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Sample records for high resolution far-ir

  1. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  2. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  3. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  4. Measuring galaxy clustering and the evolution of [C II] mean intensity with far-IR line intensity mapping during 0.5 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzgil, B. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Lidz, A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Infrared fine-structure emission lines from trace metals are powerful diagnostics of the interstellar medium in galaxies. We explore the possibility of studying the redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission using the three-dimensional (3D) power spectra obtained with an imaging spectrometer. The intensity mapping approach measures the spatio-spectral fluctuations due to line emission from all galaxies, including those below the individual detection threshold. The technique provides 3D measurements of galaxy clustering and moments of the galaxy luminosity function. Furthermore, the linear portion of the power spectrum can be used to measure the total line emission intensity including all sources through cosmic time with redshift information naturally encoded. Total line emission, when compared to the total star formation activity and/or other line intensities, reveals evolution of the interstellar conditions of galaxies in aggregate. As a case study, we consider measurement of [C II] autocorrelation in the 0.5 < z < 1.5 epoch, where interloper lines are minimized, using far-IR/submillimeter balloon-borne and future space-borne instruments with moderate and high sensitivity, respectively. In this context, we compare the intensity mapping approach to blind galaxy surveys based on individual detections. We find that intensity mapping is nearly always the best way to obtain the total line emission because blind, wide-field galaxy surveys lack sufficient depth and deep pencil beams do not observe enough galaxies in the requisite luminosity and redshift bins. Also, intensity mapping is often the most efficient way to measure the power spectrum shape, depending on the details of the luminosity function and the telescope aperture.

  5. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  6. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  8. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  9. Afghanistan Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However, the data is...

  10. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  11. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  12. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  13. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  14. High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-FieldCathodolumine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy ...

  15. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  16. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  17. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  18. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  19. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, EE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP ...

  20. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment Author University of...

  1. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  2. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas Kenneth W. Hill, et. al. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY High Temperature High Temperature High resolution (3; 10 000) 1D...

  3. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp_24_allard.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst

  4. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy EPS Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) High-resolution EPS of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov File DoE_Billboard_Goodbye_Watts.EPS More Documents & Publications Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG

  5. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) High-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov Image icon DoE_Billboard_Goodbye_Watts.jpg More Documents & Publications Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS

  6. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  7. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  8. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Carmen J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  9. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  10. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Community Earth System Model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model With the fourth release of the Community Climate System Model, the ability to perform ultra-high resolution climate simulations is now possible, enabling eddy-resolving ocean and sea ice

  11. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships. ...

  12. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution measurements...

  13. NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However,...

  14. High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This content will become publicly available on April 27, 2016 Title: High-resolution ... become publicly available on April 27, 2016 Publisher's Version of Record 10.1073...

  15. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices Funding ...

  16. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon pm029_allard_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst Characterization

  17. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  18. High-Resolution Diagrams Now Available | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Resolution Diagrams Now Available High-Resolution Diagrams Now Available September 28, 2010 - 9:59am Addthis Andrea Spikes Former Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory The newest content now available on Energy Savers is high-resolution diagrams! We frequently get requests for high-res images that people can use in school reports, for example, and now you don't have to ask us. Nearly every diagram you see will include options for downloading either a JPG or EPS file in

  19. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging...

  20. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm029_allard_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass-derived Fuels: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials

  1. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  2. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp24allard.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy...

  3. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  4. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  5. Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    global predictions and regionally resolved source response studies (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution global predictions and regionally resolved source response studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Regional Projections of Climate on Decadal Time Scales: High resolution global predictions and regionally resolved source response studies Authors: Tribbia, Joe [1] ; Zhang, Minghua [2] + Show Author

  6. High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Abstract not provided. Authors: Talin, Albert Alec Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145404 Report Number(s): SAND2013-4169J 453180 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  7. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  8. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Kaplan, Selig N.; Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  9. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  10. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  11. High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Volpi, Alexander (Hinsdale, IL)

    1978-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

  12. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  13. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  14. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Title: High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Authors: Knapp, P. F. [1] ; Pikuz, S. A. [1] ; Shelkovenko, T. A. [1] ; Hammer, D. A. [1] ; Hansen, S. B. [2] + Show Author Affiliations Laboratory of Plasma

  15. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Title: High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Authors: Knapp, P. F. [1] ; Pikuz, S. A. [1] ; Shelkovenko, T. A. [1] ; Hammer, D. A. [1] ; Hansen, S. B. [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  17. LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? Dubey, Manvendra DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Chylek, Petr DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Reisner, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory Porch, William Los Alamos National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties We report high fidelity observations of the spatial and thermal

  18. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  19. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  1. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  2. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  3. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  4. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  5. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  6. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  7. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  8. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  9. allows researchers to capture high-resolution images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    allows researchers to capture high-resolution images - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  10. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  11. Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data Dan Getman, Anthony Lopez, Trieu Mai, and Mark Dyson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-63148 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  12. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Positron Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-07-06

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved--ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  13. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  14. Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowla, F.U.

    1987-10-01

    A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  16. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic decays A. Piechaczek 1 , V. Shchepunov 1 , H. K. Carter 1 J. C. Batchelder 1 , E. F. Zganjar 2 1 UNIRIB, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 A compact isobar separator, based on the Multi-Pass-Time-of-Flight (MTOF) principle, is developed [1]. A mass resolving power (MRP) as spectrometer of 110,000 (FWHM) is achieved in

  17. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy EPS Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) High-resolution EPS of billboard reading, 'Which bulb is right for you? Save energy, save money. Energysaver.gov.' File DoE_Billboard_Which_Bulb.eps More Documents & Publications Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS

  18. Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy JPG Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) HIgh-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Which bulb is right for you? Save energy, save money. Energysaver.gov.' Image icon DoE_Billboard_Which_Bulb.jpg More Documents & Publications Which Bulb Is Right for You? (High-Resolution EPS Billboard) Which Bulb Is Right for You? (Low-Resolution JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG

  19. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  20. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  1. High resolution spectroscopic study of BeΛ10

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gogami, T.; Chen, C.; Kawama, D.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; et al

    2016-03-10

    Spectroscopy of amore » $$^{10}_{\\Lambda}$$Be hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the $$(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})$$ reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of 0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using the $$p(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})\\Lambda,\\Sigma^{0}$$ reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels, and the binding energy of the ground state peak (mixture of 1$$^{-}$$ and 2$$^{-}$$ states) was obtained to be B$$_{\\Lambda}$$=8.55$$\\pm$$0.07(stat.)$$\\pm$$0.11(sys.) MeV. Furthermore, the result indicates that the ground state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on charge symmetry breaking effect in the $$\\Lambda N$$ interaction.« less

  2. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    density (HED) plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hill, K W ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S R ; Park, J ; Schneider, M B ; Stone, G ; Williams, G J ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date: 2014-05-29 OSTI Identifier:

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  4. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  5. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a ...

  6. Patent: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals Citation Details Title: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using...

  7. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  8. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  9. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-03-04

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  10. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  11. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  12. Study of fish response using particle image velocimetry and high-speed, high-resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Z.; Richmond, M. C.; Mueller, R. P.; Gruensch, G. R.

    2004-10-01

    Fish swimming has fascinated both engineers and fish biologists for decades. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging are recently developed analysis tools that can help engineers and biologists better understand how fish respond to turbulent environments. This report details studies to evaluate DPIV. The studies included a review of existing literature on DPIV, preliminary studies to test the feasibility of using DPIV conducted at our Flow Biology Laboratory in Richland, Washington September through December 2003, and applications of high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging with advanced motion analysis to investigations of fish injury mechanisms in turbulent shear flows and bead trajectories in laboratory physical models. Several conclusions were drawn based on these studies, which are summarized as recommendations for proposed research at the end of this report.

  13. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  14. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiments on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA A high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed x-ray streak camera. The resulting

  15. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  16. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  17. Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update on a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physical electronics 690 auger system. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update on a physical electronics 690 auger system. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update on a physical electronics 690 auger system. We will present our experiences with the new High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) upgrade on a Physical Electronics Auger 690 system. This upgrade allows the single

  18. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization | Department of Energy Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter or access the facility. PDF icon D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser

  19. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, Laura N.

    1996-01-01

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  20. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  1. Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getman, Dan; Lopez, Anthony; Mai, Trieu; Dyson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we introduce a methodology to achieve multiple levels of spatial resolution reduction of solar resource data, with minimal impact on data variability, for use in energy systems modeling. The selection of an appropriate clustering algorithm, parameter selection including cluster size, methods of temporal data segmentation, and methods of cluster evaluation are explored in the context of a repeatable process. In describing this process, we illustrate the steps in creating a reduced resolution, but still viable, dataset to support energy systems modeling, e.g. capacity expansion or production cost modeling. This process is demonstrated through the use of a solar resource dataset; however, the methods are applicable to other resource data represented through spatiotemporal grids, including wind data. In addition to energy modeling, the techniques demonstrated in this paper can be used in a novel top-down approach to assess renewable resources within many other contexts that leverage variability in resource data but require reduction in spatial resolution to accommodate modeling or computing constraints.

  2. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemoreexcitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.less

  3. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris; Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette ; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris ; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05; CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  4. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, Peter (East Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  5. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  6. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  7. Rhode Island High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Detailed license and usage information for this dataset Preview Download 50m GIS NREL Rhode Island energy high resoltuion renewable shapefile wind wind data wind...

  8. Beam collimation with polycapillary x-ray optics for high contrast high resolution monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiro, Francisca R.; Li Danhong; MacDonald, C.A.

    2004-12-01

    Monochromatic imaging can provide better contrast and resolution than conventional broadband radiography. In broadband systems, low energy photons do not contribute to the image, but are merely absorbed, while high energy photons produce scattering that degrades the image. By tuning to the optimal energy, one can eliminate undesirable lower and higher energies. Monochromatization is achieved by diffraction from a single crystal. A crystal oriented to diffract at a particular energy, in this case the characteristic line energy, diffracts only those photons within a narrow range of angles. The resultant beam from a divergent source is nearly parallel, but not very intense. To increase the intensity, collimation was performed with polycapillary x-ray optics, which can collect radiation from a divergent source and redirect it into a quasi parallel beam. Contrast and resolution measurements were performed with diffracting crystals with both high and low angular acceptance. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode x-ray source, then 17.5 keV measurements were made with a low power molybdenum source. At 8 keV, subject contrast was a factor of five higher than for the polychromatic case. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic contrast was two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The subject contrasts measured at both energies were in good agreement with theory. An additional factor of two increase in contrast, for a total gain of four, is expected at 17.5 keV from the removal of scatter. Scatter might be simply removed using an air gap, which does not degrade resolution with a parallel beam.

  9. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  10. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  11. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USA Abstract - Data from of a highly instrumented residential feeder in Ota City, Japan was used to determine 1 second load variability for the aggregation of 50, 100, 250,...

  12. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopies | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies Tuesday, July 23, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dimosthenis Sokaras, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical tool for

  13. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometer for the large helical device (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device A high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for the large helical device (LHD).

  14. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  15. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  16. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  17. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  18. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design...

  19. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  20. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at Glass Buttes, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review - 2010. The primary objective of this project is to combine a suite of high resolution geophysical and geochemical techniques to reduce exploration risk by characterizing hydrothermal alteration, fault geometries and relationships.

  1. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  2. High-resolution crystal structure of human protease-activated receptor 1

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-resolution crystal structure of human protease-activated receptor 1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution crystal structure of human protease-activated receptor 1 Authors: Zhang, Cheng ; Srinivasan, Yoga ; Arlow, Daniel H. ; Fung, Juan Jose ; Palmer, Daniel ; Zheng, Yaowu ; Green, Hillary F. ; Pandey, Anjali ; Dror, Ron O. ; Shaw, David E. ; Weis, William I. ; Coughlin, Shaun R. ; Kobilka, Brian K. [1] ; D.E. Shaw) [2] ;

  3. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron

  4. Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA Separated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactants Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA Separated Reactants Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA Separated Reactants Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments Authors: Haines, Brian Michael [1] ; Grim, Gary P. [1] ; Fincke, James R. [1] ; Shah, Rahul C. [1] ; Forrest, Chad [2] ;

  5. Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA Separated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactants Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA Separated Reactants Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA Separated Reactants Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's

  6. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma interaction experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hazi, A ; Hill, K ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S ; Park, J ; Schneider, M ; Stone, G ; Williams, G ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date:

  7. Post-Delivery test report for light duty utility arm high resolution stereoscopic video system (HRSVS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pardini, A.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-07

    This report documents the post delivery testing of the High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS) LDUA system,designed for use by the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) project.The post delivery test shows by demonstration that the high resolution stereoscopic video camera system is fully operational to perform the task of aligning the LDUA arm and mast with the entry riser during deployment operations within a Hanford Site waste tank.

  8. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  9. High Resolution/High Fidelity Seismic Imaging and Parameter Estimation for Geological Structure and Material Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru-Shan Wu; Xiao-Bi Xie

    2008-06-08

    Our proposed work on high resolution/high fidelity seismic imaging focused on three general areas: (1) development of new, more efficient, wave-equation-based propagators and imaging conditions, (2) developments towards amplitude-preserving imaging in the local angle domain, in particular, imaging methods that allow us to estimate the reflection as a function of angle at a layer boundary, and (3) studies of wave inversion for local parameter estimation. In this report we summarize the results and progress we made during the project period. The report is divided into three parts, totaling 10 chapters. The first part is on resolution analysis and its relation to directional illumination analysis. The second part, which is composed of 6 chapters, is on the main theme of our work, the true-reflection imaging. True-reflection imaging is an advanced imaging technology which aims at keeping the image amplitude proportional to the reflection strength of the local reflectors or to obtain the reflection coefficient as function of reflection-angle. There are many factors which may influence the image amplitude, such as geometrical spreading, transmission loss, path absorption, acquisition aperture effect, etc. However, we can group these into two categories: one is the propagator effect (geometric spreading, path losses); the other is the acquisition-aperture effect. We have made significant progress in both categories. We studied the effects of different terms in the true-amplitude one-way propagators, especially the terms including lateral velocity variation of the medium. We also demonstrate the improvements by optimizing the expansion coefficients in different terms. Our research also includes directional illumination analysis for both the one-way propagators and full-wave propagators. We developed the fast acquisition-aperture correction method in the local angle-domain, which is an important element in the true-reflection imaging. Other developments include the super-wide angle one-way propagator and special full-wave reverse-time migration method. Finally, we studied the theoretical basis of true-reflection imaging and bridges imaging and inversion with the theory of diffraction tomography.

  10. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  11. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  12. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  14. Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging crystal spectrometer on the Large Helical Device (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on the Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout and results from the initial operation of the high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on the Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron temperature profile measurements from the x-ray imaging

  15. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron temperature pro le measurements from the x-ray imaging

  16. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  17. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside 45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  18. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup 1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption signatures.

  19. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  20. LandScan 2012 High Resolution Global Population DataSet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x20" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts at sub-national level were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets.

  1. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  2. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  3. Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holography - Energy Innovation Portal Real-Time High Resolution Quantitative Imaging by Three Wavelength Digital Holography Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary An optical system capable of reproducing three-dimensional images was invented at ORNL. This system can detect height changes of a few nanometers or less and render clear, single shot images. These types of precise, high speed measurements are important for a variety of

  4. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges Tuesday, November 22, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Giacomo Ghiringhelli, CNR/SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Visiting scholar at SIMES-Department of physics, Stanford University The interest in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering has been recently boosted mainly by results on high Tc superconductors and other cuprates, where orbital

  5. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  6. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  7. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  8. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop the capability of high-resolution transport imaging in photovoltaic (PV) devices, which is useful for improving polycrystalline thin-film PV materials.

  9. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 3 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 3.44 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 0.43 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 1.7)% to (20.9 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  10. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  11. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled CH{sub 5}{sup +}: Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, C.; Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D. J.

    2015-01-22

    Protonated methane (CH{sub 5}{sup +}) is thought to be a highly abundant molecular ion in interstellar medium, as well as a potentially bright ?wave- mm wave emitter that could serve as a tracer for methane. This paper describes progress and first successful efforts to obtain a high resolution, supersonically cooled spectrum of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in the 2900-3100 cm{sup ?1} region, formed in a slit supersonic discharge at low jet temperatures and with sub-Doppler resolution. Short term precision in frequency measurement (< 5 MHz on an hour time scale) is obtained from a thermally controlled optical transfer cavity servoloop locked onto a frequency stabilized HeNe laser. Long term precision (< 20 MHz day-to-day) due to pressure, temperature and humidity dependent index of refraction effects in the optical transfer cavity is also present and discussed.

  12. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  13. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedrich, Stephan (San Jose, CA); , Niedermayr, Thomas R. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-11-04

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  14. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tech Stage: Demonstration D&D Toolbox: Project OR-071203, OR-071303; Deployed at SRS P Reactor Area Closure Project PBS SR-0040 The robotically deployed laser surveying system was demonstrated in the Purification room of SRS P-Reactor on September 24, 2008. Page 1 of 2 Savannah River Site South Carolina Michigan D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization Challenge The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of

  15. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  16. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  17. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  18. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  19. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  20. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  1. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  2. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm thatmore » is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.« less

  3. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  4. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  5. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  6. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  7. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  8. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P.

    2012-08-10

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  9. High Resolution BPM Upgrade for the ATF Damping Ring at KEK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, N.; Briegel, C.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.; Wendt, M.; Zhang, D.; Terunuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-17

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also implements a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization as well as results of beam studies are presented. The next generation of linear colliders require ultra-low vertical emittance of <2 pm-rad. The damping ring at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) is designed to demonstrate this mission critical goal. A high resolution beam position monitor (BPM) system for the damping ring is one of the key tools for realizing this goal. The BPM system needs to provide two distnict measurements. First, a very high resolution ({approx}100-200nm) closed-orbit measurement which is averaged over many turns and realized with narrowband filter techniques - 'narrowband mode'. This is needed to monitor and steer the beam along an optimum orbit and to facilitate beam-based alignment to minimize non-linear field effects. Second, is the ability to make turn by turn (TBT) measurements to support optics studies and corrections necessary to achieve the design performance. As the TBT measurement necessitates a wider bandwidth, it is often referred to as 'wideband mode'. The BPM upgrade was initiated as a KEK/SLAC/FNAL collaboration in the frame of the Global Design Initiative of the International Linear Collider. The project was realized and completed using Japan-US funds with Fermilab as the core partner.

  10. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin; Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  11. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amur Margaryan

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  12. design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility By John Greenwald November 16, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas.

  13. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Palos Park, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  14. PPPL to design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab to design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility By Johm Greenwald November 16, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP

  15. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  16. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.

  17. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  18. COLLOQUIUM: Development of High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy at PPPL |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab January 21, 2015, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Development of High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy at PPPL Dr. Kenneth Hill Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory This lecture reviews the development of x-ray spectroscopy at PPPL, which began in the 1970's on the ST (Symmetric Tokamak) and has had a significant impact on the magnetic fusion research program worldwide. Several important physics parameters can be measured with these techniques.

  19. Scientific system for high-resolution measurement of the circumsolar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrott, Simeon Schmidt, Thomas Hornung, Thorsten Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-26

    We developed a camera based system for measurements of the circumsolar radiation with a high angular resolution of 0.1 mrad. Subsequent measurements may be taken at intervals as short as 15 s. In this publication we describe the optical system in detail and discuss some aspects of the measurement method. First results from two days of measurement at Freiburg i. Br., Germany, are presented and compared to data from literature. The good results encourage us to perform longer measurement campaigns in future to better understand the influence of circumsolar radiation on the power yield of concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  20. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  1. A Global Climate Model Agent for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Lynn S.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Henry, Michael J.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Dazlich, Donald A.; Heikes, Ross P.; Randall, David

    2015-02-01

    Fine cell granularity in modern climate models can produce terabytes of data in each snapshot, causing significant I/O overhead. To address this issue, a method of reducing the I/O latency of high-resolution climate models by identifying and selectively outputting regions of interest is presented. Working with a Global Cloud Resolving Model and running with up to 10240 processors on a Cray XE6, this method provides significant I/O bandwidth reduction depending on the frequency of writes and size of the region of interest. The implementation challenges of determining global parameters in a strictly core-localized model and properly formatting output files that only contain subsections of the global grid are addressed, as well as the overall bandwidth impact and benefits of the method. The gains in I/O throughput provided by this method allow dual output rates for high-resolution climate models: a low-frequency global snapshot as well as a high-frequency regional snapshot when events of particular interest occur.

  2. High order finite difference methods with subcell resolution for advection equations with stiff source terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Shu, Chi-Wang; Yee, H.C.; Sjgreen, Bjrn

    2012-01-01

    A new high order finite-difference method utilizing the idea of Harten ENO subcell resolution method is proposed for chemical reactive flows and combustion. In reaction problems, when the reaction time scale is very small, e.g., orders of magnitude smaller than the fluid dynamics time scales, the governing equations will become very stiff. Wrong propagation speed of discontinuity may occur due to the underresolved numerical solution in both space and time. The present proposed method is a modified fractional step method which solves the convection step and reaction step separately. In the convection step, any high order shock-capturing method can be used. In the reaction step, an ODE solver is applied but with the computed flow variables in the shock region modified by the Harten subcell resolution idea. For numerical experiments, a fifth-order finite-difference WENO scheme and its anti-diffusion WENO variant are considered. A wide range of 1D and 2D scalar and Euler system test cases are investigated. Studies indicate that for the considered test cases, the new method maintains high order accuracy in space for smooth flows, and for stiff source terms with discontinuities, it can capture the correct propagation speed of discontinuities in very coarse meshes with reasonable CFL numbers.

  3. High resolution transmission electron microscopic in-situ observations of plastic deformation of compressed nanocrystalline gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-09-14

    Nanocrystalline (nc) metals possess extremely high strength, while their capability to deform plastically has been debated for decades. Low ductility has hitherto been considered an intrinsic behavior for most nc metals, due to the lack of five independent slip systems actively operating during deformation in each nanograin. Here we report in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations of deformation process of nc gold under compression, showing the excellent ductility of individual and aggregate nanograins. Compression causes permanent change in the profile of individual nanograins, which is mediated by dislocation slip and grain rotation. The high rate of grain boundary sliding and large extent of widely exited grain rotation may meet the boundary compatibility requirements during plastic deformation. The in situ HRTEM observations suggest that nc gold is not intrinsically brittle under compressive loading.

  4. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  5. A new variable-resolution associative memory for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annovi, A.; Amerio, S.; Beretta, M.; Bossini, E.; Crescioli, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Hoff, J.; Liu, T.; Magalotti, D.; Piendibene, M.; Sacco, I.; Schoening, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Stabile, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Liberali, V.; Vitillo, R.; Volpi, G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out by finding track candidates in coarse resolution 'roads'. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called 'patterns', for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its 'coverage' and the level of fake roads. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least one pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to the number of patterns in the bank. Moreover, as the luminosity increases, the fake rate increases rapidly because of the increased silicon occupancy. To counter that, we must reduce the width of our roads. If we decrease the road width using the current technology, the system will become very large and extremely expensive. We propose an elegant solution to this problem: the 'variable resolution patterns'. Each pattern and each detector layer within a pattern will be able to use the optimal width, but we will use a 'don't care' feature (inspired from ternary CAMs) to increase the width when that is more appropriate. In other words we can use patterns of variable shape. As a result we reduce the number of fake roads, while keeping the efficiency high and avoiding excessive bank size due to the reduced width. We describe the idea, the implementation in the new AM design and the implementation of the algorithm in the simulation. Finally we show the effectiveness of the 'variable resolution patterns' idea using simulated high occupancy events in the ATLAS detector. (authors)

  6. High-resolution spectroscopy of 2s1/2 - 2p3/2 transitions in W^65+ through

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    W^71+ (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-resolution spectroscopy of 2s1/2 - 2p3/2 transitions in W^65+ through W^71+ Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-resolution spectroscopy of 2s1/2 - 2p3/2 transitions in W^65+ through W^71+ A high-resolution flat-crystal spectrometer was used on the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap to measure the energies of the 2s{sub 1/2} - 2p{sub 3/2} transitions in lithiumlike through fluorine-like tungsten. These transitions are strongly affected

  7. Study of Fish Response Using Particle Image Velocimetry and High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2004-10-23

    Existing literature of previous particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of fish swimming has been reviewed. Historically, most of the studies focused on the performance evaluation of freely swimming fish. Technological advances over the last decade, especially the development of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, make possible more accurate, quantitative descriptions of the flow patterns adjacent to the fish and in the wake behind the fins and tail, which are imperative to decode the mechanisms of drag reduction and propulsive efficiency. For flows generated by different organisms, the related scales and flow regimes vary significantly. For small Reynolds numbers, viscosity dominates; for very high Reynolds numbers, inertia dominates, and three-dimensional complexity occurs. The majority of previous investigations dealt with the lower end of Reynolds number range. The fish of our interest, such as rainbow trout and spring and fall chinook salmon, fall into the middle range, in which neither viscosity nor inertia is negligible, and three-dimensionality has yet to dominate. Feasibility tests have proven the applicability of PIV to flows around fish. These tests have shown unsteady vortex shedding in the wake, high vorticity region and high stress region, with the highest in the pectoral area. This evident supports the observations by Nietzel et al. (2000) and Deng et al. (2004) that the operculum are most vulnerable to damage from the turbulent shear flow, because they are easily pried open, and the large vorticity and shear stress can lift and tear off scales, rupture or dislodge eyes, and damage gills. In addition, the unsteady behavior of the vortex shedding in the wake implies that injury to fish by the instantaneous flow structures would likely be much higher than the injury level estimated using the average values of the dynamics parameters. Based on existing literature, our technological capability, and relevance and practicability to Department of Energy's Hydropower Program, we identified three major research areas of interest: free swimming, the boundary layer over fish, and kinematic response of fish. We propose that the highest priority is to characterize the kinematic response of fish to different turbulent environments such as high shear/turbulence and hydrodynamic disturbances created by solid structures such as deflector and turbine runner blade; the next priority is to map the boundary layer over swimming fish; the last is to document the behavior of freely swimming fish, focusing on fish of our interest. Grid turbulence and Karman vortex street will be employed to map the boundary layers over fish and investigate the effects of environmental disturbances on the swimming performance of fish, because they are well established and documented in engineering literature and are representative of fish's swimming environments. Extreme conditions characteristic of turbine environments, such as strong shear environment and collision, will be investigated. Through controlled laboratory studies, the fish injury mechanism from different sources will be evaluated in isolation. The major goals are to: gain first-hand knowledge of the biological effects under such extreme hydraulic environments in which fish could lack the capability to overcome the perturbations and be vulnerable to injury; Better understand field results by integrating the laboratory studies with the responses of sensor fish device; More importantly, provide well-defined validation cases and boundary conditions for geometry-based computational fluid-structure interaction modeling in order to simulate the complex hydraulic environments in advanced hydropower systems and their effects on fish, greatly enhancing the potential to use CFD as a bio-hydraulic design alternative.

  8. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; et al

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observedmore » degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  9. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M.; Fu, Hai; Wardlow, J.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Dye, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 ?m bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (?17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 ?m magnification factor (?{sub 880}) is ?1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (?{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ?2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  10. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borriello, Enrico; Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Universitt Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Chakraborty, Sovan [Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Fhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Mnchen (Germany); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fr Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lisi, Eligio, E-mail: enrico.borriello@desy.de, E-mail: sovan@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: eligio.lisi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de [INFNSezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within 1? fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models.

  11. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Hui, Dafeng

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between 1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure: Final project report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.W.; Lin, S.H.

    1997-02-27

    Work includes studies of interface and grain boundary chemistry and structure in silicon nitride matrix/silicon carbide whisker composites, and in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide synthesized by several different methods. Off-stoichiometric, impurity, and sintering aid elemental distributions in these materials (and other ceramics) have been of great interest because of expected effects on properties but these distributions have proven very difficult to measure because the spatial resolution required is high. The authors made a number of these measurements for the first time, using techniques and instrumentation developed here. Interfaces between metals and SiC are the basis for important metal matrix composites and contacts for high temperature SiC-based solid state electronic devices. The authors have investigated ultrapure interfaces between Ti, Hf, Ti-Hf alloys, Pt, and Co and Si-terminated (0001) 6H SiC single crystals for the first time.

  13. High-resolution metagenomics targets major functional types in complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Lapidus, Alla; Ivanova, Natalia; Copeland, Alex C.; McHardy, Alice C.; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Suciu, Dominic; Levine, Samuel R.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bruce, David C.; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2009-08-01

    Most microbes in the biosphere remain uncultured and unknown. Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) allows glimpses into genetic and metabolic potentials of natural microbial communities. However, in communities of high complexity metagenomics fail to link specific microbes to specific ecological functions. To overcome this limitation, we selectively targeted populations involved in oxidizing single-carbon (C{sub 1}) compounds in Lake Washington (Seattle, USA) by labeling their DNA via stable isotope probing (SIP), followed by WGS sequencing. Metagenome analysis demonstrated specific sequence enrichments in response to different C{sub 1} substrates, highlighting ecological roles of individual phylotypes. We further demonstrated the utility of our approach by extracting a nearly complete genome of a novel methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis, reconstructing its metabolism and conducting genome-wide analyses. This approach allowing high-resolution genomic analysis of ecologically relevant species has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of ecosystems.

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  15. TH-A-BRF-09: Integration of High-Resolution MRSI Into Glioblastoma Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreibmann, E; Cordova, J; Shu, H; Crocker, I; Curran, W; Holder, C; Shim, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Identification of a metabolite signature that shows significant tumor cell infiltration into normal brain in regions that do not appear abnormal on standard MRI scans would be extremely useful for radiation oncologists to choose optimal regions of brain to treat, and to quantify response beyond the MacDonald criteria. We report on integration of high-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (HR-MRSI) with radiation dose escalation treatment planning to define and target regions at high risk for recurrence. Methods: We propose to supplement standard MRI with a special technique performed on an MRI scanner to measure the metabolite levels within defined volumes. Metabolite imaging was acquired using an advanced MRSI technique combining 3D echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) with parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) using a multichannel head coil that allows acquisition of whole brain metabolite maps with 108 μl resolution in 12 minutes implemented on a 3T MR scanner. Elevation in the ratio of two metabolites, choline (Cho, elevated in proliferating high-grade gliomas) and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a normal neuronal metabolite), was used to image infiltrating high-grade glioma cells in vivo. Results: The metabolite images were co-registered with standard contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images using in-house registration software and imported into the treatment-planning system. Regions with tumor infiltration are identified on the metabolic images and used to create adaptive IMRT plans that deliver a standard dose of 60 Gy to the standard target volume and an escalated dose of 75 Gy (or higher) to the most suspicious regions, identified as areas with elevated Cho/NAA ratio. Conclusion: We have implemented a state-of-the-art HR-MRSI technology that can generate metabolite maps of the entire brain in a clinically acceptable scan time, coupled with introduction of an imaging co-registration/ analysis program that combines MRSI data with standard imaging studies in a clinically useful fashion.

  16. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  17. High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Hu, M.

    1997-08-01

    A monochromator for use at 13.84 keV with a calculated bandpass of 5.2 meV was designed built, and tested. Tuning was performed by rotating the inner crystal of a pair of nested silicon channel-cut crystals. The inner crystal employs the (884) reflection, and the outer crystal employs a collimating asymmetric (422) reflection (dynamical asymmetry factor, b, equal to {minus}17.5). Tests were done with a double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator situated upstream of the high resolution monochromator and a Si(777) backscattering crystal situated downstream. For this optical arrangement an ideal value of 6.3 meV as calculated by x-ray dynamical diffraction theory applies for the FWHM of the convolution of the net monochromator reflectivity function with that of the Si(777) reflection. This calculated value is to be compared to the value of 7.1 meV measured by tuning the high resolution monochromator. Measured efficiencies were less than ideal by a factor of 3.2 to 4.9, where the larger flux reduction factors were found with higher positron storage ring currents.

  18. Unsupervised individual tree crown detection in high-resolution satellite imagery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N.; McDowell, Nate G.; Middleton, Richard S.

    2016-01-26

    Rapidly and accurately detecting individual tree crowns in satellite imagery is a critical need for monitoring and characterizing forest resources. We present a two-stage semiautomated approach for detecting individual tree crowns using high spatial resolution (0.6 m) satellite imagery. First, active contours are used to recognize tree canopy areas in a normalized difference vegetation index image. Given the image areas corresponding to tree canopies, we then identify individual tree crowns as local extrema points in the Laplacian of Gaussian scale-space pyramid. The approach simultaneously detects tree crown centers and estimates tree crown sizes, parameters critical to multiple ecosystem models. Asmore » a demonstration, we used a ground validated, 0.6 m resolution QuickBird image of a sparse forest site. The two-stage approach produced a tree count estimate with an accuracy of 78% for a naturally regenerating forest with irregularly spaced trees, a success rate equivalent to or better than existing approaches. In addition, our approach detects tree canopy areas and individual tree crowns in an unsupervised manner and helps identify overlapping crowns. Furthermore, the method also demonstrates significant potential for further improvement.« less

  19. FIRST HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF THE SUN IN THE 2796 Mg II k LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riethmller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Danilovic, S.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knlker, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first high-resolution solar images in the Mg II k 2796 line. The images, taken through a 4.8 broad interference filter, were obtained during the second science flight of Sunrise in 2013 June by the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) instrument. The Mg II k images display structures that look qualitatively very similar to images taken in the core of Ca II H. The Mg II images exhibit reversed granulation (or shock waves) in the internetwork regions of the quiet Sun, at intensity contrasts that are similar to those found in Ca II H. Very prominent in Mg II are bright points, both in the quiet Sun and in plage regions, particularly near the disk center. These are much brighter than at other wavelengths sampled at similar resolution. Furthermore, Mg II k images also show fibril structures associated with plage regions. Again, the fibrils are similar to those seen in Ca II H images, but tend to be more pronounced, particularly in weak plage.

  20. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F.

    2012-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  2. Applying high resolution SyXRD analysis on sulfate attacked concrete field samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroh, J.; Schlegel, M.-C.; Irassar, E.F.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2014-12-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) was applied for a microstructural profile analysis of concrete deterioration after sulfate attack. The cement matrices consist of ordinary Portland cement and different amounts of supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash, natural pozzolana and granulated blast furnace slag. The changes of the phase composition were determined along the direction of sulfate ingress. This approach allows the identification of reaction fronts and zones of different phase compositions and conclusions about the mechanisms of sulfate attack. Two reaction fronts were localized in the initial 4 mm from the sample surface. The mechanism of deterioration caused by the exposition in the sulfate-bearing soil is discussed. SyXRD is shown to be a reliable method for investigation of cementitious materials with aggregates embedded in natural environments.

  3. High resolution electron microscopy study of as-prepared and annealed tungsten-carbon multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Gronsky, R.; Kortright, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    A series of sputtered tungsten-carbon multilayer structures with periods ranging from 2 to 12 nm in the as-prepared state and after annealing at 500/degree/C for 4 hours has been studied with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The evolution with annealing of the microstructure of these multilayers depends on their period. As-prepared structures appear predominantly amorphous from TEM imaging and diffraction. Annealing results in crystallization of the W-rich layers into WC in the larger period samples, and less complete or no crystallization in the smaller period samples. X-ray scattering reveals that annealing expands the period in a systematic way. The layers remain remarkably well-defined after annealing under these conditions. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ultraviolet high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar for measuring wind field and aerosol optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imaki, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-10-01

    An ultraviolet incoherent Doppler lidar that incorporates the high-spectral-resolution (HSR) technique has been developed for measuring the wind field and aerosol optical properties in the troposphere. An injection seeded and tripled Nd:YAG laser at an ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm was used in the lidar system. The HRS technique can resolve the aerosol Mie backscatter and the molecular Rayleigh backscatter to derive the signal components. By detecting the Mie backscatter, a great increase in the Doppler filter sensitivity was realized compared to the conventional incoherent Doppler lidars that detected the Rayleigh backscatter. The wind velocity distribution in a two-dimensional cross section was measured. By using the HSR technique, multifunction and absolute value measurements were realized for aerosol extinction, and volume backscatter coefficients; the laser beam transmittance, the lidar ratio, and the backscatter ratio are derived from these measurements.

  5. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA); Steinbach, Daniela (Williamsburg, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  6. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissues usingprojected Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Jachmann, Rebecca C.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Pines, Alexander

    2005-01-27

    High-resolution NMR spectra of materials subject toanisotropic broadening are usually obtained by rotating the sample aboutthe magic angle, which is 54.7 degrees to the static magnetic field. Inprojected Magic Angle Spinning (p-MAS), the sample is spun about twoangles, neither of which is the magic angle. This provides a method ofobtaining isotropic spectra while spinning at shallow angles. The p-MASexperiment may be used in situations where spinning the sample at themagic angle is not possible due to geometric or other constraints,allowing the choice of spinning angle to be determined by factors such asthe shape of the sample, rather than by the spin physics. The applicationof this technique to bovine tissue samples is demonstrated as a proof ofprinciple for future biological or medical applications.

  7. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-11-15

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to {approx}7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10{sup 12} ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  8. Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, Jorge R.

    2014-07-28

    The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.

  9. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  10. A HIGH-RESOLUTION ATLAS OF URANIUM-NEON IN THE H BAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Terrien, Ryan; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bender, Chad F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ycas, Gabriel G. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Osterman, Steven N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Diddams, Scott A.; Quinlan, Franklyn [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present a high-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 50,000) atlas of a uranium-neon (U/Ne) hollow-cathode spectrum in the H band (1454-1638 nm) for the calibration of near-infrared spectrographs. We obtained this U/Ne spectrum simultaneously with a laser-frequency comb spectrum, which we used to provide a first-order calibration to the U/Ne spectrum. We then calibrated the U/Ne spectrum using the recently published uranium line list of Redman et al., which is derived from high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer measurements. These two independent calibrations allowed us to easily identify emission lines in the hollow-cathode lamp that do not correspond to known (classified) lines of either uranium or neon, and to compare the achievable precision of each source. Our frequency comb precision was limited by modal noise and detector effects, while the U/Ne precision was limited primarily by the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observed emission lines and our ability to model blended lines. The standard deviation in the dispersion solution residuals from the S/N-limited U/Ne hollow-cathode lamp was 50% larger than the standard deviation of the dispersion solution residuals from the modal-noise-limited laser-frequency comb. We advocate the use of U/Ne lamps for precision calibration of near-infrared spectrographs, and this H-band atlas makes these lamps significantly easier to use for wavelength calibration.

  11. High-resolution structure of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilski, Miroslaw [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Kazmierczyk, Maciej; Krzywda, Szymon [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Zbransk, Helena [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Cooper, Seth; Popovi?, Zoran [University of Washington, Box 352350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Khatib, Firas; DiMaio, Frank; Thompson, James; Baker, David [University of Washington, Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pichov, Iva [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-11-01

    The crystal structure of MasonPfizer monkey virus protease folded as a monomer has been solved by molecular replacement using a model generated by players of the online game Foldit. The structure shows at high resolution the details of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer which can guide rational design of protease dimerization inhibitors as retroviral drugs. MasonPfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a D-type retrovirus assembling in the cytoplasm, causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Its pepsin-like aspartic protease (retropepsin) is an integral part of the expressed retroviral polyproteins. As in all retroviral life cycles, release and dimerization of the protease (PR) is strictly required for polyprotein processing and virion maturation. Biophysical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrates or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer, but the crystal structure of this protein could not be solved by molecular replacement despite countless attempts. Ultimately, a solution was obtained in mr-rosetta using a model constructed by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit. The structure indeed shows a monomeric protein, with the N- and C-termini completely disordered. On the other hand, the flap loop, which normally gates access to the active site of homodimeric retropepsins, is clearly traceable in the electron density. The flap has an unusual curled shape and a different orientation from both the open and closed states known from dimeric retropepsins. The overall fold of the protein follows the retropepsin canon, but the C{sup ?} deviations are large and the active-site DTG loop (here NTG) deviates up to 2.7 from the standard conformation. This structure of a monomeric retropepsin determined at high resolution (1.6 ) provides important extra information for the design of dimerization inhibitors that might be developed as drugs for the treatment of retroviral infections, including AIDS.

  12. Practical high resolution detection method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger Jr; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer to acquire high-resolution measurements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer was built using an inexpensive etalon coupled to a standard 0.5-m imaging spectrometer. The Hg emission doublet at 313.2 nm was used to evaluate instrument performance because it has a splitting of 29 pm. The 313.2 nm doublet was chosen due to the similar splitting seen in isotope splitting from uranium at 424.437 nm, which is 25 pm. The Hg doublet was easily resolved from a continuous source Hg-lamp with a 2 s acquisition. The doublet was also resolved in LIBS spectra of cinnabar (HgS) from the accumulation of 600 laser shots at rate of 10 Hz, or 1 min, under a helium atmosphere. In addition to observed spitting of the 313.2 nm Hg doublet, the FWHM of the 313.1844 nm line from the doublet is reported at varying He atmospheric pressures. The high performance, low cost, and compact footprint makes this system highly competitive with 2-m double pass Czerny-Turner spectrometers.

  13. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  14. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  15. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed mDn, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  16. MAINTAINING HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY CAPABILITIES FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, S.; Cordaro, J.; Reeves, G.; Mcintosh, J.; Mauldin, C.; Tietze, K.; Varble, D.

    2011-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a specialized need for analyzing low mass gas species at very high resolutions. The currently preferred analytical method is electromagnetic sector mass spectrometry. This method allows the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) to resolve species of similar masses down to acceptable minimum detection limits (MDLs). Some examples of these similar masses are helium-4/deuterium and carbon monoxide/nitrogen. Through the 1980s and 1990s, there were two vendors who supplied and supported these instruments. However, with declining procurements and down turns in the economy, the supply of instruments, service and spare parts from these vendors has become less available, and in some cases, nonexistent. The largest NSE user of this capability is the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) Group in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) investigated the areas of instrument support that were needed to extend the life cycle of these aging instruments. Their conclusions, as to the focus areas of electromagnetic sector mass spectrometers to address, in order of priority, were electronics, software and hardware. Over the past 3-5 years, the R&DE Group has designed state of the art electronics and software that will allow high resolution legacy mass spectrometers, critical to the NNSA mission, to be operated for the foreseeable future. The funding support for this effort has been from several sources, including the SRS Defense Programs, NNSA Readiness Campaign, Pantex Plant and Sandia National Laboratory. To date, electronics systems have been upgraded on one development system at SRNL, two production systems at Pantex and one production system at Sandia National Laboratory. An NSE working group meets periodically to review strategies going forward. The R&DE Group has also applied their work to the electronics for a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) instrument, which applies a similar mass spectrometric technology for resolving high mass isotopes, such as plutonium and uranium. Due to non-compete clauses for DOE, all work has been performed and applied to instruments which are obsolete and are no longer supported by the original vendor.

  17. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and temporal resolutions of 1 cm and > 10 ms which are obtained by a tomographic inversion of the spectral data, using the stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes,...

  18. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  19. Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Simulation of In-Situ Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margot Gerritsen; Tony Kovscek

    2008-04-30

    This final technical report describes work performed for the project 'Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Numerical Simulator of In-Situ Combustion Processes', DE-FC26-03NT15405. In summary, this work improved our understanding of in-situ combustion (ISC) process physics and oil recovery. This understanding was translated into improved conceptual models and a suite of software algorithms that extended predictive capabilities. We pursued experimental, theoretical, and numerical tasks during the performance period. The specific project objectives were (i) identification, experimentally, of chemical additives/injectants that improve combustion performance and delineation of the physics of improved performance, (ii) establishment of a benchmark one-dimensional, experimental data set for verification of in-situ combustion dynamics computed by simulators, (iii) develop improved numerical methods that can be used to describe in-situ combustion more accurately, and (iv) to lay the underpinnings of a highly efficient, 3D, in-situ combustion simulator using adaptive mesh refinement techniques and parallelization. We believe that project goals were met and exceeded as discussed.

  20. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore » methane source of 539 Tg a−1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1.« less

  1. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently usedmore » for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a−1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a−1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a−1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a−1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29–44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11–15% to coal with an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a−1 source from wetlands.« less

  2. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L

    2009-05-22

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically, probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

  3. Changes in Moisture Flux over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yongxin; Cuo, Lan

    2015-05-15

    Net precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) changes between 1979 and 2011 from a high resolution regional climate simulation and its reanalysis forcing are analyzed over the Tibet Plateau (TP) and compared to the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) product. The high resolution simulation better resolves precipitation changes than its coarse resolution forcing, which contributes dominantly to the improved P-E change in the regional simulation compared to the global reanalysis. Hence, the former may provide better insights about the drivers of P-E changes. The mechanism behind the P-E changes is explored by decomposing the column integrated moisture flux convergence into thermodynamic, dynamic, and transient eddy components. High-resolution climate simulation improves the spatial pattern of P-E changes over the best available global reanalysis. High-resolution climate simulation also facilitates new and substantial findings regarding the role of thermodynamics and transient eddies in P-E changes reflected in observed changes in major river basins fed by runoff from the TP. The analysis revealed the contrasting convergence/divergence changes between the northwestern and southeastern TP and feedback through latent heat release as an important mechanism leading to the mean P-E changes in the TP.

  4. High resolution capillary column development for selective separations in gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybyciel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of techniques for the preparation of high resolution capillary columns for gas chromatography is presented. Surface roughing, surface deactivation, stationary phase coating, and stationary phase crosslinking are discussed. Criteria for the selection of GC stationary phases and procedures for column evaluation are presented. A method is proposed for the isolation and determination of crude oil contamination in tropical plants and sediments. The method uses Florisil (TM) chromatography for the simultaneous clean-up and fractionation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Crosslinked SE-54 fused silica capillary columns prepared in our laboratory were employed for all GC separations. Mass spectrometry was used to help locate and identify specific oil components despite the intense background of the chromatogram. Crude oil components were identified in extracts of mangrove plant samples collected from the Peck Slip oil spill site at Media Munda, Puerto Rico. Crude oil components were also identified in sediment samples from controlled oil spill of Prudhoe Bay oil at Laguna de Chiriqui, Panama.

  5. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  6. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  7. A 5.5-Mb high-resolution integrated map of distal 11q13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merscher, S.; Bekri, S.; De Leeuw, B.

    1997-02-01

    The distal part of 11q13, which contains several genes relevant to human diseases, has been poorly mapped as part of genome-wide mapping efforts. In the prospect of drawing a fine-scale integrated map of the area containing KRN1 and OMP, we have established a framework of markers by hybridization to DNA of somatic cell hybrids and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes. The probes studied were used to isolate 27 YACs and 16 cosmids that could be organized in three contigs covering approximately 6 Mb. These contigs were separated by two gaps that are likely to contain sequences underrepresented in YAC libraries. They were then integrated based on long-range restriction mapping and DNA-fiber FISH into a high-resolution physical map, which covers a 5.5-Mb region and includes 36 anonymous markers and 10 genes. This map will be used to search for genes within the 2/3 of this region where none have been localized as yet. It will also lay the ground for the characterization of an amplicon surrounding GARP in breast cancer and for the search of disease genes within this region. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Hubble space telescope high-resolution imaging of Kepler small and cool exoplanet host stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Wright, Jason T.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive.

  9. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Dune Acres, IN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  10. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance activity. This will allow (i) a direct comparison of future TC activity that could be expected for an active or inactive season in an altered climate regime, and (ii) a measure of the level of uncertainty and variability in TC activity resulting from different carbon emission scenarios.

  11. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heays, A. N.; Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 ) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 ) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}? {sub g} , b {sup 1}? {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}? {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}? {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}? {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}? {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  12. Analysis of several high-resolution infrared bands of spiropentane, C5H8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maki, Arthur G.; Price, Joseph E.; Harzan, J.; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Masiello, Tony; Blake, Thomas A.

    2015-06-01

    he high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of spiropentane (C5H8) has been measured from 200 to 4000 cm 1, and a detailed analysis is presented for eight bands in the region from 700 to 2200 cm 1. Two fundamental perpendicular bands were analyzed, m22 and m24 near 1050 and 780 cm 1, respectively, along with two fundamental parallel bands, m14 and m16 near 1540 and 990 cm1, respectively. Two other fundamentals, m17 and m23, are seen as intense overlapping bands near 880 cm*1 and are Coriolis-coupled, producing a complex mixture in which only P-branch transitions could be tentatively assigned for m17. In addition, three binary combination bands were fit at about 1570, 2082, and 2098 cm*1 which are assigned as either 2m24 or m5 + m16 in the first case, m4 + m22 in the second case, and 2m22 in the latter case. The two l-type resonance constants, q+ and q*, were determined for each of the two perpendicular fundamentals m22 and m24. Those two constants were also responsible for splittings observed in the K = 3 levels of m24. For the ground state the order of the split K = 2 B1/B2 levels has been reversed from that reported previously, based on the measurements and assignments for the m24 band. Rovibrational parameters deduced from the analyses are compared with those obtained from density functional Gaussian calculations at the anharmonic level.

  13. Complete dipole response in {sup 208}Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0 deg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Kalmykov, Y.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Bertulani, C. A.; Carter, J.; Fujita, H.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.

    2009-01-28

    The structure of electric and magnetic dipole modes in {sup 208}Pb is investigated in a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg. First results on the E1 strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance are reported.

  14. High-resolution mineralogical characterization and biogeochemical modeling of uranium reaction pathways at the FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhu

    2006-06-15

    High-Resolution Mineralogical Characterization and Biogeochemical Modeling of Uranium Reduction Pathways at the Oak Ridge Field-Research Center (FRC) Chen Zhu, Indiana University, David R. Veblen, Johns Hopkins University We have successfully completed a proof-of-concept, one-year grant on a three-year proposal from the former NABIR program, and here we seek additional two-year funding to complete and publish the research. Using a state-of-the-art 300-kV, atomic resolution, Field Emission Gun Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), we have successfully identified three categories of mineral hosts for uranium in contaminated soils: (1) iron oxides; (2) mixed manganese-iron oxides; and (3) uranium phosphates. Method development using parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) associated with the TEM shows great promise for characterizing the valence states of immobilized U during bioremediation. We have also collected 27 groundwater samples from two push-pull field biostimulation tests, which form two time series from zero to approximately 600 hours. The temporal evolution in major cations, anions, trace elements, and the stable isotopes 34S, 18O in sulfate, 15N in nitrate, and 13C in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) clearly show that biostimulation resulted in reduction of nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III), U(VI), sulfate, and Tc(VII), and these reduction reactions were intimately coupled with a complex network of inorganic reactions evident from alkalinity, pH, Na, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations. From these temporal trends, apparent zero order rates were regressed. However, our extensive suite of chemical and isotopic data sets, perhaps the first and only comprehensive data set available at the FRC, show that the derived rates from these field biostimulation experiments are composite and lump-sum rates. There were several reactions that were occurring at the same time but were masked by these pseudo-zero order rates. A reaction-path model comprising a total of nine redox couples (NO3–/NH4+, MnO2(s)/Mn2+, Fe(OH)3(s) /Fe2+, TcO4–/TcO2(s), UO22+/UO2(s), SO42–/HS–, CO2/CH4, ethanol/acetate, and H+/H2.) is used to simulate the temporal biogeochemical evolution observed in the field tests. Preliminary results show that the models based on thermodynamics and more complex rate laws can generate the apparent zero order rates when several concurrent or competing reactions occur. Professor Alex Halliday of Oxford University, UK, and his postdoctoral associates are measuring the uranium isotopes in our groundwater samples. Newly developed state-of-the-art analytical techniques in measuring variability in 235U/238U offer the potential to distinguish biotic and abiotic uranium reductive mechanisms.

  15. Ionized gas kinematics at high resolution. IV. Star formation and a rotating core in the Medusa (NGC 4194)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John; Turner, Jean; Greathouse, Thomas; Neff, Susan

    2014-05-20

    NGC 4194 is a post-merger starburst known as The Medusa for its striking tidal features. We present here a detailed study of the structure and kinematics of ionized gas in the central 0.65 kpc of the Medusa. The data include radio continuum maps with resolution up to 0.''18 (35 pc) and a 12.8 ?m [Ne II] data cube with spectral resolution ?4 km s{sup 1}: the first high-resolution, extinction-free observations of this remarkable object. The ionized gas has the kinematic signature of a core in solid-body rotation. The starburst has formed a complex of bright compact H II regions, probably excited by deeply embedded super star clusters, but none of these sources is a convincing candidate for a Galactic nucleus. The nuclei of the merger partners that created the Medusa have not yet been identified.

  16. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  17. On the feasibility of comprehensive high-resolution 3D remote dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juang, Titania; Grant, Ryan; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Oldham, Mark

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the feasibility of remote high-resolution 3D dosimetry with the PRESAGE/Optical-CT system. In remote dosimetry, dosimeters are shipped out from a central base institution to a remote institution for irradiation, then shipped back to the base institution for subsequent readout and analysis. Methods: Two nominally identical optical-CT scanners for 3D dosimetry were constructed and placed at the base (Duke University) and remote (Radiological Physics Center) institutions. Two formulations of PRESAGE (SS1, SS2) radiochromic dosimeters were investigated. Higher sensitivity was expected in SS1, which had higher initiator content (0.25% bromotrichloromethane), while greater temporal stability was expected in SS2. Four unirradiated PRESAGE dosimeters (two per formulation, cylindrical dimensions 11 cm diameter, 8.59.5 cm length) were imaged at the base institution, then shipped to the remote institution for planning and irradiation. Each dosimeter was irradiated with the same simple treatment plan: an isocentric 3-field cross arrangement of 4 4 cm open 6 MV beams configured as parallel opposed laterals with an anterior beam. This simple plan was amenable to accurate and repeatable setup, as well as accurate dose modeling by a commissioned treatment planning system (Pinnacle). After irradiation and subsequent (within 1 h) optical-CT readout at the remote institution, the dosimeters were shipped back to the base institution for remote dosimetry readout 3 days postirradiation. Measured on-site and remote relative 3D dose distributions were registered to the Pinnacle dose calculation, which served as the reference distribution for 3D gamma calculations with passing criteria of 5%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm with a 10% dose threshold. Gamma passing rates, dose profiles, and color-maps were all used to assess and compare the performance of both PRESAGE formulations for remote dosimetry. Results: The best agreements between the Pinnacle plan and dosimeter readout were observed in PRESAGE formulation SS2. Under 3%/3 mm 3D gamma passing criteria, passing rates were 91.5% 3.6% (SS1) and 97.4% 2.2% (SS2) for immediate on-site dosimetry, 96.7% 2.4% (SS1) and 97.6% 0.6% (SS2) for remote dosimetry. These passing rates are well within TG119 recommendations (88%90% passing). Under the more stringent criteria of 3%/2 mm, there is a pronounced difference [8.0 percentage points (pp)] between SS1 formulation passing rates for immediate and remote dosimetry while the SS2 formulation maintains both higher passing rates and consistency between immediate and remote results (differences ? 1.2 pp) at all metrics. Both PRESAGE formulations under study maintained high linearity of dose response (R{sup 2} > 0.996) for 18 Gy over 14 days with response slope consistency within 4.9% (SS1) and 6.6% (SS2), and a relative dose distribution that remained stable over time was demonstrated in the SS2 dosimeters. Conclusions: Remote 3D dosimetry was shown to be feasible with a PRESAGE dosimeter formulation (SS2) that exhibited relative temporal stability and high accuracy when read off-site 3 days postirradiation. Characterization of the SS2 dose response demonstrated linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.998) over 14 days and suggests accurate readout over longer periods of time would be possible. This result provides a foundation for future investigations using remote dosimetry to study the accuracy of advanced radiation treatments. Further work is planned to characterize dosimeter reproducibility and dose response over longer periods of time.

  18. High-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on spherically bent crystals for investigations of femtosecond laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Price, D.F.; Shepherd, R.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Letardi, T.; Grilli, A.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1998-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, laser-produced plasmas have become very interesting laboratory sources to study spectroscopically due to their very high densities and temperatures, and the high laser-induced electromagnetic fields present. Typically, these plasmas are of very small volume and very low emissivity. Thus, studying these near point source plasmas requires advanced experimental techniques. We present a new spectrometer design called the focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-2D) based on a spherically bent crystal which provides simultaneous high spectral ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}10{sup 4}) and spatial resolution ({approx}10thinsp{mu}m) as well as high luminosity (high collection efficiency). We described in detail the FSSR-2D case in which a small, near point source plasma is investigated. An estimate for the spectral and spatial resolution for the spectrometer is outlined based on geometric considerations. Using the FSSR-2D instrument, experimental data measured from both a 100 fs and a nanosecond pulse laser-produced plasma are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Beamline 5.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.002-1.0 eV Frequency range...

  20. Focusing, in-chamber spectrometer triplet for high resolution measurements on the Sandia Z facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenger, D. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Porter, J. L.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2006-10-15

    An early prototype of a focusing spectrometer with one-dimensional (1D) spatial resolution (FSSR) instrument was previously developed for use in the vacuum chamber of the Sandia Z facility [Sinars et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 595 (2006)]. This instrument used a single, spherically bent crystal to measure time-integrated Ar spectra from 0.295-0.378 nm with {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}>2000 and a 1D axial spatial resolution of {approx}50 {mu}m. We present the design of a final version of this instrument that improves the shielding, can be aligned more accurately, and uses three crystals instead of one. The last change enables coverage of multiple spectral ranges if different crystals are used, or multiple times if identical crystals and time-gated detectors are used. We also present results from initial prototyping tests on the Z facility using two crystals in a time-integrated mode.

  1. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 {Angstrom}, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 {mu}m in selected places and 2{endash}3 {mu}m over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 {mu}m in selected places and 5 {mu}m over the focal spot of the Nike laser. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  2. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-05

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  3. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Changes in Moisture Flux Over the Tibetan Plateau During 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yongxin; Cuo, Lan

    2015-05-01

    Net precipitation (precipitation minus evapotranspiration, P-E) changes from a high resolution regional climate simulation and its reanalysis forcing are analyzed over the Tibet Plateau (TP) and compared to the global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) product. The mechanism behind the P-E changes is explored by decomposing the column integrated moisture flux convergence into thermodynamic, dynamic, and transient eddy components. High-resolution climate simulation improves the spatial pattern of P-E changes over the best available global reanalysis. Improvement in simulating precipitation changes at high elevations contributes dominantly to the improved P-E changes. High-resolution climate simulation also facilitates new and substantial findings regarding the role of thermodynamics and transient eddies in P-E changes reflected in observed changes in major river basins fed by runoff from the TP. The analysis revealed the contrasting convergence/divergence changes between the northwestern and southeastern TP and feedback through latent heat release as an important mechanism leading to the mean P-E changes in the TP.

  5. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-12

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  6. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20 nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-04-14

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  7. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  8. Development of a high-resolution bathymetry dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Larson, Kyle B.; Lettrick, Joseph W.

    2010-10-08

    A bathymetric and topographic data collection and processing effort involving existing and newly collected data has been performed for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach in central Washington State, extending 60-miles from the tailrace of Priest Rapids Dam (river mile 397) to near the vicinity of the Interstate 182 bridge just upstream of the Yakima River confluence (river mile 337). The contents of this report provide a description of the data collections, data inputs, processing methodology, and final data quality assessment used to develop a comprehensive and continuous merged 1m resolution bathymetric and topographic surface dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach.

  9. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, Craig S; Levin, Craig

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  10. High-resolution radio observations of W50, the remnant associated with SS 433

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elston, R.; Baum, S.

    1987-12-01

    The NRAO VLA has been used to observe the radio source W50 with 30 arcsec and 1 arcmin resolutions at 20 cm. It is found that the overall structure of W50 is well delineated by filamentary structure. W50 possesses a nearly circular shell reminiscent of an evolved supernova remnant such as CTB1 and the Cygnus Loop. The most unusual features of W50 are the edge-brightened radio ears which extend beyond the shell. These ears appear morphologically distinct from the shell and have minimum energy pressures three times greater than are present in the shell. Thus, while no direct connection is observed between SS433 and the ears, it is suggested that the ears are the result of the interaction of the ram pressure of the collimated jets of SS433 with a supernova remnant shell. At 30 arcsec resolution the western ear of W50 is depolarized, suggesting that W50 and S74 are at a common distance of about 3 kpc. 27 references.

  11. High resolution short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer for copper K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujala, N. G.; Barrea, R. A.; Karanfil, C.

    2011-06-15

    We have developed a compact short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer (BCLA) for Cu speciation studies of biological systems with specific applications to cancer biology. The system provides high energy resolution and high background rejection. The system is composed of an aluminum block serving as a log spiral bender for a 15 micron thick Silicon 111 crystal and a set of soller slits. The energy resolution of the BCLA--about 14 eV at the Cu K{alpha} line-- allows resolution of the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} and CuK{alpha}{sub 2} lines. The system is easily aligned by using a set of motorized XYZ linear stages. Two operation modes are available: incident energy scans (IES) and emission energy scans (EES). IES allows scanning of the incident energy while the BCLA system is maintained at a preselected fixed position - typically CuK{alpha}{sub 1} line. EES is used when the incident energy is fixed and the analyzer is scanned to provide the peak profile of the emission lines of Cu.

  12. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  13. A High Resolution, Multi-stop, Time-to-Digital Converter for Nuclear Time-of-Flight Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. F. Spencer; J. Cole; M. Drigert; R. Aryaeinejad

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-stop, time-to-digital converter (TDC) was designed and developed to precisely measure the times-of-flight (TOF) of incident neutrons responsible for induced fission and capture reactions on actinide targets. The minimum time resolution is 1 ns. The TDC design was implemented into a single, dual-wide CAMAC module. The CAMAC bus is used for command and control as well as an alternative data output. A high-speed ECL interface, compatible with LeCroy FERA modules, was also provided for the principle data output path. An Actel high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip was incorporated with an external oscillator and an internal multiple clock phasing system. This device implemented the majority of the high-speed register functions, the state machine for the FERA interface, and the high-speed counting circuit used for the TDC conversion. An external microcontroller was used to monitor and control system-level changes. In this work we discuss the performance of this TDC module as well as its application.

  14. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  15. High-resolution emissions of CO{sub 2} from power generation in the USA - article no. G04008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petron, G.; Tans, P.; Frost, G.; Chao, D.L.; Trainer, M. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth Systems Research Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electricity generation accounts for close to 40% of the U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning, making it the economic sector with the largest source of CO{sub 2}. Since the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Markets Division (EPA CAMD) has kept a repository of hourly CO{sub 2} emission data for most power plants in the conterminous United States. In this study, the CAMD CO{sub 2} data are used to derive a high spatiotemporal resolution CO{sub 2} emissions inventory for the electricity generation sector (inventory available on request). Data from 1998 to 2006 have been processed. This unique inventory can be used to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle at fine temporal and spatial scales. The CAMD data set provides the first quantitative estimates of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the emissions as well as the year to year variability. Emissions peak in the summertime owing to the widespread use of air conditioning. Summertime emissions are in fact highly correlated with the daily average temperature. In conjunction with the EPA Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), we have derived high-resolution maps of CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel burned (coal, gas, oil) for the year 2004. The CAMD data set also reflects regional anomalies in power generation such as the August 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and the 2000-2001 increase in production in California. We recommend that all sectors of the economy report similar high-resolution CO{sub 2} emissions because of their great usefulness both for carbon cycle science and for greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and regulation.

  16. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  17. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 20th Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics Conference, Atlanta, GA, United States, Jun 01 - Jun 05, 2014...

  18. NGC 4102: HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF A NUCLEAR STARBURST RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.

    2010-10-20

    The composite galaxy NGC 4102 hosts a LINER nucleus and a starburst. We mapped NGC 4102 in the 12.8 {mu}m line of [Ne II], using the echelon spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF, to obtain a data cube with 1.''5 spatial, and 25 km s{sup -1} spectral, resolution. Combining near-infrared, radio, and the [Ne II] data shows that the extinction to the starburst is substantial, more than 2 mag at the K band, and that the neon abundance is less than half solar. We find that the star formation in the nuclear region is confined to a rotating ring or disk of 4.''3 ({approx}300 pc) diameter, inside the inner Lindblad resonance. This region is an intense concentration of mass, with a dynamical mass {approx}3 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, and of star formation. The young stars in the ring produce the [Ne II] flux reported by Spitzer for the entire galaxy. The mysterious blue component of line emission detected in the near-infrared is also seen in [Ne II]; it is not a normal active galactic nucleus outflow.

  19. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ?10.5-meV and ?240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  20. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2011-11-30

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 ?m) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 ?m was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial distribution of targeted metabolites, mainly waxes and flavonoids, was systematically explored on various organs, including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots at high spatial resolution of ~ 12-50 ?m and the changes in the abundance level of these metabolites were monitored on the cer1 mutant with respect to the wild-type. This study revealed the metabolic biology of CER1 gene on each individual organ level with very detailed high spatial resolution. The separate MS images of isobaric metabolites, i.e. C29 alkane vs. C28 aldehyde could be constructed on both genotypes from MS imaging at high mass resolution. This allows tracking of abundance changes for those compounds along with the genetic mutation, which is not achievable with low mass resolution mass spectrometry. This study supported previous hypothesis of molecular function of CER1 gene as aldehyde decarbonylase, especially by displaying hyper accumulation of aldehydes and C30 fatty acid and decrease in abundance of alkanes and ketones in several plant organs of cer1 mutant. The scope of analytes was further directed toward internal cell metabolites from the surface metabolites of the plant. MS profiling and imaging of internal cell metabolites were performed on the vibratome section of Arabidopsis leaf. Vibratome sectioning of the leaf was first conducted to remove the surface cuticle layer and it was followed by enzymatic treatment of the section to induce the digestion of primary cell walls, middle lamella, and expose the internal cells underneath to the surface for detection with the laser by LDI-MS. The subsequent MS imaging onto the enzymatically treated vibratome section allowed us to map the distribution of the metabolites in the internal cell layers, linolenic acid (C18:3 FA) and linoleic acid (C18:2 FA). The development of an assay for relative quantification of analytes at the single subcellular/organelle level by LDI-MS imaging was attempted and both plausibility and significant obstacles were seen. As a test system, native plant organelle, chloroplasts isolated from the spinach leaves were used

  1. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256 3 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  2. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N.

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  3. Analog morphocorrelation: new technique with implications for high-resolution absolute age dating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Berggren, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    The conventional approach to increased biostratigraphic resolution involves identifying additional datum planes defined by discrete events. Multivariate techniques used to refine a conventional taxonomic zonal scheme offer no improvement in precision; however, since the characters on which the zonal boundaries are based often show continuous stratigraphic variation, they offer an opportunity for continuous stratigraphic correlation based on the stage of evolution. Morphometric analysis was conducted on two lineages: (1) the Globorotalia cibaoensis-G. crassaformis linage, using a reference section from the early Pliocene of the Rio Grande rise, spanning approximately 2.6 m.y.; and (2) the G. conoidea-G.inflata lineage, using a reference section from the late Miocene to the Holocene from the southwest Pacific, spanning approximately 8 m.y. Stepwise multiple regression of morphologic variates generated an equation with an age-prediction precision (95% confidence) of +/- 122 k.y. in the G. crassaformis lineage and +/- 463 k.y. in the G conoidea lineage (accuracy depends on calibration of absolute dates in the reference section and our knowledge of sedimentation rates over the measured interval). Using single-equation analog morphocorrelation, any sample overlapped by the reference lineage can be correlated, which reduce the need for repeated sampling in a search for discrete events. The authors demonstrate that analysis of continuous morphologic variation can increase stratigraphic precision with a few carefully chosen variables, and that analog morpho-correlation can yield absolute dates, rather than relative dates with quantified error. Any disadvantages inherent in analog morphocorrelation are also found in conventional biostratigraphic techniques, but are usually unquantified and unrecognized.

  4. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity ... prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of ... were available from small area crystals on the high ...

  5. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity ... prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of ... were avail- able from small area crystals on the high ...

  6. design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laboratory conditions that produce similar extreme states of matter. The spectrometer for NIF will be the second for high-energy-density physics that Hill and Bitter have designed....

  7. PPPL to design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laboratory conditions that produce similar extreme states of matter. The spectrometer for NIF will be the second for high-energy-density physics that Hill and Bitter have designed....

  8. A novel apparatus for in situ compression of submicron structures and particles in a high resolution SEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romeis, S.; Paul, J.; Ziener, M.; Peukert, W.

    2012-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a novel in situ manipulation device to perform stressing experiments on the submicron scale inside a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. The instrument comprises two main assembly groups: an upper part for positioning and moving a mounted probe and a force sensor as well as a specimen support as lower part. The upper part consists of a closed loop tripod piezoelectric scanner mounted on a self-locking coarse positioning stage. Two interlocked steel springs and a linear variable differential transformer measuring the springs' deflections compose the lower part of the instrument. This arrangement acts as force-sensor and sample support. In comparison to already well-established concepts a wide measuring range is covered by adjusting the spring constant between 30 N/m and 50000 N/m. Moreover, the new device offers striking advantages with respect to force calibration and sample deformation measurements. Force calibration is performed using the eigenfrequency of the force detection system directly inside the SEM. Deformation data are obtained with high accuracy by simultaneously recording displacements above and below the specimen. The detrimental apparatus compliance is determined, and the influence on measured data subsequently minimized: an easy to validate two-springs-in-series model is used for data correction. A force resolution in normal direction of 100 nN accompanied by a sample deformation resolution of 5 nm can be achieved with the instrument using an appropriate load cell stiffness. The capabilities and versatility of this instrument are exemplified by compression experiments performed on submicron amorphous silica particles.

  9. A digital map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-07-03

    This dataset represent a map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for the arctic coastal plain at Barrow, Alaska. The polygon troughs are considered as the surface expression of the ice-wedges. The troughs are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The trough widths were initially identified from LiDAR data, and the boundary between two polygons assumed to be located along the lowest elevations on trough widths between them.

  10. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  11. High resolution InSb quantum well ballistic nanosensors for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.; Lambert, C. J.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-12-04

    We report the room temperature operation of a quasi-ballistic InSb quantum well Hall sensor that exhibits a high frequency sensitivity of 560nT/?Hz at 20uA bias current. The device utilizes a partitioned buffer layer design that suppresses leakage currents through the mesa floor and can sustain large current densities.

  12. High-resolution x-ray diffraction study of the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueland, B. G.; Saunders, S. M.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.

    2015-11-30

    In this study, YbBiPt is a heavy-fermion compound possessing significant short-range antiferromagnetic correlations below a temperature of T*=0.7K, fragile antiferromagnetic order below TN = 0.4K, a Kondo temperature of TK ? 1K, and crystalline-electric-field splitting on the order of E/kB = 1 10K. Whereas the compound has a face-centered-cubic lattice at ambient temperature, certain experimental data, particularly those from studies aimed at determining its crystalline-electric-field scheme, suggest that the lattice distorts at lower temperature. Here, we present results from high-resolution, high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments which show that, within our experimental resolution of ? 6 10 105 , no structural phase transition occurs between T = 1.5 and 50 K. In combination with results from dilatometry measurements, we further show that the compound's thermal expansion has a minimum at ? 18 K and a region of negative thermal expansion for 9 ? T ? 18 K. Despite diffraction patterns taken at 1.6 K which indicate that the lattice is face-centered cubic and that the Yb resides on a crystallographic site with cubic point symmetry, we demonstrate that the linear thermal expansion may be modeled using crystalline-electric-field level schemes appropriate for Yb3+ residing on a site with either cubic or less than cubic point symmetry.

  13. High-resolution neutron diffraction study of CuNCN: New evidence of structure anomalies at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Philipp; Houben, Andreas; Dronskowski, Richard; Tchougreff, Andrei L.; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry and Poncelet Laboratory of Mathematics in Interaction with Physics and Informatics, Independent University of Moscow, Moscow Center for Continuous Mathematical Education, Bolshoi Vlasevsky Per. 11, 119002 Moscow

    2013-12-14

    Copper carbodiimide (CuNCN) is the nitrogen-containing analogue of cupric oxide. Based on high-resolution neutron-diffraction data, CuNCN's lattice parameters are derived as a function of the temperature. In accordance with a recent synchrotron study, a clear trend in the cell parameter a is observed accompanying the changing magnetic behavior. With decreasing temperature, a slowly decreases to a minimum at ?100 K after which it rises again. The same trendalbeit more pronouncedis observed for the c lattice parameter at ?35 K. The herein presented neutron powder-diffraction data also support the conjectured sequence of transitions from the high-temperature one-dimensional resonating valence-bond (RVB) state to a transient two-dimensional RVB state and eventually, at lowest temperatures, into another two-dimensional RVB state, presumably the ground state.

  14. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  15. Spatially resolved high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZajaPc, S.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Rosmej, O.; Yongtao, Zhao; Gojska, A.

    2010-10-15

    Soft x-ray emission from a Mather-type plasma-focus device (PF-1000) operated at {approx}400 kJ was measured. The high density and temperature plasma were generated by the discharge in the deuterium-argon gas mixture in the modified (high-current) plasma-focus configuration. A spherically bent mica crystal spectrograph viewing the axial output of the pinch region was used to measure the x-ray spectra. Spatially resolved spectra including the characteristic x-ray lines of highly ionized Ar and continua were recorded by means of an x-ray film. The x-ray emission of PF-1000 device was studied at different areas of the pinch.

  16. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

  17. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  18. Reconstruction of a high-resolution late holocene arctic paleoclimate record from Colville River delta sediments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiner, Kathryn Melissa; Lowry, Thomas Stephen

    2013-10-01

    This work was partially supported by the Sandia National Laboratories,Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (LDRD) fellowship program in conjunction with Texas A&M University (TAMU). The research described herein is the work of Kathryn M. Schreiner (Katie') and her advisor, Thomas S. Bianchi and represents a concise description of Katie's dissertation that was submitted to the TAMU Office of Graduate Studies in May 2013 in partial fulfillment of her doctorate of philosophy degree. High Arctic permafrost soils contain a massive amount of organic carbon, accounting for twice as much carbon as what is currently stored as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, with current warming trends this sink is in danger of thawing and potentially releasing large amounts of carbon as both carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. It is difficult to make predictions about the future of this sink without knowing how it has reacted to past temperature and climate changes. This project investigated long term, fine scale particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery by the high-Arctic Colville River into Simpson's Lagoon in the near-shore Beaufort Sea. Modern POC was determined to be a mixture of three sources (riverine soils, coastal erosion, and marine). Downcore POC measurements were performed in a core close to the Colville River output and a core close to intense coastal erosion. Inputs of the three major sources were found to vary throughout the last two millennia, and in the Colville River core covary significantly with Alaskan temperature reconstructions.

  19. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  20. TU-F-BRE-04: Development of a High-Resolution EPID Based Dosimetry Strategy for Radiosurgery QA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, B; Ding, A; Xing, L; Wang, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically investigate a high spatial-resolution (0.2mm) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for CyberKnife (CK) based radiosurgery system quality assurance (QA). Methods: An EPID-based dosimetric measurement technique is applied to CK output measurement and field size verification. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulated pixel-to-pixel EPID response specific to CK is used to convert a raw EPID-measured image of a radiosurgery field into water-based dose distribution. The output factors are measured using EPID for radiosurgery fields formed by fixed and variable aperture (Iris) cones. Circular fields of 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 and 60mm diameters are measured and compared with diode measurements. The equivalent diameters are determined by analyzing the area received dose greater than half maximum. Results: For both fixed and Iris cones, the EPID measured output factors of circular fields of 5mm to 60mm diameters are in good agreement with the radiosurgery diode measurements. The mean output differences are 1.0% and 1.5% for fixed and Iris cone respectively. The max differences are 2.2% for the 15mm fixed cone, and 1.8% for the 10mm Iris field. The equivalent diameters derived from the EPID measurements are in good agreement comparing to the water scan result with mean differences of 0.210.09mm and 0.020.22mm for fixed and Iris cone, respectively. The high detector density EPID is able to measure the whole radiation field and identify the field edge and center. Therefore, there is no need to align the detector center perfectly at field center and the setup time is greatly reduced for QA. Conclusion: The high spatial-resolution EPID is proved to be an accurate and efficient dosimetric tool for radiosurgery QA and especially useful in Cyberknife QA for variable aperture collimators.

  1. High-resolution line-shape spectroscopy during a laser pulse based on Dual-Broad-Band-CARS interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M E-mail: Al_Vereshchagin@mail.r E-mail: stelmakh@kapella.gpi.r

    2006-07-31

    A high-resolution spectroscopic method is developed for recording Raman spectra of molecular transitions in transient objects during a laser pulse with a resolution of {approx}0.1 cm{sup -1}. The method is based on CARS spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis of the CARS signal and detecting a circular interferometric pattern on a two-dimensional multichannel photodetector. It is shown that the use of the Dual-Broad-Band-CARS configuration to obtain the CARS process provides the efficient averaging of the spectral-amplitude noise of the CARS signal generated by a laser pulse and, in combination with the angular integration of the two-dimensional interference pattern, considerably improves the quality of interferograms. The method was tested upon diagnostics of the transient oxygen-hydrogen flame where information on the shapes of spectral lines of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules required for measuring temperature was simultaneously obtained and used. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  2. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at Jlab Hall C and the New Spectroscopy of ^12_Lambda B Hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Liguang; Chen, Chunhua; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Kawama, Daisuke; Han, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lulin; Matsumura, Akihiko; Okayasu, Yuichi; Seva, Tomislav; Rodriguez, Victor; Baturin, Pavlo; Acha Quimper, Armando; Achenbach, Carsten; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Ates, Ozgur; Badui, Rafael; Baker, Oliver; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Boeglin, Werner; Bono, Jason; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Carter, Philip; Carlini, Roger; Chiba, Atsushi; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Dalton, Mark; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; De Leo, Raffaele; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Doi, Daisuke; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D.; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hungerford, Ed; Jayalath, Chandana; Jones, Mark; Johnston, Kathleen; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, Seigo; Kawai, Masaharu; Keppel, Cynthia; Khanal, Hari; Kohl, M.; Kramer, Laird; Lan, Kejian; Li, Ya; Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Maeda, Kazushige; Malace, Simona; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Markowitz, Pete; Maruta, Tomofumi; Maruyama, Nayuta; Maxwell, Victor; Millener, David; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Motoba, Toshio; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narayan, Amrendra; Neville, Casey; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Nunez, Angel; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, Xiyu; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera, R.; Roche, Julie; Samanta, Chhanda; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segbefia, Edwin; Schott, Diane; Shichijo, Ayako; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Song, Yushou; Sumihama, Mizuki; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Taniya, Naotaka; Tsukada, Kyo; Tvaskis, Vladas; Veilleux, Micah; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yamamoto, Taku; Yan, Chen; Ye, Z.; Yokota, Kosuke; Zhamkochyan, Simon; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-09-01

    Since the pioneering experiment, E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "Tilt Method", to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet were added to produce precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. These two experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, resulted in two new data sets, producing sub-MeV energy resolution in the spectra of ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{28}_{\\Lambda} \\text{Al}$ and ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{10}_{\\Lambda}\\text{Be}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{52}_{\\Lambda}\\text{V}$. All three experiments obtained a ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$, spectrum, which is the most characteristic $p$-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ spectrum.

  3. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-30

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. 20 figs.

  4. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  5. SU-E-T-415: An Ionization Chamber Array with High Spatial Resolution for External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Togno, M; Wilkens, J; Menichelli, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize an ionization chamber array technology with high spatial resolution and high charge collection efficiency for external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The prototype under test is a linear array of air vented ionization chambers developed by IBA Dosimetry, consisting of 80 pixels with 3.5mm spatial resolution and 4mm{sup 3} sensitive volume. The detector was characterized in a plastic phantom with {sup 60} Co radiation and MV X-rays from an ELEKTA Agility LINAC (with flattened and unflattened beam qualities). Bias voltage was varied in order to evaluate charge collection efficiency. A commercial array of ionization chambers (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry) and an amorphous silicon flat panel in direct conversion configuration were used as references. Results: Repeatability (0.4%) and stability under continuous gamma irradiation (0.3%) are very good, in spite of low active volume and sensitivity (?200pC/Gy). Charge collection efficiency is higher than 99% already at 150V with ?2mGy dose per pulse, leading to a 1.1% sensitivity change with dose per pulse in the range 0.09-2mGy (covering all flattened and unflattened applications). Measured dose profiles are in agreement with MatriXX for fields larger than 22cm{sup 2}, in which case the linear array offers a much better characterization of the penumbra region. Down to 11cm{sup 2}, measured profiles are in very good agreement with the flat panel. Conclusion: The array represents a valuable tool for the characterization of treatment fields in which high spatial resolution is required, together with the dosimetric performance of air vented ionization chambers. Such a technology would be particularly valuable in association with advanced treatment modalities such as rotational radiotherapy, stereotactic treatments (even with unflattened beam qualities) and proton therapy, due to the insensitivity of the chambers on dose per pulse. In the future, a two dimensional prototype based on this technology will be developed and tested. This research project has been supported by a Marie Curie Early Initial Training Network Fellowship of the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under contract number (PITN-GA-2011-289198-.

  6. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K.

    2013-09-03

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  7. Single-shot high-resolution characterization of optical pulses by temporal phase diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dorrer, C.; Waxer, L. J.; Kalb, A.; Hill, E. M.; Bromage, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of temporal phase diversity is proposed and applied to the temporal characterization of optical pulses. The experimental trace is composed of the measured power of a plurality of ancillary optical pulses derived from the pulse under test by adding known amounts of chromatic dispersion. The spectral phase of the pulse under test is retrieved by minimizing the error between the experimental trace and a trace calculated from the optical spectrum using the known diagnostic parameters. An assembly composed of splitters and dispersive delay fibers has been used to generate 64 ancillary pulses whose instantaneous power can be detectedmorein a single shot with a high-bandwidth photodiode and oscilloscope. Pulse-shape reconstruction for pulses shorter than the photodetection impulse response has been demonstrated.The diagnostic is experimentally shown to accurately characterize pulses from a chirped-pulseamplification system when its stretcher is detuned from the position for optimal recompression. Various investigations of the performance with respect to the number of ancillary pulses and the range of chromatic dispersion generated in the diagnostic are presented.less

  8. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P., E-mail: emily@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: norris@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P. O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.?01 and 1.?0 and brighter than ?m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  9. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  10. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  11. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  12. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana; Li Luhua; Chen Ying; Cowie, Bruce C. C.

    2013-05-15

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  13. DENSITY WAVES EXCITED BY LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE NONLINEAR REGIME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Ruobing; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R. E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate numerically the propagation of density waves excited by a low-mass planet in a protoplanetary disk in the nonlinear regime, using two-dimensional local shearing box simulations with the grid-based code Athena at high spatial resolution (256 grid points per scale height h). The nonlinear evolution results in the wave steepening into a shock, causing damping and angular momentum transfer to the disk. On long timescales this leads to spatial redistribution of the disk density, causing migration feedback and potentially resulting in gap opening. Previous numerical studies concentrated on exploring these secondary phenomena as probes of the nonlinear wave evolution. Here we focus on exploring the evolution of the basic wave properties, such as its density profile evolution, shock formation, and post-shock wave behavior, and provide comparison with analytical theory. The generation of potential vorticity at the shock is computed analytically and is subsequently verified by simulations and used to pinpoint the shock location. We confirm the theoretical relation between the shocking length and the planet mass (including the effect of the equation of state), and the post-shock decay of the angular momentum flux carried by the wave. The post-shock evolution of the wave profile is explored, and we quantitatively confirm its convergence to the theoretically expected N-wave shape. The accuracy of various numerical algorithms used to compute the nonlinear wave evolution is also investigated: we find that higher order spatial reconstruction and high resolution are crucial for capturing the shock formation correctly.

  14. High-resolution x-ray diffraction study of the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ueland, B. G.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Saunders, S. M.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Bud'ko, S. L.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Kreyssig, A.; et al

    2015-11-30

    In this study, YbBiPt is a heavy-fermion compound possessing significant short-range antiferromagnetic correlations below a temperature of T*=0.7K, fragile antiferromagnetic order below TN = 0.4K, a Kondo temperature of TK ≈ 1K, and crystalline-electric-field splitting on the order of E/kB = 1 – 10K. Whereas the compound has a face-centered-cubic lattice at ambient temperature, certain experimental data, particularly those from studies aimed at determining its crystalline-electric-field scheme, suggest that the lattice distorts at lower temperature. Here, we present results from high-resolution, high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments which show that, within our experimental resolution of ≈ 6 – 10 × 10–5 Å,more » no structural phase transition occurs between T = 1.5 and 50 K. In combination with results from dilatometry measurements, we further show that the compound's thermal expansion has a minimum at ≈ 18 K and a region of negative thermal expansion for 9 ≲ T ≲ 18 K. Despite diffraction patterns taken at 1.6 K which indicate that the lattice is face-centered cubic and that the Yb resides on a crystallographic site with cubic point symmetry, we demonstrate that the linear thermal expansion may be modeled using crystalline-electric-field level schemes appropriate for Yb3+ residing on a site with either cubic or less than cubic point symmetry.« less

  15. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  16. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  17. Catalytic Mechanism of Perosamine N-Acetyltransferase Revealed by High-Resolution X-ray Crystallographic Studies and Kinetic Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoden, James B.; Reinhardt, Laurie A.; Cook, Paul D.; Menden, Patrick; Cleland, W.W.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2012-09-17

    N-Acetylperosamine is an unusual dideoxysugar found in the O-antigens of some Gram-negative bacteria, including the pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O157:H7. The last step in its biosynthesis is catalyzed by PerB, an N-acetyltransferase belonging to the left-handed {beta}-helix superfamily of proteins. Here we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of PerB from Caulobacter crescentus. For this study, three structures were determined to 1.0 {angstrom} resolution or better: the enzyme in complex with CoA and GDP-perosamine, the protein with bound CoA and GDP-N-acetylperosamine, and the enzyme containing a tetrahedral transition state mimic bound in the active site. Each subunit of the trimeric enzyme folds into two distinct regions. The N-terminal domain is globular and dominated by a six-stranded mainly parallel {beta}-sheet. It provides most of the interactions between the protein and GDP-perosamine. The C-terminal domain consists of a left-handed {beta}-helix, which has nearly seven turns. This region provides the scaffold for CoA binding. On the basis of these high-resolution structures, site-directed mutant proteins were constructed to test the roles of His 141 and Asp 142 in the catalytic mechanism. Kinetic data and pH-rate profiles are indicative of His 141 serving as a general base. In addition, the backbone amide group of Gly 159 provides an oxyanion hole for stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state. The pH-rate profiles are also consistent with the GDP-linked amino sugar substrate entering the active site in its unprotonated form. Finally, for this investigation, we show that PerB can accept GDP-3-deoxyperosamine as an alternative substrate, thus representing the production of a novel trideoxysugar.

  18. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  19. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore » >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  20. Applications of high-resolution spatial discretization scheme and Jacobian-free NewtonKrylov method in two-phase flow problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many nuclear thermalhydraulics applications, it is desirable to use higher-order numerical schemes to reduce numerical errors. High-resolution spatial discretization schemes provide high order spatial accuracy in smooth regions and capture sharp spatial discontinuity without nonphysical spatial oscillations. In this work, we adapted an existing high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids in two-phase flow applications. Fully implicit time integration schemes were also implemented to reduce numerical errors from operator-splitting types of time integration schemes. The resulting nonlinear system has been successfully solved using the Jacobian-free NewtonKrylov (JFNK) method. The high-resolution spatial discretization and high-order fully implicit time integration numerical schemes were tested and numerically verified for several two-phase test problems, including a two-phase advection problem, a two-phase advection with phase appearance/disappearance problem, and the water faucet problem. Numerical results clearly demonstrated the advantages of using such high-resolution spatial and high-order temporal numerical schemes to significantly reduce numerical diffusion and therefore improve accuracy. Our study also demonstrated that the JFNK method is stable and robust in solving two-phase flow problems, even when phase appearance/disappearance exists.

  1. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  2. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Revercomb, David Tobin, Robert Knuteson, Lori Borg, Leslie Moy

    2009-06-17

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the grand tour of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004. More specifically, our major achievements for ARM include 1. Development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) to function like a satellite on the ground for ARM, providing a steady stream of accurately calibrated spectral radiances for Science Team clear sky and cloud applications (Knuteson et al. 2004a), 2. Detailed radiometric calibration and characterization of AERI radiances, with uncertainty estimates established from complete error analyses and proven by inter-comparison tests (Knuteson et al. 2004b), 3. AERI data quality assessment and maintenance over the extended time frames needed to support ARM (Dedecker et al., 2005) 4. Key role in the radiative transfer model improvements from the AERI/LBLRTM QME (Turner et al. 2004) and AERI-ER especially from the SHEBA experiment (Tobin et al. 1999), 5. Contributed scientific and programmatic leadership leading to significant water vapor accuracy improvements and uncertainty assessments for the low to mid troposphere (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003), 6. Leadership of the ARM assessment of the accuracy of water vapor observations from radiosondes, Raman Lidar and in situ aircraft observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (Tobin et al. 2002, Ferrare et al. 2004), 7. New techniques for characterizing clouds from AERI (DeSlover et al. 1999, Turner 2003b, Turner et al. 2003b), 8. Initial design and development of the Scanning-HIS aircraft instrument and application to ARM UAV Program missions (Revercomb et al. 2005), and 9. Coordinated efforts leading to the use of ARM observations as a key validation tool for the high resolution Atmospheric IR Sounder on the NASA Aqua platform (Tobin et al. 2005a) 10. Performed ARM site and global clear sky radiative closure studies that shows closure of top-of-atmosphere flux at the level of ~1 W/m2 (Moy et al 2008 and Section 3 of this appendix) 11. Performed studies to characterize SGP site cirrus cloud property retrievals and assess impacts on computed fluxes and heating rate profiles (Borg et al. 2008 and Section 2 of this appendix).

  3. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

    2014-06-20

    An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

  4. Two- and three-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) structures for a high resolution diamond-based MEMS technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.

    2000-01-17

    Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.

  5. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biases versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.

  6. Non-intrusive, high-resolution, real-time, two-dimensional imaging of multiphase materials using acoustic array sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassiède, M.; Shaw, J. M.

    2015-04-15

    Two parallel multi-element ultrasonic acoustic arrays combined with sets of focal laws for acoustic signal generation and a classical tomographic inversion algorithm are used to generate real-time two-dimensional micro seismic acoustic images of multiphase materials. Proof of concept and calibration measurements were performed for single phase and two phase liquids, uniform polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates, and aluminum cylinders imbedded in PVC plates. Measurement artefacts, arising from the limited range of viewing angles, and the compromise between data acquisition rate and image quality are discussed. The angle range of scanning and the image resolution were varied, and the effects on the quality of the reproduction of the speed of sound profiles of model solids and liquids with known geometries and compositions were analysed in detail. The best image quality results were obtained for a scanning angle range of [−35°, 35°] at a step size of 2.5° post processed to generate images on a 40 μm square grid. The data acquisition time for high quality images with a 30 mm × 40 mm view field is 10 min. Representation of two-phase solids with large differences in speed of sound between phases and where one phase is dispersed in the form of macroscopic objects (greater than 1 mm in diameter) proved to be the most difficult to image accurately. Liquid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase boundaries, in micro porous solids by contrast, were more readily defined. Displacement of air by water and water by heptane in natural porous limestone provides illustrative kinetic examples. Measurement results with these realistic cases demonstrate the feasibility of the technique to monitor in real time and on the micrometer length scale local composition and flow of organic liquids in inorganic porous media, one of many envisioned engineering applications. Improvement of data acquisition rate is an area for future collaborative study.

  7. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biasesmore » versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.« less

  8. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100300 spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 and 135 , respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 m at the 200 setting and better than 40 m for the 135- range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  9. Beamline 5.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.002-1.0 eV Frequency range 20-10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution 0.00096 cm-1 Endstations Bruker IFS 125HR with 9 scanner chambers Characteristics High resolution Far-IR to Mid-IR spectroscopy primarily for gas phase and cluster samples. Spatial resolution ~1 mm Detectors Wide-range MCT-A (mercury cadmium telluride), Si Bolometer, DLATGS, hot

  10. Beamline 5.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.002-1.0 eV Frequency range 20-10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution 0.00096 cm-1 Endstations Bruker IFS 125HR with 9 scanner chambers Characteristics High resolution Far-IR to Mid-IR spectroscopy primarily for gas phase and cluster samples. Spatial resolution ~1 mm Detectors Wide-range MCT-A (mercury cadmium telluride), Si Bolometer, DLATGS, hot

  11. Beamline 5.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.002-1.0 eV Frequency range 20-10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution 0.00096 cm-1 Endstations Bruker IFS 125HR with 9 scanner chambers Characteristics High resolution Far-IR to Mid-IR spectroscopy primarily for gas phase and cluster samples. Spatial resolution ~1 mm Detectors Wide-range MCT-A (mercury cadmium telluride), Si Bolometer, DLATGS, hot

  12. Beamline 5.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.002-1.0 eV Frequency range 20-10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution 0.00096 cm-1 Endstations Bruker IFS 125HR with 9 scanner chambers Characteristics High resolution Far-IR to Mid-IR spectroscopy primarily for gas phase and cluster samples. Spatial resolution ~1 mm Detectors Wide-range MCT-A (mercury cadmium telluride), Si Bolometer, DLATGS, hot

  13. Beamline 5.4.3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Print High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational 2011 Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 0.002-1.0 eV Frequency range 20-10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution 0.00096 cm-1 Endstations Bruker IFS 125HR with 9 scanner chambers Characteristics High resolution Far-IR to Mid-IR spectroscopy primarily for gas phase and cluster samples. Spatial resolution ~1 mm Detectors Wide-range MCT-A (mercury cadmium telluride), Si Bolometer, DLATGS, hot

  14. TU-F-BRE-01: A High Resolution Micro Fiber Scintillator Detector Optimized for SRS and SBRT in Vivo Real Time Treatment Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaguirre, E; Rangaraj, D; Price, S; Knewtson, T; Loyalka, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have built a high resolution real time scintillating fiber detector prototype to determine in real time the accuracy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments when only a fraction of the planned dose was delivered. The motivation of this work is to enhance dose delivery accuracy and to achieve error free radiosurgery. Methods: A high density array of scintillating fibers and a high speed photo detectors array were integrated to implement a high resolution real time dosimeter that can sample with high resolution pulsed SRS and SBRT beams cross sections. The high efficiency of the developed system allows to read each linac pulse in real time and to compute the accumulated dose and dose errors when only a fraction of the beam was delivered. The fibers are highly packed in a substrate that is directly coupled to two 128 pixel arrays with a pitch matching the fiber spacing to achieve accurate spatial localization. The small cross section of the fiber array allows stacking multiple fiber arrays to measure independent angular profiles that are digitally processed in parallel for real time dosimetry. Results: We implemented a high density array detector prototype with a pitch of 0.5 mm, readout speed of 1.2 msec, and a response time of 0.5 usec. The fast reading speed has the capability to determining the dose in flattening free filter beams. The detector can be installed in transmission mode at the output port of a micro-MLC. Treatment deviations smaller than 3% are detected when less than 1/100 of the planned dose was delivered. Conclusions: We built a prototype of a high resolution fiber scintillator array detector for SRS and SBRT in vivo dosimetry. Results show that the developed detector has the potential to assure error free SRS and SBRT treatments.

  15. High resolution NMR study of T{sub 1} magnetic relaxation dispersion. IV. Proton relaxation in amino acids and Met-enkephalin pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) of protons was studied in the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin and the amino acids, which constitute it. Experiments were run by using high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in combination with fast field-cycling, thus enabling measuring NMRD curves for all individual protons. As in earlier works, Papers I–III, pronounced effects of intramolecular scalar spin-spin interactions, J-couplings, on spin relaxation were found. Notably, at low fields J-couplings tend to equalize the apparent relaxation rates within networks of coupled protons. In Met-enkephalin, in contrast to the free amino acids, there is a sharp increase in the proton T{sub 1}-relaxation times at high fields due to the changes in the regime of molecular motion. The experimental data are in good agreement with theory. From modelling the relaxation experiments we were able to determine motional correlation times of different residues in Met-enkephalin with atomic resolution. This allows us to draw conclusions about preferential conformation of the pentapeptide in solution, which is also in agreement with data from two-dimensional NMR experiments (rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy). Altogether, our study demonstrates that high-resolution NMR studies of magnetic field-dependent relaxation allow one to probe molecular mobility in biomolecules with atomic resolution.

  16. Quantification of dislocation nucleation stress in TiN through high-resolution in situ indentation experiments and first principles calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, N.; Yadav, S. K.; Liu, X. -Y.; Wang, J.; Hoagland, R. G.; Mara, N.; Misra, A.

    2015-11-05

    Using the in situ indentation of TiN in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, the nucleation of full as well as partial dislocations has been observed from {001} and {111} surfaces, respectively. The critical elastic strains associated with the nucleation of the dislocations were analyzed from the recorded atomic displacements, and the nucleation stresses corresponding to the measured critical strains were computed using density functional theory. The resolved shear stress was estimated to be 13.8 GPa for the partial dislocation 1/6 {111} and 6.7 GPa for the full dislocation {110}. Moreover, such an approach of quantifying nucleation stressesmorefor defects via in situ high-resolution experiment coupled with density functional theory calculation may be applied to other unit processes.less

  17. Details of the response of Kodak high resolution plate to x-irradiation for the characterization of ICF targets and components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, A.J.; Simms, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic images are used in the characterization of Internal Confinement Fusion targets and target components. The use of this technique involves consideration of: (1) the continuum and line emission source spectra produced by a tungsten anode, (2) the attenuation of the source spectrum by material in the x-ray path, and (3) the response of the x-ray detector, a Kodak HRP (High Resolution Plate), to the incident x-ray flux. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Final report for SciDAC grant Physics and dynamics coupling across scales in the next generation CESM: Meeting the challenge of high resolution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Vincent

    2015-02-21

    This is a final report for a SciDAC grant supported by BER, "Physics and dynamics coupling across scales in the next generation CESM: Meeting the challenge of high resolution." The project implemented a novel technique for coupling small-scale dynamics and microphysics into a community climate model. The technique uses subcolumns that are sampled in Monte Carlo fashion from a distribution of subgrid variability. The resulting global simulations show several improvements over the status quo.

  19. Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-11-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

  20. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  1. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J.C.E. Williams, J.J. Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-06-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution Novel lab-scale XCT data acquisition and data processing methods 3D characterization of glass-bead mock plastic-bonded-explosive stimulant.

  2. High-resolution (e, 2e + ion) study of electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xueguang Pflger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yong; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2015-05-07

    The ionization and fragmentation of methane induced by low-energy (E{sub 0} = 66 eV) electron-impact is investigated using a reaction microscope. The momentum vectors of all three charged final state particles, two outgoing electrons, and one fragment ion, are detected in coincidence. Compared to the earlier study [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134307 (2013)], considerable improvements to the instrumental mass and energy resolutions have been achieved. The fragment products CH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, CH{sup +}, and C{sup +} are clearly resolved. The binding energy resolution of ?E = 2.0 eV is a factor of three better than in the earlier measurements. The fragmentation channels are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy distributions and the binding energy spectra. While being mostly in consistence with existing photoionization studies the results show differences including missing fragmentation channels and previously unseen channels.

  3. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II. DISCOVERY OF A DOUBLE INFRARED CLUSTER IN II Zw 40

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara; Lahad, Ohr; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2013-04-10

    The nearby dwarf galaxy II Zw 40 hosts an intense starburst. At the center of the starburst is a bright compact radio and infrared source, thought to be a giant dense H II region containing Almost-Equal-To 14, 000 O stars. Radio continuum images suggest that the compact source is actually a collection of several smaller emission regions. We accordingly use the kinematics of the ionized gas to probe the structure of the radio-infrared emission region. With TEXES on the NASA-IRTF we measured the 10.5 {mu}m [S IV] emission line with effective spectral resolutions, including thermal broadening, of {approx}25 and {approx}3 km s{sup -1} and spatial resolution {approx}1''. The line profile shows two distinct, spatially coextensive, emission features. The stronger feature is at galactic velocity and has FWHM 47 km s{sup -1}. The second feature is {approx}44 km s{sup -1} redward of the first and has FWHM 32 km s{sup -1}. We argue that these are two giant embedded clusters, and estimate their masses to be Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} and Almost-Equal-To 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. The velocity shift is unexpectedly large for such a small spatial offset. We suggest that it may arise in a previously undetected kinematic feature remaining from the violent merger that formed the galaxy.

  4. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oubeidillah, Abdoul A; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Naz, Bibi S; Tootle, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic dataset with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous United States at refined 1/24 (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter dataset was prepared for the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by DAYMET daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter dataset may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous United States. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter dataset, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter dataset will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

  5. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of {approx}100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to a {approx}1 {mu}m spot at 12 keV. A high-contrast symmetric diffraction pattern of the nanocube is observed in the forward far field. An image of the nanocube is successfully reconstructed by an iterative phasing method and its half-period resolution is 3.0 nm. This method does not only dramatically improve the spatial resolution of x-ray microscopy but also is a key technology for realizing single-pulse diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  6. Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction for high-resolution bioimepedance imaging through vector source reconstruction under the static field of MRI magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariappan, Leo; Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an imaging modality to reconstruct the electrical conductivity of biological tissue based on the acoustic measurements of Lorentz force induced tissue vibration. This study presents the feasibility of the authors' new MAT-MI system and vector source imaging algorithm to perform a complete reconstruction of the conductivity distribution of real biological tissues with ultrasound spatial resolution. Methods: In the present study, using ultrasound beamformation, imaging point spread functions are designed to reconstruct the induced vector source in the object which is used to estimate the object conductivity distribution. Both numerical studies and phantom experiments are performed to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method. Also, through the numerical simulations, the full width half maximum of the imaging point spread function is calculated to estimate of the spatial resolution. The tissue phantom experiments are performed with a MAT-MI imaging system in the static field of a 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging magnet. Results: The image reconstruction through vector beamformation in the numerical and experimental studies gives a reliable estimate of the conductivity distribution in the object with a ∼1.5 mm spatial resolution corresponding to the imaging system frequency of 500 kHz ultrasound. In addition, the experiment results suggest that MAT-MI under high static magnetic field environment is able to reconstruct images of tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and real tissue samples with reliable conductivity contrast. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that MAT-MI is able to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues with better than 2 mm spatial resolution at 500 kHz, and the imaging with MAT-MI under a high static magnetic field environment is able to provide improved imaging contrast for biological tissue conductivity reconstruction.

  7. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  8. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a relational model to predict porosity and permeability profiles from well logs at each well location, and a 3D geostatistical variogram to generate the reservoir characterization over the reservoir volume of interest. A reservoir simulation model was built based upon this characterization and history-matched without making significant changes to it, thus validating the procedure. While not the same procedure as originally planned, the procedure ultimately employed proved successful and demonstrated that the general concepts proposed (i.e., data mining and advanced pattern recognition methods) have the flexibility to achieve the reservoir characterization objectives sought even with imperfect or incomplete data.

  9. A method to determine fault vectors in 4H-SiC from stacking sequences observed on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Mueller, Stephan G.; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward K.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric

    2014-09-14

    A new method has been developed to determine the fault vectors associated with stacking faults in 4H-SiC from their stacking sequences observed on high resolution TEM images. This method, analogous to the Burgers circuit technique for determination of dislocation Burgers vector, involves determination of the vectors required in the projection of the perfect lattice to correct the deviated path constructed in the faulted material. Results for several different stacking faults were compared with fault vectors determined from X-ray topographic contrast analysis and were found to be consistent. This technique is expected to applicable to all structures comprising corner shared tetrahedra.

  10. Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

  11. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  12. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  13. Oxidized crystalline (3 1)-O surface phases of InAs and InSb studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuominen, M. E-mail: pekka.laukkanen@utu.fi; Lng, J.; Dahl, J.; Yasir, M.; Mkel, J.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Laukkanen, P. E-mail: pekka.laukkanen@utu.fi; Kokko, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Osiecki, J. R.; Schulte, K.

    2015-01-05

    The pre-oxidized crystalline (31)-O structure of InAs(100) has been recently found to significantly improve insulator/InAs junctions for devices, but the atomic structure and formation of this useful oxide layer are not well understood. We report high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of (31)-O on InAs(100) and InSb(100). The findings reveal that the atomic structure of (31)-O consists of In atoms with unexpected negative (between ?0.64 and ?0.47?eV) and only moderate positive (In{sub 2}O type) core-level shifts; highly oxidized group-V sites; and four different oxygen sites. These fingerprint shifts are compared to those of previously studied oxides of III-V to elucidate oxidation processes.

  14. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  15. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore » groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm−3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid QSTS Simulations for High-Resolution Comprehensive Assessment of Distributed PV Impacts (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project, led by Sandia National Laboratory and supported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, will accelerate Quasi Static Time Series (QSTS) simulation capabilities through the use of new and innovative methods for advanced time-series analysis. Currently, QSTS analysis is not commonly performed in photovoltaic (PV) interconnection studies because of the data requirements and computational burden. This project will address both of these issues by developing advanced QSTS methods that greatly reduce the required computational time and by developing high-proxy data sets.

  17. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  18. Mapping pan-Arctic methane emissions at high spatial resolution using an adjoint atmospheric transport and inversion method and process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Z.; Zhuang, Q.; Henze, D. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Sweeney, C.; Turner, A. J.

    2015-11-18

    Understanding methane emissions from the Arctic, a fast warming carbon reservoir, is important for projecting changes in the global methane cycle under future climate scenarios. Here we optimize Arctic methane emissions with a nested-grid high-resolution inverse model by assimilating both high-precision surface measurements and column-average SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals of methane mole fraction. For the first time, methane emissions from lakes are integrated into an atmospheric transport and inversion estimate, together with prior wetland emissions estimated by six different biogeochemical models. We find that, the global methane emissions during July 2004June 2005 ranged from 496.4 to 511.5 Tg yr?1, with wetlandmoremethane emissions ranging from 130.0 to 203.3 Tg yr?1. The Arctic methane emissions during July 2004June 2005 were in the range of 14.630.4 Tg yr?1, with wetland and lake emissions ranging from 8.8 to 20.4 Tg yr?1 and from 5.4 to 7.9 Tg yr?1 respectively. Canadian and Siberian lakes contributed most of the estimated lake emissions. Due to insufficient measurements in the region, Arctic methane emissions are less constrained in northern Russia than in Alaska, northern Canada and Scandinavia. Comparison of different inversions indicates that the distribution of global and Arctic methane emissions is sensitive to prior wetland emissions. Evaluation with independent datasets shows that the global and Arctic inversions improve estimates of methane mixing ratios in boundary layer and free troposphere. The high-resolution inversions provide more details about the spatial distribution of methane emissions in the Arctic.less

  19. Time-Resolved Quantitative Measurement of OH HO2 and CH2O in Fuel Oxidation Reactions by High Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haifeng; Rotavera, Brandon; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-08-01

    Combined with a Herriott-type multi-pass slow flow reactor, high-resolution differential direct absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe, in situ and quantitatively, hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) and formaldehyde (CH 2 O) molecules in fuel oxidation reactions in the reactor, with a time resolution of about 1 micro-second. While OH and CH 2 O are probed in the mid-infrared (MIR) region near 2870nm and 3574nm respectively, HO 2 can be probed in both regions: near-infrared (NIR) at 1509nm and MIR at 2870nm. Typical sensitivities are on the order of 10 10 - 10 11 molecule cm -3 for OH at 2870nm, 10 11 molecule cm -3 for HO 2 at 1509nm, and 10 11 molecule cm -3 for CH 2 O at 3574nm. Measurements of multiple important intermediates (OH and HO 2 ) and product (CH 2 O) facilitate to understand and further validate chemical mechanisms of fuel oxidation chemistry.

  20. A high resolution and large solid angle x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Mori, R. Alonso; Bergmann, U.; Qian, Q.

    2012-04-15

    We present a new x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The end-station is located at wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two monochromators-Si(111) and Si(311) as well as collimating and focusing optics. It consists of two multi-crystal Johann type spectrometers arranged on intersecting Rowland circles of 1 m diameter. The first one, positioned at the forward scattering angles (low-q), consists of 40 spherically bent and diced Si(110) crystals with 100 mm diameters providing about 1.9% of 4{pi} sr solid angle of detection. When operated in the (440) order in combination with the Si (311) monochromator, an overall energy resolution of 270 meV is obtained at 6462.20 eV. The second spectrometer, consisting of 14 spherically bent Si(110) crystal analyzers (not diced), is positioned at the backward scattering angles (high-q) enabling the study of non-dipole transitions. The solid angle of this spectrometer is about 0.9% of 4{pi} sr, with a combined energy resolution of 600 meV using the Si (311) monochromator. These features exceed the specifications of currently existing relevant instrumentation, opening new opportunities for the routine application of this photon-in/photon-out hard x-ray technique to emerging research in multidisciplinary scientific fields, such as energy-related sciences, material sciences, physical chemistry, etc.

  1. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  2. High-resolution Elemental Mapping of Human Placental Chorionic Villi Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punshon, Tracy; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Howard, Louisa; Jackson, Brian P.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Ornvold, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The placenta is the organ that mediates transport of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microanalysis is a tool for imaging the distribution and quantity of elements in biological tissue, which can be used to study metal transport across biological membranes. Our aims were to pilot placental biopsy specimen preparation techniques that could be integrated into an ongoing epidemiology birth cohort study without harming rates of sample acquisition. We studied the effects of fixative (formalin or glutaraldehyde) and storage duration (30 days or immediate processing) on metal distribution and abundance and investigated a thaw-fixation protocol for archived specimens stored at -80 A degrees C. We measured fixative elemental composition with and without a placental biopsy via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify fixative-induced elemental changes. Formalin-fixed specimens showed hemolysis of erythrocytes. The glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution in HEPES buffer (GTA-HEPES) had superior anatomical preservation, avoided hemolysis, and minimized elemental loss, although some cross-linking of exogenous Zn was evident. Elemental loss from tissue stored in fixative for 1 month showed variable losses (a parts per thousand 40 % with GTA-HEPES), suggesting storage duration be controlled for. Thawing of tissue held at -80 A degrees C in a GTA-HEPES solution provided high-quality visual images and elemental images

  3. Surface water processes in the Indonesian Throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral (Delta)14C record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallon, S J; Guilderson, T P

    2008-04-23

    To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian Throughflow we have generated a 115-year bi-monthly coral-based radiocarbon time-series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15{per_thousand}). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric {sup 14}C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60{per_thousand} and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high Austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant {sup 14}C peak in 1955 due to bomb {sup 14}C water advected into this region in the form of CaCO{sub 3} particles (this implies that the particles were advected intact and then become entrapped in the coral skeleton--is this what we really mean? Wouldn't even fine particles settle out over the inferred transit time from Bikini to MAK?) or water particles with dissolved labeled CO{sub 2} produced during fallout from the Castle tests in 1954.

  4. Application of PILATUS II Detector Modules for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Bitter, Ch. Borennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, K.W. Hill, A. Ince-Chushman, S.G. Lee, J.E. Rice, and S. Scott.

    2007-07-23

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for Doppler measurements of the radial profiles of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity in tokamak plasmas is presently being developed in a collaboration between various laboratories. The spectrometer will consist of a spherically bent crystal and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector; and it will record temporally and spatially resolved X-ray line spectra from highly-charged ions. The detector must satisfy challenging requirements with respect to count rate and spatial resolution. The paper presents the results from a recent test of a PILATUS II detector module on Alcator C-Mod, which demonstrate that the PILATUS II detector modules will satisfy these requirements.

  5. High-resolution study of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} excitations in {sup 168}Er with the (p,t) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucurescu, D. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Mahgoub, M. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lo Iudice, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Monte S Angelo, Via Cintia I-80126 Naples (Italy); Sushkov, A.V.; Shirikova, N.Yu. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221009 (China); Jolie, J.; Brentano, P. von; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Moeller, O.; Muecher, D.; Scholl, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Casten, R.F.; Meyer, D.A. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Excited states in the deformed nucleus {sup 168}Er have been studied with high-energy resolution, in the (p,t) reaction, with the Munich Q3D spectrograph. A number of 25 excited 0{sup +} states (four tentative) and 63 2{sup +} states have been assigned up to 4.0 MeV excitation energy. This unusually rich characterization of the 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states in a deformed nucleus, close to a complete level scheme, offers a unique opportunity to check, in detail, models of nuclear structure that incorporate many excitation modes. A comparison of the experimental data is made with two such models: the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM), and the projected shell model (PSM). The PSM wave functions appear to contain fewer correlations than those of the QPM and than required by the data.

  6. Atomic arrangement at ZnTe/CdSe interfaces determined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonef, Bastien; Rouvire, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Grard, Lionel; Mariette, Henri; Andr, Rgis; Bougerol, Catherine; Grenier, Adeline

    2015-02-02

    High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments reveal the presence of an intermediate layer at the interface between two binary compounds with no common atom, namely, ZnTe and CdSe for samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy under standard conditions. This thin transition layer, of the order of 1 to 3 atomic planes, contains typically one monolayer of ZnSe. Even if it occurs at each interface, the direct interface, i.e., ZnTe on CdSe, is sharper than the reverse one, where the ZnSe layer is likely surrounded by alloyed layers. On the other hand, a CdTe-like interface was never observed. This interface knowledge is crucial to properly design superlattices for optoelectronic applications and to master band-gap engineering.

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  8. Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust using Mssbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksimova, Alevtina A.; Petrova, Evgeniya V.; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Oshtrakh, Michael I. Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2014-10-27

    Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mssbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mssbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showed that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.

  9. Multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a small-scale emerging magnetic flux event and the chromospheric and coronal response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas Domnguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2014-10-20

    State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is now revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Observations with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research topics of high-resolution solar physics. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission on 2013 August 7, the NST observed active region NOAA 11,810 in the photospheric TiO 7057 band with a resolution of pixel size of 0.''034 and chromospheric He I 10830 and H? 6563 wavelengths. Complementary data are provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing granular alignments and interacting with the preexisting ambient field in the upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the He I 10830 data (bandpass of 0.05 ). The IRIS transition region imaging caught ejection of a hot plasma jet associated with the He I surge. The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic and Doppler velocity fields reveal emerging magnetic loop-like structures. Hinode/Ca II H and IRIS filtergrams detail the connectivities of the newly emerged magnetic field in the lower solar chromosphere. From these data, we find that the orientation of the emerging magnetic field lines from a twisted flux tube formed an angle of ?45 with the overlying ambient field. Nevertheless, the interaction of emerging magnetic field lines with the pre-existing overlying field generates high-temperature emission regions and boosts the surge/jet production. The localized heating is detected before and after the first signs of the surge/jet ejection. We compare the results with previous observations and theoretical models and propose a scenario for the activation of plasma jet/surges and confined heating triggered by buoyant magnetic flux tubes rising up into a magnetized upper environment. Such process may play a significant role in the mass and energy flow from the interior to the corona.

  10. Raman and far ir spectroscopic study of quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases for zinc bromine circulating electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larrabee, J.A.; Graf, K.R.; Grimes, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The circulating electrolyte zinc bromine battery is an attractive advanced battery system. The electrolyte is a solution of zinc bromide, quaternary ammonium bromides for bromine complexation and added salts to enhance properties. Laser Raman spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the liquid quaternary ammonium polybromide fused salt phases.

  11. High resolution printing of charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  12. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  13. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  14. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  15. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solares, Guido (Arlington, MA); Zamenhof, Robert G. (Brookline, MA)

    1994-01-01

    A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

  16. Radiometry High Spectral Resolution Fourier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program H. E. Revercomb, W. ... overall objectives of the Atmospheric RadiationMeasurement (ARM) Program to improve the ...

  17. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2013-05-10

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization potential (FIP) values. The low FIP elements do not show enhancement in the stellar coronae as they do in the Sun, except perhaps for K in {sigma} Gem. While {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 differ in their emission measure distributions, they have very similar elemental abundances.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-08-21

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ?} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ?}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the ?v{sub r}{sup ?}v{sub ?}{sup ?}? correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation ?v{sub r}{sup ?}v{sub ?}{sup ?}? is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation ?v{sub r}{sup ?}v{sub ?}{sup ?}? results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  20. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-04: Automatic Skin-Dose Mapping for An Angiographic System with a Region-Of-Interest, High-Resolution Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayan, S; Rana, V; Setlur Nagesh, S; Ionita, C; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Our real-time skin dose tracking system (DTS) has been upgraded to monitor dose for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF), a high-resolution, small field-of-view x-ray detector. Methods: The MAF has been mounted on a changer on a clinical C-Arm gantry so it can be used interchangeably with the standard flat-panel detector (FPD) during neuro-interventional procedures when high resolution is needed in a region-of-interest. To monitor patient skin dose when using the MAF, our DTS has been modified to automatically account for the change in scatter for the very small MAF FOV and to provide separated dose distributions for each detector. The DTS is able to provide a color-coded mapping of the cumulative skin dose on a 3D graphic model of the patient. To determine the correct entrance skin exposure to be applied by the DTS, a correction factor was determined by measuring the exposure at the entrance surface of a skull phantom with an ionization chamber as a function of entrance beam size for various beam filters and kVps. Entrance exposure measurements included primary radiation, patient backscatter and table forward scatter. To allow separation of the dose from each detector, a parameter log is kept that allows a replay of the procedure exposure events and recalculation of the dose components.The graphic display can then be constructed showing the dose distribution from the MAF and FPD separately or together. Results: The DTS is able to provide separate displays of dose for the MAF and FPD with field-size specific scatter corrections. These measured corrections change from about 49% down to 10% when changing from the FPD to the MAF. Conclusion: The upgraded DTS allows identification of the patient skin dose delivered when using each detector in order to achieve improved dose management as well as to facilitate peak skin-dose reduction through dose spreading. Research supported in part by Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation and NIH Grants R43FD0158401, R44FD0158402 and R01EB002873.

  1. A report on high-level nuclear waste transportation: Prepared pursuant to assembly concurrent resolution No. 8 of the 1987 Nevada Legislature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the staff of the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) in response to Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 8 (ACR 8), passed by the Nevada State Legislature in 1987. ACR 8 directed the NWPO, in cooperation with affected local governments and the Legislative committee on High-Level Radioactive Waste, to prepare this report which scrutinizes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans for transportation of high-level radioactive waste to the proposed yucca Mountain repository, which reviews the regulatory structure under which shipments to a repository would be made and which presents NWPO`s plans for addressing high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. The report is divided into three major sections. Section 1.0 provides a review of DOE`s statutory requirements, its repository transportation program and plans, the major policy, programmatic, technical and institutional issues and specific areas of concern for the State of Nevada. Section 2.0 contains a description of the current federal, state and tribal transportation regulatory environment within which nuclear waste is shipped and a discussion of regulatory issues which must be resolved in order for the State to minimize risks and adverse impacts to its citizens. Section 3.0 contains the NWPO plan for the study and management of repository-related transportation. The plan addresses four areas, including policy and program management, regulatory studies, technical reviews and studies and institutional relationships. A fourth section provides recommendations for consideration by State and local officials which would assist the State in meeting the objectives of the plan.

  2. HIGH CURRENT ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BARTON,D.S.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We present the design and parameters of an energy recovery linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction in the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL. This R&D facility has the goal of demonstrating CW operation of an ERL with an average beam current in the range of 0.1-1 ampere and with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility of a future upgrade to a two-pass ERL is also being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with strong Higher Order Mode (HOM) damping. The flexible lattice of the ERL provides a test-bed for exploring issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW electron beams. This ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  3. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  4. ALS Beamlines Directory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Bechtel (510) 486-7519 BL Web Site x2654 5.4.3 Bend High resolution far-IR to mid-IR spectroscopy 0.0025-1.5 eV This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You...

  5. High spatial resolution mapping of deposition layers on plasma facing materials by laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Qingmei; Li, Cong; Hai, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin, E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhou, Yan; Yan, Longwen; Duan, Xuru [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, No. 3 South Section 3, Circle Road 2, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2014-05-15

    A laser ablation microprobe time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LAM-TOF-MS) system with high spatial resolution, ?20 nm in depth and ?500 ?m or better on the surface, is developed to analyze the composition distributions of deposition layers on the first wall materials or first mirrors in tokamak. The LAM-TOF-MS system consists of a laser ablation microprobe combined with a TOF-MS and a data acquisition system based on a LabVIEW program software package. Laser induced ablation combined with TOF-MS is an attractive method to analyze the depth profile of deposited layer with successive laser shots, therefore, it can provide information for composition reconstruction of the plasma wall interaction process. In this work, we demonstrate that the LAM-TOF-MS system is capable of characterizing the depth profile as well as mapping 2D composition of deposited film on the molybdenum first mirror retrieved from HL-2A tokamak, with particular emphasis on some of the species produced during the ablation process. The presented LAM-TOF-MS system provides not only the 3D characterization of deposition but also the removal efficiency of species of concern.

  6. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M. Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?{sub 1}- and L?{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  7. Evaluation of stacking faults and associated partial dislocations in AlSb/GaAs (001) interface by aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, C.; Ge, B. H.; Cui, Y. X.; Li, F. H.; Zhu, J.; Yu, R.; Cheng, Z. Y.

    2014-11-15

    The stacking faults (SFs) in an AlSb/GaAs (001) interface were investigated using a 300 kV spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The structure and strain distribution of the single and intersecting (V-shaped) SFs associated with partial dislocations (PDs) were characterized by the [110] HRTEM images and geometric phase analysis, respectively. In the biaxial strain maps ?{sub xx} and ?{sub yy}, a SF can be divided into several sections under different strain states (positive or negative strain values). Furthermore, the strain state for the same section of a SF is in contrast to each other in ?{sub xx} and ?{sub yy} strain maps. The modification in the strain states was attributed to the variation in the local atomic displacements for the SF in the AlSb film on the GaAs substrate recorded in the lattice image. Finally, the single SF was found to be bounded by two 30 PDs. A pair of 30 PDs near the heteroepitaxial interface reacted to form a Lomer-Cottrell sessile dislocation located at the vertices of V-shaped SFs with opposite screw components. The roles of misfit dislocations, such as the PDs, in strain relaxation were also discussed.

  8. In-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of silicon nanocrystal nucleation in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, T. C.-J. Wu, L.; Lin, Z.; Jia, X.; Puthen-Veettil, B.; Zhang, T.; Conibeer, G.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Kauffmann, Y.; Rothschild, A.

    2014-08-04

    Solid-state nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix was observed at temperatures as low as 450?C. This was achieved by aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with real-time in-situ heating up to 600?C. This technique is a valuable characterization tool especially with the recent interest in Si nanostructures for light emitting devices, non-volatile memories, and third-generation photovoltaics which all typically require a heating step in their fabrication. The control of size, shape, and distribution of the Si nanocrystals are critical for these applications. This experimental study involves in-situ observation of the nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix fabricated through radio frequency co-sputtering. The results show that the shapes of Si nanocrystals in amorphous SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrices are irregular and not spherical, in contrast to many claims in the literature. Furthermore, the Si nanocrystals are well confined within their layers by the amorphous SiO{sub 2}. This study demonstrates the potential of in-situ HRTEM as a tool to observe the real time nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix. Furthermore, ideas for improvements on this in-situ heating HRTEM technique are discussed.

  9. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans-hexatriene-2-d1 and -3-d1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; van Besien, Herman; Blake, Thomas A.

    2014-09-01

    The 2-d1 and 3-d1 isotopologues of trans-hexatriene have been synthesized, and their high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) IR spectra have been recorded. For each of the isotopologues the rotational structure in four C-type bands for out-of-plane vibrational modes has been analyzed, and the ground state combination differences (GSCDs) have been pooled. Ground state rotational constants have been fitted to the GSCDs. For the 2-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7837254(5), 0.0442806(3), and 0.0419299(2) cm-1 were fitted to 2450 GSCDs. For the 3-d species, A0, B0, and C0 values of 0.7952226(8), 0.0446149(7), and 0.0422661(4) cm-1 were fitted to 2234 GSCDs. For the eleven out-of-plane modes of the two isotopologues, predictions of anharmonic wavenumbers and harmonic intensities have been computed and compared with experiment where possible.

  10. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  11. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  12. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  13. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agricultural Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mgha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%25.9% and 25%39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.

  14. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  15. High-resolution rovibrational study of the Coriolis-coupled nu(12) and nu(15) modes of [1.1.1]propellane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Robynne W.; Masiello, Tony; Jariyasopit, Narumol; Nibler, Joseph W.; Maki, Arthur G.; Blake, Thomas A.; Weber, Alfons

    2009-01-02

    Infrared spectra of the small strained cage molecule [1.1.1]propellane have been obtained at high resolution (0.0015 cm-1) and the J and K, l rovibrational structure has been resolved for the first time. We recently used combination-differences to obtain ground state parameters for propellane; over 4,100 differences from five fundamental and four combination bands were used in this process. The combination-difference approach eliminated errors due to localized perturbations in the upper state levels of the transitions and gave well-determined ground state parameters. In the current work, these ground state parameters were used in a determination of the upper state parameters for the v12(e?) perpendicular and v15(a2?) parallel bands. Over 4000 infrared transitions were fitted for each band, with J, K values ranging up to 71, 51 and 92, 90 respectively. While the transition frequencies for both bands can be fit nicely using separate analyses for each band, the strong intensity perturbations observed in the weaker v12 band indicated that Coriolis coupling between the two modes was significant and should be included. Due to correlations with other parameters, the Coriolis coupling parameter Zy15z,12x for the v15 and v12 interaction is poorly determined by a transition frequency fit alone. However, by combining the frequency fit with a fit of experimental intensities, a value of -0.42 was obtained, quite close to that predicted from the ab initio calculation (-0.44). This intensity fit also yielded a (dz/dQ15z)/(dx/dQ12x) dipole derivative ratio of 36.5, in reasonable agreement with a value of 29.2 predicted by Gaussian ab initio density functional calculations using a cc-pVTZ basis. This ratio is unusually high due to large charge movement as the novel central Caxial-Caxial bond is displaced along the symmetry axis of the molecule for the v15 mode.

  16. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzari, Rmi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  17. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-15

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  18. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, A., E-mail: at1361@aut.ac.ir; Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 ?m, respectively.

  19. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, S. Orban, C.; Nees, J. A.; Morrison, J. T.; Frische, K. D.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser noise (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120 phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements with instantaneous plasma profiles and for enabling realistic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the ultra-intense laser-matter interaction.

  20. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Validation of High-Resolution 3D Patient QA for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning and IMPT by Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardin, A; Avery, S; Ding, X; Kassaee, A; Lin, L; Maryanski, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a production of MGS Research, Inc.

  1. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Mszros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R?22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ?6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (?v{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ?2.2 stellar radii. Increasing ?v{sub p} toward the weaker Br12Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large ?v{sub p} compared to the Br11Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 ? and 16781 ? remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any evidence of shell absorption, even when the H i lines are clearly shell-dominated. The first known example of a quasi-triple-peaked Br11 line profile is reported for HD 253659, one of several stars exhibiting intra- and/or extra-species V/R and radial velocity variation within individual spectra. Br11 profiles are presented for all discussed stars, as are full APOGEE spectra for a portion of the sample.

  2. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Hansen, S. B.

    2011-06-15

    We present here the use of absorption spectroscopy of the continuum radiation from x-pinch-produced point x-ray sources as a diagnostic to investigate the properties of aluminum plasmas created by pulsed power machines. This technique is being developed to determine the charge state, temperature, and density as a function of time and space under conditions that are inaccessible to x-ray emission spectroscopic diagnostics. The apparatus and its characterization are described, and the spectrometer dispersion, magnification, and resolution are calculated and compared with experimental results. Spectral resolution of about 5000 and spatial resolution of about 20 {mu}m are demonstrated. This spectral resolution is the highest available to date in an absorption experiment. The beneficial properties of the x-pinch x-ray source as the backlighter for this diagnostic are the small source size (<5 {mu}m), smooth continuum radiation, and short pulse duration (<0.1 ns). Results from a closely spaced (1 mm) exploding wire pair are shown and the general features are discussed.

  3. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norbert, Massie A. (San Ramon, CA); Yale, Oster (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  4. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norbert, M.A.; Yale, O.

    1992-04-28

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 15 figs.

  5. Microtopographic characterization of ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska: a digital map of troughs, rims, centers derived from high resolution (0.25 m) LiDAR data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-07-03

    The dataset represents microtopographic characterization of the ice-wedge polygon landscape in Barrow, Alaska. Three microtopographic features are delineated using 0.25 m high resolution digital elevation dataset derived from LiDAR. The troughs, rims, and centers are the three categories in this classification scheme. The polygon troughs are the surface expression of the ice-wedges that are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The elevated shoulders of the polygon interior immediately adjacent to the polygon troughs are the polygon rims for the low center polygons. In case of high center polygons, these features are the topographic highs. In this classification scheme, both topographic highs and rims are considered as polygon rims. The next version of the dataset will include more refined classification scheme including separate classes for rims ad topographic highs. The interior part of the polygon just adjacent to the polygon rims are the polygon centers.

  6. Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (Low-Resolution Billboard) | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Low-Resolution Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (Low-Resolution Billboard) Low-resolution JPG of billboard reading, 'Goodbye Watts. Hello Lumens. The new way to shop for light. Energysaver.gov Image icon DoE_Billboard_Goodbye_Watts_web.jpg More Documents & Publications Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution JPG Billboard) Goodbye, Watts. Hello, Lumens. (High-Resolution EPS

  7. High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnatovsky, C.; Taylor, R.S.; Simova, E.; Bhardwaj, V.R.; Rayner, D.M.; Corkum, P.B.

    2005-07-01

    An ultrahigh-resolution (20 nm) technique of selective chemical etching and atomic force microscopy has been used to study the photoinduced modification in fused silica produced at various depths by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation affected by spherical aberration. We demonstrate that shapes of the irradiated zones near the threshold for modification can be predicted by taking proper account of spherical aberration caused by the refractive index mismatched air-silica interface. We establish a depth dependence of the pulse energy required to initiate modification and characterize the relationship between numerical aperture of the writing lens and practically achievable writing depth. We also show that spatial characteristics of the laser-modified zones can be controlled by a specially designed focusing system which allows correction for a variable amount of spherical aberration.

  8. High-resolution wave-theory-based ultrasound reflection imaging using the split-step fourier and globally optimized fourier finite-difference methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Lianjie

    2013-10-29

    Methods for enhancing ultrasonic reflection imaging are taught utilizing a split-step Fourier propagator in which the reconstruction is based on recursive inward continuation of ultrasonic wavefields in the frequency-space and frequency-wave number domains. The inward continuation within each extrapolation interval consists of two steps. In the first step, a phase-shift term is applied to the data in the frequency-wave number domain for propagation in a reference medium. The second step consists of applying another phase-shift term to data in the frequency-space domain to approximately compensate for ultrasonic scattering effects of heterogeneities within the tissue being imaged (e.g., breast tissue). Results from various data input to the method indicate significant improvements are provided in both image quality and resolution.

  9. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  10. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | DOE PAGES DOE PAGES Search Results Accepted Manuscript: Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution This content will become publicly available on October 16, 2016 Title: Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy ('pcAFMs') is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit

  11. Acquisition Conflict Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conflict Resolution At the option of the Supplier, a concern may be brought to the Ombuds Office or may be taken to the Internal Conflict Resolution Process Supplier Concern Internal Resolution Primary Discussion Escalation Steps Senior Review Process Special Assistant Senior Review Group Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-

  12. Conflict Resolution Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Conflict Resolution Day takes a look at mediation, conciliation, negotiation, arbitration, the ombudsman, and facilitation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Employees and contractors are...

  13. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzlez-Pez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  14. Survey of the high resolution infrared spectrum of methane ({sup 12}CH{sub 4} and {sup 13}CH{sub 4}): Partial vibrational assignment extended towards 12000 cm{sup ?1}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Albert, S.; Bauerecker, S.; Niederer, H. M.; Quack, M.

    2014-12-21

    We have recorded the complete infrared spectrum of methane {sup 12}CH{sub 4} and its second most abundant isotopomer {sup 13}CH{sub 4} extending from the fundamental range starting at 1000 cm{sup ?1} up to the overtone region near 12000 cm{sup ?1} in the near infrared at the limit towards the visible range, at temperatures of about 80 K and also at 298 K with Doppler limited resolution in the gas phase by means of interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy using the Bruker IFS 125 HR prototype (ZP 2001) of the ETH Zrich laboratory. This provides the so far most complete data set on methane spectra in this range at high resolution. In the present work we report in particular those results, where the partial rovibrational analysis allows for the direct assignment of pure (J = 0) vibrational levels including high excitation. These results substantially extend the accurate knowledge of vibrational band centers to higher energies and provide a benchmark for both the comparison with theoretical results on the one hand and atmospheric spectroscopy on the other hand. We also present a simple effective Hamiltonian analysis, which is discussed in terms of vibrational level assignments and {sup 13}C isotope effects.

  15. STEAB Resolution 07-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    S Department of Energy State Energy Advisory Board Resolution 07-01 BACKGROUND With record high fuel prices and heavy reliance on foreign sources of oil, new alternative fuel vehicles and technologies are crucial to addressing the nation's energy security and independence. Originally called Sunrayce USA, the first solar car race was organized and sponsored by General Motors in 1990. Subsequent races were held in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999 under the name Sunrayce. In 2001, the race was renamed

  16. High-Resolution Structure of a Self-Assembly-Competent Form of a Hydrophobic Peptide Captured in a Soluble [beta]-Sheet Scaffold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makabe, Koki; Biancalana, Matthew; Yan, Shude; Tereshko, Valentina; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Miller-Auer, Hlne; Meredith, Stephen C.; Koide, Shohei

    2010-02-08

    {beta}-Rich self-assembly is a major structural class of polypeptides, but still little is known about its atomic structures and biophysical properties. Major impediments for structural and biophysical studies of peptide self-assemblies include their insolubility and heterogeneous composition. We have developed a model system, termed peptide self-assembly mimic (PSAM), based on the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. PSAM allows for the capture of a defined number of self-assembly-like peptide repeats within a water-soluble protein, making structural and energetic studies possible. In this work, we extend our PSAM approach to a highly hydrophobic peptide sequence. We show that a penta-Ile peptide (Ile{sub 5}), which is insoluble and forms {beta}-rich self-assemblies in aqueous solution, can be captured within the PSAM scaffold in a form capable of self-assembly. The 1.1-{angstrom} crystal structure revealed that the Ile{sub 5} stretch forms a highly regular {beta}-strand within this flat {beta}-sheet. Self-assembly models built with multiple copies of the crystal structure of the Ile5 peptide segment showed no steric conflict, indicating that this conformation represents an assembly-competent form. The PSAM retained high conformational stability, suggesting that the flat {beta}-strand of the Ile{sub 5} stretch primed for self-assembly is a low-energy conformation of the Ile{sub 5} stretch and rationalizing its high propensity for self-assembly. The ability of the PSAM to 'solubilize' an otherwise insoluble peptide stretch suggests the potential of the PSAM approach to the characterization of self-assembling peptides.

  17. Turbulence and combustion interaction: High resolution local flame front structure visualization using simultaneous single-shot PLIF imaging of CH, OH, and CH{sub 2}O in a piloted premixed jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.S.; Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Alden, M. [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bai, X.S. [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    High resolution planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was applied to investigate the local flame front structures of turbulent premixed methane/air jet flames in order to reveal details about turbulence and flame interaction. The targeted turbulent flames were generated on a specially designed coaxial jet burner, in which low speed stoichiometric gas mixture was fed through the outer large tube to provide a laminar pilot flame for stabilization of the high speed jet flame issued through the small inner tube. By varying the inner tube flow speed and keeping the mixture composition as that of the outer tube, different flames were obtained covering both the laminar and turbulent flame regimes with different turbulent intensities. Simultaneous CH/CH{sub 2}O, and also OH PLIF images were recorded to characterize the influence of turbulence eddies on the reaction zone structure, with a spatial resolution of about 40 {mu}m and temporal resolution of around 10 ns. Under all experimental conditions, the CH radicals were found to exist only in a thin layer; the CH{sub 2}O were found in the inner flame whereas the OH radicals were seen in the outer flame with the thin CH layer separating the OH and CH{sub 2}O layers. The outer OH layer is thick and it corresponds to the oxidation zone and post-flame zone; the CH{sub 2}O layer is thin in laminar flows; it becomes broad at high speed turbulent flow conditions. This phenomenon was analyzed using chemical kinetic calculations and eddy/flame interaction theory. It appears that under high turbulence intensity conditions, the small eddies in the preheat zone can transport species such as CH{sub 2}O from the reaction zones to the preheat zone. The CH{sub 2}O species are not consumed in the preheat zone due to the absence of H, O, and OH radicals by which CH{sub 2}O is to be oxidized. The CH radicals cannot exist in the preheat zone due to the rapid reactions of this species with O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the inner-layer of the reaction zones. The local PLIF intensities were evaluated using an area integrated PLIF signal. Substantial increase of the CH{sub 2}O signal and decrease of CH signal was observed as the jet velocity increases. These observations raise new challenges to the current flamelet type models. (author)

  18. Spatial resolution of diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickens, T.A.; Winbow, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diffraction tomography is an imaging technique applicable to crosshole seismic data and aimed at achieving optimal spatial resolution away from the borehole. In principle the method can form acoustic images equivalent to extending acoustic well logs away from the wellbore and into the formation with a spatial resolution less than one wavelength of the radiation employed to gather the crosshole data. This paper reports on the capability of diffraction tomography to produce high-resolution reconstructions of simple targets from limited-view-angle data. The goal is to quantify the resolution and velocity-reconstruction capability of diffraction tomography with realistic source{endash}receiver geometries. Simple targets (disks and low-contrast sequences of layers) are used for this study. The scattering from these targets can be calculated without approximation, making them ideal test cases for the algorithm. The resolution capability of diffraction tomography is determined to be on the order of one wavelength for several experimental geometries. It is shown that the image-formation characteristics of diffraction tomography, in terms of its ability to determine object boundaries and velocities, are closely related to the experimental geometry. Reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiments tend to reproduce boundaries well, while crosshole experiments give the best overall reconstruction of both target boundaries and velocity. The quantitative accuracy of the velocity reconstruction depends upon the match between the spatial-frequency content of the object and the spatial-frequency response of the algorithm. For some targets, the velocity cannot be correctly reproduced from limited-view-angle data. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  19. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  20. A high-resolution whole genome radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 17q22-q25.3 across the genes for GH and TK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, J.W.; Schafer, A.J.; Critcher, R.

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a whole genome radiation hybrid (WG-RH) map across a region of human chromosome 17q, from growth hormone (GH) to thymidine kinase (TK). A panel of 128 WG-RH hybrid cell lines generated by X-irradiation and fusion has been tested for the retention of 39 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers by the polymerase chain reaction. This genome mapping technique has allowed the integration of existing VNTR and microsatellite markers with additional new markers and existing STS markers previously mapped to this region by other means. The WG-RH map includes eight expressed sequence tag (EST) and three anonymous markers developed for this study, together with 23 anonymous microsatellites and five existing ESTs. Analysis of these data resulted in a high-density comprehensive map across this region of the genome. A subset of these markers has been used to produce a framework map consisting of 20 loci ordered with odds greater than 1000:1. The markers are of sufficient density to build a YAC contig across this region based on marker content. We have developed sequence tags for both ends of a 2.1-Mb YAC and mapped these using the WG-RH panel, allowing a direct comparison of cRay{sub 6000} to physical distance. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  2. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  3. Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Work Package Reports | Department of Energy Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports The Transportation Team identified the retrievability and subcriticality safety functions to be of primary importance to the transportation of UNF after extended storage and to transportation of high burnup fuel. The tasks performed and

  4. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert J. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  5. High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, R.J.

    1984-01-10

    An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

  6. High resolution non-contact interior profilometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Patterson, R. Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Leeches, Gerald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Nierop, John Van (Largo, FL); Teti, John J. (Tampa, FL)

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for inspecting the interior surfaces of devices such as vessels having a single entry port. Laser energy is launched into the vessel, and the light reflected from the interior surfaces is interfered with reference laser energy to produce an interference pattern. This interference pattern is analyzed to reveal information about the condition of the interior surfaces of the device inspected.

  7. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  8. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0νββ decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0νββ decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more » TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  9. Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient Aerosols by negative ion mode High-Resolution Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Rubitschun, Caitlin L.; Surratt, Jason D.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-11-27

    Samples of ambient aerosols from the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study were analyzed using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (nano-DESI/MS). Four samples per day were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 20-24 with a collection time of 6 hours per sample. Four characteristic groups of organic constituents were identified in the samples: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only (CHO), sulfur- (CHOS), nitrogen-(CHON), and both nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics (CHONS). Within the groups, organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates were assigned based on accurate mass measurements and elemental ratio comparisons. Changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol samples were observed throughout the day. The number of observed CHO compounds increased in the afternoon samples, suggesting regional photochemical processing as a source. The average number of CHOS compounds had the smallest changes throughout the day, consistent with a more broadly distributed source. Both of the nitrogen-containing groups (CHON and CHONS) had greater numbers of compounds in the night and morning samples, indicating that nitrate radical chemistry was likely a source for those compounds. Most of the compounds were found in submicron particles. The size distribution of CHON compounds was bimodal. We conclude that the majority of the compounds observed were secondary in nature with both biogenic and anthropogenic sources.

  10. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0νββ decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0νββ decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more »TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  11. High

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resolution soft x-ray tomography in the Madison Symmetric Torus P. Franz a) Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla fusione, Padova, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unità di Ricerca di Padova, Italy F. Bonomo, G. Gadani, and L. Marrelli Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla fusione, Padova, Italy P. Martin and P. Piovesan Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla fusione, Padova, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unità di Ricerca di

  12. An Efficient, Semi-implicit Pressure-based Scheme Employing a High-resolution Finitie Element Method for Simulating Transient and Steady, Inviscid and Viscous, Compressible Flows on Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry

    2003-04-01

    A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson equation in the PCICE-FEM scheme is provided with sufficient internal energy information to avoid iteration. The ability of the PCICE-FEM scheme to accurately and efficiently simulate a wide variety of inviscid and viscous compressible flows is demonstrated here.

  13. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Conflict Resolution Environmental Conflict Resolution ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION In September 2012, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Office...

  14. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmental Conflict Resolution Environmental Conflict Resolution PDF icon Environmental Conflict Resolution More Documents & Publications Final ECR 2008 Report 2009 ECR FINAL REPORT 2010 test

  15. High resolution, high rate X-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, Frederick S.; Landis, Donald A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulse processing system (10) for use in an X-ray spectrometer in which a ain channel pulse shaper (12) and a fast channel pulse shaper (13) each produce a substantially symmetrical triangular pulse (f, p) for each event detected by the spectrometer, with the pulse width of the pulses being substantially independent of the magnitude of the detected event and with the pulse width of the fast pulses (p) being substantially shorter than the pulse width of the main channel pulses (f). A pile-up rejector circuit (19) allows output pulses to be generated, with amplitudes linearly related to the magnitude of the detected events, whenever the peak of a main channel pulse (f) is not affected by a preceding or succeeding main channel pulse, while inhibiting output pulses wherein peak magnitudes of main channel pulses are affected by adjacent pulses. The substantially symmetrical triangular main channel pulses (f) are generated by the weighted addition (27-31) of successive RC integrations (24, 25, 26) of an RC differentiated step wave (23). The substantially symmetrical triangular fast channel pulses (p) are generated by the RC integration ( 43) of a bipolar pulse (o) in which the amplitude of the second half is 1/e that of the first half, with the RC time constant of integration being equal to one-half the width of the bipolar pulse.

  16. TENTATIVE RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE AND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RESOLUTION OF DISPUTE AND CONCLUSION OF NEGOTIATIONS AGREEMENT REGARDING SINGLE-SHELL TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ACCELERATED WASTE RETRIEVAL AND CLOSURE...

  17. Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    noise cancellation for high performance nanosecond transient absorbance spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance noise cancellation for high performance nanosecond transient absorbance spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 24, 2016 Title: Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance noise cancellation for high

  18. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli, determined by a Berkeley-Berlin collaboration to a resolution of 3.5 , the highest...

  19. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print Wednesday, 26 April 2006 00:00 The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of

  20. Alternative Dispute Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Dispute Resolution Alternative Dispute Resolution Alternative Dispute Resolution The Office of Conflict Prevention and Resolution (formerly the Office of Dispute Resolution) provides assistance throughout the Department and to its contractors on using various types of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) to prevent and resolve disputes without litigation. The Director of the office offers training, provides system design support, and acts as a consultant for all types of dispute

  1. Resolute Marine Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolute Marine Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Resolute Marine Energy Inc Address: 3 Post Office Square 3rd floor Place: Massachusetts Country: United States Zip:...

  2. State Energy Advisory Board Resolutions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resolutions State Energy Advisory Board Resolutions Resolution documents from STEAB, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy website. PDF icon Resolution 13-01 PDF icon Resolution 12-01 PDF icon Resolution 12-02 PDF icon Resolution 10-01 PDF icon Resolution 10-02 PDF icon Resolution 09-01 PDF icon Resolution 09-02 PDF icon Resolution 09-03 PDF icon Resolution 09-04 PDF icon Resolution 08-01 PDF icon Resolution 08-02 PDF icon Resolution 07-01 PDF icon Amendment to 06-01 PDF icon Resolution

  3. HRTEM Imaging of Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.

    2005-04-06

    John Cowley and his group at Arizona State University pioneered the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Images were achieved three decades ago showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4 Angstrom resolution. This achievement enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the unit cell. Lighter atoms appear as resolution is improved to sub-Angstrom levels. Currently, advanced microscopes can image the columns of the light atoms (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures, and even the lithium atoms present in some battery materials. Sub-Angstrom imaging, initially achieved by focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave, will become common place for next-generation electron microscopes with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams. Resolution can be quantified in terms of peak separation and inter-peak minimum, but the limits imposed on the attainable resolution by the properties of the micro-scope specimen need to be considered. At extreme resolution the ''size'' of atoms can mean that they will not be resolved even when spaced farther apart than the resolution of the microscope.

  4. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLS,G. SCOTT; NEUHAUSER,SIEGLINDE

    2000-04-12

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale.

  5. STEAB Resolution 06-04

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 06-04 BACKGROUND The expansion of renewable electric supplies is being driven by consumer demand, competitive pricing, and state policies such as the Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) program. Political favor is being driven by heightened concerns in global climate change, escalating prices in traditional power generation and geopolitical energy security. The positions of traditional energy sector stakeholders continue to evolve to one of advocacy and

  6. STEAB Resolution 08-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 08-01 SUBJECT: Continuation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Office of Commercialization and Deployment Initiative. The State Energy Advisory Board appreciates the efforts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to place increased emphasis on accelerated commercialization of EERE-sponsored technologies, as well as market transformation. In particular, the Board would like to recognize the creative

  7. STEAB Resolution 08-02

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 08-02 Topic: U.S. Department of Energy, Cooperative Extension System and State Energy Offices collaboration on reinventing the "Rebuild America Program" Background: Record energy prices and a heavy reliance on fossil fuels are resulting in increased interest in energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energy when heating, cooling and lighting American buildings. The adoption of new technologies, energy

  8. STEAB Resolution 09-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) Resolution 09-01 Topic: Support for U.S. Congress Appropriation of Funding for Public Law 110-229, Sec 601, "Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Centers" Background: Securing America's energy future is among the most important challenges in today's current events. The U.S. Department of Energy's EERE Office; the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Research, Education and Economics Division; land-grant universities; and State Energy Offices (SEOs) are

  9. STEAB Resolution 10-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Department of Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) Resolution 10-01 Topic: U.S. Department of Energy, Cooperative Extension Service, and State Energy Offices Collaboration on energy efficiency and renewable energy education for America. Background: Record energy prices and a heavy reliance on foreign oil are resulting in increased interest in energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energy. National and world efforts to set low-carbon emission standards are also

  10. STEAB Resolution 10-02

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) Resolution 10-02 Subject: Strategic Focus on the Need for a New EERE-Wide Implementation Paradigm through Partnerships and Collaboration Background: With the passage of the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy has undertaken enormous new management challenges as it implements both new and rapidly expanding energy programs designed to enhance US economic competitiveness, job creation, and national energy security. Innovation and

  11. STEAB Resolution 12-02

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) Resolution 12-02 Subject: Recommendation to establish a State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network (SEE Action) Sub-Committee comprised of the current STEAB Board members participating in the SEE Action Network in order to bring to the STEAB for consideration any recommendations for federal action made by the SEE Action Network convened by DOE and EPA. Background: The State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network (SEE Action) is a state and local

  12. STEAB Resolution 13-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD (STEAB) Resolution13-01 SUBJECT Recommendation to establish sustainable partnerships between National Laboratories and states in order to facilitate the deployment of near-commercial ready and development of new technologies. BACKGROUND The United States industrial sector continues to face challenges from foreign competition in the development, deployment, and successful commercialization of new technologies. Technology development is not cheap

  13. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli,

  14. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli,

  15. STEAB Resolution 06-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STATE ENERGY ADVISORY BOARD Resolution 06-01 ISSUE Movement of the Weatherization Assistance Program from the U.S. Department of Energy to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. BACKGROUND The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is funded and managed through the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The WAP was created in 1976 to assist low-income families who lacked resources to invest in energy efficiency. WAP is operated in all 50 states

  16. Environmental Conflict Resolution | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Conflict Resolution Environmental Conflict Resolution ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION In September 2012, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) , issued a joint memorandum calling for department and agency commitment to the goals identified in the Memorandum on Environmental Collaboration and Conflict Resolution (ECCR), and the goals identified in related policy guidance. This memorandum supersedes an OMB/CEQ joint memorandum

  17. Imaging Lithium Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2005-01-03

    John Cowley and his group at ASU were pioneers in the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for high-resolution imaging. Three decades ago they achieved images showing the crystal unit cell content at better than 4A resolution. Over the years, this achievement has inspired improvements in resolution that have enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the cell. More recently, this ability has been extended to light atoms as resolution has improved. Sub-Angstrom resolution has enabled researchers to image the columns of light atoms (carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures. By using sub-Angstrom focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave to image columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in a transition metal oxide structure commonly used as positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries, we show that the range of detectable light atoms extends to lithium. HRTEM at sub-Angstrom resolution will provide the essential role of experimental verification for the emergent nanotech revolution. Our results foreshadow those to be expected from next-generation TEMs with CS-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams.

  18. The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; Prabhat, -; Bacmeister, Julio; Chen, Cheng -Ta; Paciorek, Christopher; Gleckler, Peter J.; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Collins, William D.; Gettelman, Andrew; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2014-11-05

    We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25, 1, and 2 is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations reveals both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.

  19. Spatial resolution and the geologic interpretation of Martian morphology - implications for subsurface volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimbelman, J.R.

    1987-08-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the Acheron Fossae on Mars are presented and analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of image resolution on the interpretation. High-resolution (less than 10 m/pixel) images reveal small mounds which can be interpreted as aeolian dunes, but these features are not evident on images with resolution of 50 m/pixel or greater. Also reported are the results of a visual inspection of 527 usable high-resolution images: it is found that all of the morphological features identified can arise in the absence of subsurface volatiles. 21 references.

  20. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., pitches) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest detectable frequency on pitch followed the same trend as the analytical model. It was demonstrated that super-resolution is not achievable if the pitch of the object approaches 90, corresponding to the case in which the test frequency is perpendicular to the breast support. Only low frequency objects are detectable at pitches close to 90.Conclusions: This work provides a platform for investigating super-resolution in oblique reconstructions for tomosynthesis. In breast imaging, this study should have applications in visualizing microcalcifications and other subtle signs of cancer.

  1. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 2 to 1 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image acquisition logic resulted in a significant fourfold improvement in MTF.

  2. High-resolution crystal structure of human protease-activated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature; Journal Volume: ... Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1038nature...

  3. Detailed High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Simulations of OMEGA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Nuclear Explosives Design Physics Conference ; 2015-10-19 - 2015-10-23 ; Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States Research Org: Los Alamos National ...

  4. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, 439 Rhodes Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, USA Publication Date: ...

  5. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Dennis, John 1 ; Vertenstein, Mariana 1 ; Worley, Patrick H 2 ; Mirin, Arthur A. 3 ; Craig, Anthony 1 ; Jacob, Robert L. 4 ; Mickelson, Sheri A. 4 + Show ...

  6. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Mapping Of Volcanic Terrain, Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of...

  7. Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.

    1988-10-11

    An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane is disclosed. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver. 11 figs.

  8. High resolution resonance ionization imaging detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winefordner, James D. (Gainesville, FL); Matveev, Oleg I. (Gainesville, FL); Smith, Benjamin W. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A resonance ionization imaging device (RIID) and method for imaging objects using the RIID are provided, the RIID system including a RIID cell containing an ionizable vapor including monoisotopic atoms or molecules, the cell being positioned to intercept scattered radiation of a resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1 from the object which is to be detected or imaged, a laser source disposed to illuminate the RIID cell with laser radiation having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 or wavelengths .lambda..sub.2, .lambda..sub.3 selected to ionize atoms in the cell that are in an excited state by virtue of having absorbed the scattered resonance laser radiation, and a luminescent screen at the back surface of the RIID cell which presents an image of the number and position of charged particles present in the RIID cell as a result of the ionization of the excited state atoms. The method of the invention further includes the step of initially illuminating the object to be detected or imaged with a laser having a wavelength selected such that the object will scatter laser radiation having the resonance wavelength .lambda..sub.1.

  9. High Resolution Snapshots for the Complete Reaction Cycle of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    addictive stimulant that affects the brain, and abuse of cocaine has been a substantial social problem. Unfortunately, no FDA-approved treatments exist for cocaine abuse,...

  10. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  11. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  12. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  13. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  14. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  15. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  16. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  17. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  18. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  19. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  20. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  1. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  2. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore »cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  3. LandCast 2050 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2050 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2050 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore »cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  4. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    comparison to SEBASS. The land-leaving TIR radiance data were separated into brightness temperature and surface emissivity. TIR emissivity data are unique to each mineral and a...

  5. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented. Authors: Kenneth ...

  6. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Science (SC) United States 2015-01-01 English Journal Article Journal Name: BMC Genomics; Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 1 Medium: X; Size: 24 OSTI ID: 1214456, Legacy...

  7. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Image Shallow Faults,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Image Shallow Faults, Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada Abstract NA Author V. J. S. Grauch Published U.S. Geological Survey, 2002 Report Number 02-384 DOI Not Provided...

  8. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at GANIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, G. de

    2014-11-11

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is intensively used at GANIL to measure low lying states in exotic nuclei on the neutron-rich as well as on the neutron-deficient side of the nuclear chart. On the neutron deficient border, gamma-rays have been observed for the first time in {sup 92}Pd. The level scheme which could be established points to the role of isoscalar pairing. On the neutron rich side, the lifetime of excited states in nuclei around {sup 68}Ni have been been measured using the plunger technique. This allows us to study the evolution of collectivity in a broad range of nuclei. In 2014 GANIL will host the AGATA array for a campaign of at least 2 years. This array is based on the gamma-ray tracking technique, which allows an impressive gain in resolving power.

  9. Agile high resolution arbitrary waveform generator with jitterless frequency stepping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.; Koizumi, Hideya

    2010-05-11

    Jitterless transition of the programmable clock waveform is generated employing a set of two coupled direct digital synthesis (DDS) circuits. The first phase accumulator in the first DDS circuit runs at least one cycle of a common reference clock for the DDS circuits ahead of the second phase accumulator in the second DDS circuit. As a phase transition through the beginning of a phase cycle is detected from the first phase accumulator, a first phase offset word and a second phase offset word for the first and second phase accumulators are calculated and loaded into the first and second DDS circuits. The programmable clock waveform is employed as a clock input for the RAM address controller. A well defined jitterless transition in frequency of the arbitrary waveform is provided which coincides with the beginning of the phase cycle of the DDS output signal from the second DDS circuit.

  10. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented. Authors: Hill, K. W. ;...

  11. Mapping Intra-Field Yield Variation Using High Resolution Satellite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    future landscape patterns, hydrologic modeling, landscape design, predictive crop yield, red-edge, sub-field scale, SWAT, water quality Abstract Biofuels are important alternatives...

  12. PROJECT PROFILE: Rapid QSTS Simulations for High-Resolution Comprehens...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This project will accelerate QSTS simulation using methods such as event-based simulation, linear power flow approximation, parallel processing of power flow solutions separable by ...

  13. High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense

  14. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The black curve is the measured data and the red curve is a Lorentzian func- tion. The inferred line widths of the K 1 (taller peak) and K 2 peaks are 2.28 eV and 2.96 eV, ...

  15. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... ID: ISSN 1471-2164 Publisher: Springer Research Org: Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak ... Subject: 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES QTL cloning; association genetics; cell wall ...

  16. High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This Sandia National Laboratories project, led by the University of Minnesota (UMN) is divided into three sections: turbine-scale modeling, wind-farm-scale modeling, and coupling ...

  17. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Vehicles." SAE World Congress, April 2008. Accessed April 21, 2014: http:www.media.gm.comcontentdamMediamicrositesproductvoltdocspaper.pdf 16. Neubauer, J.;...

  18. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  19. Compact high resolution isobar separator for study of exotic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Pass-Time-of-Flight (MTOF) principle, is developed 1. A mass resolving power (MRP) as spectrometer of 110,000 (FWHM) is achieved in Time-of-Flight spectra of N 2...

  20. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  1. High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Argonne, IL (US) Sponsoring Org: NSFNIHOTHER Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1073pnas.1507918

  2. Cloud properties derived from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    depth. These results will be compared to similar results observed during the first 8-months of our current deployment at Eureka, Canada (80N, 86.2W). http:lidar.ssec.wisc.edu...

  3. Department of Energy Strategic Plan, May 2011 - High Resolution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... trusted authority for informing energy policy decisions. ... marshal its extensive knowledge of energy technologies, ... NNSA workers train to dismantle a nuclear weapon. 33 ...

  4. Merging High Resolution Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and in combination when exploring for blind resources where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The slim holes will allow testing...

  5. Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Specifically, we will investigate practical use of this upgrade in the analysis of materials systems where overlapping peaks have historically been an issue, such as Kovar, which ...

  6. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  7. Time-resolved serial crystallography captures high-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Srajer, Vukica ; Henning, Robert ; Schwander, Peter ; Fromme, Raimund ; Ourmazd, Abbas ; Moffat, Keith ; Van Thor, Jasper J. ; Spence, John C.H. ; Fromme, Petra ; Chapman,...

  8. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  9. High Resolution Snapshots for the Complete Reaction Cycle of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Cocaine is a powerful addictive stimulant that affects the brain, and abuse of cocaine has been a substantial social problem. ...

  10. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R. Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-02-15

    The emergence of high position resolution (?10 ?m) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 ?m at 1 ? ? level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 ?m) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  11. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super-resolution is dependent on position in the reconstruction and on the directionality of the input frequency. Consistent with the analytical results, experimental reconstructions of bar patterns showed visibility of frequencies greater than the detector alias frequency. Super-resolution was present at positions predicted from analytical modeling. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the existence of super-resolution in DBT. Super-resolution has the potential to impact the visualization of fine structural details in the breast, such as microcalcifications and other subtle signs of cancer.

  12. Hurricanes in an Aquaplanet World: Implications of the Impacts of External Forcing and Model Horizontal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Wehner, Michael F.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-02

    High-resolution climate models have been shown to improve the statistics of tropical storms and hurricanes compared to low-resolution models. The impact of increasing horizontal resolution in the tropical storm simulation is investigated exclusively using a series of Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) runs with idealized aquaplanet steady-state boundary conditions and a fixed operational storm-tracking algorithm. The results show that increasing horizontal resolution helps to detect more hurricanes, simulate stronger extreme rainfall, and emulate better storm structures in the models. However, increasing model resolution does not necessarily produce stronger hurricanes in terms of maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, and mean precipitation, as the increased number of storms simulated by high-resolution models is mainly associated with weaker storms. The spatial scale at which the analyses are conducted appears to have more important control on these meteorological statistics compared to horizontal resolution of the model grid. When the simulations are analyzed on common low-resolution grids, the statistics of the hurricanes, particularly the hurricane counts, show reduced sensitivity to the horizontal grid resolution and signs of scale invariant.

  13. The spectral element method (SEM) on variable-resolution grids: evaluating grid sensitivity and resolution-aware numerical viscosity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guba, O.; Taylor, M. A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Overfelt, J. R.; Levy, M. N.

    2014-11-27

    We evaluate the performance of the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) spectral element method on variable-resolution grids using the shallow-water equations in spherical geometry. We configure the method as it is used in CAM, with dissipation of grid scale variance, implemented using hyperviscosity. Hyperviscosity is highly scale selective and grid independent, but does require a resolution-dependent coefficient. For the spectral element method with variable-resolution grids and highly distorted elements, we obtain the best results if we introduce a tensor-based hyperviscosity with tensor coefficients tied to the eigenvalues of the local element metric tensor. The tensor hyperviscosity is constructed so that, formore » regions of uniform resolution, it matches the traditional constant-coefficient hyperviscosity. With the tensor hyperviscosity, the large-scale solution is almost completely unaffected by the presence of grid refinement. This later point is important for climate applications in which long term climatological averages can be imprinted by stationary inhomogeneities in the truncation error. We also evaluate the robustness of the approach with respect to grid quality by considering unstructured conforming quadrilateral grids generated with a well-known grid-generating toolkit and grids generated by SQuadGen, a new open source alternative which produces lower valence nodes.« less

  14. The spectral element method on variable resolution grids: evaluating grid sensitivity and resolution-aware numerical viscosity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guba, O.; Taylor, M. A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Overfelt, J. R.; Levy, M. N.

    2014-06-25

    We evaluate the performance of the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) spectral element method on variable resolution grids using the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. We configure the method as it is used in CAM, with dissipation of grid scale variance implemented using hyperviscosity. Hyperviscosity is highly scale selective and grid independent, but does require a resolution dependent coefficient. For the spectral element method with variable resolution grids and highly distorted elements, we obtain the best results if we introduce a tensor-based hyperviscosity with tensor coefficients tied to the eigenvalues of the local element metric tensor. The tensor hyperviscosity ismore » constructed so that for regions of uniform resolution it matches the traditional constant coefficient hyperviscsosity. With the tensor hyperviscosity the large scale solution is almost completely unaffected by the presence of grid refinement. This later point is important for climate applications where long term climatological averages can be imprinted by stationary inhomogeneities in the truncation error. We also evaluate the robustness of the approach with respect to grid quality by considering unstructured conforming quadrilateral grids generated with a well-known grid-generating toolkit and grids generated by SQuadGen, a new open source alternative which produces lower valence nodes.« less

  15. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (pcAFMs) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximum powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.

  16. Alternative Dispute Resolution Terms | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Alternative Dispute Resolution Terms Alternative Dispute Resolution Terms Dispute Systems Design Dispute systems design is a process for assisting an organization to develop a structure for handling a series of similar recurring or anticipated disputes (e.g., environmental enforcement cases or EEO complaints within a federal agency) more effectively. Facilitation Facilitation is a collaborative process in which a neutral seeks to assist a group of individuals or other parties to discuss

  17. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  18. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam...

  19. Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam Position Monitor for Dielectric Laser Accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Subnanometer Resolution Beam ...

  20. Electromagnetic eXtended Finite Elements for Accurate Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accurate Resolution of Multi-Material Cells. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electromagnetic eXtended Finite Elements for Accurate Resolution of Multi-Material Cells. ...