > 25-30\\%$) and high-resolution spectrograph customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 ${\\rm \\mu}$m. WINERED is equipped with ambient temperature optics and a cryogenic camera using a 1.7 ${\\rm \\mu}$m cut-off HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG array detector. WINERED has two grating modes: one with a conventional reflective echelle grating (R$\\sim$28,300), which covers 0.9-1.35 $\\mu$m simultaneously, the other with ZnSe or ZnS immersion grating (R$\\sim$100,000). We have completed the development of WINERED except for the immersion grating, and started engineering and science observations at the Nasmyth platform of the 1.3 m Araki Telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory of Kyoto-Sangyo University in Japan. We confirmed that the spectral resolution ($R\\sim$ 28,300) and the throughput ($>$ 40\\% w/o telescope/atmosphere/array QE) meet our specifications. We measured ambient thermal backgrounds (e.g., 0.06 ${\\rm [e^{-}/sec/pixel]}$ at 287 K), which are roughly consistent ...

  17. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observation of the 1809 keV line from Galactic 26Al

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Smith

    2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of the central radian of the Galaxy by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopy Imager (RHESSI) have yielded a high-resolution measurement of the 1809 keV line from 26Al, detected at 11 sigma significance in nine months of data. The RHESSI result for the width of the cosmic line is 2.03 (+0.78, -1.21) keV FWHM. The best fit line width of 5.4 keV FWHM reported by Naya et al. (1996) using the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) balloon instrument is rejected with high confidence.

  18. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W., E-mail: khill@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, J. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  19. High resolution ion Doppler spectroscopy at Prairie View Rotamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houshmandyar, Saeid; Yang Xiaokang [Solar Observatory Department, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, Texas 77446 (United States); Magee, Richard [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) diagnostic system is installed on the Prairie View Rotamak to measure ion temperature and plasma flow. The diagnostic employs a single channel photomultiplier tube and a Jarrell-Ash 50 monochromator with a diffraction grating line density of 1180 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra of 200-600 nm. The motorized gear of the monochromator allows spectral resolution of 0.01 nm. Equal IDS measurements are observed for various impurity emission lines of which carbon lines exhibit stronger intensities. Furthermore, the diagnostics is examined in an experiment where plasma experiences sudden disruption and quick recovery. In this case, the IDS measurements show {approx}130% increase in ion temperature. Flow measurements are shown to be consistent with plasma rotation.

  20. Morphological Characteristics of Compact High-Velocity Clouds Revealed by High-Resolution WSRT Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Burton; Robert Braun

    1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of compact, isolated high-velocity clouds which plausibly represents a homogeneous subsample of the HVC phenomenon in a single physical state was objectively identified by Braun and Burton (1999). Six examples of the CHVCs, unresolved in single-dish data, have been imaged with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The high-resolution imaging reveals the morphology of these objects, including a core/halo distribution of fluxes, signatures of rotation indicating dark matter, and narrow linewidths constraining the kinetic temperature of several opaque cores. In these regards, as well as in their kinematic and spatial deployment on the sky, the CHVC objects are evidently a dynamically cold ensemble of dark-matter-dominated HI clouds accreting onto the Local Group in a continuing process of galactic evolution.

  1. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF FOUR CANDIDATE BLAST HIGH-MASS STARLESS CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmi, Luca; Poventud, Carlos M. [Physics Department, Rio Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico (United States); Araya, Esteban D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hofner, Peter [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Martin, Peter G., E-mail: olmi.luca@gmail.co, E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss high angular resolution observations of ammonia toward four candidate high-mass starless cores (HMSCs). The cores were identified by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during its 2005 survey of the Vulpecula region where 60 compact sources were detected simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. Four of these cores, with no IRAS-PSC or MSX counterparts, were mapped with the NRAO Very Large Array and observed with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope in the NH{sub 3}(1,1) and (2,2) spectral lines. Our observations indicate that the four cores are cold (T {sub k} < 16 K) and show a filamentary and/or clumpy structure. They also show a significant velocity substructure within {approx}1 km s{sup -1}. The four BLAST cores appear to be colder and more quiescent than other previously observed HMSC candidates, suggesting an earlier stage of evolution.

  2. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar-wind­ magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance

  3. Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Design of a High Temperature Small Particle Solar Receiver for Powering a Gas Turbine Engine Dr will describe the design of a high temperature solar receiver capable of driving a gas turbine for power conclusions regarding the best way to operate a solar powered gas turbine have been obtained

  4. A highly efficient (>6%) Cd1xMnxSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    A highly efficient (>6%) Cd1ÀxMnxSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell Jianjun Tian,*a Lili Lv,a Chengbin Fei,b Yajie Wang,b Xiaoguang Liua and Guozhong Cao*bc Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs-effective solar cell. The design and synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) for achieving high photoelectric performance

  5. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3 be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: high-efficiency solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic,...

  7. Bimodal solar system based on a ultra-high-temperature TEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Kirillov, E.Y.; Klimov, A.V.; Shalaev, A.I.; Shumov, D.P. [Central Design Bureau of Machine Building, Krasnogvardeyskaya Square 3, St. Petersburg, (Russia) 195272; Ender, A.Y.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Sitnov, V.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya St. 26, St. Petersburg, (Russia) 194021

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper considers an ecological, solar, bimodal system with ultra-high temperature thermionic energy converter (TEC). The solar bimodal Space Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) characteristics are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. automatic high resolution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun Melvin, Stephen 24 Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics CERN Preprints Summary: Bibliographic databases were developed from the...

  9. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  10. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; et al

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  11. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  12. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  13. High-resolution imaging of compact high-velocity clouds (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. de Heij; R. Braun; W. B. Burton

    2002-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We have imaged five compact high-velocity clouds in HI with arcmin angular- and km/s spectral-resolution using the WSRT. Supplementary total-power data, which is fully sensitive to both the cool and warm components of HI, is available for comparison for all the sources, albeit with angular resolutions that vary from 3' to 36'. The fractional HI flux in compact CNM components varies from 4% to 16% in our sample. All objects have at least one local peak in the CNM column which exceeds about 10^19 cm^-2 when observed with arcmin resolution. It is plausible that a peak column density of 1-2x10^19 cm^-2 is a prerequisite for the long-term survival of these sources. One object in our sample, CHVC120-20-443 (Davies' cloud), lies in close projected proximity to the disk of M31. This object is characterized by exceptionally broad linewidths in its CNM concentrations (more than 5 times greater than the median value). These CNM concentrations lie in an arc on the edge of the source facing the M31 disk, while the diffuse HI component of this source has a position offset in the direction of the disk. All of these attributes suggest that CHVC120-20-443 is in a different evolutionary state than most of the other CHVCs which have been studied. Similarly broad CNM linewidths have only been detected in one other object, CHVC111-07-466, which also lies in the Local Group barycenter direction and has the most extreme radial velocity known. A distinct possibility for Davies' cloud seems to be physical interaction of some type with M31. The most likely form of this interaction might be the ram-pressure or tidal- stripping by either one of M31's visible dwarf companions, M32 or NGC205, or else by a dark companion with an associated HI condensation.

  14. Design of electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Joyce G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer were designed and implemented. The driver for a piezoelectric inkjet print head can fire its nozzles with one of three droplet sizes ranging from 6 ...

  15. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI diffusion imaging at 4 Tesla, we scanned 234 young adult twins and siblings (mean age: 23.4 ± 2.0 SD years

  16. A machine learning model of Manhattan air pollution at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeler, Rachel H. (Rachel Heiden)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A machine-learning model was created to predict air pollution at high spatial resolution in Manhattan, New York using taxi trip data. Urban air pollution increases morbidity and mortality through respiratory and cardiovascular ...

  17. High resolution laser spectroscopy of cesium and rubidium molecules with optically induced coherence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to the study of the quantum coherent effects in diatomic molecular systems by using high resolution laser spectroscopy. In particular, we have studied the rubidium diatomic molecular gaseous medium's absorption spectrum...

  18. High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...

  19. High-resolution 7-Tesla fMRI of Human Hippocampal Subfields during Associative Learning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fMRI in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla: Combining Reduced Field-High-resolution 7-Tesla fMRI of Human Hippocampal Subfieldsrobustly using FMRI at 7 tesla. Journal of Neuroimaging, 23(

  20. High resolution CMRO2 in visual cortex of macaca mulatta Y. Bohraus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the contribution of the vascular system and neural energy consumption. Measuring CMRO2 allows one to determine with previous MR and PET results such as reviewed in [7]. In conclusion, we showed that high resolution CMRO2

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE MULTIPHASE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM TOWARD Cyg X-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz, Norbert S.

    High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing chemical and physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) at various phases. We present detections of K transition absorption ...

  2. New optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optics technology opens door to high-resolution atomic-level hard X-ray studies June 8, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint An international collaboration involving two U.S. Department of Energy...

  3. Identification of honeycomb sandwich properties by high-resolution modal analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    implementations. The high-resolution modal analysis (HRMA) technique [5] is an alternative to the FT of the modal analysis of a large panel (lx,y/h 80). The HRMA technique is used to estimate modal frequencies

  4. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of CRISPR indels Andrew Bassett 19th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of CRISPR indels Andrew Bassett 19th June 2013 approximately 1 ul per 10 ul PCR reaction HRMA analysis 1. Design primers to amplify 100-200 bp product across

  5. High-Resolution Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity and Connectivity in Clastic Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Thomas Frederick

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed new concepts and interpretative methods for mapping reservoir heterogeneity and connectivity of a fault controlled Wilcox clastic reservoir in Texas, USA. The application of high-resolution seismic enhancement in this study...

  6. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  7. Simultaneous computational discovery of DNA regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding constraints at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yuchun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present three novel computational methods to address the challenge of identifying protein-DNA interactions at high spatial resolution from noisy ChIP-Seq data. I first present the genome positioning system (GPS) algorithm ...

  8. High-resolution quantification of groundwater flux using a heat tracer: laboratory sandbox tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konetchy, Brant Evan

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater flux is the most critical factor controlling contaminant transport in aquifers. High-resolution information about groundwater flux and its variability is essential to properly assessing and remediating contamination sites. Recently, we...

  9. Coupling: Impact and Implications for High-Resolution Time-Lapse Seismic Surveying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Shelby Lynn

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions with repeat shots has a different effect on surface waves and compressional waves. This observation has potential application to wavefield separation. Acquisition approaches typically used to optimize 2D or 3D high-resolution seismic surveys may...

  10. Results from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspen 4/06/05 1 Results from the High-Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment Charles Jui (HiRes) University of Utah Physics at the End of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Spectrum Aspen Apr 26-30, 2005 #12;Aspen 4 · Anisotropy · Composition · Proton-air cross-section measurement #12;Aspen 4/06/05 3 The High Resolution Fly

  11. High Resolution Rydberg Spectroscopy of ultracold Rubidium Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axel Grabowski; Rolf Heidemann; Robert Löw; Jürgen Stuhler; Tilman Pfau

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experiments on two-photon excitation of ${\\rm ^{87}}$Rb atoms to Rydberg states. For this purpose, two continuous-wave (cw)-laser systems for both 780 nm and 480 nm have been set up. These systems are optimized to a small linewidth (well below 1 MHz) to get both an efficient excitation process and good spectroscopic resolution. To test the performance of our laser system, we investigated the Stark splitting of Rydberg states. For n=40 we were able to see the hyperfine levels splitting in the electrical field for different finestructure states. To show the ability of spatially selective excitation to Rydberg states, we excited rubidium atoms in an electrical field gradient and investigated both linewidths and lineshifts. Furthermore we were able to excite the atoms selectively from the two hyperfine ground states to Rydberg states. Finally, we investigated the Autler-Townes splitting of the 5S$_{1/2}$$\\to$5P$_{3/2}$ transition via a Rydberg state to determine the Rabi frequency of this excitation step.

  12. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  13. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School footballHigh-Pressure MOF Research

  14. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

  15. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHigh Penetration

  16. Overshooting Convection from High-resolution NEXRAD Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, David

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Rocky Mountains. Overshooting convection is most common over the high plains, and there is a pronounced seasonal and diurnal cycle present. The majority of overshooting systems occur during the warm season, and a diurnal maximum of overshooting occurs...

  17. 21T High Resolution Mass Accuracy Capability | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass analyzer with co-located capabilities in high - throughput omics, imaging, and microfluidics. The 21T FTICR MS will be the best, if not the only, capability in the world to...

  18. Temporal variations of solar rotation rate at high latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

    2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Frequency splitting coefficients from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) observations covering the period 1995--2001 are used to study temporal variations in the solar rotation rate at high latitudes. The torsional oscillation pattern in the Sun is known to penetrate to a depth of about $0.1R_\\odot$ with alternate bands of faster and slower rotating plasma. At lower latitudes the bands move towards equator with time. At higher latitudes, however, the bands appear to move towards the poles. This is similar to the observed pole-ward movement of large scale magnetic fields at high latitudes. This also supports theoretical results of pole-ward moving bands at high latitudes in some mean field dynamo models. The polar rotation rate is found to decrease between 1995 and 1999 after which it has started increasing.

  19. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  20. Velocity distribution of high-energy particles and the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2001-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy infers high velocity and high velocity is a concept of special relativity. The Maxwellian velocity distribution is corrected to be consistent with special relativity. The corrected distribution reduces to the Maxwellian distribution for small velocities, contains a relatively depleted high-energy tail and vanishes at the velocity of light. This corrected distribution will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but keep solar sound speeds.

  1. First VUV full-Sun spectrum of the transition region with high spectral resolution compared to cool stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardi Peter

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the first full-Sun vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission line profile originating from the transition region from the chromosphere to the corona. It is based on a raster scan of the whole solar disk using SUMER/SOHO. The full-Sun spectrum has a spectral resolution which allows an investigation of details in the line profile as well as a thorough comparison to stellar spectra as obtained, e.g. with FUSE or STIS/HST. The full-Sun spectrum shows enhanced emission in the wings, and is well described by a double Gaussian fit with a narrow and a broad component. It is shown that the broad component is due to structures on the solar surface, especially those related to the magnetic chromospheric network. Thus it is proposed that the broad components of other solar-like stars are also a consequence of the mixture of surface structures, and not necessarily a signature of small-scale heating processes like explosive events, as it is commonly argued. A comparison to spectra of luminous cool stars shows that the line asymmetries of these stars might also be a surface structure effect and not or only partly due to opacity effects in their cool dense winds. These comparisons show the potential of high quality full-Sun VUV spectra and their value for the study of solar-stellar connections. As an example, this study proposes that alpha Cen A has a considerably higher amount of magnetic flux concentrated in the chromospheric magnetic network than the Sun.

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION SEDIMENT DYNAMICS IN SALT-WEDGE ESTUARIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, David

    and Columbia River estuaries switch between two extremes of mixing on very small horizontal scales; over compared well with in situ settling tube observations, typically within a factor of 2. ACCOMPLISHMENTS arm of the Fraser River estuary (Figure 1). River flow during the study was very high, approximately

  3. HIGH RESOLUTION FORWARD AND INVERSE EARTHQUAKE MODELING ON TERASCALE COMPUTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    highly populated seismic region in the U.S., it has well- characterized geological structures (including in characterizing earthquake source and basin material properties, a critical remaining challenge is to invert basin geology and earthquake sources, and to use this capability to model and forecast strong ground

  4. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  5. A Cosmic Ray Test Platform Based on the High Time Resolution MRPC Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tianxiang Chen; Cheng Li; Yongjie Sun; Hongfang Chen; Ming Shao; Zebo Tang; Rongxing Yang; Yi Zhou; Yifei Zhang

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to test the performance of detector/prototype in environment of laboratory, we design and build a larger area ($90\\times52$ $cm^2$) test platform of cosmic ray based on well-designed Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) with an excellent time resolution and a high detection efficiency for the minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). The time resolution of the MRPC module used is tested to be ~80 ps, and the position resolution along the strip is ~5 mm, while the position resolution perpendicular to the strip is ~12.7 mm. The platform constructed by four MRPC modules can be functional for tracking the cosmic rays with a spatial resolution ~6.3 mm, and provide a reference time ~40 ps.

  6. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  7. Development of a solar receiver for a high-efficiency thermionic/thermoelectric conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naito, H.; Kohsaka, Y.; Cooke, D.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku Univ., Aramaki (Japan)] [Tohoku Univ., Aramaki (Japan)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources on Earth and in space, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Therefore, we have been developing a solar-powered high-efficiency thermionic-thermoelectric conversion system which combines a thermionic converter (TIC) with a thermoelectric converter (TEC) to use thermal energy efficiently and to achieve high efficiency conversion. The TIC emitter must uniformly heat up to 1800 K. The TIC emitter can be heated using thermal radiation from a solar receiver maintained at a high temperature by concentrated solar irradiation. A cylindrical cavity-type solar receiver constructed from graphite was designed and heated in a vacuum by using the solar concentrator at Tohoku University. The maximum temperature of the solar receiver enclosed by a molybdenum cup reached 1965 K, which was sufficiently high to heat a TIC emitter using thermal radiation from the receiver. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets David, Massachusetts 02139, USA bermel@mit.edu Abstract: Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To improve these critical components, we study a class

  9. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    materials for thin film solar cells such as CdTe and CIGS suffer from concerns over resource scarcity (eEARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1 conversion efficiencies should be increased. In terms of reducing module cost, thin film solar cells

  10. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE EFFECTS ON VERY HIGH-ECCENTRIC FORMATION J. Fontdecaba Baig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE EFFECTS ON VERY HIGH-ECCENTRIC FORMATION FLYING J. Fontdecaba Baig1 , G. M this particular relative motion is the scoop of this paper. Main perturbation in HEO orbits are solar radiation. Key words: formation flying, HEO orbits, solar radiation pressure. 1. INTRODUCTION Formation flying

  11. ASES Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    ENERGY APPLICATIONS Tomás Cebecauer GeoModel, s.r.o. Pionierska 15 841 07 Bratislava, Slovakia tomas terrain affects exploitation of solar energy. In this article we present innovative features of MSG© ASES ­ Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL SOLAR

  12. High Energy Solar Physics: Anticipating HESSI ASP Conference Series, Vol. xxx, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priest, Eric

    High Energy Solar Physics: Anticipating HESSI ASP Conference Series, Vol. xxx, 2000 R. Ramaty and N. Mandzhavidze, eds. Solar Flare Theory and the Status of Flare Understanding E.R. Priest Department current understanding of the mag­ netohydrodynamics of solar flares. The theory of reconnection in 2D

  13. Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Kadiatou photoanodes for dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs), based on nanocrystalline TiO2 with limited addition applied (i.e., soaking in TiCl4 to boost open circuit photovoltage). INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar

  14. Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandra Andi?

    2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20mHz) have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analysed here. Image sequences are taken using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analyzed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis is performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observe the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10mHz to 13mHz. We also observe propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in regions where magnetic structures are present.

  15. LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9LDRD,LEDs:

  16. Sandia Energy - High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-VoltagePower Company's (ORPC's) TidGen®

  17. High-Angular-Resolution Microbeam X-Ray Diffraction with CCD Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Sakaia, Akira [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Sakata, Osami [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 670-8531 (Japan)

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have introduced a CCD-type two-dimensional X-ray detector for a microbeam X-ray diffraction system using synchrotron radiation, so that we can measure local reciprocal space maps (RSM) of samples rapidly. A local RSM of a strain-relaxed SiGe 004 grown on a Si (001) substrate was measured in higher-angular-resolution and faster than a conventional way. The measurement was achieved in 1 h 40 min. with the 2theta resolution of 80 murad and the spatial resolution of 1.4(h)x0.5(v) {mu}m{sup 2}. The introduction of the CCD enabled us to measure RSMs at many points in a sample, that is, the distribution of strain fields and lattice tilts can be revealed in high-angular- and high-spatial-resolution.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  19. A High-resolution Spectrum of the R CrB Star V2552 Ophiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy have added V2552 Oph to the rare class of R Coronae Borealis variables. We confirm this classification of V2552 Oph through a comparison of our high-resolution optical spectrum of this star and that of R CrB and other F-type members of the class. We show that V2552 Oph most closely resembles Y Mus and FH Sct, stars in which Sr, Y, and Zr are enhanced.

  20. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hourly satellite solar radiation information is used to determine the amount of annual solar energy that can be pro- duced from PV for the designated area populated with PV....

  1. High temperature investigations of crystalline silicon solar cell materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudelson, George David Stephen, III

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline silicon solar cells are a promising candidate to provide a sustainable, clean energy source for the future. In order to bring about widespread adoption of solar cells, much work is needed to reduce their cost. ...

  2. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee] [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these nanomaterials in solar cells (both as photoanodes and counter electrodes), gas sensors, and energy storage devices. This research is potentially transformative since the availability of affordable hybrid nanostructures and their fundamental properties will enable various innovative applications of the multifunctional hybrid nanostructures and thus will accelerate new discoveries and inventions in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  3. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  4. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  5. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  6. New solar cell technology captures high-energy photons more efficientl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (click to enlarge) Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (click to enlarge) New solar cell technology captures high-energy photons more efficiently By Jared Sagoff *...

  7. Investigation of Opportunities for High-Temperature Solar Energy in the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report gives the conclusions drawn from a study of the potential application of high-temperature solar process heat for production of aluminum.

  8. Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receiver for High-Temperature Brayton Power Cycles This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating...

  9. Scientists Confirm Robustness of Key Component in Ultra-High-Efficiency Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists developed and tested a new, stable 1-eV metamorphic junction for a high efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for CPV application.

  10. High resolution 3D insider detection and tracking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vulnerability analysis studies show that one of the worst threats against a facility is that of an active insider during an emergency evacuation. When a criticality or other emergency alarm occurs, employees immediately proceed along evacuation routes to designated areas. Procedures are then implemented to account for all material, classified parts, etc. The 3-Dimensional Video Motion Detection (3DVMD) technology could be used to detect and track possible insider activities during alarm situations, as just described, as well as during normal operating conditions. The 3DVMD technology uses multiple cameras to create 3-dimensional detection volumes or zones. Movement throughout detection zones is tracked and high-level information, such as the number of people and their direction of motion, is extracted. In the described alarm scenario, deviances of evacuation procedures taken by an individual could be immediately detected and relayed to a central alarm station. The insider could be tracked and any protected items removed from the area could be flagged. The 3DVMD technology could also be used to monitor such items as machines that are used to build classified parts. During an alarm, detections could be made if items were removed from the machine. Overall, the use of 3DVMD technology during emergency evacuations would help to prevent the loss of classified items and would speed recovery from emergency situations. Further security could also be added by analyzing tracked behavior (motion) as it corresponds to predicted behavior, e.g., behavior corresponding with the execution of required procedures. This information would be valuable for detecting a possible insider not only during emergency situations, but also during times of normal operation.

  11. Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution Brent A. Williams and David) are inherently noisier than the standard 25km products and the high rain rates often associated with hurricanes. This paper develops a new procedure for hurricane wind field estimation from the SeaWinds instrument at ultra

  12. Atmospheric inverse modeling to constrain regionalscale CO2 budgets at high spatial and temporal resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalak, Anna M.

    a simple diagnostic flux model that splits the net ecosystem exchange into its major components of gross stateoftheart data sets for advected background CO2 and anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions as well as highly grid cell, thus permitting description of the surface in a very high resolution. The model is tested

  13. High-resolution 18F-FDG PET with MRI for monitoring response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner during human imaging. Jhigh-resolution 18 F-FDG PET images (pseudocolor) overlaidMONTH High-resolution 18 F-FDG PET with MRI for monitoring

  14. PAMELA's Measurements of Magnetospheric Effects on High Energy Solar Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bravar, U; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Christian, E C; De Donato, C; de Nolfo, G A; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Lee, M; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Ryan, J M; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stochaj, S; Stozhkov, Y I; Thakur, N; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of particle acceleration at the Sun, whether through flare reconnection processes or through shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is still under scrutiny despite decades of research. The measured properties of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have long been modeled in different particle-acceleration scenarios. The challenge has been to disentangle to the effects of transport from those of acceleration. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument, enables unique observations of SEPs including composition and the angular distribution of the particles about the magnetic field, i.e. pitch angle distribution, over a broad energy range (>80 MeV) -- bridging a critical gap between space-based measurements and ground-based. We present high-energy SEP data from PAMELA acquired during the 2012 May 17 SEP event. These data exhibit differential anisotropies and thus transport features over the instrument rigidity range. SEP protons exhibit two dist...

  15. Differential high-resolution stimulated CW Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen in a hollow-core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westergaard, Philip G; Petersen, Jan C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate sensitive high-resolution stimulated Raman measurements of hydrogen using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The Raman transition is pumped by a narrow linewidth (<50 kHz) 1064 nm continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser. The probe light is produced by a homebuilt CW optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable from around 800 nm to 1300 nm (linewidth ~ 5 MHz). These narrow linewidth lasers allow for an excellent spectral resolution of approximately 10^-4 cm^(-1). The setup employs a differential measurement technique for noise rejection in the probe beam, which also eliminates background signals from the fiber. With the high sensitivity obtained, Raman signals were observed with only a few mW of optical power in both the pump and probe beams. This demonstration allows for high resolution Raman identification of molecules and quantification of Raman signal strengths.

  16. Hadronic energy resolution of a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter using software compensation techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALICE Collaboration; C. Adloff; J. Blaha; J. -J. Blaising; C. Drancourt; A. Espargilière; R. Gaglione; N. Geffroy; Y. Karyotakis; J. Prast; G. Vouters; K. Francis; J. Repond; J. Smith; L. Xia; E. Baldolemar; J. Li; S. T. Park; M. Sosebee; A. P. White; J. Yu; T. Buanes; G. Eigen; Y. Mikami; N. K. Watson; T. Goto; G. Mavromanolakis; M. A. Thomson; D. R. Ward; W. Yan; D. Benchekroun; A. Hoummada; Y. Khoulaki; M. Benyamna; C. Cârloganu; F. Fehr; P. Gay; S. Manen; L. Royer; G. C. Blazey; A. Dyshkant; J. G. R. Lima; V. Zutshi; J. -Y. Hostachy; L. Morin; U. Cornett; D. David; G. Falley; K. Gadow; P. Göttlicher; C. Günter; B. Hermberg; S. Karstensen; F. Krivan; A. -I. Lucaci-Timoce; S. Lu; B. Lutz; S. Morozov; V. Morgunov; M. Reinecke; F. Sefkow; P. Smirnov; M. Terwort; A. Vargas-Trevino; N. Feege; E. Garutti; I. Marchesini; M. Ramilli; P. Eckert; T. Harion; A. Kaplan; H. -Ch. Schultz-Coulon; W. Shen; R. Stamen; A. Tadday; B. Bilki; E. Norbeck; Y. Onel; G. W. Wilson; K. Kawagoe; P. D. Dauncey; A. -M. Magnan; M. Wing; F. Salvatore; E. Calvo Alamillo; M. -C. Fouz; J. Puerta-Pelayo; V. Balagura; B. Bobchenko; M. Chadeeva; M. Danilov; A. Epifantsev; O. Markin; R. Mizuk; E. Novikov; V. Rusinov; E. Tarkovsky; N. Kirikova; V. Kozlov; P. Smirnov; Y. Soloviev; P. Buzhan; B. Dolgoshein; A. Ilyin; V. Kantserov; V. Kaplin; A. Karakash; E. Popova; S. Smirnov; C. Kiesling; S. Pfau; K. Seidel; F. Simon; C. Soldner; M. Szalay; M. Tesar; L. Weuste; J. Bonis; B. Bouquet; S. Callier; P. Cornebise; Ph. Doublet; F. Dulucq; M. Faucci Giannelli; J. Fleury; H. Li; G. Martin-Chassard; F. Richard; Ch. de la Taille; R. Pöschl; L. Raux; N. Seguin-Moreau; F. Wicek; M. Anduze; V. Boudry; J-C. Brient; D. Jeans; P. Mora de Freitas; G. Musat; M. Reinhard; M. Ruan; H. Videau; B. Bulanek; J. Zacek; J. Cvach; P. Gallus; M. Havranek; M. Janata; J. Kvasnicka; D. Lednicky; M. Marcisovsky; I. Polak; J. Popule; L. Tomasek; M. Tomasek; P. Ruzicka; P. Sicho; J. Smolik; V. Vrba; J. Zalesak; B. Belhorma; H. Ghazlane; T. Takeshita; S. Uozumi; J. Sauer; S. Weber; C. Zeitnitz

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy resolution of a highly granular 1 m3 analogue scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter is studied using charged pions with energies from 10 GeV to 80 GeV at the CERN SPS. The energy resolution for single hadrons is determined to be approximately 58%/sqrt(E/GeV}. This resolution is improved to approximately 45%/sqrt(E/GeV) with software compensation techniques. These techniques take advantage of the event-by-event information about the substructure of hadronic showers which is provided by the imaging capabilities of the calorimeter. The energy reconstruction is improved either with corrections based on the local energy density or by applying a single correction factor to the event energy sum derived from a global measure of the shower energy density. The application of the compensation algorithms to Geant4 simulations yield resolution improvements comparable to those observed for real data.

  17. Sub-Hourly Impacts of High Solar Penetrations in the Western United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hummon, M.; Hodge, B. M.; Heaney, M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. Extreme event analysis showed that most large ramps were due to sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher in the high-solar versus high-wind scenario. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability.

  18. X-ray Observations of Galaxies: The Importance of Deep High-Resolution Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fabbiano

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray observations of galaxies have grown from a curiosity into a full-fledged field of astronomy. These observations provide unique information on black holes, binary stars, and the hot phase of the ISM, which can be used to constrain the chemical evolution of the Universe, and the joint evolution of galaxies and massive black holes. These exciting results are due in large part to the high-resolution capability of {\\it Chandra}. To follow on {\\it Chandra} and push forward this science past the present capabilities, our community must build a high-resolution (sub-arcsecond) large-area (several square meters) X-ray telescope.

  19. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Aichi 462-8508 (Japan)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The authors conclude that Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron is promising for proton therapy.

  20. Observation of solar high energy gamma and X-ray emission and solar energetic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We considered 18 solar flares observed between June 2010 and July 2012, in which high energy >100 MeV {\\gamma}-emission was registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard FermiGRO. We examined for these {\\gamma}-events soft X-ray observations by GOES, hard X-ray observations by the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the SPectrometer aboard INTEGRAL (ACS SPI) and the Gamma-Ray burst Monitor (GBM) aboard FermiGRO. Hard X-ray and {\\pi}0-decay {\\gamma}-ray emissions are used as tracers of electron and proton acceleration, respectively. Bursts of hard X-ray were observed by ACS SPI during impulsive phase of 13 events. Bursts of hard X-ray >100 keV were not found during time intervals, when prolonged hard {\\gamma}-emission was registered by LAT/FermiGRO. Those events showing prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission not accompanied by >100 keV hard X-ray emission are interpreted as an indication of either different acceleration processes for protons and electrons or as the presence of a proton population accelerated du...

  1. A Super-high Angular Resolution Principle for Coded-mask X-ray Imaging Beyond the Diffraction Limit of Single Pinhole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen Zhang; Shuang Nan Zhang

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always demanded by astrophysics and solar physics, which can be realized by coded-mask imaging with very long mask-detector distance in principle. Previously the diffraction-interference effect has been thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at low energy end with very long mask-detector distance. In this work the diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size of 50* 50 square micrometers and the mask-detector distance of 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV, and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV where diffraction can not be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also shortly discussed.

  2. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    , China ABSTRACT: Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganicToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost

  3. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

  4. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    outstanding technical challenges focused on applicability to heat pipes to Concentrated Solar Power production. These include * Counter gravity physics * Counter gravity...

  5. High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Helping Ensure High-Quality Installation of Solar Power Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    both more accessible and affordable. With EERE support, MREA will provide instructor development opportunities and also create sustainable jobs within the solar installation...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: high-efficiency solar thermochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 9, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI), Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities, Infrastructure...

  8. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  9. High-Resolution 3 T MR Microscopy Imaging of Arterial Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailer, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.sailer@univie.ac.at; Rand, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Berg, Andreas [University of Vienna, Institute for Medical Physics (Austria); Sulzbacher, Irene [University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology (Austria); Peloschek, P. [University of Vienna, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Austria); Hoelzenbein, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Surgery (Austria); Lammer, Johannes [University of Vienna, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Austria)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. To achieve a high spatial resolution in MR imaging that allows for clear visualization of anatomy and even histology and documentation of plaque morphology in in vitro samples from patients with advanced atherosclerosis. A further objective of our study was to evaluate whether T2-weighted high-resolution MR imaging can provide accurate classification of atherosclerotic plaque according to a modified American Heart Association classification. Methods. T2-weighted images of arteries were obtained in 13 in vitro specimens using a 3 T MR unit (Medspec 300 Avance/Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) combined with a dedicated MR microscopy system. Measurement parameters were: T2-weighted sequences with TR 3.5 sec, TE 15-120 msec; field of view (FOV) 1.4 x 1.4; NEX 8; matrix 192; and slice thickness 600 {mu}m. MR measurements were compared with corresponding histologic sections. Results. We achieved excellent spatial and contrast resolution in all specimens. We found high agreement between MR images and histology with regard to the morphology and extent of intimal proliferations in all but 2 specimens. We could differentiate fibrous caps and calcifications from lipid plaque components based on differences in signal intensity in order to differentiate hard and soft atheromatous plaques. Hard plaques with predominantly intimal calcifications were found in 7 specimens, and soft plaques with a cholesterol/lipid content in 5 cases. In all specimens, hemorrhage or thrombus formation, and fibrotic and hyalinized tissue could be detected on both MR imaging and histopathology. Conclusion. High-resolution, high-field MR imaging of arterial walls demonstrates the morphologic features, volume, and extent of intimal proliferations with high spatial and contrast resolution in in vitro specimens and can differentiate hard and soft plaques.

  10. Energy Resolved High Resolution Dynamic E-Cell Materials Research. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Ray; Sharma, Renu; Mayer, James

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop in situ materials reaction observation capability in an intermediate voltage high resolution transmission electron microscope. To accomplish this we purchased a GATAN imaging energy filter system, a hot stage, and designed and constructed an environmental cell and real time television image recording system, and installed this equipment on our EM 430 intermediate voltage electron microscope.

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    infrared emission. This initially provoked heated debate between a ``starburst'' camp and an ``activeHIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1 J. Bernard, 10Y37 m spectra of 53 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), taken using the Infrared Spectrograph

  12. High Resolution Sharp Computational Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Problems in Complex Geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Ron

    High Resolution Sharp Computational Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Problems in Complex Geometries Frédéric Gibou Chohong Min Ron Fedkiw November 2, 2012 In honor of Stan Osher's 70th birthday of chemical species (see [48] and the references therein); they are also core building blocks in fields

  13. A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution QuikSCAT Winds of hurricanes. I. INTRODUCTION Space-borne scatterometers such as SeaWinds on QuikSCAT are instruments designed these is the observation and tracking of tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Several fea- tures of interest

  14. Scene Reconstruction from High Spatio-Angular Resolution Light Fields Changil Kim1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Henning

    Scene Reconstruction from High Spatio-Angular Resolution Light Fields Changil Kim1,2 Henning Zimmer Figure 1: Our method reconstructs accurate depth from light fields of complex scenes. The images on the left show a 2D slice of a 3D input light field, a so called epipolar-plane image (EPI), and two out

  15. Noninvasive high-resolution detection of the arterial and venous input function through a PET Wrist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noninvasive high-resolution detection of the arterial and venous input function through a PET Wrist using planar coincidence images. I. INTRODUCTION Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography (PET) often determine the input function. These techniques include external monitors and PET scanners that measure

  16. Compact, High-Resolution, Multi-Layer Semiconductor PET Detector Module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Compact, High-Resolution, Multi-Layer Semiconductor PET Detector Module Summary Multi tomography (PET) systems, but the conventional electrodes used require a prohibitive number of readout channels. Now, a breakthrough compact PET detector offers a specialized configuration of cross strip

  17. 2D and 3D high-resolution imaging to reconstruct the microstructure of clay media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2D and 3D high-resolution imaging to reconstruct the microstructure of clay media J.C. Robinet1 & S compacted clay (illite) system, considered to be an analogy for the clay matrix constituting clay-rocks, and three different clayrocks (Callovo-Oxfordian argilites (FR), Opalinus Clay (CH), Boom Clay (BE)). Part

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING Maite L,cerquide,davidm,anna}@maia.ub.es ABSTRACT This paper introduces a machine learning approach into the process of direct volume rendering that generates the classification func- tion within the optical property function used for rendering. Briefly

  19. Calibration of sclerosponge oxygen isotope records to temperature using high-resolution d18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Calibration of sclerosponge oxygen isotope records to temperature using high-resolution d18 O data; available online 21 May 2009 Abstract A revised calibration is presented relating the oxygen isotope an existing calibration which was determined using measurements of salinity rather than directly measured d18

  20. Role of pseudospin in quasiparticle interferences in epitaxial probed by high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Role of pseudospin in quasiparticle interferences in epitaxial graphene, probed by high resolution of freedom emerging in graphene as a direct consequence of its honeycomb atomic structure, is responsible to provide a clear understanding of how such graphene's pseudospin impacts the quasiparticle interferences

  1. Increasing the Scalability of PISM for High Resolution Ice Sheet Models Phillip Dickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickens, Phillip M.

    Increasing the Scalability of PISM for High Resolution Ice Sheet Models Phillip Dickens School at large. One important piece of the climate puzzle is how the dynamics of large-scale ice sheets developed several simulation models to predict and understand the behavior of large-scale ice sheets

  2. Induction Machine Fault Detection Enhancement Using a Stator Current High Resolution Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    into stator winding short circuit, broken rotor bar, broken end-ring, rotor eccentricity, bearing faultsInduction Machine Fault Detection Enhancement Using a Stator Current High Resolution Spectrum El-Fault detection in squirrel cage induction machines based on stator current spectrum has been widely investi gated

  3. ElectroMagnetic Radiations of FPGAs: High Spatial Resolution Cartography and Attack of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ElectroMagnetic Radiations of FPGAs: High Spatial Resolution Cartography and Attack, a "root of trust" must be defined, insulated and then carefully protected. Until very recently, this role agencies) have tackled the issue of protecting ASICs from side-channel attacks (SCAs). In the meantime

  4. A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic ray observatory J, 800 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1156 Abstract This article describes the ber-optic based: Highest energy cosmic rays Fly's Eye Experiment HiRes YAG Laser Fiber-optics PMT PACS: 95.45.+i 95.85.Ls

  5. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  6. Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution neutron imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    imaging has developed into an important tool for fuel cell diagnostics over the past six years. The advent November 2013 Accepted 2 December 2013 Available online xxx Keywords: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell profiles were determined using high resolution neutron radiog- raphy for commercially available fuel cell

  7. PROGRESS TOWARDS A HIGH-RESOLUTION RETINAL PROSTHESIS James D. Weiland1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    PROGRESS TOWARDS A HIGH-RESOLUTION RETINAL PROSTHESIS James D. Weiland1 , Wolfgang Fink2,1 , Mark, and stimulating electrodes. Keywords ­ retinal prosthesis, microsystems, electrical stimulation, neural prostheses year.[1] One proposed treatment for these conditions is a retinal prosthesis that will stimulate

  8. 3 July 2003 HIRES3D -ITC Research Seminar -Robert Hack 1 HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    3 July 2003 HIRES3D - ITC Research Seminar - Robert Hack 1 HIRES3D HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING FOR 3D GROUND MODELING AND CLASSIFICATION ITC Research Seminar, 3 July 2003 Robert Hack International Institute for Geoinformation Sciences and Earth Observation (ITC) #12;3 July 2003 HIRES3D - ITC Research

  9. North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical of the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection and North Brazil Current rings. The model mean and seasonal circulation feature near the western boundary is the North Brazil Current (NBC), which has sources

  10. High-resolution velocity field imaging around a borehole: Excavation Damaged Zone characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .balland@ineris.fr, vincent.renaud@ineris.fr ABSTRACT The excavation of a deep underground structure induces a stress field of a material. In the case of underground storage, rock damage will affect the rock capacity to confine1 High-resolution velocity field imaging around a borehole: Excavation Damaged Zone

  11. High Resolution SAR Interferometry: influence of local topography in the context of glacier monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    High Resolution SAR Interferometry: influence of local topography in the context of glacier the opportu- nity to measure temperate glacier surface topography and displacement between the two for glacier activity monitoring, by providing regular measure- ments such as surface topography, velocity

  12. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet: High resolution modeling of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    : Kiilsholm, S., J. H. Christensen, K. Dethloff, and A. Rinke, Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheetNet accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet: High resolution modeling of climate changes Sissi, Denmark Klaus Dethloff and Annette Rinke Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research

  13. High spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a total optical power proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth power. An object that hasHigh spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a) S. A. Thorne, M. G increasing lens technique to subsurface thermal emission microscopy of Si integrated circuits. We achieve

  14. A High Resolution Intergalactic Explorer for the Soft X-ray/FUV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis; Fabrizio Fiore; the CWE Team

    2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a mission concept for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with a resolving power, R~6000, (c.f. R=Web'. The Cosmic Web is predicted to contain most of the normal matter (baryons) in the nearby Universe.

  15. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  16. Exploration of Weather Impacts on Freeway Traffic Operations and Safety Using High-Resolution Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Exploration of Weather Impacts on Freeway Traffic Operations and Safety Using High-Resolution Weather Data by Chengyu Dai A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Moradkhani Kristin Tufte Portland State University ©2011 #12;i ABSTRACT Adverse weather is considered as one

  17. HighResolution Numerical Methods for MicellarPolymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trangenstein, John A.

    been used to study the micellar­ polymer flooding process in enhanced oil recovery [12], [18], [19 in practical im­ plementation of enhanced oil recovery techniques at this time, there is increasing interestHigh­Resolution Numerical Methods for Micellar­Polymer Flooding and Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer

  18. High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    High resolution RCM simulation of eastern Mediterranean climate and its expected changes to 2050. Modern global climate change evaluations usually based on application of coupled atmosphere-ocean global by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A number of different anthropogenic emission scenarios have been

  19. High-resolution population grids and future scenarios for Tanzania Philip J. Platts & Ruth D. Swetnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, Rob

    this grid and the LandScan grid to remove all persons from these protected areas (Single Map Algebra Tool1 High-resolution population grids and future scenarios for Tanzania Philip J. Platts & Ruth D, were obtained by hindcasting the LandScan grid on a ward-by-ward basis, such that ward totals matched

  20. A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyue, Keh-Ming

    A high-resolution mapped grid algorithm for compressible multiphase flow problems K.-M. Shyue 18 August 2010 Keywords: Compressible multiphase flow Fluid-mixture model Mapped grids Wave-propagation method Stiffened gas equation of state a b s t r a c t We describe a simple mapped-grid approach

  1. Estimating quality factor and mean grain size of sediments from high-resolution marine seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Oceanography Centre Southampton

    model of quality factor against mean grain size from published sediment studies, the mean grain sizes with frequency. The Biot-Stoll model shows a marked velocity dispersion and nonlinear transition in compressionalEstimating quality factor and mean grain size of sediments from high-resolution marine seismic data

  2. High-resolution chemical imaging of gold nanoparticles using hard x-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Schroer, C. G. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, J. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany) [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Germany; Hofmann, G.; Grunwaldt, J.-D. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Damsgaard, C. D. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)] [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Wellenreuther, G.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine resonant scattering with (ptychographic) scanning coherent diffraction microscopy to determine the chemical state of gold nanoparticles with high spatial resolution. Ptychographic images of the sample are recorded for a series of energies around the gold L{sub 3} absorption edge. From these data, chemical information in the form of absorption and resonant scattering spectra is reconstructed at each location in the sample. For gold nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter, a spatial resolution of about 20-30 nm is obtained. In the future, this microscopy approach will open the way to operando studies of heterogeneous catalysts on the nanometer scale.

  3. Gas Dynamics in the Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC4151 - II. High Resolution HI Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Mundell; A. Pedlar; D. L. Shone; A. Robinson

    1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution (6" x 5") 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen in the nearby barred Seyfert galaxy, NGC4151. These HI observations, obtained using the VLA in B-configuration, are the highest resolution to date of this galaxy, and reveal hitherto unprecedented detail in the distribution and kinematics of the HI on sub-kiloparsec scales. A complete analysis and discussion of the HI data are presented and the global properties of the galaxy are related to the bar dynamics presented in Paper I.

  4. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Prieto, P; Rechenmacher, R; Semenov, A; Voy, D; Wendt, M; Zhang, D; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented.

  5. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konis, Kyle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Society of North America. Luminance ratio limits; ch. 11,range photography as a luminance mapping Technique. Lawrenceusing High Resolution Luminance Images Kyle Konis Lawrence

  6. High resolution neutron crystallographic studies of the hydration of coenzyme cob(II)alamin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jogl, Gerwald [Brown University; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Mason, Sax [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hoffmann, Christina [ORNL; Kratky, Christoph [Institute of Biosciences, University of Graz; Langan, Paul [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydration of coenzyme cob(II)alamin has been studied using high resolution monochromatic neutron crystallographic data collected at room temperature to a resolution of surrounded by flexible side chains with terminal functional groups may be significant for 0.92 on the original diffractometer D19 with a prototype 4o x 64o detector at the high-flux reactor neutron source run by the Institute Laue Langevin. The resulting structure provides H bonding parameters for the hydration of biomacromolecules to unprecedented accuracy. These experimental parameters will be used to define more accurate force-fields for biomacromolecular structure refinement. The presence of a hydrophobic bowl motif efficient scavenging of ligands. The feasibility of extending the resolution of this structure to ultra high resolution was investigated by collecting time-of-flight neutron crystallographic data on diffractometer TOPAZ with a prototype array of 14 modular 21o x 21o detectors at the Spallation Neutron Source run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  8. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

  9. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  10. A High-resolution TOF Detector _ A Possible Way to Compete with a RICH Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va'vra, J; /SLAC; Ertley, C.; /Argonne; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Schwiening, J.; /SLAC

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using two identical 64-pixel Burle/Photonis MCP-PMTs to provide start and stop signals, they have achieved a timing resolution of {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 7.2 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 50 photoelectrons (N{sub pe}) with a laser diode providing a 1 mm spot on the MCP window. The limiting resolution achieved was {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 5.0 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 180, for which they estimate the MCP-PMT contribution of {sigma}{sub MCP-PMT} {approx} 4.5 ps. The electronics contribution is estimated as {sigma}{sub Electrons} = 3.42 ps. These results suggest that an ultra-high resolution TOF detector may become a reality at future experiments one day.

  11. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  12. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaojing [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Steinbrener, Jan [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Kirz, Janos [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Marchesini, Stephano [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Neiman, Aaron M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Turner, Joshua J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Jacobsen, Chris [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  13. PROBING NEAR-SURFACE ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE WITH LIDAR MEASUREMENTS AND HIGH-RESOLUTION HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. KAO; D. COOPER; ET AL

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As lidar technology is able to provide fast data collection at a resolution of meters in an atmospheric volume, it is imperative to promote a modeling counterpart of the lidar capability. This paper describes an integrated capability based on data from a scanning water vapor lidar and a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (HIGRAD) equipped with a visualization routine (VIEWER) that simulates the lidar scanning. The purpose is to better understand the spatial and temporal representativeness of the lidar measurements and, in turn, to extend their utility in studying turbulence fields in the atmospheric boundary layer. Raman lidar water vapor data collected over the Pacific warm pool and the simulations with the HIGRAD code are used for identifying the underlying physics and potential aliasing effects of spatially resolved lidar measurements. This capability also helps improve the trade-off between spatial-temporal resolution and coverage of the lidar measurements.

  14. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ?1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ?2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  15. Optical Deformations in Solar Glass Filters for High Precision Astrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Boscardin, Sérgio Calderari; Penna, Jucira Lousada; Reis-Neto, Eugênio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the solar diameter at all position angles gives the complete figure of the Sun. Their asphericities have implications in classical physics and general relativity, and the behavior of the optical systems used in the direct measurements is to be known accurately. A solar filter is a plane-parallel glass with given absorption, and here we study the departures from the parallelism of the faces of a crystal slab 5 mm thick, because of static deformations. These deformations are rescaled to the filter's dimensions. Related to the Solar Disk Sextant experiment and to the Reflecting Heliometer of Rio de Janeiro a simplified model of the influences of the inclination between the external and the internal surfaces of a glass solar filter, is discussed.

  16. Webinar January 13: Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    69% solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency, converting methane and water into syngas-a mix of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-and the technology received an R&D 100 Award in...

  17. Optimization of future high-resolution X-ray instrumentation in astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zajczyk, Anna; Dowkontt, Paul; Guo, Qingzhen; Kislat, Fabian; Krawczynski, Henric; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Li, Shaorui; Beilicke, Matthias

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride and Cadmium Telluride are the detector materials of choice for the detection of X-rays in the X-ray energy band E >= 5keV with excellent spatial and spectral resolution and without cryogenic cooling. Owing to recent breakthroughs in grazing incidence mirror technology, next-generation hard X-ray telescopes will achieve angular resolution between 5 and 10 arc seconds - about an order of magnitude better than that of the NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope. As a consequence, the next generation of X-ray telescopes will require pixelated X-ray detectors with pixels on a grid with a lattice constant of <= 250um. Additional detector requirements include a low energy threshold of less than 5keV and an energy resolution of less than one keV. The science drivers for a high angular-resolution X-ray mission include studies and measurements of black hole spins, the cosmic evolution of super-massive black holes, active galactic nuclei feedback, and the behaviour of matter at very high densities. In this...

  18. Structure of W3(OH) from Very High Spectral Resolution Observations of 5 Centimeter OH Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Loránt O. Sjouwerman

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies of methanol and ground-state OH masers at very high spectral resolution have shed new light on small-scale maser processes. The nearby source W3(OH), which contains numerous bright masers in several different transitions, provides an excellent laboratory for high spectral resolution techniques. We present a model of W3(OH) based on EVN observations of the rotationally-excited 6030 and 6035 MHz OH masers taken at 0.024 km/s spectral resolution. The 6.0 GHz masers are becoming brighter with time and show evidence for tangential proper motions. We confirm the existence of a region of magnetic field oriented toward the observer to the southeast and find another such region to the northeast in W3(OH), near the champagne flow. The 6.0 GHz masers trace the inner edge of a counterclockwise rotating torus feature. Masers at 6030 MHz are usually a factor of a few weaker than at 6035 MHz but trace the same material. Velocity gradients of nearby Zeeman components are much more closely correlated than in the ground state, likely due to the smaller spatial separation between Zeeman components. Hydroxyl maser peaks at very long baseline interferometric resolution appear to have structure on scales both smaller than that resolvable as well as on larger scales.

  19. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  20. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  1. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Chorkendorff, I. [Department of Physics, Danish National Research Foundation's Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, Building 312, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O. [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/{Delta}m > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH{sub 3}.

  2. Light Trapping for High Efficiency Heterojunction Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light trapping plays an important role to achieve high short circuit current density (Jsc) and high efficiency for amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells. Si heterojunction uses hydrogenated amorphous Si for emitter and back contact. This structure of solar cell posses highest open circuit voltage of 0.747 V at one sun for c-Si based solar cells. It also suggests that over 25% record-high efficiency is possible with further improvement of Jsc. Light trapping has two important tasks. The first one is to reduce the surface reflectance of light to zero for the solar spectrum that Si has a response. The second one is to increase the effective absorption length to capture all the photon. For Si heterojunction solar cell, surface texturing, anti-reflectance indium tin oxides (ITO) layer at the front and back are the key area to improve the light trapping.

  3. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Smith; K. H. Hinkle; K. Cunha; B. Plez; D. L. Lambert; C. A. Pilachowski; B. Barbuy; J. Melendez; S. Balachandran; M. S. Bessell; D. P. Geisler; J. E. Hesser; C. Winge

    2002-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to supernovae of type Ia.

  4. Persistent global proton aurora caused by high solar wind dynamic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Persistent global proton aurora caused by high solar wind dynamic pressure K. M. Laundal1 and N] Global images of the proton aurora taken with the SI-12 camera onboard the IMAGE satellite reveal a very direct relationship between the solar wind dynamic pressure and the intensity of the global proton aurora

  5. Tuesday, 31 July, 2012 Rapid radiation belt losses occurring during high speed solar wind stream1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    Tuesday, 31 July, 2012 1 Rapid radiation belt losses occurring during high speed solar wind stream1 Raita11 Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Sodankylä, Finland12 Abstract. Recent geomagnetic disturbances triggered by the arrival of a Solar14 Wind Stream Interface (SWSI). In the current

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle Emily D Kosten1. This isotropic emission corresponds to a significant entropy increase in the solar cell, with a corresponding drop in efficiency. Here, using a detailed balance model, we show that limiting the emission angle

  7. High-Efficiency Solar Cells for Large-Scale Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Olson, J.; Geisz, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.; Wanlass, M.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Bertness, K.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Young, M.; Carapella, J.; Steiner, M.

    2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One strategy for helping the solar industry to grow faster is to use very high efficiency cells under concentrating optics. By using lenses or mirrors to concentrate the light, very small solar cells can be used, reducing the amount of semiconductor material and allowing use of higher efficiency cells, which are now >40% efficient.

  8. innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Low-bandgap cells can lose 25% of their power output and efficiency ratings as solar cell operating energy output than a low-bandgap cell with the same wattage or power rating. NREL is a nationalinnovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells Researchers

  9. NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cell is zinc oxide (ZnO). The problem is that unprotected Zn is a lifetime-limiting problem that is currently addressed solely through encapsulation. Fundamentally improving

  10. Approaches for Ultra-High Efficiency Solar Cells C.B. Honsberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    Approaches for Ultra-High Efficiency Solar Cells C.B. Honsberg School of Electrical and Computer and to identify the critical physical phenomena important for solar energy conversion. 2. Technical Approach The largest loss mechanism in photovoltaic energy conversion arises from the mismatch between the wavelengths

  11. High-temperature phase transition in a plasma and the mechanism of powerful solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedor V. Prigara

    2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the high- temperature phase transition in a plasma gives the mechanism of transition from the highly conductive state to the highly resistive state of a plasma in the `electric circuit' model of solar flares which was first introduced by H.Alfven and P.Carlqvist in 1967. With this addendum, the modern version of the electric circuit model can explain both the fast dissipation of energy and the acceleration of particles in a solar flare.

  12. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period This is the final report covering approximately 42 months of this subcontract for research on high efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have

  13. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China)] [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  14. Development of High Resolution Land Surface Parameters for the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Yinghai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Coleman, Andre M.; Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing need for high-resolution land surface parameters as land surface models are being applied at increasingly higher spatial resolution offline as well as in regional and global models. The default land surface parameters for the most recent version of the Community Land Model (i.e. CLM 4.0) are at 0.5° or coarser resolutions, released with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Plant Functional Types (PFTs), vegetation properties such as Leaf Area Index (LAI), Stem Area Index (SAI), and non-vegetated land covers were developed using remotely sensed datasets retrieved in late 1990’s and the beginning of this century. In this study, we developed new land surface parameters for CLM 4.0, specifically PFTs, LAI, SAI and non-vegetated land cover composition, at 0.05° resolution globally based on the most recent MODIS land cover and improved MODIS LAI products. Compared to the current CLM 4.0 parameters, the new parameters produced a decreased coverage by bare soil and trees, but an increased coverage by shrub, grass, and cropland. The new parameters result in a decrease in global seasonal LAI, with the biggest decrease in boreal forests; however, the new parameters also show a large increase in LAI in tropical forest. Differences between the new and the current parameters are mainly caused by changes in the sources of remotely sensed data and the representation of land cover in the source data. Advantages and disadvantages of each dataset were discussed in order to provide guidance on the use of the data. The new high-resolution land surface parameters have been used in a coupled land-atmosphere model (WRF-CLM) applied to the western U.S. to demonstrate their use in high-resolution modeling. A remapping method from the latitude/longitude grid of the CLM data to the WRF grids with map projection was also demonstrated. Future work will include global offline CLM simulations to examine the impacts of source data resolution and subsequent land parameter changes on simulated land surface processes.

  15. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, John, E-mail: john-koo@amat.com; Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)] [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  17. Designing Large High-Resolution Display Workspaces Alex Endert, Lauren Bradel, Jessica Zeitz, Christopher Andrews, Chris North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designing Large High-Resolution Display Workspaces Alex Endert, Lauren Bradel, Jessica Zeitz Large, high-resolution displays have enormous potential to aid in scenarios beyond their current usage seemingly small large-display design decisions can have significant impacts on users' perceptions

  18. Hierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC) imagery for rangeland mapping and assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and is in the process of changing from film to digital aerial image acquisition. Cur- rently, only broad land useHierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC, MSC3JER, NMSU, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8003, USA Ultra-high-resolution digital aerial imagery has great

  19. Impact of recent lake eutrophication on microbial community changes as revealed by high resolution lipid biomarkers in Rotsee (Switzerland)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Impact of recent lake eutrophication on microbial community changes as revealed by high resolution t The effects of eutrophication on short term changes in the microbial community were investigated using high resolution lipid biomarker and trace metal data for sediments from the eutrophic Lake Rotsee (Swit- zerland

  20. Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben Ticha a,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben accurate high spatial and temporal resolutions wind measurements. Offshore, satellite data are an accurate radar, scatterometer, data fusion, offshore wind energy resource assessment. 1. INTRODUCTION Since

  1. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  2. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoukis, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to the Cyprus population due to terrestrial gamma radiation is derived directly from this work. The results obtained outdoors match very well with those derived previously by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of soil samples, which were collected from the main island bedrock surface. This implies that the construction and building materials in urban areas do not affect the external gamma dose rate; thus they are mostly of local origin. Finally, the indoor/outdoor gamma dose ratio was found to be 1.4 +- 0.5.

  3. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  4. Technologies and R&D for a High Resolution Cavity BPM for the CLIC Main Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towler, J R; Soby, L; Wendt, M; Boogert, S T; Cullinan, F J; Lyapin, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Main Beam (MB) linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires a beam orbit measurement system with high spatial (50 nm) and high temporal resolution (50 ns) to resolve the beam position within the 156 ns long bunch train, traveling on an energy-chirped, minimum dispersive trajectory. A 15 GHz prototype cavity BPM has been commissioned in the probe beam-line of the CTF3 CLIC Test Facility. We discuss performance and technical details of this prototype installation, including the 15 GHz analogue downconverter, the data acquisition and the control electronics and software. An R&D outlook is given for the next steps, which requires a system of 3 cavity BPMs to investigate the full resolution potential.

  5. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedrich, Stephan (San Jose, CA); , Niedermayr, Thomas R. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  6. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  7. High-Resolution Genomic Profiles of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Assessed by Tiling BAC Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet,

    number changes in 10 breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MCF7, HCC1937, SK-BR-3, L56Br-C1, ZR-75-1, JIMT1High-Resolution Genomic Profiles of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Assessed by Tiling BAC Array, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, and HCC2218) and one cell line derived from fibrocystic disease of the breast

  8. A high-resolution, four-band SAR testbed with real-time image formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.; Sander, G.; Thompson, M.; Burns, B.; Fellerhoff, R.; Dubbert, D.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Twin-Otter SAR Testbed developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This SAR is a flexible, adaptable testbed capable of operation on four frequency bands: Ka, Ku, X, and VHF/UHF bands. The SAR features real-time image formation at fine resolution in spotlight and stripmap modes. High-quality images are formed in real time using the overlapped subaperture (OSA) image-formation and phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms.

  9. High Resolution Studies of the Origins of Polyatomic Ions in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill Wisnewski Ferguson

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is an atmospheric pressure ionization source. Traditionally, the plasma is sampled via a sampler cone. A supersonic jet develops behind the sampler, and this region is pumped down to a pressure of approximately one Torr. A skimmer cone is located inside this zone of silence to transmit ions into the mass spectrometer. The position of the sampler and skimmer cones relative to the initial radiation and normal analytical zones of the plasma is key to optimizing the useful analytical signal [1]. The ICP both atomizes and ionizes the sample. Polyatomic ions form through ion-molecule interactions either in the ICP or during ion extraction [l]. Common polyatomic ions that inhibit analysis include metal oxides (MO{sup +}), adducts with argon, the gas most commonly used to make up the plasma, and hydride species. While high resolution devices can separate many analytes from common interferences, this is done at great cost in ion transmission efficiency--a loss of 99% when using high versus low resolution on the same instrument [2]. Simple quadrupole devices, which make up the bulk of ICP-MS instruments in existence, do not present this option. Therefore, if the source of polyatomic interferences can be determined and then manipulated, this could potentially improve the figures of merit on all ICP-MS devices, not just the high resolution devices often utilized to study polyatomic interferences.

  10. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  11. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth W. Hill, et. al.

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution (?/?#3;? ~ 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-?m 55 Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10-8 -10-6 times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  12. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043-Grenoble Cedex (France); Zhang, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  13. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  14. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helm, C.; Burman, K.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

  15. Project Profile: A Small-Particle Solar Receiver for High-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high-temperature solar receiver in the multi-megawatt range that can drive a gas turbine to generate low-cost electricity. The goals of this project are to:...

  16. High Efficiency CdTe Ink-Based Solar Cells Using Nanocrystals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL Highlight is being developed for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting and describes a solution-processable ink to produce high-efficiency solar cells using low temperature and simple processing.

  17. Studies of Perovskite Materials for High-Performance Storage Media, Piezoelectric, and Solar Energy Conversion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    Studies of Perovskite Materials for High-Performance Storage Media, Piezoelectric, and Solar Energy of applications, such as sensing, data storage, and energy conversion. For example, perovskite solid solutions

  18. High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, W. Chuck

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

  19. A design for a high resolution very-low-Q time-of flight diffractometer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelm, R. P.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a high resolution view low-Q time of flight diffractometer was motivated by the anticipated need to perform small-angle neutron scattering measurements at far lower momentum transfer and higher precision than currently available at either pulsed or steady state sources. In addition, it was recognized that flexibility in the configuration of the instrument and ease in which data is acquired are important. The design offers two configurations, a high intensity/very low Q geometry employing a focusing mirror and a medium to high Q-precision/low Q configuration using standard pinhole collimation geometry. The quality of the mirror optics is very important to the performance of the high intensity/very low Q configuration. We believe that the necessary technology exists to fabricate the high quality mirror optics required for the instrument.

  20. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  1. Presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Glasgow, May 2000 HIGH RESOLUTION LASER STEPPING MEASUREMENTS ON POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS J. F. Hiltner and J. R. Sites Colorado conveniently and non- destructively by focusing a laser beam on the surface of the solar cell and measuring

  2. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  3. Spectroscopy of Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wurm; Franz von Feilitzsch; Marianne Goeger-Neff; Tobias Lachenmaier; Timo Lewke; Quirin Meindl; Randoplh Moellenberg; Lothar Oberauer; Walter Potzel; Marc Tippmann; Christoph Traunsteiner; Juergen Winter

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last years, liquid-scintillator detectors have opened a new window for the observation of low-energetic astrophysical neutrino sources. In 2007, the solar neutrino experiment Borexino began its data-taking in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. High energy resolution and excellent radioactive background conditions in the detector allow the first-time spectroscopic measurement of solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV energy regime. The experimental results of the Beryllium-7 neutrino flux measurements as well as the prospects for the detection of solar Boron-8, pep and CNO neutrinos are presented in the context of the currently discussed ambiguities in solar metallicity. In addition, the potential of the future SNO+ and LENA experiments for high-precision solar neutrino spectroscopy will be outlined.

  4. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  5. FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    FINE-GRAINED NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON P-LAYER FOR HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE A-SI:H SOLAR CELLS of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA ABSTRACT Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single- junction solar). It is found that the p-layer that leads to high Voc a-Si:H solar cells is a mixed-phase material that contains

  6. Ultra-high-resolution alpha spectrometry for nuclear forensics and safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacrania, Minesh K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croce, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bond, Evelyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dry, Donald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, W. Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabin, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rim, Jung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Audrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beall, James [NIST-BOULDER; Bennett, Douglas [NIST-BOULDER; Kotsubo, Vincent [NIST-BOULDER; Horansky, Robert [NIST-BOULDER; Hilton, Gene [NIST-BOULDER; Schmidt, Daniel [NIST-BOULDER; Ullom, Joel [NIST-BOULDER; Cantor, Robin [STAR CRYOELECTRONICS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We will present our work on the development of ultra-high-resolution detectors for alpha particle spectrometry. These detectors, based on superconducting transition-edge sensors, offer energy resolution that is five to ten times better than conventional silicon detectors. Using these microcalorimeter detectors, the isotopic composition of mixed-actinide samples can be determined rapidly without the need for actinide separation chemistry to isolate each element, or mass spectrometry to separate isotopic signatures that can not be resolved using traditional alpha spectrometry (e.g. Pu-239/Pu-240, or Pu-238/Am-241). This paper will cover the detector and measurement system, actinide source preparation, and the quantitative isotopic analysis of a number of forensics- and safeguards-relevant radioactive sources.

  7. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  8. Keck High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Outflows in Infrared Luminous Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David S. Rupke; Sylvain Veilleux

    2005-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent studies have determined that large quantities of neutral gas are outflowing from the nuclei of almost all infrared-luminous galaxies. These measurements show that winds in infrared-luminous galaxies play a significant role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium at redshifts z > 1, when infrared-luminous galaxies dominated the star formation rate of the universe. These conclusions rely on moderate resolution spectra (FWHM > 65 km/s) of the NaI D absorption line and the assumption that there are no unresolved, saturated velocity components. For the first time, we present high resolution spectra (FWHM = 13 km/s) of massive, infrared-luminous galaxies. The five galaxies in our sample are known to host outflows on the basis of previous observations. With the present observations, all NaI D velocity components are resolved with tau(NaI D1 5896 A) luminous galaxies have been measured correctly by previous studies.

  9. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  10. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  11. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  12. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  13. High Resolution X-Ray Scattering at Sector 3, Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about 1 meV resolution; momentum resolved inelastic x-ray scattering with about 1 meV resolution (HERIX); Synchrotron Mossbauer spectroscopy with about 10 neV resolution (SMS)....

  14. High resolution detection and excitation of resonant magnetic perturbations in a wall-stabilized tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurer, David A. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Shiraki, Daisuke; Levesque, Jeffrey P.; Bialek, James; Angelini, Sarah; Byrne, Patrick; DeBono, Bryan; Hughes, Paul; Mauel, Michael E.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Peng Qian; Rhodes, Dov; Rath, Nickolaus; Stoafer, Christopher [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report high-resolution detection of the 3D plasma magnetic response of wall-stabilized tokamak discharges in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse [T. H. Ivers et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1926 (1996)] device. A new adjustable conducting wall has been installed on HBT-EP made up of 20 independent, movable, wall segments instrumented with three distinct sets of 40 modular coils that can be independently driven to generate a wide variety of magnetic perturbations. High-resolution detection of the plasma response is made with 216 poloidal and radial magnetic sensors that have been located and calibrated with high-accuracy. Static and dynamic plasma responses to resonant and non-resonant magnetic perturbations are observed through measurement of the step-response following a rapid change in the toroidal phase of the applied perturbations. Biorthogonal decomposition of the full set of magnetic sensors clearly defines the structures of naturally occurring external kinks as being composed of independent m/n = 3/1 and 6/2 modes. Resonant magnetic perturbations were applied to discharges with pre-existing, saturated m/n = 3/1 external kink mode activity. This m/n = 3/1 kink mode was observed to lock to the applied perturbation field. During this kink mode locked period, the plasma resonant response is characterized by a linear, a saturated, and a disruptive plasma regime dependent on the magnitude of the applied field and value of the edge safety factor and plasma rotation.

  15. High throughput parallel backside contacting and periodic texturing for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Claus; Blue, Craig A.; Ott, Ronald D.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are configurations of long-range ordered features of solar cell materials, and methods for forming same. Some features include electrical access openings through a backing layer to a photovoltaic material in the solar cell. Some features include textured features disposed adjacent a surface of a solar cell material. Typically the long-range ordered features are formed by ablating the solar cell material with a laser interference pattern from at least two laser beams.

  16. Design for the fabrication of high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Joseph H. (Gainesville, FL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for a photo-active region for generation of free carriers when a first surface is exposed to optical radiation. The photo-active region includes a conducting transparent matrix and clusters of semiconductor materials embedded within the conducting transparent matrix. The clusters are arranged in the matrix material so as to define at least a first distribution of cluster sizes ranging from those with the highest bandgap energy near a light incident surface of the photo-active region to those with the smallest bandgap energy near an opposite second surface of the photo-active region. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for a solar cell. The solar cell includes a photo-active region containing a plurality of semiconductor clusters of varying sizes as described.

  17. c 2013 by Jacob Thomas Stewart. All rights reserved. HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LARGE MOLECULES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Benjamin J.

    OF LARGE MOLECULES AND WATER CLUSTERS USING QUANTUM CASCADE LASERS BY JACOB THOMAS STEWART DISSERTATION-resolution spectroscopic studies of large molecules and water clusters which have been obtained using a quantum cascade cooling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including high-resolution spectroscopy of pyrene (C16H

  18. Rapid detection and identification of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pathogens in fish1 using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA)2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    resolution melting analysis (HRMA)2 3 4 Thu Nguyet Phung 1,2 , Domenico Caruso 2 , Sylvain Godreuil 3 19 Running title: identification of fish mycobateria by HRMA20 ird-00940286,version1-31Jan2014 Author diagnostic test exists, we tested the potential of27 high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) to rapidly

  19. SMA Observations of Class 0 Protostars: A High-Angular Resolution Survey of Protostellar Binary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuepeng; Zhang, Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L; Launhardt, Ralf; Jorgensen, Jes K; Lee, Chin-Fee; Foster, Jonathan B; Dunham, Michael M; Pineda, Jaime E; Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 um dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.5 arcsec, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64+/-0.08 and 0.91+/-0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I YSOs, and approxima...

  20. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  1. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  2. Breast tumor segmentation in high resolution x-ray phase contrast analyzer based computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brun, E., E-mail: emmanuel.brun@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble 380000, France and Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Garching 85748 (Germany); Grandl, S.; Sztrókay-Gaul, A.; Gasilov, S. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Barbone, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mittone, A.; Coan, P. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Garching 85748, Germany and Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, 81377 Munich (Germany); Bravin, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble 380000 (France)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. Methods: The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer based phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure’s possible applications. Results: A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.

  3. WAVELETS WITH RIDGES: A HIGH-RESOLUTION REPRESENTATION OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE TIME SERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackman, Claire, E-mail: claire.blackman@rhul.ac.u [Department of Economics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) and dwarf nova oscillations (DNOs) occur in dwarf novae and nova-like variables during outburst and occasionally during quiescence, and have analogs in high-mass X-ray binaries and black-hole candidates. The frequent low coherence of quasi-period oscillations and DNOs can make detection with standard time-series tools such as periodograms problematic. This paper develops tools to analyze quasi-periodic brightness oscillations. We review the use of time-frequency representations (TFRs) in the astronomical literature, and show that representations such as the Choi-Williams distribution and Zhao-Atlas-Marks representation, which are best suited to high signal-to-noise data, cannot be assumed a priori to be the best techniques for our data, which have a much higher noise level and lower coherence. This leads us to a detailed analysis of the time-frequency resolution and statistical properties of six TFRs. We conclude that the wavelet scalogram, with the addition of wavelet ridges and maxima points, is the most effective TFR for analyzing quasi-periodicities in low signal-to-noise data, as it has high time-frequency resolution, and is a minimum variance estimator. We use the wavelet ridges method to re-analyze archival data from VW Hyi, and find 62 new QPOs and 7 new long-period DNOs. Relative to previous analyses, our method substantially improves the detection rate for QPOs.

  4. Time series of high resolution spectra of SN 2014J observed with the TIGRE telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jack, D; Schroder, K -P; Schmitt, J H M M; Hempelmann, A; Gonzalez-Perez, J N; Trinidad, M A; Rauw, G; Sixto, J M Cabrera

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a time series of high resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS echelle spectrograph installed at the 1.2 m TIGRE telescope. We present a series of 33 spectra with a resolution of R = 20, 000, which covers the important bright phases in the evolution of SN 2014J during the period from January 24 to April 1 of 2014. The spectral evolution of SN 2014J is derived empirically. The expansion velocities of the Si II P-Cygni features were measured and show the expected decreasing behaviour, beginning with a high velocity of 14,000 km/s on January 24. The Ca II infrared triplet feature shows a high velocity component with expansion velocities of > 20, 000 km/s during the early evolution apart from the normal component showing similar velocities as Si II. Further broad P-Cygni profiles are exhibited by the principal lines of Ca II, Mg II and Fe II. The TIGRE SN 2014J spectra also resolve several very sharp Na I D doub...

  5. High-Resolution Infrared and Electron-Diffraction Studies of Trimethylenecyclopropane ([3]-Radialene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Corey R.; Holmes, Joshua; Nibler, Joseph W.; Hedberg, Kenneth; White, James D.; Hedberg, Lise; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined high-resolution spectroscopic, electron-diffraction, and quantum theoretical methods are particularly advantageous for small molecules of high symmetry and can yield accurate structures that reveal subtle effects of electron delocalization on molecular bonds. The smallest of the radialene compounds, trimethylenecyclopropane, [3]-radialene, has been synthesized and examined in the gas phase by these methods. The first high-resolution infrared spectra have been obtained for this molecule of D3h symmetry, leading to an accurate B0 rotational constant value of 0.1378629(8) cm-1, within 0.5% of the value obtained from electronic structure calculations (density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/cc-pVTZ). This result is employed in an analysis of electron-diffraction data to obtain the rz bond lengths (in Å): C-H = 1.072 (17), C-C = 1.437 (4), and C=C = 1.330 (4). The analysis does not lead to an accurate value of the HCH angle; however, from comparisons of theoretical and experimental angles for similar compounds, the theoretical prediction of 117.5? is believed to be reliable to within 2?. The effect of electron delocalization in radialene is to reduce the single C-C bond length by 0.07 Å compared to that in cyclopropane.

  6. Scientific system for high-resolution measurement of the circumsolar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrott, Simeon, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Schmidt, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Hornung, Thorsten, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de; Nitz, Peter, E-mail: thomas.schmidt@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a camera based system for measurements of the circumsolar radiation with a high angular resolution of 0.1 mrad. Subsequent measurements may be taken at intervals as short as 15 s. In this publication we describe the optical system in detail and discuss some aspects of the measurement method. First results from two days of measurement at Freiburg i. Br., Germany, are presented and compared to data from literature. The good results encourage us to perform longer measurement campaigns in future to better understand the influence of circumsolar radiation on the power yield of concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  7. Techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosols at the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The HiRes Collaboration

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe several techniques developed by the High Resolution Fly's Eye experiment for measuring aerosol vertical optical depth, aerosol horizontal attenuation length, and aerosol phase function. The techniques are based on measurements of side-scattered light generated by a steerable ultraviolet laser and collected by an optical detector designed to measure fluorescence light from cosmic-ray air showers. We also present a technique to cross-check the aerosol optical depth measurement using air showers observed in stereo. These methods can be used by future air fluorescence experiments.

  8. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Downy, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  9. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Palos Park, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  10. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  11. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  12. Numerical simulation: Toward the design of high-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Jun, E-mail: zhujzhu@gmail.com, E-mail: sydai@ipp.ac.cn; Wei, Junfeng; Li, Yi; Lv, Mei [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: zhujzhu@gmail.com, E-mail: sydai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Organo-metal halide perovskite solar cells based on planar architecture have been reported to achieve remarkably high power conversion efficiency (PCE, >16%), rendering them highly competitive to the conventional silicon based solar cells. A thorough understanding of the role of each component in solar cells and their effects as a whole is still required for further improvement in PCE. In this work, the planar heterojunction-based perovskite solar cells were simulated with the program AMPS (analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures)-1D. Simulation results revealed a great dependence of PCE on the thickness and defect density of the perovskite layer. Meanwhile, parameters including the work function of the back contact as well as the hole mobility and acceptor density in hole transport materials were identified to significantly influence the performance of the device. Strikingly, an efficiency over 20% was obtained under the moderate simulation conditions.

  13. Large area, high spatial resolution tracker for new generation of high luminosity experiments in Hall A at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellini, V; Castelluccio, D; Colilli, S; Cisbani, E; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Guiliani, F; Guisa, A; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Meddi, F; Minutoli, S; Musico, P; Noto, F; De Oliveira, R; Santavenere, F; Sutera, M C

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2014 the CEBAF electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab (JLab) will deliver a longitudinally polarized (up to 85%), high intensity (up to 100 ?A) beam with maximum energy of 12 GeV, twice the present value. To exploit the new opportunities that the energy upgrade will offer, a new spectrometer (Super BigBite - SBS) is under development, featuring very forward angle, large acceptance and ability to operate in high luminosity environment. The tracking system of SBS will consist of large area (40×150 cm2 and 50×200 cm2), high spatial resolution (better than 100 ?m) chambers based on the GEM technology and 2 small (10×20 cm) Silicon Strip Detector planes. The design of the GEM chambers and its sub-components such as the readout electronics is resented here.

  14. A new variable-resolution associative memory for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annovi, A. [INFN Frascati (Italy); Amerio, S. [INFN Padova (Italy); Beretta, M. [INFN Frascati (Italy); Bossini, E.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P. [INFN Pisa (Italy); Hoff, J.; Liu, T. [Fermilab (United States); Magalotti, D. [INFN Perugia (Italy); Piendibene, M.; Sacco, I. [INFN Pisa (Italy); Schoening, A.; Soltveit, H. K. [Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Stabile, A. [INFN Milano (Italy); Tripiccione, R. [INFN Ferrara (Italy); Liberali, V. [INFN Milano (Italy); Vitillo, R. [INFN Pisa (Italy); Volpi, G. [INFN Frascati (Italy)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out by finding track candidates in coarse resolution 'roads'. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called 'patterns', for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its 'coverage' and the level of fake roads. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least one pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to the number of patterns in the bank. Moreover, as the luminosity increases, the fake rate increases rapidly because of the increased silicon occupancy. To counter that, we must reduce the width of our roads. If we decrease the road width using the current technology, the system will become very large and extremely expensive. We propose an elegant solution to this problem: the 'variable resolution patterns'. Each pattern and each detector layer within a pattern will be able to use the optimal width, but we will use a 'don't care' feature (inspired from ternary CAMs) to increase the width when that is more appropriate. In other words we can use patterns of variable shape. As a result we reduce the number of fake roads, while keeping the efficiency high and avoiding excessive bank size due to the reduced width. We describe the idea, the implementation in the new AM design and the implementation of the algorithm in the simulation. Finally we show the effectiveness of the 'variable resolution patterns' idea using simulated high occupancy events in the ATLAS detector. (authors)

  15. Fabrication and characterization of a 0.5-mm lutetium oxyorthosilicate detector array for high-resolution PET applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickel, Jennifer R; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive51:2131–2142. 0.5- MM LSO A RRAY FOR PET • Stickel et al.Instrumentation aspects of animal PET. Annu Rev Biomed Eng.

  16. High-resolution calorimetric study of the nematic to smectic- A transition in aligned liquid crystal–aerosil gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland, Carl W.

    High-resolution ac calorimetry has been used to study the nematic to smectic-A (N-SmA) phase transition in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined in aligned colloidal aerosil gels. A stable and robust nematic ...

  17. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late Middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Bridget S.; Norris, Richard D.; Kroom, Dick

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary aim of the this investigation was to examine the stability of subtropical sea-surface temperatures and reconstruct the surfaceto- benthos thermal gradient. High-resolution stable isotopic analyses (?18O and ?13C) were conducted on late...

  18. Monitoring temperate glaciers by high resolution Pol-InSAR data: First analysis of Argentire E-SAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Monitoring temperate glaciers by high resolution Pol-InSAR data: First analysis of Argentière E to measure temperate glacier velocities and surface characteristics by airborne interferometric Alpine glaciers. Simultaneously to the acquisition of repeat pass interferometric, polarimetric and multi

  19. High-resolution shear-wave reflection profiling to image offset in unconsolidated near-surface sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Bevin

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    S-wave reflection profiling has many theoretical advantages, when compared to P-wave profiling, such as high-resolution potential, greater sensitivities to lithologic changes and insensitivity to the water table and pore ...

  20. High-resolution 18F-FDG PET with MRI for monitoring response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner during human imaging. J2]. A high-resolution PET/CT scanner for imaging extremitiesOA). An extremity 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan immediately following

  1. PV Solar Site Assessment (Milwaukee High School) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 Termoelectrica U.SPRESS FACT SHEETEnergyPUBLICPV Solar Site

  2. Helping Ensure High-Quality Installation of Solar Power Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresented By: WALTER

  3. Highly Efficient Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar PowerCommercial Cold Climate HeatEnergy||

  4. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batteries. Solar Water Heater Solar water heater is becomingSolar Water Heater heaters, thermal protection for electronics, spacecrafts, and solar

  5. Massive quiescent cores in Orion. IV. Their supercritical state revealed by high resolution ammonia maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, D; Zhang, Q; Chen, W

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present combined VLA and GBT images of \\ammonia\\ inversion transitions (1,1) and (2,2) toward OMC2 and OMC3. We focus on the relatively quiescent Orion cores, which are away from the Trapezium cluster and have no sign of massive protostars nor evolved star formation, such as IRAS source, water maser, and methanol maser. The 5\\arcsec\\ angular resolution and $0.6 \\rm{}km s^{-1}$ velocity resolution of these data enable us to study the thermal and dynamic state of these cores at $\\sim{}0.02 \\rm{}pc$ scales, comparable to or smaller than those of the current dust continuum surveys. We measure temperatures for a total of 30 cores, with average masses and radii of $11 \\Ms$ and $0.039 \\rm{}pc$, respectively. Compared to other Gould Belt dense cores, the Orion cores have an unusually high gravitational-to-inetic energy ratio (virial mass ratio $R_{vir} > >1$), resembling results for other clouds forming high--mass stars. This results from Orion cores having velocity dispersions similar to those in, e.g., Perseus a...

  6. Diamond-machined ZnSe immersion grating for NIR high-resolution spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Yasui, C; Kondo, S; Minami, A; Motohara, K

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnSe immersion gratings (n {approx} 2.45) provide the possibility of high-resolution spectroscopy for the near-infrared (NIR) region. Since ZnSe has a lower internal attenuation than other NIR materials, it is most suitable for immersion grating, particularly in short NIR region (0.8-1.4 {micro}m). We are developing an extremely high-resolution spectrograph with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 100,000, WINERED, customized for the short NIR region, using ZnSe (or ZnS) immersion grating. However, it had been very difficult to make fine grooves on ZnSe substrate with a small pitch of less than 50 {micro}m because ZnSe is a soft/brittle material. We have overcome this problem and successfully machined sharp grooves with fine pitch on ZnSe substrates by nano precision fly-cutting technique at LLNL. The optical testing of the sample grating with HeNe laser shows an excellent performance: the relative efficiency more than 87.4 % at 0.633 {micro}m for a classical grating configuration. The diffraction efficiency when used as an immersion grating is estimated to be more than 65 % at 1 {micro}m. Following this progress, we are about to start machining a grating on a large ZnSe prism with an entrance aperture of 23mm x 50mm and the blaze angle of 70{sup o}.

  7. High spatial and temporal resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Y. L.; Yu, D. L., E-mail: yudl@swip.ac.cn; Liu, L.; Cao, J. Y.; Sun, A. P.; Ma, Q.; Chen, W. J.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Hellermann, M. von [ITER Diagnostic Team, IO, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); FOM-Institute for Plasma physics “Rijnhuizen,” Association EURATOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 32/64-channel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system is developed on the HL-2A tokamak (R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m), monitoring plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity simultaneously. A high throughput spectrometer (F/2.8) and a pitch-controlled fiber bundle enable the temporal resolution of the system up to 400 Hz. The observation geometry and an optimized optic system enable the highest radial resolution up to ~1 cm at the plasma edge. The CXRS system monitors the carbon line emission (C VI, n = 8–7, 529.06 nm) whose Doppler broadening and Doppler shift provide ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity during the neutral beam injection. The composite CX spectral data are analyzed by the atomic data and analysis structure charge exchange spectroscopy fitting (ADAS CXSFIT) code. First experimental results are shown for the case of HL-2A plasmas with sawtooth oscillations, electron cyclotron resonance heating, and edge transport barrier during the high-confinement mode (H-mode)

  8. High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer James M. Zahler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    to significantly increase performance while reducing the cost and weight of compound semiconductor solar cellsHigh efficiency InGaAs solar cells on Si by InP layer transfer James M. Zahler Aonex Technologies for solar cell applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2753751 Engineered

  9. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure: Final project report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.W.; Lin, S.H.

    1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Work includes studies of interface and grain boundary chemistry and structure in silicon nitride matrix/silicon carbide whisker composites, and in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide synthesized by several different methods. Off-stoichiometric, impurity, and sintering aid elemental distributions in these materials (and other ceramics) have been of great interest because of expected effects on properties but these distributions have proven very difficult to measure because the spatial resolution required is high. The authors made a number of these measurements for the first time, using techniques and instrumentation developed here. Interfaces between metals and SiC are the basis for important metal matrix composites and contacts for high temperature SiC-based solid state electronic devices. The authors have investigated ultrapure interfaces between Ti, Hf, Ti-Hf alloys, Pt, and Co and Si-terminated (0001) 6H SiC single crystals for the first time.

  10. High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Wen; Wysocki, Gerard, E-mail: gwysocki@princeton.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Soskind, Michael G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersy 08901 (United States)

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we present a method of performing broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with conventional, free-running, continuous wave Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (FP-QCLs). The measurement method is based on multi-heterodyne down-conversion of optical signals. The sample transmission spectrum probed by one multi-mode FP-QCL is down-converted to the radio-frequency domain through an optical multi-heterodyne process using a second FP-QCL as the local oscillator. Both a broadband multi-mode spectral measurement as well as high-resolution (?15?MHz) spectroscopy of molecular absorption are demonstrated and show great potential for development of high performance FP-laser-based spectrometers for chemical sensing.

  11. High Spatial Resolution Fast-Neutron Imaging Detectors for Pulsed Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mor, I; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Katz, D; Sayag, E; Shmueli, I; Cohen, Y; Tal, A; Vagish, Z; Bromberger, B; Dangendorf, V; Mugai, D; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two generations of a novel detector for high-resolution transmission imaging and spectrometry of fast-neutrons are presented. These devices are based on a hydrogenous fiber scintillator screen and single- or multiple-gated intensified camera systems (ICCD). This detector is designed for energy-selective neutron radiography with nanosecond-pulsed broad-energy (1 - 10 MeV) neutron beams. Utilizing the Time-of-Flight (TOF) method, such a detector is capable of simultaneously capturing several images, each at a different neutron energy (TOF). In addition, a gamma-ray image can also be simultaneously registered, allowing combined neutron/gamma inspection of objects. This permits combining the sensitivity of the fast-neutron resonance method to low-Z elements with that of gamma radiography to high-Z materials.

  12. High resolution laser induced fluorescence Doppler velocimetry utilizing saturated absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aramaki, Mitsutoshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ogiwara, Kohei; Etoh, Shuzo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Yoshimura, Shinji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to measure the flow velocity field of neutral particles in an electron-cyclotron-resonance argon plasma. The flow velocity has been determined by the Doppler shift of the LIF spectrum, which is proportional to the velocity distribution function. Very high accuracy in velocity determination has been achieved by installing a saturated absorption spectroscopy unit into the LIF system, where the absolute value and scale of laser wavelength are determined by using the Lamb dip and the fringes of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The minimum detectable flow velocity of a newly developed LIF system is {+-}2 m/s, and this performance remains unchanged in a long-time experiment. From the radial measurements of LIF spectra of argon metastable atoms, it is found that there exists an inward flow of neutral particles associated with neutral depletion.

  13. High resolution coherent diffractive imaging with a table-top extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu Le, Hoang, E-mail: vuhoangle@swin.edu.au; Ba Dinh, Khuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a resolution of 45?nm with a sample size down to 3??m × 3??m is achieved in a short exposure time of 2?s, from the diffraction pattern generated by a table-top high harmonic source at around 30?nm. By using a narrow-bandwidth focusing mirror, the diffraction pattern's quality is improved and the required exposure time is significantly reduced. In order to obtain a high quality of the reconstructed image, the ratio of the beam size to the sample size and the curvature of the focused beam need to be considered in the reconstruction process. This new experimental scheme is very promising for imaging sub-10?nm scale objects with a table-top source based on a small inexpensive femtosecond laser system.

  14. High-resolution metagenomics targets major functional types in complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Lapidus, Alla; Ivanova, Natalia; Copeland, Alex C.; McHardy, Alice C.; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Suciu, Dominic; Levine, Samuel R.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bruce, David C.; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most microbes in the biosphere remain uncultured and unknown. Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) allows glimpses into genetic and metabolic potentials of natural microbial communities. However, in communities of high complexity metagenomics fail to link specific microbes to specific ecological functions. To overcome this limitation, we selectively targeted populations involved in oxidizing single-carbon (C{sub 1}) compounds in Lake Washington (Seattle, USA) by labeling their DNA via stable isotope probing (SIP), followed by WGS sequencing. Metagenome analysis demonstrated specific sequence enrichments in response to different C{sub 1} substrates, highlighting ecological roles of individual phylotypes. We further demonstrated the utility of our approach by extracting a nearly complete genome of a novel methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis, reconstructing its metabolism and conducting genome-wide analyses. This approach allowing high-resolution genomic analysis of ecologically relevant species has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of ecosystems.

  15. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui, E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Bitter, M., E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kerr, S. [Department of Applied Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  16. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  17. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelley, Martin [Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Parsons, David [Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Women's and Children's Health Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Department of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Department of Paediatircs Centre for Stem Cell Research, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Morgan, Kaye [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Siu, Karen [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 {mu}m and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron.Overcoming these challenges has permitted increasingly sophisticated imaging of animals with synchrotron X-rays, and we expect a bright future for these techniques.

  18. Study of Fish Response Using Particle Image Velocimetry and High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2004-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing literature of previous particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of fish swimming has been reviewed. Historically, most of the studies focused on the performance evaluation of freely swimming fish. Technological advances over the last decade, especially the development of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, make possible more accurate, quantitative descriptions of the flow patterns adjacent to the fish and in the wake behind the fins and tail, which are imperative to decode the mechanisms of drag reduction and propulsive efficiency. For flows generated by different organisms, the related scales and flow regimes vary significantly. For small Reynolds numbers, viscosity dominates; for very high Reynolds numbers, inertia dominates, and three-dimensional complexity occurs. The majority of previous investigations dealt with the lower end of Reynolds number range. The fish of our interest, such as rainbow trout and spring and fall chinook salmon, fall into the middle range, in which neither viscosity nor inertia is negligible, and three-dimensionality has yet to dominate. Feasibility tests have proven the applicability of PIV to flows around fish. These tests have shown unsteady vortex shedding in the wake, high vorticity region and high stress region, with the highest in the pectoral area. This evident supports the observations by Nietzel et al. (2000) and Deng et al. (2004) that the operculum are most vulnerable to damage from the turbulent shear flow, because they are easily pried open, and the large vorticity and shear stress can lift and tear off scales, rupture or dislodge eyes, and damage gills. In addition, the unsteady behavior of the vortex shedding in the wake implies that injury to fish by the instantaneous flow structures would likely be much higher than the injury level estimated using the average values of the dynamics parameters. Based on existing literature, our technological capability, and relevance and practicability to Department of Energy's Hydropower Program, we identified three major research areas of interest: free swimming, the boundary layer over fish, and kinematic response of fish. We propose that the highest priority is to characterize the kinematic response of fish to different turbulent environments such as high shear/turbulence and hydrodynamic disturbances created by solid structures such as deflector and turbine runner blade; the next priority is to map the boundary layer over swimming fish; the last is to document the behavior of freely swimming fish, focusing on fish of our interest. Grid turbulence and Karman vortex street will be employed to map the boundary layers over fish and investigate the effects of environmental disturbances on the swimming performance of fish, because they are well established and documented in engineering literature and are representative of fish's swimming environments. Extreme conditions characteristic of turbine environments, such as strong shear environment and collision, will be investigated. Through controlled laboratory studies, the fish injury mechanism from different sources will be evaluated in isolation. The major goals are to: gain first-hand knowledge of the biological effects under such extreme hydraulic environments in which fish could lack the capability to overcome the perturbations and be vulnerable to injury; Better understand field results by integrating the laboratory studies with the responses of sensor fish device; More importantly, provide well-defined validation cases and boundary conditions for geometry-based computational fluid-structure interaction modeling in order to simulate the complex hydraulic environments in advanced hydropower systems and their effects on fish, greatly enhancing the potential to use CFD as a bio-hydraulic design alternative.

  19. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  20. Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    , Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584CC Utrecht, the Netherlands b Technology Foundation STW, Utrecht

  1. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong potential for net gains in efficiency at high concentration.

  2. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  3. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Submillimeter Array High-angular Resolution Observations of the Monoceros R2 Star Forming Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dierickx, Marion; Rivilla, Victor; Zhang, Qizhou

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first high-angular resolution study of the MonR2 star-forming complex carried out with the Submillimeter Array at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We image the continuum and molecular line emission toward the young stellar objects in MonR2 at 0.85mm and 1.3mm, with resolutions ranging from 0.5" to ~3". While free-free emission dominates the IRS1 and IRS2 continuum, dust thermal emission prevails for IRS3 and IRS5, giving envelope masses of ~0.1-0.3 M_Sun. IRS5 splits into at least two sub-arcsecond scale sources, IRS5B and the more massive IRS5A. Our 12CO(2-1) images reveal 11 previously unknown molecular outflows in the MonR2 clump. Comparing these outflows with known IR sources in the IRS5 and IRS3 subclusters allows for tentative identification of driving stars. Line images of molecular species such as CH3CN or CH3OH show that, besides IRS3 (a well-known hot molecular core), IRS5 is also a chemically active source in the region. The gas excitation temperature derived from CH3CN lines toward IRS...

  5. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  6. Development of Advanced Optics and High Resolution Instrumentation for Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrod, Stacy D.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ) improving the analytical figures of merit (i.e., spatial resolution, analysis time) by implementing a spatially dynamic optical system, and (3) increasing both mass spectral resolution and ion detection sensitivity by modifying a commercial time...

  7. LandScan USA: A High Resolution Geospatial and Temporal Modeling Approach for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution population distribution data are critical for successfully addressing important issues ranging from socio-environmental research to public health to homeland security, since scientific analyses, operational activities, and policy decisions are significantly influenced by the number of impacted people. Dasymetric modeling has been a well recognized approach for spatial decomposition of census data to increase the spatial resolution of population distribution. However, enhancing the temporal resolution of population distribution poses a greater challenge. In this paper, we discuss the development of LandScan USA, a multi-dimensional dasymetric modeling approach, which has allowed creation of very high resolution population distribution data both over space and time. At a spatial resolution of 3 arc seconds (~90m), the initial LandScan USA database contains both a nighttime residential as well as a baseline daytime population distribution that incorporates movement of workers and students. Challenging research issues of disparate and misaligned spatial data integration and modeling to develop a database at a national scale, as well as model verification and validation approaches are illustrated and discussed. Initial analyses indicate a high degree of accuracy for LandScan USA distribution model and data. High resolution population data such as LandScan USA, which describes both distribution and dynamics of human population, clearly has the potential to profoundly impact on multiple domain applications of national and global priority.

  8. Technique for continuous high-resolution analysis of trace substances in firn and ice cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Bigler, M.; Hutterli, M.; Sommer, S.; Stauffer, B.; Junghans, H.G.; Wagenbach, D.

    2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The very successful application of a CFA (Continuous flow analysis) system in the GRIP project (Greenland Ice Core Project) for high-resolution ammonium, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and formaldehyde measurements along a deep ice core led to further development of this analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis of sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and electrolytical conductivity, while the existing methods have been improved. The melting device has been optimized to allow the simultaneous analysis of eight components. Furthermore, a new melter was developed for analyzing firn cores. The system has been used in the frame of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) for in-situ analysis of several firn cores from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and for the new ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica.

  9. Deflection Measurements of a Thermally Simulated Nuclear Core using a High-Resolution CCD-Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanojev, B.J. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Al, 35812 (United States); Houts, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space fission systems under consideration for near-term missions all use compact, fast-spectrum reactor cores. Reactor dimensional change with increasing temperature, which affects neutron leakage, is the dominant source of reactivity feedback in these systems. Accurately measuring core dimensional changes during realistic non-nuclear testing is therefore necessary in predicting the system 'nuclear' equivalent behavior. This paper discusses one key technique being evaluated for measuring such changes. The proposed technique is to use a Charged Couple Device (CCD) sensor to obtain deformation readings of electrically heated prototypic reactor core geometry. This paper introduces a technique by which a single high spatial resolution CCD camera is used to measure core deformation in Real-Time (RT). Initial system checkout results are presented along with a discussion on how additional cameras could be used to achieve a three-dimensional deformation profile of the core during test. (authors)

  10. OASIS High-Resolution Integral Field Spectroscopy of the SAURON Ellipticals and Lenticulars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermid, R; Cappellari, M; Kuntschner, H; Bacon, R; Bureau, M; Copin, Y; Davies, R L; Falcon-Barroso, J; Ferruit, P; Krajnovic, D; Peletier, R F; Shapiro, K; Wernli, F; De Zeeuw, P T

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a summary of high-spatial resolution follow-up observations of the elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies in the SAURON survey using the OASIS integral field spectrograph. The OASIS observations explore the central 8x10" regions of these galaxies using a spatial sampling four times higher than SAURON, often revealing previously undiscovered features. Around 75% (31/48) of the SAURON E/S0s with central velocity dispersion >= 120 km/s were observed with OASIS, covering well the original SAURON representative sample. We present here an overview of this follow-up survey, and some preliminary results on individual objects, including a previously unreported counter-rotating core in NGC 4382; the decoupled stellar and gas velocity fields of NGC 2768; and the strong age gradient towards the centre of NGC 3489.

  11. OASIS High-Resolution Integral Field Spectroscopy of the SAURON Ellipticals and Lenticulars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. McDermid; E. Emsellem; M. Cappellari; H. Kuntschner; R. Bacon; M. Bureau; Y. Copin; R. L. Davies; J. Falcon-Barroso; P. Ferruit; D. Krajnovic; R. F. Peletier; K. Shapiro; F. Wernli; P. T. de Zeeuw

    2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a summary of high-spatial resolution follow-up observations of the elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies in the SAURON survey using the OASIS integral field spectrograph. The OASIS observations explore the central 8x10" regions of these galaxies using a spatial sampling four times higher than SAURON, often revealing previously undiscovered features. Around 75% (31/48) of the SAURON E/S0s with central velocity dispersion >= 120 km/s were observed with OASIS, covering well the original SAURON representative sample. We present here an overview of this follow-up survey, and some preliminary results on individual objects, including a previously unreported counter-rotating core in NGC 4382; the decoupled stellar and gas velocity fields of NGC 2768; and the strong age gradient towards the centre of NGC 3489.

  12. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA); Steinbach, Daniela (Williamsburg, VA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  13. Optical multichannel analyzer-based high-resolution, multipoint spectroscopic apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniades, J.A.; Peyser, T.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-wavelength resolution (..delta..lambdaless than or equal to0.02 A) spectroscopic apparatus has been developed and applied to the measurements of spectral line profiles emitted by thermonuclear plasmas yielding important plasma parameters, such as ion temperature and fluid velocity. The experimental apparatus consists of a spectrometer, an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), and a lens. It allows precise wavelength measurements (..delta..lambda/sub error/less than or equal to0.02 A) when a computer and a ThI electrodeless discharge lamp (EDL) are used to calibrate the instrument. The apparatus yields single-shot space and time-resolved spectra for radiation in the 2000--8000-A range.

  14. Recent results on high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction at Jefferson Lab, Hall A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Garibaldi; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; P. Bydzovski; G. Chang; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; F. Cusanno; R. De Leo; G. De Cataldo; K. De Jager; R. Feuerbach; E. Folts; R. Fratoni; S. Frullani; F. Giuliani; M. Gricia; D. Higinbotham; M. Iodice; B. Kross; L. Lagamba; J.J.Le Rose; M. Lucentini; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; R. Michaels; E. Nappi; Y. Qiang; B. Reitz; F. Santavenere; J. Segal; M. Sotona; G.M.Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; B.Wojtsekhowski; C. Zorn

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first ''systematic'' study of 1 p shell hypernuclei with electromagnetic probes has started in Hall A at Jefferson Lab [?]. The aim is to perform hypernuclear high resolution spectroscopy by the electroproduction of strangeness on four 1p-shell targets: 12C, 9Be, 16O, 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in 2004, the second part (16O and 7Li) is scheduled for June 2005. To overcome the major experimental difficulties, namely the low counting rate and the challenging Particle IDentification (PID), two septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector had to be added to the existing apparatus. After underlining the particular role the electroproduction reaction plays in hypernuclear physics we describe the challenging modifications of the Hall A apparatus. Preliminary results on 12C and 9Be are presented.

  15. Accurate Gravities of F, G, and K stars from High Resolution Spectra Without External Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, John M; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a new procedure to derive accurate and precise surface gravities from high resolution spectra without the use of external constraints. Our analysis utilizes Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) with robust spectral line constraints and uses an iterative process to mitigate degeneracies in the fitting process. We adopt an updated radiative transfer code, a new treatment for neutral perturber broadening, a line list with multiple gravity constraints and separate fitting for global stellar properties and abundance determinations. To investigate the sources of temperature dependent trends in determining log g noted in previous studies, we obtained Keck HIRES spectra of 42 Kepler asteroseismic stars. In comparison to asteroseismically determined log g our spectroscopic analysis has a constant offset of 0.01 dex with a root mean square (RMS) scatter of 0.05 dex. We also analyzed 30 spectra which had published surface gravities determined using the $a/R_*$ technique from planetary transits and found a constan...

  16. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  17. High resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from a Mesophilic Eubacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Joerg; Schluenzen, Frank; Zarivach, Raz; Bashan, Anat; Gat, Sharon; Agmon, Ilana; Bartels, Heike; Franceschi, Francois; Yonath, Ada (Weizmann Inst Israel); (Mac Planck Germany); (Max Planck Germany)

    2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the high resolution structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans (D50S), a gram-positive mesophile suitable for binding of antibiotics and functionally relevant ligands. The over-all structure of D50S is similar to that from the archae bacterium Haloarcula marismortui (H50S); however, a detailed comparison revealed significant differences, for example, in the orientation of nucleotides in peptidyl transferase center and in the structures of many ribosomal proteins. Analysis of ribosomal features involved in dynamic aspects of protein biosynthesis that are partially or fully disordered in H50S revealed the conformations of intersubunit bridges in unbound subunits, suggesting how they may change upon subunit association and how movements of the L1-stalk may facilitate the exit of tRNA.

  18. A high resolution finite volume method for efficient parallel simulation of casting processes on unstructured meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kothe, D.B.; Turner, J.A.; Mosso, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferrell, R.C. [Cambridge Power Computer Assoc. (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss selected aspects of a new parallel three-dimensional (3-D) computational tool for the unstructured mesh simulation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) casting processes. This tool, known as {bold Telluride}, draws upon on robust, high resolution finite volume solutions of metal alloy mass, momentum, and enthalpy conservation equations to model the filling, cooling, and solidification of LANL castings. We briefly describe the current {bold Telluride} physical models and solution methods, then detail our parallelization strategy as implemented with Fortran 90 (F90). This strategy has yielded straightforward and efficient parallelization on distributed and shared memory architectures, aided in large part by new parallel libraries {bold JTpack9O} for Krylov-subspace iterative solution methods and {bold PGSLib} for efficient gather/scatter operations. We illustrate our methodology and current capabilities with source code examples and parallel efficiency results for a LANL casting simulation.

  19. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    this Top Innovation. See another example of this Top Innovation in action. Find more case studies of Building America projects across the country that demonstrate high...

  20. High-sensitivity observations of solar flare decimeter radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Peter Messmer; Christian Monstein

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A new acousto-optic radio spectrometer has observed the 1 - 2 GHz radio emission of solar flares with unprecedented sensitivity. The number of detected decimeter type III bursts is greatly enhanced compared to observations by conventional spectrometers observing only one frequency at the time. The observations indicate a large number of electron beams propagating in dense plasmas. For the first time, we report weak, reversed drifting type III bursts at frequencies above simultaneous narrowband decimeter spikes. The type III bursts are reliable signatures of electron beams propagating downward in the corona, apparently away from the source of the spikes. The observations contradict the most popular spike model that places the spike sources at the footpoints of loops. Conspicuous also was an apparent bidirectional type U burst forming a fish-like pattern. It occurs simultaneously with an intense U-burst at 600-370 MHz observed in Tremsdorf. We suggest that it intermodulated with strong terrestrial interference (cellular phones) causing a spurious symmetric pattern in the spectrogram at 1.4 GHz. Symmetric features in the 1 - 2 GHz range, some already reported in the literature, therefore must be considered with utmost caution.