National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high resolution 10kmx10km

  1. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  2. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W. (Los Alamos, NM); Fuller, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  3. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  4. High resolution telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  5. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  6. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  8. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  9. High resolution 20 GHz wideband delay generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    High resolution 20 GHz wideband delay generator S.L. Morton, K. Elliott and M. Rodwell A digitally resolution beamsteering applications, a delay generator is required to have a resolution better than 0.25 ps for a signal of 1.8 GHz. In 1989, Otsuji and Narumi [3] fabricated delay lines for delay generation, using

  10. Instruments High-resolution imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    Instruments & Methods High-resolution imaging of gynecologic neoplasms using optical coherence and Gynecologists.) Diagnostic imaging methods available to gynecologists include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

  11. Afghanistan Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pakistan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However, the data is...

  12. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  13. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  14. Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts Eric Gilleland Research Prediction Comparison Test D1 D2 D = D1 ­ D2 copyright NCAR 2013 Loss Differential Field #12;Spatial Prediction Comparison Test Introduced by Hering and Genton

  15. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  16. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  17. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  18. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  19. Sandia Energy - High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Resolution Computational Algorithms for Simulating Offshore Wind Farms Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind High-Resolution...

  20. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New...

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATION TO NON-OXIDE CERAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    York, (1964). W. C. T. Dowell, "Das Elektronenmikroskopischeoriginally introduced by Dowell(9) to obtain high resolution

  2. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  3. Applied high resolution digital control for universal precision systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gawlik, Aaron John

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and characterization of a high-resolution analog interface for dSPACE digital control systems and a high-resolution, high-speed data acquisition and control system. These designs are intended ...

  4. Application of Spatially Resolved High Resolution Crystal Spectrometry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometry to ICF Plasmas Kenneth W. Hill, et. al. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY High Temperature High Temperature High resolution (3; 10 000) 1D...

  5. Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiences with the High Energy Resolution Optics (HERO) update on a physical electronics 690 auger system. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experiences with the High...

  6. Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging using high resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herz, Paul Richard, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Advances in medical imaging have given researchers unprecedented capabilities to visualize, characterize and understand biological systems. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution imaging technique ...

  7. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  8. High resolution spectroscopy of ultracool M dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Neill Reid; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; J. Liebert; J. E. Gizis; C. C. Dahn; D. G. Monet

    2002-04-17

    (abridged) We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of a photometricaly-selected sample if thirty-nine dwarfs with spectral types between M6.5 and L0.5. Two stars, 2MASSI 0253202+271333 and 2MASSW 0952219-192431, are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have used our observations to search for Li I 6708 A absorption, characteristic of sub-stellar mass; estimate the level of chromospheric activity through measurement of H-alpha emission fluxes; measure rotational velocities via line broadening; and determine radial velocities and Galactic space motions. Two dwarfs have strong lithium absorption, the previously-known brown dwarf, LP 944-20, and 2MASSI J0335020+234235, which we identify as a probable 0.06 M_sun brown dwarf, age ~1 Gyr. We have investigated the prospect of using the observed frequency of lithium absorption amongst ultracool M dwarfs (M7 to M9.5) as a probe of the initial mass function. The available observations are difficult to reconcile with Salpeter-like power-law mass functions (alpha > 2) for masses below 0.1M_Sun. A comparison between the rotational velocities and -alpha fluxes shows no evidence for significant correlation. Velocity dispersions are significantly lower than those measured for nearby M dwarfs, but show remarkable similarity to results for earlier-type emission-line (dMe) dwarfs. The latter are generally assigned ages of less than ~3 Gyrs.

  9. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  10. The High Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Cao; Susan Terebey; Thomas A. Prince; Charles A. Beichman

    1997-06-02

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg < b < 4.7 deg) plus the molecular clouds in Orion, Rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga has been produced at 60 and 100 micron from IRAS data. The Atlas consists of resolution-enhanced coadded images having 1 arcmin -- 2 arcmin resolution as well as coadded images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the DRAO HI line / 21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) line Galactic plane surveys, both with similar (approx. 1 arcmin) resolution, provide a powerful venue for studying the interstellar medium, star formation and large scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the Atlas.

  11. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  12. NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL GIS Data: Bhutan High Resolution Wind Resource This shapefile containing 50 meter height data has been validated by NREL and wind energy meteorological consultants. However,...

  13. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Community Earth System Model With the fourth release of the Community Climate System Model, the ability to perform ultra-high resolution climate simulations is now...

  14. Construction and Evaluation of a High Spatial Resolution Wavefront Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Construction and Evaluation of a High Spatial Resolution Wavefront Sensor MARTIN BUSCHBECK Bachelor.3. Analysis program 3 Evaluation of the Hartmann-Shack sensor 3.1 Calibration of the sensor 3.1.1 Reference eyes. In this thesis a high spatial resolution Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, which allows the study

  15. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality Characterization Using Rapidly Deployable Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS RD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas C. Harmon; Richard F. Ambrose; Robert M. Gilbert; Jason C. Fisher; Michael Stealey; William J. Kaiser

    2006-01-01

    High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality1594. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Qualityobserving spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties

  16. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical...

  17. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  18. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  19. High-Resolution Gaming 1 High-Resolution Gaming: Interfaces, Notifications, and the User Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the user of passive and critical game information as well as to overcome difficulties with mouse found in households today. For instance, 1980's arcade games such as Pac-Man had a resolution of only

  20. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

  1. High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-05-26

    A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

  2. High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Volpi, Alexander (Hinsdale, IL)

    1978-01-01

    The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

  3. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  4. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W. (Schenectady, NY); Cain, Dallas E. (Scotia, NY)

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  5. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  6. High-Resolution Simulations of Parallel BladeVortex Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    to that encountered in the simulation of realistic helicopter blade­vortex interaction, but the computational costs aeroacoustics rotor tests [2,3]. These tests were performed on a Mach-scaled Bo-105 rotor and the blade loadsHigh-Resolution Simulations of Parallel Blade­Vortex Interactions Alasdair Thom University

  7. A SIMPLE APPROACH TO HIGH RESOLUTION SEISMIC PROFILING FOR COAL *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A SIMPLE APPROACH TO HIGH RESOLUTION SEISMIC PROFILING FOR COAL * BY A. ZIOLKOWSKI ** and W. E Seismic Profiling for Coal, Geophysical Prospecting 27, 360-393, Seismic exploration techniques which have been developed for oil prospecting contrib- ute a valuable means for surveying coal measures. Since

  8. MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Chapter 6 MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS: ALGORITHMS.1007/978-1-4419-0050-0_6, #12;142 Mapping Radiative Fluxes There are several global radiative flux data sets derived from either. For example, the CERES team uses the predefined albedo and emissivity maps to calculate surface radiative

  9. OBSERVATIONS AND USES OF HIGH RESOLUTION RADAR DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabry, Frederic

    wind measuring technique, the quantification of the sampling problem at high resolution topics: the study of the melting layer of precipitation, the derivation of vertical wind profiles using;RÉSUMÉ Les avantages apportés dans des contextes opérationel et de recherche par l'utilisation de données

  10. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    data. Ideally the method should be validated or updated with 1- second load data from the region-15-minute variability estimates for modeling dynamic load profiles. An autoregressive, AR(1) functionHigh-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling Andrew Pohl, Jay

  11. Amorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    ) is limited by the properties of the semiconductor material used. We investigated metalAmorphous Silicon as Semiconductor Material for High Resolution LAPS Werner Moritz1 , Tatsuo-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) structures based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) prepared as a thin layer on transparent glass

  12. Interactive Multiscale Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri

    1 Interactive Multiscale Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Jefersson Alex dos~ao Abstract The use of remote sensing images (RSIs) as a source of information in agribusiness applications in space occupation. However, the identification and recognition of crop regions in remote sensing images

  13. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  14. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  15. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  16. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  17. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  18. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  19. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  20. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  1. ON THE IMPACT OF SUPER RESOLUTION WSR-88D DOPPLER RADAR DATA ASSIMILATION ON HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL MODEL FORECASTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S

    2009-01-11

    Assimilation of radar velocity and precipitation fields into high-resolution model simulations can improve precipitation forecasts with decreased 'spin-up' time and improve short-term simulation of boundary layer winds (Benjamin, 2004 & 2007; Xiao, 2008) which is critical to improving plume transport forecasts. Accurate description of wind and turbulence fields is essential to useful atmospheric transport and dispersion results, and any improvement in the accuracy of these fields will make consequence assessment more valuable during both routine operation as well as potential emergency situations. During 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) radars implemented a significant upgrade which increased the real-time level II data resolution to 8 times their previous 'legacy' resolution, from 1 km range gate and 1.0 degree azimuthal resolution to 'super resolution' 250 m range gate and 0.5 degree azimuthal resolution (Fig 1). These radar observations provide reflectivity, velocity and returned power spectra measurements at a range of up to 300 km (460 km for reflectivity) at a frequency of 4-5 minutes and yield up to 13.5 million point observations per level in super-resolution mode. The migration of National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-88D radars to super resolution is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current operational mesoscale model domains utilize grid spacing several times larger than the legacy data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of super resolution reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution is investigated here to determine the impact of the improved data resolution on model predictions.

  2. Designing arrays for modern high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowla, F.U.

    1987-10-01

    A bearing estimation study of seismic wavefields propagating from a strongly heterogeneous media shows that with the high-resolution MUSIC algorithm the bias of the direction estimate can be reduced by adopting a smaller aperture sub-array. Further, on this sub-array, the bias of the MUSIC algorithm is less than those of the MLM and Bartlett methods. On the full array, the performance for the three different methods are comparable. Improvement in bearing estimation in MUSIC with a reduced aperture might be attributed to increased signal coherency in the array. For methods with less resolution, the improved signal coherency in the smaller array is possible being offset by severe loss of resolution and the presence of weak secondary sources. Building upon the characteristics of real seismic wavefields, a design language has been developed to generate, modify, and test other arrays. Eigenstructures of wavefields and arrays have been studied empirically by simulation of a variety of realistic signals. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  4. Frequency Comb Vernier Spectroscopy for Broadband, High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Absorption and Dispersion Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hänsch, Theodor W.

    Frequency Comb Vernier Spectroscopy for Broadband, High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Absorption combination of broad bandwidth and high temporal coherence of a frequency comb for sensing and identifying; published 28 December 2007) A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced

  5. The high resolution silicon telescope of the INSULAB group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonfanti, Silvia; Lietti, Daniela; Vallazza, Erik

    This thesis has focused on the study of the performance of the high resolution tracking system (telescope) of the INSULAB group and on the implementation of a new data acquisition (DAQ) to comply with the high rate of the CERN North Area extracted beams. This system has allowed to increase the DAQ rate by a factor two with respect to the “standard” electronics. The INSULAB telescope is designed to test detectors ranging from calorimeters to more complex systems like in the case of the bent crystals studied by the COHERENT experiment. The telescope consists of four 300 $mu$m thick double side silicon strip detector modules with an area of 1.92$\times$1.92 cm$^{2}$ and 384 strips. The readout pitch is 50 $mu$m on both sides of the module but the junction side has an implant pitch of 25 $mu$m (and thus a floating strip) to improve the resolution. The telescope has been installed on the H4 beamline at the CERN SPS for the commissioning of the new readout system in June 2012. The results are analyzed in terms...

  6. High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. Kurucz

    2006-05-01

    The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error varies from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. The residual spectrum was calibrated two different ways: First by normalizing it to the continuum of theoretical solar model ASUN (Kurucz 1992), and second, by degrading the spectrum to the resolution of the observed irradiance (Thuillier et al. 2004) to determine a normalization function that was then applied to the high resolution spectrum.

  7. High resolution physical and comparative maps of horse chromosomes 14 (ECA14) and 21 (ECA21) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goh, Glenda Lay Bee

    2006-08-16

    In order to identify genes or markers responsible for economically important traits in the horse, the development of high resolution gene maps of individual equine chromosomes is essential. We herein report the construction of high resolution...

  8. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  9. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

    2008-08-25

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

  10. 13.4 A HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE LANDFALL OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    13.4 A HIGH RESOLUTION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE LANDFALL OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995) Glen Romine at: http://pampa.ncsa.uiuc.edu/~romine/opal.html Recent high-resolution simulations within a high-resolution (1.1 km) simulation of Hurricane Opal (1995) carried out using the MM5. The primary

  11. Earthquake Damage Identification using High-Resolution Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    detection ­ Change detection ­ Thematic classification · Thematic classification results · Future studies resolution panchromatic (B&W) ­ 4 m resolution multispectral (color) #12;Satellite Digital Data clouds/night ­ Radar image speckle ­ Interferometry to get digital elevation models or temporal movements

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  13. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA)

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  14. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  15. Diagnostics of Ellerman Bombs with High-resolution Spectral Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z; Guo, Y; Chen, P F; Xu, Z; Cao, W

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of the EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the H$\\alpha$ and \\ion{Ca}{II} 8542 {\\AA} lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope (NST), at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3\\arcsec\\--0.8\\arcsec\\ and their durations are only 3--5 minutes. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700--3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5$\\times$10$^{25}$--3.0$\\times$10$^{26}$ ergs despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs appeared just in a parasitic region with mixed polar...

  16. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitry L.

    2010-01-01

    16. Yu. Shvyd’ko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

  17. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a number of investigations into the effects of PV variability on distribution circuit voltage 1. Due to load data resolution limitations and the difficulty in estimating...

  18. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  19. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  20. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  1. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  2. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemore »excitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.« less

  3. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  4. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Samoson, Ago (Tallinn, SU)

    1990-01-01

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero.

  5. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced of either electron beam deposition and/or focused ion beam milling. Attachment/ growth of carbon nanotubes carbon nanotube MWNT capped with a magnetic catalyst particle onto the apex of a commercial Si cantilever

  6. Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Evaluation of a CCD-based high resolution autocollimator for use as a slope sensor Rohan Isaac the focused beam profile to broaden and decrease its peak intensity Project: Evaluation of a compact CCD-based high resolution autocollimator with a small probe beam for potential use as a slope sensor Optics Group

  7. High Resolution Optical Imaging for Deep Water Archaeology Hanumant Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    High Resolution Optical Imaging for Deep Water Archaeology Hanumant Singh1 , Christopher Roman1 Abstract High resolution imaging in the context of deep water archaeology presents some unique challenges and in combination with a particular emphasis on the applications for deep water archaeology. If we consider optical

  8. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  9. 3 July 2003 HIRES3D -ITC Research Seminar -Robert Hack 1 HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    3 July 2003 HIRES3D - ITC Research Seminar - Robert Hack 1 HIRES3D HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING FOR 3D GROUND MODELING AND CLASSIFICATION ITC Research Seminar, 3 July 2003 Robert Hack International Seminar - Robert Hack 2 HIRES3D HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING FOR 3D GROUND MODELING AND CLASSIFICATION

  10. Railway Subsidence Monitoring by High Resolution INSAR Time Series Analysis in Tianjin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perissin, Daniele

    Railway Subsidence Monitoring by High Resolution INSAR Time Series Analysis in Tianjin Qingli Luo1 and the development of urban are seriously affected by the subsidence of them. Permanent Scatterers (PS) technology was developed as a powerful tool for subsidence monitoring. High resolution of 1m data can be provided by Terra

  11. High-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    capability for high-resolution optical 3D sec- tioning of samples because signals only arise from the focal structure of the specimen and its orientation relative to the laser beam. In biological materials, collagenHigh-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography Jianping Su, Ivan V

  12. A NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Laboratory P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, New York 12301-1072 A new high energy resolution modular neutronA NEW HIGH ENERGY RESOLUTION NEUTRON TRANSMISSION DETECTOR SYSTEM AT THE GAERTTNER LINAC LABORATORY capabilities at the Laboratory in and above the resolved resonance energy region from 1 keV to 600 ke

  13. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MR-EIT): A new technique for high resolution conductivity imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyüboðlu, Murat

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MR-EIT): A new technique for high resolution are measured by using conventional electrical impedance tomography techniques and high resolution magnetic and the point spread function is not space invariant. On the other hand, magnetic field and electrical current

  14. Improving window manipulation and content interaction on high resolution, wall-sized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddle, Roy

    Interaction with high resolution wall-sized (Powerwall) displays can be a tedious and difficult task due%. Together, our new techniques help to make interaction more fluid on Powerwall displays. Keywords: Powerwall, interaction, precision. 1 Introduction High resolution, wall-sized displays (or Powerwalls) are becoming

  15. MAP IOP 10 South Foehn Event in the Wipp Valley: Verification of High-Resolution Numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    MAP IOP 10 South Foehn Event in the Wipp Valley: Verification of High-Resolution Numerical-of-the-art mesoscale model run in a very high- resolution mode. The phenomenon: Deep south foehn in the Wipp Valley-sigma levels · initialized with operational ECMWF analysis at 23 Oct 18 UTC and 24 Oct 00 UTC Wipp Valley

  16. High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Iceland Using Polar MM5* DAVID H. BROMWICH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    High-Resolution Regional Climate Simulations over Iceland Using Polar MM5* DAVID H. BROMWICH Polar, Environmental and Food Agency, Reykjavik, Iceland (Manuscript received 9 August 2004, in final form 23 June 2005) ABSTRACT High-resolution regional climate simulations of Iceland for 1991­2000 have been performed using

  17. Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea, Norway Abstract A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age. Author for correspondence

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMEDICAL HIGH-RESOLUTION MICRO-CT IMAGES FOR DIRECT VOLUME RENDERING Maite L of biomedical high- resolution 3D images. More concretely, it proposes a learn- ing pipeline process and refinements. KEYWORDS Machine Learning, Biomedical 3D Images, Classification, CRF (Conditional Random Fields

  19. Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution neutron imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution neutron imaging Jacob M. La] demonstrated one of the first through- plane images of a PEFC in 2007 with a 25 mm microchannel detector this article in press as: LaManna JM, et al., Isolation of transport mechanisms in PEFCs using high resolution

  20. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We use a hurricane model to generate prior distributions for the wind speed, wind di- rection, and rain

  1. Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesbitt, Steve

    Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar Stephen W. Nesbitt1 and Alison M. Anders2 Received 4 March 2009; revised 6 July 2009 of topography and precipitation, a tropics-wide (±36° latitude) high resolution (0.1°) ten year (1998

  2. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, Laura N. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs.

  3. Automated analysis for microcalcifications in high resolution digital mammograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascio, L.N.

    1996-12-17

    A method is disclosed for automatically locating microcalcifications indicating breast cancer. The invention assists mammographers in finding very subtle microcalcifications and in recognizing the pattern formed by all the microcalcifications. It also draws attention to microcalcifications that might be overlooked because a more prominent feature draws attention away from an important object. A new filter has been designed to weed out false positives in one of the steps of the method. Previously, iterative selection threshold was used to separate microcalcifications from the spurious signals resulting from texture or other background. A Selective Erosion or Enhancement (SEE) Filter has been invented to improve this step. Since the algorithm detects areas containing potential calcifications on the mammogram, it can be used to determine which areas need be stored at the highest resolution available, while, in addition, the full mammogram can be reduced to an appropriate resolution for the remaining cancer signs. 8 figs.

  4. Methodology for Clustering High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Solar Resource Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getman, Dan; Lopez, Anthony; Mai, Trieu; Dyson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we introduce a methodology to achieve multiple levels of spatial resolution reduction of solar resource data, with minimal impact on data variability, for use in energy systems modeling. The selection of an appropriate clustering algorithm, parameter selection including cluster size, methods of temporal data segmentation, and methods of cluster evaluation are explored in the context of a repeatable process. In describing this process, we illustrate the steps in creating a reduced resolution, but still viable, dataset to support energy systems modeling, e.g. capacity expansion or production cost modeling. This process is demonstrated through the use of a solar resource dataset; however, the methods are applicable to other resource data represented through spatiotemporal grids, including wind data. In addition to energy modeling, the techniques demonstrated in this paper can be used in a novel top-down approach to assess renewable resources within many other contexts that leverage variability in resource data but require reduction in spatial resolution to accommodate modeling or computing constraints.

  5. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  6. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Werner, John S. (Davis, CA); Zawadzki, Robert J. (Sacramento, CA); Laut, Sophie P. (Pasedena, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  7. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonanos, P.

    1992-01-07

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity. 4 figs.

  8. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea, CaliforniaHess RetailResolution Imaging Science

  9. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SOLAR ATLAS IN PROVENCE-ALPES-CTE D'AZUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , realized the Solar Atlas project thanks to the support and funding of local and regional organizationsHIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SOLAR ATLAS IN PROVENCE-ALPES-CÔTE D'AZUR Philippe Blanc 1 , Bella Espinar) 1. Introduction Most existing solar atlases cover a continent or a country with a spatial resolution

  10. Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics Junzhong Liang corrected these aberra- tions using adaptive optics, providing normal eyes with supernormal optical quality optics. The eye's aber- rations also limit the resolution of images of the retina, a limit that has

  11. Rhode Island High Resolution Wind Resource - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Detailed license and usage information for this dataset Preview Download 50m GIS NREL Rhode Island energy high resoltuion renewable shapefile wind wind data wind...

  12. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  13. High-resolution common depth point seismic reflection profiling: instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knapp, Ralph W.; Steeples, Don W.

    1986-02-01

    so the magnitude of the low?frequency signal does not swamp the high?frequency signal. The objective is to permit boosting the magnitude of the high?frequency signals to fill a significant number of bits of the digital word. Judicious use of a low...

  14. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  15. High-resolution spatial light modulation for holographic video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smalley, Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research is to further the fabrication of a high-bandwidth two-axis scanning device. The device is intended for use in a holographic video geometry built specifically to take advantage of the new ...

  16. Design of electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, Joyce G

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for a high-resolution, multi-material, and modular 3D printer were designed and implemented. The driver for a piezoelectric inkjet print head can fire its nozzles with one of three droplet sizes ranging from 6 ...

  17. A machine learning model of Manhattan air pollution at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeler, Rachel H. (Rachel Heiden)

    2014-01-01

    A machine-learning model was created to predict air pollution at high spatial resolution in Manhattan, New York using taxi trip data. Urban air pollution increases morbidity and mortality through respiratory and cardiovascular ...

  18. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  19. High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...

  20. A high time resolution x-ray diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high time resolution x-ray diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus Ami M. DuBois 1 , John David Lee 1 and Abdulgadar F. Almagri 1 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 073512 (2015); http:...

  1. High-Resolution Characterization of Reservoir Heterogeneity and Connectivity in Clastic Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Thomas Frederick

    2011-10-21

    is improved from 80ft to 20ft. High-resolution seismic interpretation was validated through synthetic seismograms, stratigraphic surface comparisons, and most importantly using a comprehensive model-based knowledge of regional tectonics and depositional...

  2. Simultaneous computational discovery of DNA regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding constraints at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yuchun

    2012-01-01

    I present three novel computational methods to address the challenge of identifying protein-DNA interactions at high spatial resolution from noisy ChIP-Seq data. I first present the genome positioning system (GPS) algorithm ...

  3. High resolution laser spectroscopy of cesium and rubidium molecules with optically induced coherence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2006-10-30

    This work is devoted to the study of the quantum coherent effects in diatomic molecular systems by using high resolution laser spectroscopy. In particular, we have studied the rubidium diatomic molecular gaseous medium's ...

  4. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of upcoming projects for high resolution RIXS at several synchrotron radiation and X-FEL sources around the world, what are the key features for the new instruments? How can we...

  5. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI diffusion imaging at 4 Tesla, we scanned 234 young adult twins and siblings (mean age: 23.4 ± 2.0 SD years

  6. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search...

  7. Perfusion-Based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfusion-Based High-Resolution Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla Josef Pfeuffer and reperfusion, blood flow deficits in Alzheimer's disease, HIV-cognitive motor complex dementia, and epilepsy (5

  8. Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Shane

    Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered that radar reflectors can be used as geometric prox- ies for visible stratigraphy. Furthermore in the stratigraphy of the pola

  9. Optic for an endoscope/borescope having high resolution and narrow field of view

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2003-10-28

    An optic having optimized high spatial resolution, minimal nonlinear magnification distortion while at the same time having a limited chromatic focal shift or chromatic aberrations. The optic located at the distal end of an endoscopic inspection tool permits a high resolution, narrow field of view image for medical diagnostic applications, compared to conventional optics for endoscopic instruments which provide a wide field of view, low resolution image. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion. The optic is also optimized for best color correction as well as to aid medical diagnostics.

  10. A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woschnagg, Kurt

    A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice N. E (2005), A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

  11. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron Computed Tomography developed High

  12. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOF Research

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION FORWARD AND INVERSE EARTHQUAKE MODELING ON TERASCALE COMPUTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    highly populated seismic region in the U.S., it has well- characterized geological structures (including in characterizing earthquake source and basin material properties, a critical remaining challenge is to invert basin geology and earthquake sources, and to use this capability to model and forecast strong ground

  14. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  15. Super-Resolution Image with Estimated High Frequency Compensated Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Pao-Chi

    such as complicated theoretical work and relatively large amount of computation load. In general, spatial domain the lost information in high frequency and produces better visual quality than IBP in general test images. However, it performs worse than IBP on text images because the variation of energy among the gray values

  16. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  17. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  18. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  19. Analytical description of high-aperture STED resolution with 0-2$\\pi$ vortex phase modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Hao; Jin, Dayong; Xi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) can achieve optical super-resolution, with the optical diffraction limit broken by the suppression on the periphery of the fluorescent focal spot. Previously, it is generally experimentally accepted that there exists an inverse square root relationship with the STED power and the resolution, yet without strict analytical description. In this paper, we have analytically verified the relationship between the STED power and the achievable resolution from vector optical theory for the widely used 0-2$\\pi$ vortex phase modulation. Electromagnetic fields of the focal region of a high numerical aperture objective are calculated and approximated into polynomials, and analytical expression of resolution as a function of the STED intensity has been derived. As a result, the resolution can be estimated directly from the measurement of the saturation power of the dye and the STED power applied.

  20. A Cosmic Ray Test Platform Based on the High Time Resolution MRPC Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tianxiang Chen; Cheng Li; Yongjie Sun; Hongfang Chen; Ming Shao; Zebo Tang; Rongxing Yang; Yi Zhou; Yifei Zhang

    2015-03-13

    In order to test the performance of detector/prototype in environment of laboratory, we design and build a larger area ($90\\times52$ $cm^2$) test platform of cosmic ray based on well-designed Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) with an excellent time resolution and a high detection efficiency for the minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). The time resolution of the MRPC module used is tested to be ~80 ps, and the position resolution along the strip is ~5 mm, while the position resolution perpendicular to the strip is ~12.7 mm. The platform constructed by four MRPC modules can be functional for tracking the cosmic rays with a spatial resolution ~6.3 mm, and provide a reference time ~40 ps.

  1. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHigh Efficiency CdTe andx-pinch

  2. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (TechnicalTransmission,TextitSciTech Connect Technical Report:for high

  3. High-resolution imaging of hypervelocity metal jets using advanced high-speed photographic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, L.L.; Muelder, S.A.

    1995-08-29

    It is now possible to obtain high resolution sequential photographs of the initial formation and evolution of hypervelocity metal jets formed by shaped charge devices fired in air. Researchers have been frustrated by the high velocity of the jet material and the luminous sheath of hot gases cloaking the jet that made detailed observation of the jet body extremely difficult. The camera system that provides the photographs is a large format multi-frame electro-optic camera, referred to as an IC camera (IC stands for image converter), that utilizes electro-optic shuttering, monochromatic pulsed laser illumination and bandpass filtering to provide sequential pictures (in 3D if desired) with minimal degradation due to luminous air shocks or motion blur. The large format (75mm image plane), short exposure (15 ns minimum), ruby laser illumination and bandpass filtering (monochromatic illumination while excluding extraneous light) produces clear, sharp, images of the detailed surface structure of a metal shaped charge jet during early jet formation, elongation of the jet body, jet tip evolution and subsequent particulation (breakup) of the jet body. By utilizing the new camera system in conjunction with the more traditional rotating mirror high speed cameras, pulsed radiography, and electrical sensors, a maximum amount of, often unique, data can be extracted from a single experiment. This paper was intended primarily as an oral presentation. For purposes of continuity and simplicity in these proceedings, the authors have chosen to concentrate on the development of the IC camera system and its impact on the photography of high speed shaped chargejets.

  4. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  5. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  6. A High-resolution Spectrum of the R CrB Star V2552 Ophiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2003-08-25

    Photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy have added V2552 Oph to the rare class of R Coronae Borealis variables. We confirm this classification of V2552 Oph through a comparison of our high-resolution optical spectrum of this star and that of R CrB and other F-type members of the class. We show that V2552 Oph most closely resembles Y Mus and FH Sct, stars in which Sr, Y, and Zr are enhanced.

  7. Dissemination and Presentation of High Resolution Air Pollution Data from Mobile Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Dissemination and Presentation of High Resolution Air Pollution Data from Mobile Sensor Nodes method of air pollution monitoring in the United States includes sampling airborne pollutants hourly. Since pollution is highly location de- pendent, there is insufficient data to accurately evaluate air

  8. Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Hurricane Wind Field Estimation from SeaWinds at Ultra High Resolution Brent A. Williams and David) are inherently noisier than the standard 25km products and the high rain rates often associated with hurricanes. This paper develops a new procedure for hurricane wind field estimation from the SeaWinds instrument at ultra

  9. Differential high-resolution stimulated CW Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen in a hollow-core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westergaard, Philip G; Petersen, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate sensitive high-resolution stimulated Raman measurements of hydrogen using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The Raman transition is pumped by a narrow linewidth (laser. The probe light is produced by a homebuilt CW optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable from around 800 nm to 1300 nm (linewidth ~ 5 MHz). These narrow linewidth lasers allow for an excellent spectral resolution of approximately 10^-4 cm^(-1). The setup employs a differential measurement technique for noise rejection in the probe beam, which also eliminates background signals from the fiber. With the high sensitivity obtained, Raman signals were observed with only a few mW of optical power in both the pump and probe beams. This demonstration allows for high resolution Raman identification of molecules and quantification of Raman signal strengths.

  10. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  11. Combining Weather Data for a Dataset Sufficient for Generating High-Resolution Weather Prediction Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Jared B.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2004-03-01

    Assessments of the effects of climate change typically require information at scales of 10 km or less. In regions with complex terrain, much of the spatial variability in climate (temperature, precipitation, and snow water) occurs on scales below 10 km. Since the typical global climate model simulations grid size is more than 200 km, it is necessary to develop models with much higher resolution. Unfortunately, no datasets currently produced are both highly accurate and provide data at a sufficiently high resolution. As a result, current global climate models are forced to ignore the important climate variations that occur below the 200 km scale. This predicament prompted the creation of a global hybrid dataset with information for precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity. The resulting dataset illustrated the importance of having high-resolution datasets and gives clear proof that regions with complex terrain require a fine resolution grid to give an accurate represent at ion of their climatology. For example, the Andes Mountains in Chile cause a temperature shift of more than 25C within the same area as a single 2.5 grid cell from the NCEP dataset. Fortunately the CRU, U.D., GPCP, and NCEP datasets, when hybridized, are able to provide both precision and satisfactory resolution with global coverage. This composite will enable the development of both high-resolution models and quality empirical downscaling methods--both of which are necessary for scientists to more accurately predict the effects of global climate change. Without accurate long-term forecasts, climatologists and policy makers will not have the tools they need to effectively reduce the negative effects human activity have on the earth.

  12. A high-spatial-resolution fiber-optic-coupled CMOS imager with novel scintillator for high-energy x-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    A high-spatial-resolution fiber-optic-coupled CMOS imager with novel scintillator for high-energy x, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 USA 2 Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University-mail: rbaur@physics.cornell.edu Abstract. A fast, high-spatial-resolution detector for high-energy microscopy

  13. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  14. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption signatures.

  15. Pattern transfer of electron beam modified self-assembled monolayers for high-resolution lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Pattern transfer of electron beam modified self-assembled monolayers for high-resolution electron beam lithography. Focused electron beams from 1 to 50 keV and scanning tunneling microscopy at 10 of electron beam damage on the monolayers and the subsequent etching reactions has been explored through x

  16. Space for Two to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Space for Two to Think: Large, High-Resolution Displays for Co-located Collaborative Sensemaking Lauren Bradel 1 Virginia Tech Christopher Andrews 2 Virginia Tech Alex Endert 3 Virginia Tech Katherine Vogt 4 Elon University Duke Hutchings 5 Elon University Chris North 6 Virginia Tech ABSTRACT Large

  17. OVERVIEW OF SELECTED SURROGATE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH-TEMPORAL RESOLUTION SUSPENDED-SEDIMENT MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OVERVIEW OF SELECTED SURROGATE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH- TEMPORAL RESOLUTION SUSPENDED such surrogate technology, and the first to be sanctioned by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in producing data in the National Water Information System. Other technologies, including laser-diffraction, digital photo

  18. Object-Based High-Resolution Land-Cover Mapping Operational Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    . They overcome the limitations of traditional pixel-based classification methods by incorporating not only cover, remote sensing, high resolution I. INTRODUCTION Commercial satellites, digital aerial imaging-cover mapping over large areas. Pixel-based classification techniques, in which a given pixel is assigned

  19. High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    1 High-Resolution Estimation of Near-Subsurface Water Content using Surface GPR Ground Wave, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 1. Introduction Information about near surface soil water content the applicability of a surface geophysical method, ground penetrating radar (GPR), for use as a water content

  20. 2014 July 28; submitted to AJ The Multiplicity of Massive Stars: A High Angular Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gies, Douglas R.

    Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to detection of companions with an angular companions. Subject headings: binaries: general -- stars: early-type -- stars: massive -- techniques: high angular resolution 1. Introduction The formation of a star from a huge natal cloud presents a formidable

  1. A High Resolution Intergalactic Explorer for the Soft X-ray/FUV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis; Fabrizio Fiore; the CWE Team

    2003-03-19

    We present a mission concept for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with a resolving power, R~6000, (c.f. R=Web'. The Cosmic Web is predicted to contain most of the normal matter (baryons) in the nearby Universe.

  2. Star Formation at High Angular Resolution ASP Conference Series, Vol. S-221, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward-Thompson, Derek

    Star Formation at High Angular Resolution ASP Conference Series, Vol. S-221, 2003 M.G. Burton, R of Physics, Cardiff University, PO Box 913, Cardiff, UK J. M. Kirk Dept of Astronomy, University of Illinois for protostellar collapse that must be input into all models of star formation. The current debate over the nature

  3. High-resolution imaging of vessels in the isolated rat brain M. F. Valverde Salzmann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-resolution imaging of vessels in the isolated rat brain M. F. Valverde Salzmann1 , N for the distribution of vessels in the rat brain. Angiography is able to use the blood flow in the brain of the living of this study was to obtain a full picture of vessels even down to relatively small size in the isolated rat

  4. BIOL 507 PROJECT REPORT High-Resolution 3D Reconstruction of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOL 507 PROJECT REPORT High-Resolution 3D Reconstruction of the Surface of Live Early-Stage Toad. The specimen profile often covers more than attained depth-of-field. #12;BIOL 507 Microscopy Project Report. SIGNATURE Xiaodong Zhong Department of Biomedical Engineering Dec 8, 2005 #12;BIOL 507 Microscopy Project

  5. Open PhD position Fusion of high resolution remote sensing data for snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Open PhD position Fusion of high resolution remote sensing data for snow monitoring Context Remote and are able to measure different aspects of snow cover (surface physical properties, type of snow, etc of the snow. However, this approach is still an unresolved scientific challenge. This thesis proposes

  6. Flow over rough topography. A preliminary study with high resolution topography at Ormen Lange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avlesen, Helge

    Flow over rough topography. A preliminary study with high resolution topography at Ormen Lange not able to march as long in time as desired, due to stability issues. On the given topography for selected horizontal sections, after im- posing a constant velocity flow over the given topography

  7. Leveraging XSEDE HPC resources to address computational challenges with high-resolution topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    Leveraging XSEDE HPC resources to address computational challenges with high-resolution topography topography data. These web services make results from community software packages and other cyberinfrastructure-based applications available to the wider earth sciences community via the OpenTopography Facility

  8. Auroral Ionosphere During Solar Minimum in Very High Time Resolution , T. Turunen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulich, Thomas

    Auroral Ionosphere During Solar Minimum in Very High Time Resolution Th.Ulich1 , T. Turunen1 , E modes of typically one sounding per 15 minutes. Due to the ever-decreasing costs of digital storage deep solar activity minimum provided us with the very rare opportunity to observe the ionosphere in its

  9. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000800,000 years before present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    LETTERS High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000­800,000 years before present Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition provided a composite record of atmo- spheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years1­4 . Here we

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE SUCCESSION OF HURRICANES IN 2008: GUSTAV, HANNA, AND IKE W. Lin of Atlantic hurricanes in August-September 2008 is used to assess the ability of the Weather Research and the eastern United States. The succession of the hurricanes in observation developed from either local

  11. A High-Resolution Spontaneous 3D Dynamic Facial Expression Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    A High-Resolution Spontaneous 3D Dynamic Facial Expression Database Xing Zhang1 , Lijun Yin1 to address. Most publically available databases are limited to 2D static images or video of posed facial video archives are needed. We present a newly developed 3D video database of spontaneous facial

  12. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of the porcine temporomandibular joint disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benavides, E.; Bilgen, M.; Al-Hafez, B.; Alrefae, T.; Wang, Y; Spencer, Paulette

    2014-01-28

    scanned on a 9.4?Tesla horizontal bore MRI scanner using an inductively coupled surface coil. High-resolution gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted spin-echo based images were obtained. The mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed...

  13. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  14. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  15. ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 83 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic and Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawley, James

    ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRON PHYSICS, VOL. 83 LVSEM for High Resolution Topographic Surface-Imaging Scanning Electron Microscope 205 C. Electrons as Probes in Scanning Microscopes 205 D. Limitations Associated with the Use of Electrons as the Probing Radiation 206 E. Response to These Limitations

  16. High-Resolution in Vivo Footprinting of a Protein-DNA Complex Using -Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    High-Resolution in Vivo Footprinting of a Protein-DNA Complex Using -Radiation Lori M. Ottinger prospect of the sequencing of the human genome has focused attention on how the information encoded in DNA experiment1 gives a direct "image" of which DNA sites are occupied by protein and which are empty

  17. North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical of the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection and North Brazil Current rings. The model mean and seasonal circulation feature near the western boundary is the North Brazil Current (NBC), which has sources

  18. Cornelis Zwaan, open principle, and the future of high-resolution solar telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    ; (iii) the design consequences for the new generation of high-resolution solar telescopes. Keywords to the open tower design. In section 3 we consider the interaction between the wind and the telescope 15 m and upward when there is some wind. The conclusion from this experience was the open telescope

  19. Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations J. T, condensed water species can add significant mass to an atmospheric column. This mass can create positive the pressure induced by condensates. A simple parameterization of this condensate loading as a function

  20. A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A ber-optic based calibration system for the High Resolution Fly's Eye cosmic ray observatory J, 800 Yale Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1156 Abstract This article describes the ber-optic based: Highest energy cosmic rays Fly's Eye Experiment HiRes YAG Laser Fiber-optics PMT PACS: 95.45.+i 95.85.Ls

  1. REMOTELY SENSING STRESS IN STREET TREES USING HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION DATA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REMOTELY SENSING STRESS IN STREET TREES USING HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION DATA* Tim J Malthus1 the potential of remote sensing technologies as a cost- effective tool for deriving rapid, large scale information for remote sensing of stress in street trees. Scale continues to be a significant barrier

  2. High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    High resolution remote sensing observations for missions to the Jovian system: Io as a case study Keywords: Io Remote sensing Instruments a b s t r a c t We present modeled images of Io at a variety objectives that could be achieved from missions engaged in long range remote-sensing of Io during

  3. High-Spatial Resolution Observations of Pores and the Formation of a Rudimentary Penumbra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    images derived from Local Correlation Tracking is different from the previous observations. Also. Subject headings: Sun: activity, Sun: magnetic fields, Sun: sunspots, techniques: high angular resolution 1. Introduction A sunspot is a complex magnetic concentration on the surface of the Sun

  4. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 36533664 High-resolution spatial patterns of long-term mean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broday, David

    2006-01-01

    agree with published observations on larger spatial scales. The high-resolution maps capture in a small and disease. Air pollutants in an urban environment may have a wide spectrum of sources affecting- cesses and the governing meteorology, mainly sun radiance, ambient temperature and the prevailing winds

  5. 8D.3 INVESTIGATING CONVECTIVE ELEMENTS IN A HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmson, Robert

    1995-01-01

    8D.3 INVESTIGATING CONVECTIVE ELEMENTS IN A HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF HURRICANE OPAL (1995. INTRODUCTION Numerous studies have investigated the intensity and track of Hurricane Opal in 1995, an event the convective scale behavior of the hurricane. This is of particular interest because Hurricane Opal

  6. High resolution imaging of megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    High resolution imaging of megathrust splay faults in Prince William Sound, Alaska Project Award earthquake in southern Prince William Sound (PWS), generating local and trans-oceanic tsunamis and more. The quake, centered beneath Prince William Sound (PWS) (Figure 1a), produced more than $100 million

  7. PROGRESS TOWARDS A HIGH-RESOLUTION RETINAL PROSTHESIS James D. Weiland1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    PROGRESS TOWARDS A HIGH-RESOLUTION RETINAL PROSTHESIS James D. Weiland1 , Wolfgang Fink2,1 , Mark of image processing, microelectronics, and polymer based electrodes and interconnects. An image processing and tested to demonstrate closed loop power control and efficient microstimulation. A novel packaging process

  8. A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    A Comparison of Hurricane Eye Determination Using Standard and Ultra-High Resolution QuikSCAT Winds of hurricanes. I. INTRODUCTION Space-borne scatterometers such as SeaWinds on QuikSCAT are instruments designed these is the observation and tracking of tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Several fea- tures of interest

  9. High resolution 17 keV to 75 keV backlighters for High Energy Density experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Maddox, B R; Giraldez, E; Hatchett, S P; Hudson, L; Izumi, N; Key, M H; Pape, S L; MacKinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Patel, P K; Phillips, T W; Remington, B A; Seely, J F; Tommasini, R; Town, R; Workman, J

    2008-02-25

    We have developed 17 keV to 75 keV 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional high-resolution (< 10 {micro}m) radiography using high-intensity short pulse lasers. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by fluorescence from hot electrons interacting in the target material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have achieved high resolution point projection 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional radiography using micro-foil and micro-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The micro-wire size was 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m on a 300 {micro}m x 300 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m CH substrate. The radiography performance was demonstrated using the Titan laser at LLNL. We observed that the resolution is dominated by the micro-wire target size and there is very little degradation from the plasma plume, implying that the high energy x-ray photons are generated mostly within the micro-wire volume. We also observe that there are enough K{alpha} photons created with a 300 J, 1-{omega}, 40 ps pulse laser from these small volume targets, and that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high, for single shot radiography experiments. This unique technique will be used on future high energy density (HED) experiments at the new Omega-EP, ZR and NIF facilities.

  10. Development of a compact high-resolution RBS system for monolayer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, K.; Kimura, M.; Mori, Y.; Maehara, M.; Fukuyama, H. [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Engineering and Machinery Division, Kobe Steel Ltd. 2-3-1 Niihama, Arai-chou, Takasago, Hyogo 676-8670 (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    A compact high-resolution RBS system consisting of a 90 degree sign sector magnetic spectrometer and a 500 kV accelerator is developed. Energy resolution of the spectrometer is designed to be 0.1% at an acceptance angle of 0.4 msr in an energy range of 27%. The dimensions of the full system are 3.8 m (L)x2.8 m (W)x2.35 m (H) including the accelerator. The system is shown to be capable for monolayer analysis as was designed.

  11. High-resolution kaonic-atom x-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Okada; D. A. Bennett; W. B. Doriese; J. W. Fowler; K. D. Irwin; S. Ishimoto; M. Sato; D. R. Schmidt; D. S. Swetz; H. Tatsuno; J. N. Ullom; S. Yamada

    2014-02-19

    We are preparing for an ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms using an x-ray spectrometer based on an array of superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters developed by NIST. The instrument has excellent energy resolutions of 2 - 3 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a large collecting area of about 20 mm^2. This will open new door to investigate kaon-nucleus strong interaction and provide new accurate charged-kaon mass value.

  12. High-resolution kaonic-atom x-ray spectroscopy with transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okada, S; Doriese, W B; Fowler, J W; Irwin, K D; Ishimoto, S; Sato, M; Schmidt, D R; Swetz, D S; Tatsuno, H; Ullom, J N; Yamada, S

    2014-01-01

    We are preparing for an ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms using an x-ray spectrometer based on an array of superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeters developed by NIST. The instrument has excellent energy resolutions of 2 - 3 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a large collecting area of about 20 mm^2. This will open new door to investigate kaon-nucleus strong interaction and provide new accurate charged-kaon mass value.

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: High-resolution Investigations of Transport Limiting Defects and Interfaces in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop the capability of high-resolution transport imaging in photovoltaic (PV) devices, which is useful for improving polycrystalline thin-film PV materials.

  14. High-resolution bed topography mapping of Russell Glacier, Greenland, inferred from Operation IceBridge data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution bed topography mapping of Russell Glacier,for generalizing topography to grids while preservingRasmussen LA (1988) Bed topography and mass-balance

  15. Preliminary High-Resolution Time-Lines Through the Cenomanian-Turonian (Late Cretaceous) Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Allison Lynn

    2015-01-01

    of west-central Jordan: stratigraphy and crises. Cretaceousand Schlanger, S.O. (1990). Stratigraphy, geochemistry, andF. (2006). High-resolution stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-

  16. Fabrication and characterization of a 0.5-mm lutetium oxyorthosilicate detector array for high-resolution PET applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickel, Jennifer R; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R

    2007-01-01

    and Characterization of a 0.5-mm Lutetium OxyorthosilicateIn this work, a pair of lutetium oxyorthosi- licate (LSO)PET; high spatial resolution; lutetium oxyorthosilicate;

  17. A High-resolution TOF Detector _ A Possible Way to Compete with a RICH Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va'vra, J; /SLAC; Ertley, C.; /Argonne; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Schwiening, J.; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    Using two identical 64-pixel Burle/Photonis MCP-PMTs to provide start and stop signals, they have achieved a timing resolution of {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 7.2 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 50 photoelectrons (N{sub pe}) with a laser diode providing a 1 mm spot on the MCP window. The limiting resolution achieved was {sigma}{sub Single{_}detector} {approx} 5.0 ps for N{sub pe} {approx} 180, for which they estimate the MCP-PMT contribution of {sigma}{sub MCP-PMT} {approx} 4.5 ps. The electronics contribution is estimated as {sigma}{sub Electrons} = 3.42 ps. These results suggest that an ultra-high resolution TOF detector may become a reality at future experiments one day.

  18. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  19. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the Rn-222 decays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Gezhaev, A M; Etezov, R A; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P

    2015-01-01

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register alpha-particles from the $^{222}$Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV alpha-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented.

  20. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  1. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ?1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ?2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  2. Structure of W3(OH) from Very High Spectral Resolution Observations of 5 Centimeter OH Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Loránt O. Sjouwerman

    2007-06-22

    Recent studies of methanol and ground-state OH masers at very high spectral resolution have shed new light on small-scale maser processes. The nearby source W3(OH), which contains numerous bright masers in several different transitions, provides an excellent laboratory for high spectral resolution techniques. We present a model of W3(OH) based on EVN observations of the rotationally-excited 6030 and 6035 MHz OH masers taken at 0.024 km/s spectral resolution. The 6.0 GHz masers are becoming brighter with time and show evidence for tangential proper motions. We confirm the existence of a region of magnetic field oriented toward the observer to the southeast and find another such region to the northeast in W3(OH), near the champagne flow. The 6.0 GHz masers trace the inner edge of a counterclockwise rotating torus feature. Masers at 6030 MHz are usually a factor of a few weaker than at 6035 MHz but trace the same material. Velocity gradients of nearby Zeeman components are much more closely correlated than in the ground state, likely due to the smaller spatial separation between Zeeman components. Hydroxyl maser peaks at very long baseline interferometric resolution appear to have structure on scales both smaller than that resolvable as well as on larger scales.

  3. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  4. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  5. Superconducting gamma and fast-neutron spectrometers with high energy resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedrich, Stephan (San Jose, CA); , Niedermayr, Thomas R. (Oakland, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-11-04

    Superconducting Gamma-ray and fast-neutron spectrometers with very high energy resolution operated at very low temperatures are provided. The sensor consists of a bulk absorber and a superconducting thermometer weakly coupled to a cold reservoir, and determines the energy of the incident particle from the rise in temperature upon absorption. A superconducting film operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state is used as the thermometer, and sensor operation at reservoir temperatures around 0.1 K reduces thermal fluctuations and thus enables very high energy resolution. Depending on the choice of absorber material, the spectrometer can be configured either as a Gamma-spectrometer or as a fast-neutron spectrometer.

  6. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

    2012-05-29

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  7. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall,G.E.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-04-03

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopy, augmented by theoretical and computational methods, is used to investigate the structure and collision dynamics of chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry. Applications and methods development are equally important experimental components of this work.

  8. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  9. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  10. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  11. High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Jianwei "John"

    High-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomography for 3D diagnosis of human breast cancers% of biopsied lesions are malignant. Here we report a high-resolution, low-dose phase contrast X-ray tomographic dimensions and identified a malignant cancer with a pixel size of 92 m and a radiation dose less than

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY REVEALS THE SPECIAL NATURE OF WOLF-RAYET STAR WINDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oskinova, L. M.

    We present the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a putatively single Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. 400 ks observations of WR 6 by the XMM-Newton telescope resulted in a superb quality high-resolution X-ray spectrum. Spectral ...

  13. Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben Ticha a,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Satellite data for high resolution offshore wind resource mapping: A data fusion approach M.B. Ben accurate high spatial and temporal resolutions wind measurements. Offshore, satellite data are an accurate radar, scatterometer, data fusion, offshore wind energy resource assessment. 1. INTRODUCTION Since

  14. Lake Geneva Holocene delta seismic stratigraphy S11 High-resolution seismic stratigraphy of an Holocene lacustrine delta in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Lake Geneva Holocene delta seismic stratigraphy S11 High-resolution seismic stratigraphy stratigraphy, slope instability, gas blanking, 3-D model. Mots-clés: delta lacustre, Lac Léman, Holocène, stratigraphie sismique, instabilité de pente, zone sourde, modèle 3-D. ABSTRACT A high-resolution seismic survey

  15. The incorporation of high resolution climatological data into environmental tactical decision aids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummel, J. R.; Campbell, A. P.; Kehrer, M. L.; Lurie, G. R.; Simunich, K. L.

    1999-09-23

    The environment can significantly impact the performance of weapons systems and how they are used in a theater of operations. A tool has been developed by the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to enable operators to assess the impact of environmental factors on the performance of military systems, subsystems, and components. The ARL system, the Integrated Weather Effects Decision Aid (IWEDA) takes weather and environmental data and compares them to a set of rules that relate environmental parameters to weapons system performance. The results from the IWEDA system can enable operators to identify regions and time periods when weapons system performance may be marginal or unfavorable. The Department of Defense (DOD) Air and Space Natural Environment (ASNE) Executive Agents have developed a program, the Advanced Climate Modeling and Environmental Simulations (ACMES), to produce high resolution gridded data for use in generating high resolution climate statistics from simulated weather observations at any desired location around the world. It is intended that data from the ACMES effort could be used by commanders to assess the environmental effects on operations. This paper describes an effort to use data generated from ACMES to drive the IWEDA rules on system performance. The results from this effort are high resolution, gridded values of weapons performance statistics that can be used to support the mission planning cycle.

  16. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore »this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  17. 3D cut-cell modelling for high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamazaki, H; Nikiforakis, N

    2015-01-01

    With the recent, rapid development of computer technology, the resolution of atmospheric numerical models has increased substantially. As a result, steep gradients in mountainous terrain are now being resolved in high-resolution models. This results in large truncation errors in those models using terrain-following coordinates. In this study, a new 3D Cartesian coordinate non-hydrostatic atmospheric model is developed. A cut-cell representation of topography based on finite-volume discretization is combined with a cell-merging approach, in which small cut-cells are merged with neighboring cells either vertically or horizontally. In addition, a block-structured mesh-refinement technique achieves a variable resolution on the model grid with the finest resolution occurring close to the terrain surface. The model successfully reproduces a flow over a 3D bell-shaped hill that shows a good agreement with the flow predicted by the linear theory. The ability of the model to simulate flows over steep terrain is demons...

  18. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  19. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  20. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  1. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  2. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  3. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  4. The High-Resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Galarce, D S; Boerner, P; Soufli, R; De Pontieu, B; Katz, N; Title, A; Gullikson, E M; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L

    2008-06-02

    The High-resolution Lightweight Telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE) is a Cassegrain telescope that will be made entirely of Silicon Carbide (SiC), optical substrates and metering structure alike. Using multilayer coatings, this instrument will be tuned to operate at the 465 {angstrom} Ne VII emission line, formed in solar transition region plasma at {approx}500,000 K. HiLiTE will have an aperture of 30 cm, angular resolution of {approx}0.2 arc seconds and operate at a cadence of {approx}5 seconds or less, having a mass that is about 1/4 that of one of the 20 cm aperture telescopes on the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This new instrument technology thus serves as a path finder to a post-AIA, Explorer-class missions.

  5. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  6. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  7. Zoomed high-resolution simulations of Multi-coupled Dark Energy: cored galaxy density profiles at high redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaldi, E; Moscardini, L

    2015-01-01

    We perform for the first time high-resolution zoom-in re-simulations of individual halos in the context of the Multi-coupeld Dark Energy (McDE) scenario, which is characterised by the existence of two distinct dark matter particle species with opposite couplings to a Dark Energy scalar field. We compare the structural properties of the simulated halos to the standard Lambda-CDM results. The zoomed-in initial conditions are set up using a specifically designed code called ZInCo that we publicly release along with the present paper. Our numerical results allow to investigate in detail and with unprecedented resolution the halo segregation process that characterises McDE cosmologies from its very early stages. In particular, we find that in contrast to what could be inferred from previous numerical analysis at lower resolution, the segregation process is already in place at redshifts as high as z ~ 7. Most remarkably, we find that the subsequent evolution of the segregation leads to the formation of cored total ...

  8. Hunting the parent of the Orphan stream. II. The first high-resolution spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Keller, Stefan C.; Da Costa, Gary; Maunder, Elizabeth [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frebel, Anna, E-mail: andrew.casey@anu.edu.au [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present the first high-resolution spectroscopic study on the Orphan stream for five stream candidates, observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The targets were selected from the low-resolution catalog of Casey et al.: three high-probability members, one medium, and one low-probability stream candidate were observed. Our analysis indicates that the low- and medium-probability targets are metal-rich field stars. The remaining three high-probability targets range over ?1 dex in metallicity, and are chemically distinct compared to the other two targets and all standard stars: low [?/Fe] abundance ratios are observed, and lower limits are ascertained for [Ba/Y], which sit well above the Milky Way trend. These chemical signatures demonstrate that the undiscovered parent system is unequivocally a dwarf spheroidal galaxy, consistent with dynamical constraints inferred from the stream width and arc. As such, we firmly exclude the proposed association between NGC 2419 and the Orphan stream. A wide range in metallicities adds to the similarities between the Orphan stream and Segue 1, although the low [?/Fe] abundance ratios in the Orphan stream are in tension with the high [?/Fe] values observed in Segue 1. Open questions remain before Segue 1 could possibly be claimed as the 'parent' of the Orphan stream. The parent system could well remain undiscovered in the southern sky.

  9. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin; Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  10. SMA Observations of Class 0 Protostars: A High-Angular Resolution Survey of Protostellar Binary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuepeng; Zhang, Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L; Launhardt, Ralf; Jorgensen, Jes K; Lee, Chin-Fee; Foster, Jonathan B; Dunham, Michael M; Pineda, Jaime E; Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 um dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.5 arcsec, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64+/-0.08 and 0.91+/-0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I YSOs, and approxima...

  11. Rayleigh wave tomography in the North Atlantic: high resolution images of the Iceland, Azores and Eifel mantle plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rayleigh wave tomography in the North Atlantic: high resolution images of the Iceland, Azores, but to improve the path coverage a number of instruments at coastal sites in northwest Europe, Iceland three major hotspots: Iceland, the Azores and Eifel. The best depth resolution in the model occurs in NW

  12. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amur Margaryan

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  13. A high resolution multiposition Thomson scattering system for the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, C.J.; Beurskens, M.N.; Chu, C.C.; Donne, A.J.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Herranz, J.; v.d. Meiden, H.J.; Pijper, F.J. [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica `Rijnhuizen`, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)] [FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica `Rijnhuizen`, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    A high resolution multiposition Thomson scattering setup to measure the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) of a hot plasma is described. The system is operational at the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project. Light from a high power pulsed ruby laser is scattered by the free plasma electrons and relayed to a Littrow polychromator for spectral analysis. The spectrally and spatially resolved light is detected by a GaAsP photocathode. The two-dimensional image is intensified and recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. T{sub e} in the range of 50 eV{endash}6 keV can be measured at 115 spatial elements of 2.6 mm length along the laser beam. The observation error is {lt}6{percent} at n{sub e}=2{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} and smaller for higher n{sub e}. The high resolution and accuracy enabled the observation of small scale structures in T{sub e} and n{sub e}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. A Global Climate Model Agent for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Lynn S.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Henry, Michael J.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Dazlich, Donald A.; Heikes, Ross P.; Randall, David

    2015-02-01

    Fine cell granularity in modern climate models can produce terabytes of data in each snapshot, causing significant I/O overhead. To address this issue, a method of reducing the I/O latency of high-resolution climate models by identifying and selectively outputting regions of interest is presented. Working with a Global Cloud Resolving Model and running with up to 10240 processors on a Cray XE6, this method provides significant I/O bandwidth reduction depending on the frequency of writes and size of the region of interest. The implementation challenges of determining global parameters in a strictly core-localized model and properly formatting output files that only contain subsections of the global grid are addressed, as well as the overall bandwidth impact and benefits of the method. The gains in I/O throughput provided by this method allow dual output rates for high-resolution climate models: a low-frequency global snapshot as well as a high-frequency regional snapshot when events of particular interest occur.

  15. High resolution transmission grating spectrometer for edge toroidal rotation measurements of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, A.; May, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E.; Lawrence, M.; Rice, J. [University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2004-10-01

    We present a high throughput (f/3) visible (3500-7000 A) Doppler spectrometer for toroidal rotation velocity measurements of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma. The spectrometer has a temporal response of 1 ms and a rotation velocity sensitivity of {approx}10{sup 5} cm/s. This diagnostic will have a tangential view and map out the plasma rotation at several locations along the outer half of the minor radius (r/a>0.5). The plasma rotation will be determined from the Doppler shifted wavelengths of D{sub {alpha}} and magnetic and electric dipole transitions of highly ionized impurities in the plasma. The fast time resolution and high spectral resolving power are possible due to a 6 in. diam circular transmission grating that is capable of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}{approx}15 500 at 5769 A in conjunction with a 50 {mu}m slit.

  16. High Resolution Transmission Grating Spectrometer for Edge Toroidal Rotation Measurements of Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, A; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Magee, E; Lawrence, M; Terry, J; Rice, J

    2004-04-29

    We present a high throughput (f/3) visible (3500 - 7000 Angstrom) Doppler spectrometer for toroidal rotation velocity measurements of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasma. The spectrometer has a temporal response of 1 ms and a rotation velocity sensitivity of {approx}10{sup 5} cm/s. This diagnostic will have a tangential view and map out the plasma rotation at several locations along the outer half of the minor radius (r/a > 0.5). The plasma rotation will be determined from the Doppler shifted wavelengths of D{sub alpha} and magnetic and electric dipole transitions of highly ionized impurities in the plasma. The fast time resolution and high spectral resolving power are possible due to a 6' diameter circular transmission grating that is capable of {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 15500 at 5769 Angstrom in conjunction with a 50 {micro}m slit.

  17. High resolution transmission electron microscopic in-situ observations of plastic deformation of compressed nanocrystalline gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-09-14

    Nanocrystalline (nc) metals possess extremely high strength, while their capability to deform plastically has been debated for decades. Low ductility has hitherto been considered an intrinsic behavior for most nc metals, due to the lack of five independent slip systems actively operating during deformation in each nanograin. Here we report in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations of deformation process of nc gold under compression, showing the excellent ductility of individual and aggregate nanograins. Compression causes permanent change in the profile of individual nanograins, which is mediated by dislocation slip and grain rotation. The high rate of grain boundary sliding and large extent of widely exited grain rotation may meet the boundary compatibility requirements during plastic deformation. The in situ HRTEM observations suggest that nc gold is not intrinsically brittle under compressive loading.

  18. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  19. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Downy, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  20. Machine Learning Approaches for High-resolution Urban Land Cover Classification: A Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL; Chandola, Varun [ORNL] [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL; Graesser, Jordan B [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of several machine learning approaches makes it difficult to identify a suitable classification technique for analyzing high-resolution remote sensing images. In this study, ten classification techniques were compared from five broad machine learning categories. Surprisingly, the performance of simple statistical classification schemes like maximum likelihood and Logistic regression over complex and recent techniques is very close. Given that these two classifiers require little input from the user, they should still be considered for most classification tasks. Multiple classifier systems is a good choice if the resources permit.

  1. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  3. High Resolution Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulator based on ZnO Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Pawan Kumar; Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping

    2015-03-15

    diffusion in the photoconductor layer and the fringing electric field profile in the liquid crystal (LC) layer. Traditionally, a- Si:H materials were used as photosensors in photoconductor or pho- todiode configurations.1–7 Fukushima et al.1,2 demonstrated... Schiff Studentship. 1 Fukushima S, Kurokawa T, Ohno M. Real-time hologram construction and reconstruction using a high-resolution spatial light modulator. Appl Phys Lett 1991; 58: 787–789. 2 Wen L, Rice RA, Moddel G, Pagano-Stauffer LA, Handschy MA...

  4. Scientific system for high-resolution measurement of the circumsolar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrott, Simeon Schmidt, Thomas Hornung, Thorsten Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-26

    We developed a camera based system for measurements of the circumsolar radiation with a high angular resolution of 0.1 mrad. Subsequent measurements may be taken at intervals as short as 15 s. In this publication we describe the optical system in detail and discuss some aspects of the measurement method. First results from two days of measurement at Freiburg i. Br., Germany, are presented and compared to data from literature. The good results encourage us to perform longer measurement campaigns in future to better understand the influence of circumsolar radiation on the power yield of concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  5. High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goossens, Sander

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect ...

  6. High resolution seismic reflection to characterize small scale mechanisms of large scale natural dissolution in the Hutchinson Salt Member

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judy, Brett

    2015-05-31

    High resolution seismic reflection imaging of the local scale processes along the eastern natural dissolution front of the Hutchinson Salt Member were correlated with its regional scale progression to define a more complete dissolution model...

  7. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography to determine microscopic distributions of B-10 in neutron capture therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Thomas C. (Thomas Cameron)

    2006-01-01

    The success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is heavily dependent on the microscopic distribution of B-10 in tissue. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography (HRQAR) is a potentially valuable analytical tool ...

  8. GEOLOGY | Volume 43 | Number 9 | www.gsapubs.org 1 High-resolution paleoecological records from Lake Malawi show no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGY | Volume 43 | Number 9 | www.gsapubs.org 1 High-resolution paleoecological records from assemblages and sediment loading. Here we present the first paleoecological evidence from East Africa

  9. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 ?m bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (?17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 ?m magnification factor (?{sub 880}) is ?1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (?{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ?2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  10. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borriello, Enrico; Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Chakraborty, Sovan [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lisi, Eligio, E-mail: enrico.borriello@desy.de, E-mail: sovan@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: eligio.lisi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de [INFN—Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within ± 1? fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models.

  11. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; et al

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observedmore »degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  12. High spatial and temporal resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Y. L.; Yu, D. L., E-mail: yudl@swip.ac.cn; Liu, L.; Cao, J. Y.; Sun, A. P.; Ma, Q.; Chen, W. J.; Liu, Yi; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Hellermann, M. von [ITER Diagnostic Team, IO, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); FOM-Institute for Plasma physics “Rijnhuizen,” Association EURATOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    A 32/64-channel charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system is developed on the HL-2A tokamak (R = 1.65 m, a = 0.4 m), monitoring plasma ion temperature and toroidal rotation velocity simultaneously. A high throughput spectrometer (F/2.8) and a pitch-controlled fiber bundle enable the temporal resolution of the system up to 400 Hz. The observation geometry and an optimized optic system enable the highest radial resolution up to ~1 cm at the plasma edge. The CXRS system monitors the carbon line emission (C VI, n = 8–7, 529.06 nm) whose Doppler broadening and Doppler shift provide ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity during the neutral beam injection. The composite CX spectral data are analyzed by the atomic data and analysis structure charge exchange spectroscopy fitting (ADAS CXSFIT) code. First experimental results are shown for the case of HL-2A plasmas with sawtooth oscillations, electron cyclotron resonance heating, and edge transport barrier during the high-confinement mode (H-mode)

  13. Massive quiescent cores in Orion. IV. Their supercritical state revealed by high resolution ammonia maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, D; Zhang, Q; Chen, W

    2012-01-01

    We present combined VLA and GBT images of \\ammonia\\ inversion transitions (1,1) and (2,2) toward OMC2 and OMC3. We focus on the relatively quiescent Orion cores, which are away from the Trapezium cluster and have no sign of massive protostars nor evolved star formation, such as IRAS source, water maser, and methanol maser. The 5\\arcsec\\ angular resolution and $0.6 \\rm{}km s^{-1}$ velocity resolution of these data enable us to study the thermal and dynamic state of these cores at $\\sim{}0.02 \\rm{}pc$ scales, comparable to or smaller than those of the current dust continuum surveys. We measure temperatures for a total of 30 cores, with average masses and radii of $11 \\Ms$ and $0.039 \\rm{}pc$, respectively. Compared to other Gould Belt dense cores, the Orion cores have an unusually high gravitational-to-inetic energy ratio (virial mass ratio $R_{vir} > >1$), resembling results for other clouds forming high--mass stars. This results from Orion cores having velocity dispersions similar to those in, e.g., Perseus a...

  14. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  15. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure: Final project report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.W.; Lin, S.H.

    1997-02-27

    Work includes studies of interface and grain boundary chemistry and structure in silicon nitride matrix/silicon carbide whisker composites, and in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide synthesized by several different methods. Off-stoichiometric, impurity, and sintering aid elemental distributions in these materials (and other ceramics) have been of great interest because of expected effects on properties but these distributions have proven very difficult to measure because the spatial resolution required is high. The authors made a number of these measurements for the first time, using techniques and instrumentation developed here. Interfaces between metals and SiC are the basis for important metal matrix composites and contacts for high temperature SiC-based solid state electronic devices. The authors have investigated ultrapure interfaces between Ti, Hf, Ti-Hf alloys, Pt, and Co and Si-terminated (0001) 6H SiC single crystals for the first time.

  16. High-resolution metagenomics targets major functional types in complex microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Lapidus, Alla; Ivanova, Natalia; Copeland, Alex C.; McHardy, Alice C.; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Suciu, Dominic; Levine, Samuel R.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bruce, David C.; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2009-08-01

    Most microbes in the biosphere remain uncultured and unknown. Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) allows glimpses into genetic and metabolic potentials of natural microbial communities. However, in communities of high complexity metagenomics fail to link specific microbes to specific ecological functions. To overcome this limitation, we selectively targeted populations involved in oxidizing single-carbon (C{sub 1}) compounds in Lake Washington (Seattle, USA) by labeling their DNA via stable isotope probing (SIP), followed by WGS sequencing. Metagenome analysis demonstrated specific sequence enrichments in response to different C{sub 1} substrates, highlighting ecological roles of individual phylotypes. We further demonstrated the utility of our approach by extracting a nearly complete genome of a novel methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis, reconstructing its metabolism and conducting genome-wide analyses. This approach allowing high-resolution genomic analysis of ecologically relevant species has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of ecosystems.

  17. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micron CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (~4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilises intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination ...

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  19. High resolution coherent diffractive imaging with a table-top extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vu Le, Hoang, E-mail: vuhoangle@swin.edu.au; Ba Dinh, Khuong; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2014-11-07

    We demonstrate a resolution of 45?nm with a sample size down to 3??m × 3??m is achieved in a short exposure time of 2?s, from the diffraction pattern generated by a table-top high harmonic source at around 30?nm. By using a narrow-bandwidth focusing mirror, the diffraction pattern's quality is improved and the required exposure time is significantly reduced. In order to obtain a high quality of the reconstructed image, the ratio of the beam size to the sample size and the curvature of the focused beam need to be considered in the reconstruction process. This new experimental scheme is very promising for imaging sub-10?nm scale objects with a table-top source based on a small inexpensive femtosecond laser system.

  20. High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Hu, M.

    1997-08-01

    A monochromator for use at 13.84 keV with a calculated bandpass of 5.2 meV was designed built, and tested. Tuning was performed by rotating the inner crystal of a pair of nested silicon channel-cut crystals. The inner crystal employs the (884) reflection, and the outer crystal employs a collimating asymmetric (422) reflection (dynamical asymmetry factor, b, equal to {minus}17.5). Tests were done with a double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator situated upstream of the high resolution monochromator and a Si(777) backscattering crystal situated downstream. For this optical arrangement an ideal value of 6.3 meV as calculated by x-ray dynamical diffraction theory applies for the FWHM of the convolution of the net monochromator reflectivity function with that of the Si(777) reflection. This calculated value is to be compared to the value of 7.1 meV measured by tuning the high resolution monochromator. Measured efficiencies were less than ideal by a factor of 3.2 to 4.9, where the larger flux reduction factors were found with higher positron storage ring currents.

  1. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms. Analysis of low concentration ions, at the ppm level, required a separate analysis using ion ejection techniques. Chemical ionization due to the formation of the MH{sup +} ion or MD{sup +} increased the complexity of the spectra compared to magnetic sector mass spectra and formation of the protonated or deuterated complex was a dynamic function of the trap ion concentration. This made quantitative measurement more of a challenge. However, the resolution of the instrument was far superior to any other mass spectrometry technique that has been applied to the analysis of the hydrogen isotopes. The piezo-electric picoliter injection device offers a new way of submitting small quantities of atmospheric pressure sample gas for analysis. The new software had many improvements over the previous version but significant flaws in the beta codes remain that make the prototype units less than ideal. The instrument is a promising new technology that experience will likely improve. Unfortunately, Siemens has concluded that the technology will not be a commercial success and has decided to stop producing this product.

  2. High-resolution HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 haplotype frequencies from the French Bone Marrow Donor Registry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    polymorphism; real time PCR. HRM Corresponding Author: Mr.using High Resolution Melt (HRM) soft ware (1.7 version).

  3. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, R J

    2014-01-01

    The \\textit{High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C)} has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads, that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of $440\\pm190$~km (Full Width Half Maximum). {The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere.} The emission decreases along the features implying the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation {of physical displacements of the moss fine-structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic b...

  4. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun

    2015-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...

  5. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F.

    2012-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  6. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. FIRST HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF THE SUN IN THE 2796 Å Mg II k LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Danilovic, S.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knölker, M.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first high-resolution solar images in the Mg II k 2796 Å line. The images, taken through a 4.8 Å broad interference filter, were obtained during the second science flight of Sunrise in 2013 June by the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) instrument. The Mg II k images display structures that look qualitatively very similar to images taken in the core of Ca II H. The Mg II images exhibit reversed granulation (or shock waves) in the internetwork regions of the quiet Sun, at intensity contrasts that are similar to those found in Ca II H. Very prominent in Mg II are bright points, both in the quiet Sun and in plage regions, particularly near the disk center. These are much brighter than at other wavelengths sampled at similar resolution. Furthermore, Mg II k images also show fibril structures associated with plage regions. Again, the fibrils are similar to those seen in Ca II H images, but tend to be more pronounced, particularly in weak plage.

  8. High-cadence and high-resolution H? imaging spectroscopy of a circular flare's remote ribbon with IBIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Na; Jing, Ju; Chen, Xin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Tritschler, Alexandra; Reardon, Kevin [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States); Denker, Carsten, E-mail: na.deng@njit.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    We present an unprecedented high-resolution H? imaging spectroscopic observation of a C4.1 flare taken with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in conjunction with the adaptive optics system at the 76 cm Dunn Solar Telescope on 2011 October 22 in the active region NOAA 11324. Such a two-dimensional spectroscopic observation covering the entire evolution of a flare ribbon with high spatial (0.''1 pixel{sup –1} image scale), cadence (4.8 s), and spectral (0.1 Å step size) resolution is rarely reported. The flare consists of a main circular ribbon that occurred in a parasitic magnetic configuration and a remote ribbon that was observed by the IBIS. Such a circular-ribbon flare with a remote brightening is predicted in three-dimensional fan-spine reconnection but so far has been rarely studied. During the flare impulsive phase, we define 'core' and 'halo' structures in the observed ribbon based on IBIS narrowband images in the H? line wing and line center. Examining the H? emission spectra averaged in the flare core and halo areas, we find that only those from the flare cores show typical nonthermal electron beam heating characteristics that have been revealed by previous theoretical simulations and observations of flaring H? line profiles. These characteristics include broad and centrally reversed emission spectra, excess emission in the red wing with regard to the blue wing (i.e., red asymmetry), and redshifted bisectors of the emission spectra. We also observe rather quick timescales for the heating (?30 s) and cooling (?14-33 s) in the flare core locations. Therefore, we suggest that the flare cores revealed by IBIS track the sites of electron beam precipitation with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The flare cores show two-stage motion (a parallel motion along the ribbon followed by an expansion motion perpendicular to the ribbon) during the two impulsive phases of the flare. Some cores jump quickly (30 km s{sup –1}) between discrete magnetic elements implying reconnection involving different flux tubes. We observe a very high temporal correlation (? 0.9) between the integrated H? and hard X-rays (HXR) emission during the flare impulsive phase. A short time delay (4.6 s) is also found in the H? emission spikes relative to HXR bursts. The ionization timescale of the cool chromosphere and the extra time taken for the electrons to travel to the remote ribbon site may contribute to this delay.

  9. Applying high resolution SyXRD analysis on sulfate attacked concrete field samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroh, J.; Schlegel, M.-C.; Irassar, E.F.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2014-12-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) was applied for a microstructural profile analysis of concrete deterioration after sulfate attack. The cement matrices consist of ordinary Portland cement and different amounts of supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash, natural pozzolana and granulated blast furnace slag. The changes of the phase composition were determined along the direction of sulfate ingress. This approach allows the identification of reaction fronts and zones of different phase compositions and conclusions about the mechanisms of sulfate attack. Two reaction fronts were localized in the initial 4 mm from the sample surface. The mechanism of deterioration caused by the exposition in the sulfate-bearing soil is discussed. SyXRD is shown to be a reliable method for investigation of cementitious materials with aggregates embedded in natural environments.

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-12-31

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. In this report we present an application of compositional streamline simulation in modeling enhanced condensate recovery via gas injection. These processes are inherently compositional and detailed compositional fluid descriptions must be use to represent the flow behavior accurately. Compositional streamline simulation results are compared to those of conventional finite-difference (FD) simulation for evaluation of gas injection schemes in condensate reservoirs. We present and compare streamline and FD results for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) examples, to show that the compositional streamline method is a way to obtain efficiently estimates of reasonable accuracy for condensate recovery by gas injection.

  11. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissues usingprojected Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Jachmann, Rebecca C.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Pines, Alexander

    2005-01-27

    High-resolution NMR spectra of materials subject toanisotropic broadening are usually obtained by rotating the sample aboutthe magic angle, which is 54.7 degrees to the static magnetic field. Inprojected Magic Angle Spinning (p-MAS), the sample is spun about twoangles, neither of which is the magic angle. This provides a method ofobtaining isotropic spectra while spinning at shallow angles. The p-MASexperiment may be used in situations where spinning the sample at themagic angle is not possible due to geometric or other constraints,allowing the choice of spinning angle to be determined by factors such asthe shape of the sample, rather than by the spin physics. The applicationof this technique to bovine tissue samples is demonstrated as a proof ofprinciple for future biological or medical applications.

  12. Technique for continuous high-resolution analysis of trace substances in firn and ice cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Bigler, M.; Hutterli, M.; Sommer, S.; Stauffer, B.; Junghans, H.G.; Wagenbach, D.

    2000-01-15

    The very successful application of a CFA (Continuous flow analysis) system in the GRIP project (Greenland Ice Core Project) for high-resolution ammonium, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and formaldehyde measurements along a deep ice core led to further development of this analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis of sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and electrolytical conductivity, while the existing methods have been improved. The melting device has been optimized to allow the simultaneous analysis of eight components. Furthermore, a new melter was developed for analyzing firn cores. The system has been used in the frame of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) for in-situ analysis of several firn cores from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and for the new ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica.

  13. Compact, high-resolution, gamma ray imaging for scintimammography and other medical diagostic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA); Steinbach, Daniela (Williamsburg, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution gamma ray imaging device includes an aluminum housing, a lead screen collimator at an opened end of the housing, a crystal scintillator array mounted behind the lead screen collimator, a foam layer between the lead screen collimator and the crystal scintillator array, a photomultiplier window coupled to the crystal with optical coupling grease, a photomultiplier having a dynode chain body and a base voltage divider with anodes, anode wire amplifiers each connected to four anodes and a multi pin connector having pin connections to each anode wire amplifier. In one embodiment the crystal scintillator array includes a yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) crystal array. In an alternate embodiment, the crystal scintillator array includes a gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) crystal array.

  14. The road toward a full, high resolution Molecular Cloud catalog of the Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colombo, Dario; Ginsburg, Adam; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Hughes, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The statistical description of Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) properties relies heavily on the performance of automatic identification algorithms, which are often seriously affected by the survey design. The algorithm we designed, SCIMES (Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation), is able to overcome some of these limitations by considering the cloud segmentation problem in the broad framework of the graph theory. The application of the code on the CO(3-2) High Resolution Survey (COHRS) data allowed for a robust decomposition of more than 12,000 objects in the Galactic Plane. Together with the wealth of Galactic Plane surveys of the recent years, this approach will help to open the door to a future, systematic cataloging of all discrete molecular features of our own Galaxy.

  15. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  16. The prompt, high resolution spectroscopic view of the "naked-eye" GRB080319B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D'Elia; F. Fiore; R. Perna; Y. Krongold; S. Covino; D. Fugazza; D. Lazzati; F. Nicastro; L. A. Antonelli; S. Campana; G. Chincarini; P. D'Avanzo; M. Della Valle; P. Goldoni; D. Guetta; C. Guidorzi; E. J. A. Meurs; F. Mirabel E. Molinari; L. Norci; S. Piranomonte; L. Stella; G. Stratta; G. Tagliaferri; P. Ward

    2008-10-21

    GRB080319B reached 5th optical magnitude during the burst prompt emission. Thanks to the VLT/UVES rapid response mode, we observed its afterglow just 8m:30s after the GRB onset when the magnitude was R ~ 12. This allowed us to obtain the best signal-to-noise, high resolution spectrum of a GRB afterglow ever (S/N per resolution element ~ 50). The spectrum is rich of absorption features belonging to the main system at z=0.937, divided in at least six components spanning a total velocity range of 100 km/s. The VLT/UVES observations caught the absorbing gas in a highly excited state, producing the strongest Fe II fine structure lines ever observed in a GRB. A few hours later the optical depth of these lines was reduced by a factor of 4-20, and the optical/UV flux by a factor of ~ 60. This proves that the excitation of the observed fine structure lines is due to "pumping" by the GRB UV photons. A comparison of the observed ratio between the number of photons absorbed by the excited state and those in the Fe II ground state suggests that the six absorbers are ~ 2-6 kpc from the GRB site, with component I ~ 3 times closer to the GRB site than components III to VI. Component I is characterized also by the lack of Mg I absorption, unlike all other components. This may be due both to a closer distance and a lower density, suggesting a structured ISM in this galaxy complex.

  17. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore »methane source of 539 Tg a?1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a-1.« less

  18. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and experiments, using fission-spectrum neutron sources to assess neutron transmission through composite low-Z attenuators.

  19. A HIGH-RESOLUTION ATLAS OF URANIUM-NEON IN THE H BAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Terrien, Ryan; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bender, Chad F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ycas, Gabriel G. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Osterman, Steven N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Diddams, Scott A.; Quinlan, Franklyn [Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present a high-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 50,000) atlas of a uranium-neon (U/Ne) hollow-cathode spectrum in the H band (1454-1638 nm) for the calibration of near-infrared spectrographs. We obtained this U/Ne spectrum simultaneously with a laser-frequency comb spectrum, which we used to provide a first-order calibration to the U/Ne spectrum. We then calibrated the U/Ne spectrum using the recently published uranium line list of Redman et al., which is derived from high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer measurements. These two independent calibrations allowed us to easily identify emission lines in the hollow-cathode lamp that do not correspond to known (classified) lines of either uranium or neon, and to compare the achievable precision of each source. Our frequency comb precision was limited by modal noise and detector effects, while the U/Ne precision was limited primarily by the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observed emission lines and our ability to model blended lines. The standard deviation in the dispersion solution residuals from the S/N-limited U/Ne hollow-cathode lamp was 50% larger than the standard deviation of the dispersion solution residuals from the modal-noise-limited laser-frequency comb. We advocate the use of U/Ne lamps for precision calibration of near-infrared spectrographs, and this H-band atlas makes these lamps significantly easier to use for wavelength calibration.

  20. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Lundgren, E.; Andrews, A. E.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a totalmore »methane source of 539 Tg a?1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a?1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a?1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a?1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a?1.« less

  1. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Maasakkers, J. D.; Biraud, S. C.; Boesch, H.; Bowman, K. W.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to constrain global and North American inversions of methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. The GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface networks (NOAA, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/DOE, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. The surface and aircraft data are subsequently usedmore »for independent evaluation of the methane source inversions. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a?1 and points to a large East Asian overestimate in the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide full error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a?1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a?1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a?1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the South-Central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands, large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. We attribute 29–44% of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31% to oil/gas, 20% to landfills/waste water, and 11–15% to coal with an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a?1 source from wetlands.« less

  2. High-resolution structure of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilski, Miroslaw [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland); Kazmierczyk, Maciej; Krzywda, Szymon [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Zábranská, Helena [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Cooper, Seth; Popovi?, Zoran [University of Washington, Box 352350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Khatib, Firas; DiMaio, Frank; Thompson, James; Baker, David [University of Washington, Box 357350, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pichová, Iva [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [A. Mickiewicz University, 60-780 Poznan (Poland); Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-11-01

    The crystal structure of Mason–Pfizer monkey virus protease folded as a monomer has been solved by molecular replacement using a model generated by players of the online game Foldit. The structure shows at high resolution the details of a retroviral protease folded as a monomer which can guide rational design of protease dimerization inhibitors as retroviral drugs. Mason–Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), a D-type retrovirus assembling in the cytoplasm, causes simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Its pepsin-like aspartic protease (retropepsin) is an integral part of the expressed retroviral polyproteins. As in all retroviral life cycles, release and dimerization of the protease (PR) is strictly required for polyprotein processing and virion maturation. Biophysical and NMR studies have indicated that in the absence of substrates or inhibitors M-PMV PR should fold into a stable monomer, but the crystal structure of this protein could not be solved by molecular replacement despite countless attempts. Ultimately, a solution was obtained in mr-rosetta using a model constructed by players of the online protein-folding game Foldit. The structure indeed shows a monomeric protein, with the N- and C-termini completely disordered. On the other hand, the flap loop, which normally gates access to the active site of homodimeric retropepsins, is clearly traceable in the electron density. The flap has an unusual curled shape and a different orientation from both the open and closed states known from dimeric retropepsins. The overall fold of the protein follows the retropepsin canon, but the C{sup ?} deviations are large and the active-site ‘DTG’ loop (here NTG) deviates up to 2.7 Å from the standard conformation. This structure of a monomeric retropepsin determined at high resolution (1.6 Å) provides important extra information for the design of dimerization inhibitors that might be developed as drugs for the treatment of retroviral infections, including AIDS.

  3. Investigation of the Behavior of Ethylene Molecular Films Using High Resolution Adsorp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, Andi M [ORNL; Telling, Mark T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Larese, John Z [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The wetting behavior of ethylene adsorbed on MgO(100) was investigated from 83-135 K using high resolution volumetric adsorption isotherms. The results are compared to ethylene adsorption on graphite, a prototype adsorption system, in an effort to gain further insight into the forces that drive the observed film growth. Layering transitions for ethylene on MgO(100) are observed below the bulk triple point of ethylene (T=104.0 K). The formation of three discrete adlayers is observed on the MgO(100) surface; onset of the second and third layers occurs at 79.2 ( 1.3 K and 98.3(0.9 K, respectively. Thermodynamic quantities such as differential enthalpy and entropy, heat of adsorption, and isosteric heat of adsorption are determined and compared to the previously published values for ethylene on graphite. The average area occupied by a ethylene molecule on MgO(100) is 22.6 ( 1.1A 2 molecule-1. The locations of two phase transitions are identified (i.e., layer critical temperatures at Tc2 (n=1) at 108.6 ( 1.7 K and Tc2 (n=2) at 116.5 ( 1.2 K) and a phase diagram is proposed. Preliminary neutron diffraction measurements reveal evidence of a monolayer solid with a lattice constant of 4.2A . High resolution INS measurements show that the onset to dynamical motion and monolayer melting take place at 35 K and 65 K, respectively. The data reported here exhibit a striking similarity to ethylene on graphite which suggests that molecule-molecule interactions play an important role in determining the physical properties and growth of molecularly thin ethylene films.

  4. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  5. Nodal Quasiparticle Meltdown in Ultra-High Resolution Pump-Probe Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, Jeff; Jozwiak, Chris; Smallwood, Chris L.; Eisaki, H.; Kaindl, Robert A.; Lee, Dung-Hai; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2011-06-03

    High-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors are characterized by a strong momentum-dependent anisotropy between the low energy excitations along the Brillouin zone diagonal (nodal direction) and those along the Brillouin zone face (antinodal direction). Most obvious is the d-wave superconducting gap, with the largest magnitude found in the antinodal direction and no gap in the nodal direction. Additionally, while antin- odal quasiparticle excitations appear only below T{sub c}, superconductivity is thought to be indifferent to nodal excitations as they are regarded robust and insensitive to T{sub c}. Here we reveal an unexpected tie between nodal quasiparticles and superconductivity using high resolution time- and angle-resolved photoemission on optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}#14;. We observe a suppression of the nodal quasiparticle spectral weight following pump laser excitation and measure its recovery dynamics. This suppression is dramatically enhanced in the superconducting state. These results reduce the nodal-antinodal dichotomy and challenge the conventional view of nodal excitation neutrality in superconductivity. The electronic structures of high-Tc cuprates are strongly momentum-dependent. This is one reason why the momentum-resolved technique of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been a central tool in the #12;field of high-temperature superconductivity. For example, coherent low energy excitations with momenta near the Brillouin zone face, or antinodal quasiparticles (QPs), are only observed below T{sub c} and have been linked to superfluid density. They have therefore been the primary focus of ARPES studies. In contrast, nodal QPs, with momenta along the Brillouin zone diagonal, have received less attention and are usually regarded as largely immune to the superconducting transition because they seem insensitive to perturbations such as disorder, doping, isotope exchange, charge ordering, and temperature. Clearly, finding any strong dependencies of the nodal QPs will alter the conventional view and enrich our understanding of high temperature superconductivity. Time resolution through pump-and-probe techniques adds a new dimension to ARPES by directly measuring how the electronic structure of a material responds to perturbations on femtosecond time scales. Here we report a unique ultrafast time-resolved ARPES study of a high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductor. Compared to previous time-resolved studies, the primary advantage of this work is an unprecedented momentum (angular) resolution ({Delta}#1;k~ #24;0.003 vs. 0.05 {#23;Angstrom}{sup -1}), on par with that of state-of-the-art ARPES. This has allowed the time-resolved measurement of signi#12;cantly sharper QP spectral peaks with strikingly larger peak-to-background ratios than previously reported.16 Additionally, a lower pump fluence is used (<40{micro}#22;J/cm{sup 2} vs. #24;100#22;{micro}J/cm{sup 2}), which reduces pump-induced sample temperature increase and related thermal smearing of spectral features. This allows us to uncover a surprising meltdown of nodal QP spectral weight following pump laser excitation. This meltdown is only observed in the superconducting state and for QPs with binding energy less than the kink energy,19 revealing a link between nodal QPs and superconductivity.

  6. Practical high resolution detection method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger Jr; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer to acquire high-resolution measurements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer was built using an inexpensive etalon coupled to a standard 0.5-m imaging spectrometer. The Hg emission doublet at 313.2 nm was used to evaluate instrument performance because it has a splitting of 29 pm. The 313.2 nm doublet was chosen due to the similar splitting seen in isotope splitting from uranium at 424.437 nm, which is 25 pm. The Hg doublet was easily resolved from a continuous source Hg-lamp with a 2 s acquisition. The doublet was also resolved in LIBS spectra of cinnabar (HgS) from the accumulation of 600 laser shots at rate of 10 Hz, or 1 min, under a helium atmosphere. In addition to observed spitting of the 313.2 nm Hg doublet, the FWHM of the 313.1844 nm line from the doublet is reported at varying He atmospheric pressures. The high performance, low cost, and compact footprint makes this system highly competitive with 2-m double pass Czerny-Turner spectrometers.

  7. Modelling high resolution Echelle spectrographs for calibrations: Hanle Echelle spectrograph, a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling scheme that predicts the centroids of spectral line features for a high resolution Echelle spectrograph to a high accuracy. Towards this, a computing scheme is used, whereby any astronomical spectrograph can be modelled and controlled without recourse to a ray tracing program. The computations are based on paraxial ray trace and exact corrections added for certain surface types and Buchdahl aberration coefficients for complex modules. The resultant chain of paraxial ray traces and corrections for all relevant components is used to calculate the location of any spectral line on the detector under all normal operating conditions with a high degree of certainty. This will allow a semi-autonomous control using simple in-house, programming modules. The scheme is simple enough to be implemented even in a spreadsheet or in any scripting language. Such a model along with an optimization routine can represent the real time behaviour of the instrument. We present here a case study for Hanle Echel...

  8. Appending High-Resolution Elevation Data to GPS Speed Traces for Vehicle Energy Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and reliable global positioning system (GPS)-based vehicle use data are highly valuable for many transportation, analysis, and automotive considerations. Model-based design, real-world fuel economy analysis, and the growing field of autonomous and connected technologies (including predictive powertrain control and self-driving cars) all have a vested interest in high-fidelity estimation of powertrain loads and vehicle usage profiles. Unfortunately, road grade can be a difficult property to extract from GPS data with consistency. In this report, we present a methodology for appending high-resolution elevation data to GPS speed traces via a static digital elevation model. Anomalous data points in the digital elevation model are addressed during a filtration/smoothing routine, resulting in an elevation profile that can be used to calculate road grade. This process is evaluated against a large, commercially available height/slope dataset from the Navteq/Nokia/HERE Advanced Driver Assistance Systems product. Results will show good agreement with the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems data in the ability to estimate road grade between any two consecutive points in the contiguous United States.

  9. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Faust, I; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; Kozub, T A; LeBlanc, B P; Stratton, B C

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  10. COMPARISON OF WIND AND WIND SHEAR CLIMATOLOGIES DERIVED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIOSONDES AND THE ECMWF MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    COMPARISON OF WIND AND WIND SHEAR CLIMATOLOGIES DERIVED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIOSONDES wind and its vertical gradient, i.e. wind-shear, is characterized as a function of climate region. For a better representation of the average atmospheric wind and shear and their variabilities, high

  11. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  12. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  13. High-Resolution Radio Imaging of Gravitational Lensing Candidates in the 1 Jansky BL Lac Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Rector; J. T. Stocke

    2003-02-19

    While BL Lacertae objects are widely believed to be highly beamed, low-luminosity radio galaxies, many radio-selected BL Lacs have extended radio power levels and optical emission lines that are too luminous to be low-luminosity radio galaxies. Also, Stocke & Rector discovered an excess of MgII absorption systems along BL Lac sightlines compared to quasars, suggesting that gravitational lensing may be another means of creating the BL Lac phenomenon in some cases. We present a search for gravitationally-lensed BL Lacs with deep, high-resolution, two-frequency VLA radio maps of seven lensing candidates from the 1 Jansky BL Lac sample. We find that none of these objects are resolved into an Einstein ring like B 0218+357, nor do any show multiple images of the core. All of the lensing candidates that were resolved show a flat-spectrum core and very unusual, steep-spectrum extended morphology that is incompatible with a multiply lensed system. Thus, while these observations do not rule out microlensing, no macrolensing is observed.

  14. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  15. High-resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot oscillations with the interface region imaging spectrograph Re-direct Destination: We present the first results of...

  16. Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Å to above 300 Å. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 ?m wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Å above 100 Å, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

  17. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, A. J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jacob, D. J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Wecht, K. J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Maasakkers, J. D. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lundgren, E. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Andrews, A. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)] (ORCID:000000017697933X); Boesch, H. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom); Bowman, K. W. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Deutscher, N. M. [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Dubey, M. K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griffith, D. W. T. [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Hase, F. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). IMK-ASF; Kuze, A. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba (Japan)] (ORCID:0000000154153377); Notholt, J. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany); Ohyama, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba (Japan); Parker, R. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom); Payne, V. H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Sussmann, R. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). IMK-IFU; Sweeney, C. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany). IMK-IFU; Velazco, V. A. [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia)] (ORCID:000000021376438X); Warneke, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wennberg, P. O. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Wunch, D. [Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    2015-01-01

    We use 2009–2011 space-borne methane observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to estimate global and North American methane emissions with 4° × 5° and up to 50 km × 50 km spatial resolution, respectively. GEOS-Chem and GOSAT data are first evaluated with atmospheric methane observations from surface and tower networks (NOAA/ESRL, TCCON) and aircraft (NOAA/ESRL, HIPPO), using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to facilitate comparison of GOSAT with in situ data. This identifies a high-latitude bias between the GOSAT data and GEOS-Chem that we correct via quadratic regression. Our global adjoint-based inversion yields a total methane source of 539 Tg a?1 with some important regional corrections to the EDGARv4.2 inventory used as a prior. Results serve as dynamic boundary conditions for an analytical inversion of North American methane emissions using radial basis functions to achieve high resolution of large sources and provide error characterization. We infer a US anthropogenic methane source of 40.2–42.7 Tg a-1, as compared to 24.9–27.0 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR and EPA bottom-up inventories, and 30.0–44.5 Tg a-1 in recent inverse studies. Our estimate is supported by independent surface and aircraft data and by previous inverse studies for California. We find that the emissions are highest in the southern–central US, the Central Valley of California, and Florida wetlands; large isolated point sources such as the US Four Corners also contribute. Using prior information on source locations, we attribute 29–44 % of US anthropogenic methane emissions to livestock, 22–31 % to oil/gas, 20 % to landfills/wastewater, and 11–15 % to coal. Wetlands contribute an additional 9.0–10.1 Tg a-1.

  18. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late Middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Bridget S.; Norris, Richard D.; Kroom, Dick

    2000-01-01

    , A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Volume 171B 5. DATA REPORT: HIGH-RESOLUTION STABLE ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE LATE MIDDLE EOCENE AT SITE 1051, BLAKE NOSE 1 Bridget S. Wade, 2 Richard D. Norris, 3 and Dick....D., and Kroon, D., 2000. Data report: High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the late middle Eocene at Site 1051, Blake Nose. In Kroon, D., Norris, R.D., and Klaus, A. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 171B, 1?14 [Online]. Available from World Wide...

  19. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L

    2009-05-22

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically, probably at a small fraction of the cost of He-3 detectors. In addition to neutron scattering science, the fully developed base technology can be used as a rugged, low-cost neutron detector in area monitoring and surveying. Radiation monitors are used in a number of other settings for occupational and environmental radiation safety. Such a detector can also be used in environmental monitoring and remote nuclear power plant monitoring. For example, the Department of Energy could use it to characterize nuclear waste dumps, coordinate clean-up efforts, and assess the radioactive contaminants in the air and water. Radiation monitors can be used to monitor the age and component breakdown of nuclear warheads and to distinguish between weapons and reactor grade plutonium. The UN's International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses radiation monitors for treaty verification, remote monitoring, and enforcing the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. As part of treaty verification, monitors can be used to certify the contents of containers during inspections. They could be used for portal monitoring to secure border checkpoints, sea ports, air cargo centers, public parks, sporting venues, and key government buildings. Currently, only 2% of all sea cargo shipped is inspected for radiation sources. In addition, merely the presence of radiation is detected and nothing is known about the radioactive source until further testing. The utilization of radiation monitors with neutron sensitivity and capability of operation in hostile port environments would increase the capacity and effectiveness of the radioactive scanning processes.

  20. New concepts for quantifying the optical properties of modern high-resolution transmission electron microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    . In recent decades, the partial temporal coherence was regarded as the dominant resolution limiting factor terminates at a frequency gp resolution limit gt should extend up to gt 27/nm at 300 kV, the true termination of the linear transfer

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIKSCAT'S ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES IN DETERMINING TROPICAL CYCLONE EYE LOCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    459 Clyde Building, Provo, UT 84602, USA ABSTRACT The 25km resolution standard wind products (L2B) are available op- erationally in near-real time from SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. This rel- atively low resolution can, for a given year and basin, mean error distance as small as 15km with a 9km standard deviation. The use

  2. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Dune Acres, IN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  3. Solar coronal magnetic field topology inferred from high resolution optical and x-ray movies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Hurlburt, N.; Morrison, M.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Acton, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors are using high resolution digital movies of solar active regions in optical and X-ray wavelengths to study solar flares and other transients. The optical movies were collected at the Swedish Solar Observatory on La Palma using the Lockheed tunable filtergraph system, in May-July, 1992. They include longitudinal and transverse magnetograms, H-alpha Doppler and intensity images at many wavelengths, Ca K, Na D, and white light images. Simultaneous X-ray images from Yohkoh are available much of the time. Several ways to establish the connectivity of some coronal magnetic field lines are being explored. Some of the clues available are: magnetic footpoint polarities and transverse field direction; H-alpha fibrils and loops seen in several wavelengths; proper motion and Dopper shifts of blobs moving along field lines; footprint brightening in micro-flares; spreading of flare ribbons during gradual phases of flares; X-ray morphology and correlations with H-alpha; and draining of flare loops. Examples of each of these will be shown on video.

  4. High-resolution method applied to premixing phase of steam explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovar, M.; Mavko, B.; Marn, J. [Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the improved version of the general two-dimensional, multiphase flow code ESE. The ESE code has been developed to model the mixing process and interaction of molten core debris with water. In case of a steam explosion, a trigger may produce locally enhanced heat transfer and pressurization and may evolve into a shock propagating through the coarse mixture. The propagation phase of the interaction is not modeled by the code; however, the ESE provides for initial condition evolution in time. The indication of the amount of well-mixed melt at the time of the trigger occurrence can be deduced based on the code`s results. The objective of this work is to present the advantages of the high-resolution method applied to a particular set of partial differential equations and to incorporate these advantages into a code that was conceived using less traveled paths, namely, ensemble averaging and use of available data in probabilistic density functions describing momentum and energy cofluctuation tensors.

  5. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  6. High resolution optical spectroscopy of an LBV-candidate inside the CygOB2 association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klochkova, V G

    2004-01-01

    For the first time, we obtained the high-resolution (R=15000 and 60000) optical spectra for the extremely luminous star No.12, associated with the IR-source IRAS20308+4104, a member of the CygOB2 association. We have found about 200 spectral features in range 4552-7939AA, including the interstellar NaI, KI lines and numerous DIBs, which are the strongest absorption lines in the spectrum, along with the HeI, CII, and SiII lines. A two-dimensional spectral classification indicates that the spectral type is B5+/-0.5 Ia+. Our analysis of the Vr data shows the presence of a Vr gradient in the stellar atmosphere, caused by the infall of matter onto the star. The strong Halpha emission displays broad Thompson wings and time-variable core absorption, providing evidence that the stellar wind is inhomogeneous, and a slightly blue-shifted PCyg type absorption profile. We concluded that the wind is variable in time.

  7. UVES-VLT High Resolution Spectroscopy of GRB080319B and GRB080330 Afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2009-01-01

    We study here the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) environment through the analysis of the optical absorption features due to the gas surrounding the GRB. In particular, we analyze high resolution spectroscopic observations of GRB080319B and GRB080330 taken with UVES at the VLT, starting 8m30s and 1.5hr after the GRB trigger, respectively. The spectra show that the ISM of the GRB host galaxies are complex, with several components contributing to the host absorption system. ast four components contributing to the main absorption system. In addition, we detect strong excited absorption lines, from which we derive information on the gas distance from the site of the GRB explosion. Under the assumption that the excited features are produced by indirect UV pumping, we found that this distance results to be 2-6 kpc for GRB080319B and $280\\pm50$ pc for GRB080330, meaning that the power of the GRB radiation can influence the conditions of the interstellar medium up to a distance of several hundred pc.

  8. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  9. High-resolution hybrid simulations of kinetic plasma turbulence at proton scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of plasma turbulence from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field, perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. Once the turbulence is fully developed, we observe a MHD inertial range, where the spectra of the perpendicular magnetic field and the perpendicular proton bulk velocity fluctuations exhibit power-law scaling with spectral indices of -5/3 and -3/2, respectively. This behavior is extended over a full decade in wavevectors and is very stable in time. A transition is observed around proton scales. At sub-ion scales, both spectra steepen, with the former still following a power law with a spectral index of ~-3. A -2.8 slope is observed in the density and parallel magnetic fluctuations, highlighting the presence of compressive effects ...

  10. High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V Coronae Australis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2007-10-26

    Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light arediscussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e., the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system $^{12}$C$^{13}$C bandhead indicating that $^{13}$C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C is about 3 to 4. Absorption line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 km s$^{-1}$. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C$_2$ molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blue-shifted absorption components of the Na {\\sc i} D and K {\\sc i} 7698 \\AA resonance lines.

  11. Hubble space telescope high-resolution imaging of Kepler small and cool exoplanet host stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Cartier, Kimberly M. S.; Wright, Jason T.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution imaging is an important tool for follow-up study of exoplanet candidates found via transit detection with the Kepler mission. We discuss here Hubble Space Telescope imaging with the WFC3 of 23 stars that host particularly interesting Kepler planet candidates based on their small size and cool equilibrium temperature estimates. Results include detections, exclusion of background stars that could be a source of false positives for the transits, and detection of physically associated companions in a number of cases providing dilution measures necessary for planet parameter refinement. For six Kepler objects of interest, we find that there is ambiguity regarding which star hosts the transiting planet(s), with potentially strong implications for planetary characteristics. Our sample is evenly distributed in G, K, and M spectral types. Albeit with a small sample size, we find that physically associated binaries are more common than expected at each spectral type, reaching a factor of 10 frequency excess in M. We document the program detection sensitivities, detections, and deliverables to the Kepler follow-up program archive.

  12. Doppler tomography of the Little Homunculus: High resolution spectra of [Fe II] 16435 around Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2004-12-21

    High-resolution spectra of [Fe II] 16435 around eta Carinae provide powerful diagnostics of the geometry and kinematics of the ``Little Homunculus'' (LH) growing inside the larger Homunculus nebula. The LH expansion is not perfectly homologous: while low-latitudes are consistent with linear expansion since 1910, the polar caps imply ejection dates around 1920--1930. However, the expansion speed of the LH is slower than the post-eruption wind, so the star's powerful wind may accelerate it. With an initial ejection speed of 200 km/s in 1890, the LH would have been accelerated to its present speed if the mass is roughly 0.1 Msun. This agrees with an independent estimate of the LH mass based on its density and volume. In any case, an ejection after 1930 is ruled out. Using the LH as a probe of the 1890 event, then, it is evident that its most basic physical parameters (total mass and kinetic energy; 0.1 Msun and 10^46.9 ergs, respectively) are orders of magnitude less than during the giant eruption in the 1840s. Thus, the ultimate energy sources were different for these two events -- yet their ejecta have the same bipolar geometry. This clue may point toward a collimation mechanism separate from the underlying causes of the outbursts.

  13. Mapping Impervious Surfaces with High ResolutionMapping Impervious Surfaces with High Resolution QuickBirdQuickBird Satellite DataSatellite Data Accurate mapping of impervious surface areas is critical to stormwater management because impervious surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrissey, Leslie A.

    to stormwater management because impervious surfaces reduce infiltration of surface water into the soil, thereby's stormwater utility. To this end, the combination of high spatial resolution (0.6m panchromatic and 2.44m of these results, VT DEC and CSB adopted this approach to meet their stormwater objectives. The use of advanced

  14. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance activity. This will allow (i) a direct comparison of future TC activity that could be expected for an active or inactive season in an altered climate regime, and (ii) a measure of the level of uncertainty and variability in TC activity resulting from different carbon emission scenarios.

  15. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heays, A. N.; Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}? {sub g} , b {sup 1}? {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}? {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}? {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}? {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}? {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  16. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of the high spatial resolution airborne Digital Airborne Imaging System (DAIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    with the aid of ancillary topographic data. Image objects as minimum classification units were generatedAbstract In this paper, we evaluate the capability of the high spatial resolution airborne Digital Airborne Imaging System (DAIS) imagery for detailed vegetation classification at the alliance level

  17. High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas reservoir.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    High-resolution geostatistical inversion of a seismic data set acquired in a Gulf of Mexico gas, UNOCAL Corporation Summary Geostatistical inversion is applied on a Gulf-of-Mexico, 3D post-stack seismic in this paper is located in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Louisiana. Existing development wells reach two

  18. Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high-resolution ocean model validated against satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Central South Pacific thermocline water circulation from a high-resolution ocean model validated. Introduction [2] Most South Pacific Ocean studies have been focused on its western or eastern part, leaving 12 January 2009; accepted 28 January 2009; published 13 May 2009. [1] The oceanic circulation

  19. Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are in- creasingly used for high facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used

  20. Structural Analysis of a Chimeric Bacterial R-Amylase. High-Resolution Analysis of Native and Ligand Complexes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural Analysis of a Chimeric Bacterial R-Amylase. High-Resolution Analysis of Native ReceiVed April 26, 2000 ABSTRACT: Several chimeric R-amylases genes were constructed by an in vivo amylases (hereafter BA2), consisting of residues 1-300 from B. amyloliquefaciens and 301-483 from B

  1. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    process and thereby com- plement the relatively dense horizontal coverage of seismic data with high ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic resolution. For seismic inversion, it is therefore important to integrate the seismic data with higher

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION H OBSERVATIONS OF PROPER MOTION IN NOAA 8668: EVIDENCE FOR FILAMENT MASS INJECTION BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HIGH-RESOLUTION H OBSERVATIONS OF PROPER MOTION IN NOAA 8668: EVIDENCE FOR FILAMENT MASS INJECTION kinds of explanations for the source of cool material in prominences or filaments: coronal condensations support filament mass injection by chromospheric reconnection. The observations of an active filament

  3. High-resolution temporal record of Holocene ground-water chemistry: Tracing links between climate and hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, Jay L.

    growth layers in Holocene spe- leothems from Barbados, West Indies, reveals high-resolution temporal. carbonate mineral reactions, as reflected in 87 Sr/86 Sr values of modern Barbados ground waters variations in rainfall on Barbados that are predicted by this hydrologic model. INTRODUCTION In spite

  4. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 8, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 2027 A High-Resolution MEMS Piezoelectric Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Roberto

    IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 8, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 2027 A High-Resolution MEMS Piezoelectric strain sensor. Using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, ZnO piezo- electric microsensors Strain Sensor for Structural Vibration Detection Stanley Kon, Member, IEEE, and Roberto Horowitz, Member

  5. High-resolution clinoform characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion Daria Tetyukhina*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    with oblique internal layering, best imaged on seismic reflection profiles, where three geometric elementsHigh-resolution clinoform characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion Daria of seismic data always presents an inversion problem. Instead of analyzing the data trace by trace, we

  6. Novel Precipitated Zirconia-Based DGT Technique for High-Resolution Imaging of Oxyanions in Waters and Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Novel Precipitated Zirconia-Based DGT Technique for High- Resolution Imaging of Oxyanions in Waters binding layer was synthesized to meet these requirements by in situ precipitation of zirconia into a precast hydrogel. The particle diameter 0.2 m of zirconia in this precipitated gel was uniform

  7. High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Pennsylvanian Snaky Canyon Formation, East-Central Idaho: Implications for Regional and Global Correlations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jolley, Casey

    2012-07-16

    Nearly 550 samples of fine grained carbonates, collected every 0.5 to 1.0 m from the Bloom Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation at Gallagher Peak, Idaho, were analyzed to determine the high-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy. To constrain...

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 993 Image Processing for a High-Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    system. Index Terms--Biomedical image processing, macular degenera- tion, retinal prosthesis, retinitisIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 993 Image Processing for a High-Resolution Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis Alon Asher*, William A. Segal, Stephen A. Baccus

  9. CLOUD FRACTION STATISTICS DERIVED FROM 2YEARS OF HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION LIDAR DATA ACQUIRED AT EUREKA, CANADA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    CLOUD FRACTION STATISTICS DERIVED FROM 2YEARS OF HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION LIDAR DATA ACQUIRED(AHSRL) and the NOAA 8.6 mm wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). Both instruments have operated nearly continuously since Sept 2005. This paper presents a record of cloud cover, cloud altitude and cloud phase derived

  10. High resolution imaging and lithography using interference of light and surface plasmon waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yang-Hyo

    2007-01-01

    The resolution of optical imaging and lithography is limited by the wave nature of light. Studies have been undertaken to overcome the diffraction limit for imaging and lithography. In our lab, the standing wave surface ...

  11. High-Resolution, Wide-Field Imaging of the Galactic Center Region at 330 MHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael E. Nord; T. Joseph W. Lazio; Namir E. Kassim; S. D. Hyman; T. N. LaRosa; C. Brogan; N. Duric

    2004-07-08

    We present a wide field, sub-arcminute resolution VLA image of the Galactic Center region at 330 MHz. With a resolution of ~ 7" X 12" and an RMS noise of 1.6 mJy/beam, this image represents a significant increase in resolution and sensitivity over the previously published VLA image at this frequency. The improved sensitivity has more than tripled the census of small diameter sources in the region, has resulted in the detection of two new Non Thermal Filaments (NTFs), 18 NTF candidates, 30 pulsar candidates, reveals previously known extended sources in greater detail, and has resulted in the first detection of Sagittarius A* in this frequency range. A version of this paper containing full resolution images may be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/nord/AAAB.pdf.

  12. High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae in multiple progenitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); O'Connor, Evan P., E-mail: smc@flash.uchicago.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-04-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are granting new insight into the as-yet-uncertain mechanism that drives successful explosions. While there is still debate about whether explosions are obtained more easily in 3D than in 2D, it is undeniable that there exist qualitative and quantitative differences between the results of 3D and 2D simulations. We present an extensive set of high-resolution 1D, 2D, and 3D CCSN simulations with multispecies neutrino leakage carried out in two different progenitors. Our simulations confirm the results of Couch indicating that 2D explodes more readily than 3D. We argue that this is due to the inadequacies of 2D to accurately capture important aspects of the 3D dynamics. We find that without artificially enhancing the neutrino heating rate, we do not obtain explosions in 3D. We examine the development of neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and find that, in separate regimes, either instability can dominate. We find evidence for growth of the SASI for both 15 M {sub ?} and 27 M {sub ?} progenitors; however, it is weaker in 3D exploding models. The growth rate of both instabilities is artificially enhanced along the symmetry axis in 2D as compared with our axis-free 3D Cartesian simulations. Our work highlights the growing consensus that CCSNe must be studied in 3D if we hope to solve the mystery of how the explosions are powered.

  13. High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of FUors and FUor-like stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Greene; Colin Aspin; Bo Reipurth

    2008-01-27

    We present new high resolution (R=18,000) near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of classical FU Orionis stars (FUors) and other young stars with FUor characteristics that are sources of Herbig-Haro flows. Spectra are presented for the region 2.203 - 2.236 microns which is rich in absorption lines sensitive to both effective temperatures and surface gravities of stars. Both FUors and FUor-like stars show numerous broad and weak unidentified spectral features in this region. Spectra of the 2.280 - 2.300 micron region are also presented, with the 2.2935 micron v=2-0 CO absorption bandhead being clearly the strongest feature seen in the spectra all FUors and Fuor-like stars. A cross-correlation analysis shows that FUor and FUor-like spectra in the 2.203 - 2.236 micron region are not consistent with late-type dwarfs, giants, nor embedded protostars. The cross-correlations also show that the observed FUor-like Herbig-Haro energy sources have spectra that are substantively similar to those of FUors. Both object groups also have similar near-infrared colors. The large line widths and double-peaked nature of the spectra of the FUor-like stars are consistent with the established accretion disk model for FUors, also consistent with their near-infrared colors. It appears that young stars with FUor-like characteristics may be more common than projected from the relatively few known classical FUors.

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-09-30

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the extension of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents experimental results that demonstrate combined scaling effects of viscous, capillary, and gravity crossflow mechanisms that apply to the situations in which streamline models are used. We designed and ran a series of experiments to investigate combined effects of capillary, viscous, and gravity forces on displacement efficiency in layered systems. Analog liquids (isooctane, isopropanol, and water) were employed to control scaling parameters by changing interfacial tension (IFT), flow rate, and density difference. The porous medium was a two-dimensional (2-D) 2-layered glass bead model with a permeability ratio of about 1:4. In order to analyze the combined effect of only capillary and viscous forces, gravity effects were eliminated by changing the orientation of the glass bead model. We employed a commercial simulator, Eclipse100 to calculate displacement behavior for comparison with the experimental data. Experimental results with minimized gravity effects show that the IFT and flow rate determine how capillary and viscous forces affect behavior of displacement. The limiting behavior for scaling groups for two-phase displacement was verified by experimental results. Analysis of the 2-D images indicates that displacements having a capillary-viscous equilibrium give the best sweep efficiency. Experimental results with gravity effects, but with low IFT fluid systems show that slow displacements produce larger area affected by crossflow. This, in turn, enhances sweep efficiency. The simulation results represent the experimental data well, except for the situations where capillary forces dominate the displacement.

  15. Theoretical Model of ITER High Resolution H-alpha Spectroscopy for a Strong Divertor Stray Light and Validation Against JET-ILW Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theoretical Model of ITER High Resolution H-alpha Spectroscopy for a Strong Divertor Stray Light and Validation Against JET-ILW Experiments

  16. High-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on spherically bent crystals for investigations of femtosecond laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Price, D.F.; Shepherd, R.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Letardi, T.; Grilli, A.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1998-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, laser-produced plasmas have become very interesting laboratory sources to study spectroscopically due to their very high densities and temperatures, and the high laser-induced electromagnetic fields present. Typically, these plasmas are of very small volume and very low emissivity. Thus, studying these near point source plasmas requires advanced experimental techniques. We present a new spectrometer design called the focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-2D) based on a spherically bent crystal which provides simultaneous high spectral ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}10{sup 4}) and spatial resolution ({approx}10thinsp{mu}m) as well as high luminosity (high collection efficiency). We described in detail the FSSR-2D case in which a small, near point source plasma is investigated. An estimate for the spectral and spatial resolution for the spectrometer is outlined based on geometric considerations. Using the FSSR-2D instrument, experimental data measured from both a 100 fs and a nanosecond pulse laser-produced plasma are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. HIGH SPATIAL-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF TE INCLUSIONS IN CZT MATERIAL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMARDA, G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CARINI, G.A.; CUI, Y.; KOHMAN, K.T.; LI, L.; JAMES, R.B.

    2006-08-13

    We present new results from our studies of defects in current single-crystal CdZnTe material. Our previous measurements, carried out on thin ({approx}1 mm) and long (>12 mm) CZT detectors, indicated that small (1-20 {micro}m) Te inclusions can significantly degrade the device's energy resolution and detection efficiency. We are conducting detailed studies of the effects of Te inclusions by employing different characterization techniques with better spatial resolution, such as quantitative fluorescence mapping, X-ray micro-diffraction, and TEM. Also, IR microscopy and gamma-mapping with pulse-shape analysis with higher spatial resolution generated more accurate results in the areas surrounding the micro-defects (Te inclusions). Our results reveal how the performance of CdZnTe detectors is influenced by Te inclusions, such as their spatial distribution, concentration, and size. We also discuss a model of charge transport through areas populated with Te inclusions.

  18. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  19. Continental scale, high order, high spatial resolution, ice sheet modeling using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    to achieve high performance computing and scalability. Thecapabilities ensures high performance computing and a sig-

  20. DESCRIPTION AND STATUS OF THE HIGH RESOLUTION (HIRES) FLY'S EYE EXPERIMENT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measurements of the primary energy spectrum and anisotropy above 1019 eV suffer from a lack of resolution of the primary energy as ground based electron arrays must relate ground shower size to the primary energy using operation of two prototype HiRes detectors. INTRODUCTION The extremely low primary cosmic ray flux

  1. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 52745297 Influence of the PBL scheme on high-resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    -resolution photochemical simulations in an urban coastal area over the Western Mediterranean Carlos Pe´ reza,Ã, Pedro Jime chemical transport model. The Gayno­Seaman (GS), the Medium Range Forecast (MRF), and the Pleim­Chang (PC) PBL schemes are considered. The simulations focus on a complex coastal urban area (Barcelona

  2. Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: Reconstruction and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    27 November 2002 A modified back-projection approach deduced from an exact reconstruction solution was applied to our photoacoustic tomography of the optical absorption in biological tissues. Pulses from a Ti:sap a spatial resolution around 10 m.8 All of the above photoacoustic tomography systems can be categorized

  3. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS AND DNA TAXONOMY The use of high-resolution melting analysis for genotyping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a closed-tube, rapid and sensitive technique able to detect DNA variations evaluated the effectiveness of HRM as a tool to rapidly and precisely genotype monotypic Symbiodinium compared to HRM genotypes. Results showed that twenty cultures were correctly genotyped in HRM

  4. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20 nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-04-14

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  5. High-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma-ray burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Wada, Tomohide

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a high-resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K". We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulence-like motion induced by the non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynth...

  6. High-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma-ray burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenta Kiuchi; Yuichiro Sekiguchi; Koutarou Kyutoku; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi; Tomohide Wada

    2015-06-22

    We report results of a high-resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K". We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulence-like motion induced by the non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynthesis, the radioactively-powered transient emission, and short gamma-ray bursts.

  7. High-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulation of black hole-neutron star merger: Mass ejection and short gamma-ray burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenta Kiuchi; Yuichiro Sekiguchi; Koutarou Kyutoku; Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi; Tomohide Wada

    2015-09-03

    We report results of a high-resolution numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of black hole-magnetized neutron star binaries on Japanese supercomputer "K". We focus on a binary that is subject to tidal disruption and subsequent formation of a massive accretion torus. We find the launch of thermally driven torus wind, subsequent formation of a funnel wall above the torus and a magnetosphere with collimated poloidal magnetic field, and high Blandford-Znajek luminosity. We show for the first time this picture in a self-consistent simulation. The turbulence-like motion induced by the non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instability as well as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability inside the accretion torus works as an agent to drive the mass accretion and converts the accretion energy to thermal energy, which results in the generation of a strong wind. By an in-depth resolution study, we reveal that high resolution is essential to draw such a picture. We also discuss the implication for the r-process nucleosynthesis, the radioactively-powered transient emission, and short gamma-ray bursts.

  8. Focusing, in-chamber spectrometer triplet for high resolution measurements on the Sandia Z facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenger, D. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Porter, J. L.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2006-10-15

    An early prototype of a focusing spectrometer with one-dimensional (1D) spatial resolution (FSSR) instrument was previously developed for use in the vacuum chamber of the Sandia Z facility [Sinars et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 595 (2006)]. This instrument used a single, spherically bent crystal to measure time-integrated Ar spectra from 0.295-0.378 nm with {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}>2000 and a 1D axial spatial resolution of {approx}50 {mu}m. We present the design of a final version of this instrument that improves the shielding, can be aligned more accurately, and uses three crystals instead of one. The last change enables coverage of multiple spectral ranges if different crystals are used, or multiple times if identical crystals and time-gated detectors are used. We also present results from initial prototyping tests on the Z facility using two crystals in a time-integrated mode.

  9. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 {Angstrom}, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 {mu}m in selected places and 2{endash}3 {mu}m over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 {mu}m in selected places and 5 {mu}m over the focal spot of the Nike laser. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  10. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-05

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  11. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Evolution of Near-surface Flows Inferred from High-resolution Ring-diagram Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogart, Richard S; Baldner,; Basu, Sarbani

    2015-01-01

    Ring-diagram analysis of acoustic waves observed at the photosphere can provide a relatively robust determination of the sub-surface flows at a particular time under a particular region. The depth of penetration of the waves is related to the size of the region, hence the depth extent of the measured flows is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. Most ring-diagram analysis has focused on regions of extent ~15{\\deg} (180 Mm) or more in order to provide reasonable mode sets for inversions. HMI data analysis also provides a set of ring fit parameters on a scale three times smaller. These provide flow estimates for the outer 1% (7 Mm) of the Sun only, with very limited depth resolution, but with spatial resolution adequate to map structures potentially associated with the belts and regions of magnetic activity. There are a number of systematic effects affecting the determination of flows from local helioseismic analysis of regions over different parts of the observable disk, not all well understood. I...

  13. High resolution short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer for copper K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujala, N. G.; Barrea, R. A.; Karanfil, C.

    2011-06-15

    We have developed a compact short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer (BCLA) for Cu speciation studies of biological systems with specific applications to cancer biology. The system provides high energy resolution and high background rejection. The system is composed of an aluminum block serving as a log spiral bender for a 15 micron thick Silicon 111 crystal and a set of soller slits. The energy resolution of the BCLA--about 14 eV at the Cu K{alpha} line-- allows resolution of the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} and CuK{alpha}{sub 2} lines. The system is easily aligned by using a set of motorized XYZ linear stages. Two operation modes are available: incident energy scans (IES) and emission energy scans (EES). IES allows scanning of the incident energy while the BCLA system is maintained at a preselected fixed position - typically CuK{alpha}{sub 1} line. EES is used when the incident energy is fixed and the analyzer is scanned to provide the peak profile of the emission lines of Cu.

  14. Zoomed Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla with Simultaneous High Spatial and High Temporal Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoomed Functional Imaging in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla with Simultaneous High Spatial and High and is mainly limited by sensitivity. Here, signal-to-noise gains at high magnetic fields (7 Tesla

  15. A High Resolution, Multi-stop, Time-to-Digital Converter for Nuclear Time-of-Flight Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. F. Spencer; J. Cole; M. Drigert; R. Aryaeinejad

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-stop, time-to-digital converter (TDC) was designed and developed to precisely measure the times-of-flight (TOF) of incident neutrons responsible for induced fission and capture reactions on actinide targets. The minimum time resolution is ±1 ns. The TDC design was implemented into a single, dual-wide CAMAC module. The CAMAC bus is used for command and control as well as an alternative data output. A high-speed ECL interface, compatible with LeCroy FERA modules, was also provided for the principle data output path. An Actel high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip was incorporated with an external oscillator and an internal multiple clock phasing system. This device implemented the majority of the high-speed register functions, the state machine for the FERA interface, and the high-speed counting circuit used for the TDC conversion. An external microcontroller was used to monitor and control system-level changes. In this work we discuss the performance of this TDC module as well as its application.

  16. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States) [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/?(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=?/??>10{sup 3}.

  17. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  18. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Image Shallow Faults, Dixie Valley

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea, CaliforniaHess RetailResolution

  19. High-resolution radio observations of W50, the remnant associated with SS 433

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elston, R.; Baum, S.

    1987-12-01

    The NRAO VLA has been used to observe the radio source W50 with 30 arcsec and 1 arcmin resolutions at 20 cm. It is found that the overall structure of W50 is well delineated by filamentary structure. W50 possesses a nearly circular shell reminiscent of an evolved supernova remnant such as CTB1 and the Cygnus Loop. The most unusual features of W50 are the edge-brightened radio ears which extend beyond the shell. These ears appear morphologically distinct from the shell and have minimum energy pressures three times greater than are present in the shell. Thus, while no direct connection is observed between SS433 and the ears, it is suggested that the ears are the result of the interaction of the ram pressure of the collimated jets of SS433 with a supernova remnant shell. At 30 arcsec resolution the western ear of W50 is depolarized, suggesting that W50 and S74 are at a common distance of about 3 kpc. 27 references.

  20. High-resolution emissions of CO{sub 2} from power generation in the USA - article no. G04008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petron, G.; Tans, P.; Frost, G.; Chao, D.L.; Trainer, M. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth Systems Research Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electricity generation accounts for close to 40% of the U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning, making it the economic sector with the largest source of CO{sub 2}. Since the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Markets Division (EPA CAMD) has kept a repository of hourly CO{sub 2} emission data for most power plants in the conterminous United States. In this study, the CAMD CO{sub 2} data are used to derive a high spatiotemporal resolution CO{sub 2} emissions inventory for the electricity generation sector (inventory available on request). Data from 1998 to 2006 have been processed. This unique inventory can be used to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle at fine temporal and spatial scales. The CAMD data set provides the first quantitative estimates of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the emissions as well as the year to year variability. Emissions peak in the summertime owing to the widespread use of air conditioning. Summertime emissions are in fact highly correlated with the daily average temperature. In conjunction with the EPA Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), we have derived high-resolution maps of CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel burned (coal, gas, oil) for the year 2004. The CAMD data set also reflects regional anomalies in power generation such as the August 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and the 2000-2001 increase in production in California. We recommend that all sectors of the economy report similar high-resolution CO{sub 2} emissions because of their great usefulness both for carbon cycle science and for greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and regulation.

  1. The roughness of stylolites: Implications of 3D high resolution topography measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    diagenesis and metamorphism that develop after their initiation. In this Letter we show the first 3D high

  2. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2011-11-30

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 ?m) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 ?m was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial distribution of targeted metabolites, mainly waxes and flavonoids, was systematically explored on various organs, including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots at high spatial resolution of ~ 12-50 ?m and the changes in the abundance level of these metabolites were monitored on the cer1 mutant with respect to the wild-type. This study revealed the metabolic biology of CER1 gene on each individual organ level with very detailed high spatial resolution. The separate MS images of isobaric metabolites, i.e. C29 alkane vs. C28 aldehyde could be constructed on both genotypes from MS imaging at high mass resolution. This allows tracking of abundance changes for those compounds along with the genetic mutation, which is not achievable with low mass resolution mass spectrometry. This study supported previous hypothesis of molecular function of CER1 gene as aldehyde decarbonylase, especially by displaying hyper accumulation of aldehydes and C30 fatty acid and decrease in abundance of alkanes and ketones in several plant organs of cer1 mutant. The scope of analytes was further directed toward internal cell metabolites from the surface metabolites of the plant. MS profiling and imaging of internal cell metabolites were performed on the vibratome section of Arabidopsis leaf. Vibratome sectioning of the leaf was first conducted to remove the surface cuticle layer and it was followed by enzymatic treatment of the section to induce the digestion of primary cell walls, middle lamella, and expose the internal cells underneath to the surface for detection with the laser by LDI-MS. The subsequent MS imaging onto the enzymatically treated vibratome section allowed us to map the distribution of the metabolites in the internal cell layers, linolenic acid (C18:3 FA) and linoleic acid (C18:2 FA). The development of an assay for relative quantification of analytes at the single subcellular/organelle level by LDI-MS imaging was attempted and both plausibility and significant obstacles were seen. As a test system, native plant organelle, chloroplasts isolated from the spinach leaves were used

  3. HIGH RESOLUTION AND FAST SCANNING SQUID BASED NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION SYSTEM OF NIOBIUM SHEETS FOR SRF CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHU, QUAN-SHENG

    2008-06-08

    Applications in high energy physics accelerators and other fields require the use of thousands of superconducting RF (SRF) cavities that are made of high purity Nb material and the purity of niobium is critical for these cavities to reach the highest accelerating fields. Tantalum is the most prolific of metal inclusions, which can cause thermal breakdown and prevent the cavities from reaching their theoretical performance limits of 45-50 MV/m, and DOE Labs are searching for a technology that could detect small impurities in superconducting Nb sheets reaching the highest possible accelerating fields. The proposed innovative SQUID-based Nondestructive system can scan Niobium sheets used in the manufacturing of SRF cavities with both high speed and high resolution. A highly sensitive SQUID system with a gradiometer probe, non-magnetic dewar, data acquisition system, and a scanning system will be developed for fast detection of impurities in planar Nb sheets. In phase I, we will modify our existing SQUID-based eddy current system to detect 100 micron size Ta defects and a great effort will focus on achieving fast scanning of a large number of niobium sheets in a shorter time and with reasonable resolution. An older system operated by moving the sample 1 mm, stopping and waiting for 1-2 seconds, then activating a measurement by the SQUID after the short settle time is modified. A preliminary designed and implemented a SQUID scanning system that is fast and is capable of scanning a 30 cm x 30 cm Nb sheet in 15 minutes by continuously moving the table at speeds up to 10 mm/s while activating the SQUID at 1mm interval is modified and reached the Phase I goal of 100mm resolution. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility that a fast speed SQUID scanner without sacrificing the resolution of detection can be done, and a data acquisition and analysis system is also preliminary developed. The SQUID based scanner will help reach the highest accelerating field in SRF cavities that will provide a considerable cost reduction for new accelerators and for upgrades of existing accelerators. This will be realized either by reducing the length required for the SRF cavities or by the installation of higher gradient cavities for energy upgrades in the same space. The SQUID based scanner will also be used for the detection of defects on the surface, inside the bulk or at the back side of metallic sheets in other industries.

  4. Probing weak force induced parity violation by high resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, Sean K; Auguste, Frédéric; Shelkovnikov, Alexander; Daussy, Christophe; Amy-Klein, Anne; Chardonnet, Christian; Darquié, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    To date no experiment has reached the level of sensitivity required to observe weak nuclear force induced parity violation (PV) energy differences in chiral molecules. In this paper, we present the approach, adopted at Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (LPL), to measure frequency differences in the vibrational spectrum of enantiomers. We review different spectroscopic methods developed at LPL leading to the highest resolutions, as well as 20 years of CO2 laser stabilization work enabling such precise measurements. After a first attempt to observe PV vibrational frequency shifts using sub-Doppler saturated absorption spectroscopy in a cell, we are currently aiming at an experiment based on Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey interferometry on a supersonic beam. We report on our latest progress towards observing PV with chiral organo-metallic complexes containing a heavy rhenium atom.

  5. Probing weak force induced parity violation by high resolution mid-infrared molecular spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean K. Tokunaga; Clara Stoeffler; Frédéric Auguste; Alexander Shelkovnikov; Christophe Daussy; Anne Amy-Klein; Christian Chardonnet; Benoît Darquié

    2013-09-22

    To date no experiment has reached the level of sensitivity required to observe weak nuclear force induced parity violation (PV) energy differences in chiral molecules. In this paper, we present the approach, adopted at Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (LPL), to measure frequency differences in the vibrational spectrum of enantiomers. We review different spectroscopic methods developed at LPL leading to the highest resolutions, as well as 20 years of CO2 laser stabilization work enabling such precise measurements. After a first attempt to observe PV vibrational frequency shifts using sub-Doppler saturated absorption spectroscopy in a cell, we are currently aiming at an experiment based on Doppler-free two-photon Ramsey interferometry on a supersonic beam. We report on our latest progress towards observing PV with chiral organo-metallic complexes containing a heavy rhenium atom.

  6. High Resolution RANS NLH Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheson, Michael A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Numerical prediction of the Stage 67 transonic fan stage employing wall jet tip injection flow control and study of the physical mechanisms leading to stall suppression and stability enhancement afforded by endwall recirculation/injection is the focus of this paper. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes computations were used to perform detailed analysis of the Stage 67 configuration experimentally tested at NASA s Glenn Research Center in 2004. Time varying prediction of the stage plus recirculation and injection flowpath were performed utilizing the Nonlinear Harmonic approach. Significantly higher grid resolution per passage was achieved than what has been generally employed in prior reported numerical studies of spike stall phenomena in transonic compressors. This paper focuses on characterizing the physics of spike stall embryonic stage phenomena and the impact of tip injection, resulting in experimentally and numerically demonstrated stall suppression

  7. Apparatus and method to achieve high-resolution microscopy with non-diffracting or refracting radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Bingham, Philip R.; Hawari, Ayman I.

    2012-11-06

    An imaging system employing a coded aperture mask having multiple pinholes is provided. The coded aperture mask is placed at a radiation source to pass the radiation through. The radiation impinges on, and passes through an object, which alters the radiation by absorption and/or scattering. Upon passing through the object, the radiation is detected at a detector plane to form an encoded image, which includes information on the absorption and/or scattering caused by the material and structural attributes of the object. The encoded image is decoded to provide a reconstructed image of the object. Because the coded aperture mask includes multiple pinholes, the radiation intensity is greater than a comparable system employing a single pinhole, thereby enabling a higher resolution. Further, the decoding of the encoded image can be performed to generate multiple images of the object at different distances from the detector plane. Methods and programs for operating the imaging system are also disclosed.

  8. Open-core screw dislocations in GaN epilayers observed by scanning force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    -resolution transmission electron microscopy W. Qian, G. S. Rohrer, and M. Skowronski Department of Materials Science. K. Gaskill Laboratory for Advanced Material Synthesis, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC of organometallic vapor phase epitaxy grown -GaN films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

  9. High-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion: an example from a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    that is then iteratively matched with the seismic data using a Bayesian inversion process. The inversion is then extendedHigh-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion-resolution reservoir model from seismic and well data, an approach was developed based on an a priori layered model

  10. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of a high-resolution1 global ocean simulation2 Mark R. Petersen, 1 Sean J. Williams, 1,2 Mathew E. Maltrud census data set was obtained from3 a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution are at least 1000m tall, and many penetrate the14 full depth of the water column. The Antarctic Circumpolar

  11. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 17591 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Bernd

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: OCEANS, VOL. 118, 1759­1 , doi:10.1002/jgrc.20155, 2013 A three-dimensional eddy census of a high-resolution global ocean simulation Mark R. Petersen,1 Sean J. Williams,1,2 Mathew from a global ocean simulation with one-tenth degree resolution and a duration of 7 years. The census

  12. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)] [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d'Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)] [Instituto d'Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)] [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  13. High-resolution imaging of selenium in kidneys: a localized selenium pool associated with glutathione peroxidase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinouski, M.; Kehr, S.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; Carlson, B.A.; Seravalli, J.; Jin, R.; Handy, D.E.; Park, T.J.; Loscalzo, J.; Hatfield, D.L.; Gladyshev, V.N.

    2012-04-17

    Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Liver showed a uniform selenium distribution that was dependent on selenocysteine tRNA{sup [Ser]Sec} and dietary selenium. In contrast, kidney selenium had both uniformly distributed and highly localized components, the latter visualized as thin circular structures surrounding proximal tubules. Other parts of the kidney, such as glomeruli and distal tubules, only manifested the uniformly distributed selenium pattern that co-localized with sulfur. We found that proximal tubule selenium localized to the basement membrane. It was preserved in Selenoprotein P knockout mice, but was completely eliminated in glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) knockout mice, indicating that this selenium represented GPx3. We further imaged kidneys of another model organism, the naked mole rat, which showed a diminished uniformly distributed selenium pool, but preserved the circular proximal tubule signal. We applied XFM to image selenium in mammalian tissues and identified a highly localized pool of this trace element at the basement membrane of kidneys that was associated with GPx3. XFM allowed us to define and explain the tissue topography of selenium in mammalian kidneys at submicron resolution.

  14. Simulation of High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Images on the IBM Blue Gene/L Supercomputer Using SIMRI

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baum, K. G.; Menezes, G.; Helguera, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical imaging system simulators are tools that provide a means to evaluate system architecture and create artificial image sets that are appropriate for specific applications. We have modified SIMRI, a Bloch equation-based magnetic resonance image simulator, in order to successfully generate high-resolution 3D MR images of the Montreal brain phantom using Blue Gene/L systems. Results show that redistribution of the workload allows an anatomically accurate 256 3 voxel spin-echo simulation in less than 5 hours when executed on an 8192-node partition of a Blue Gene/L system.

  15. High resolution study of the Lambda p final state interaction in the reaction p + p -> K+ + (Lambda p)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Budzanowski; A. Chatterjee; H. Clement; E. Dorochkevitch; P. Hawranek; F. Hinterberger; R. Jahn; R. Joosten; K. Kilian; S. Kliczewski; Da. Kirillov; Di. Kirillov; D. Kolev; M. Kravcikova; M. Lesiak; H. Machner; A. Magiera; G. Martinska; N. Piskunov; J. Ritman; P. von Rossen; B. J. Roy; A. Sibirtsev; I. Sitnik; R. Siudak; R. Tsenov; K. Ulbrich; J. Urban; G. J. Wagner

    2010-03-01

    The reaction pp -> K+ + (Lambda p) was measured at Tp=1.953 GeV and Theta = 0 deg with a high missing mass resolution in order to study the Lambda p final state interaction. The large final state enhancement near the Lambda p threshold can be described using the standard Jost-function approach. The singlet and triplet scattering lengths and effective ranges are deduced by fitting simultaneously the Lambda p invariant mass spectrum and the total cross section data of the free Lambda p scattering.

  16. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy of V854 Cen in decline - Absorption and emission lines of C_2 molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2000-02-10

    High-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis (RBC) star V854 Centauri in the early stages of a decline show, in addition to the features reported for other RCBs in decline, narrow absorption lines from the C_2 Phillips system. The low rotational temperature, T_rot = 1150K, of the C_2 ground electronic state suggests the cold gas is associated with the developing shroud of carbon dust. These absorption lines were not seen at a fainter magnitude on the rise from minimum light nor at maximum light. This is the first detection of cold gas around a RCB star.

  18. Gemini-Phoenix infrared high-resolution abundance analysis of five giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Melendez; B. Barbuy; E. Bica; M. Zoccali; S. Ortolani; A. Renzini; V. Hill

    2003-09-20

    A detailed abundance analysis of 5 giants of the metal-rich bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 was carried out using high resolution infrared spectra in the H band, obtained at the Gemini-South 8m telescope. JK photometry collected at ESO and VI photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope are used to derive effective temperatures. The present analysis provides a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.20 +/- 0.10. An overabundance of oxygen of [O/Fe] = +0.20 is found from IR OH lines.

  19. High resolution mass spectrometry method and system for analysis of whole proteins and other large molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Harris, William A. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

    2010-03-02

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method and related system for analyzing high molecular weight analytes includes the steps of providing at least one matrix-containing particle inside an ion trap, wherein at least one high molecular weight analyte molecule is provided within the matrix-containing particle, and MALDI on the high molecular weight particle while within the ion trap. A laser power used for ionization is sufficient to completely vaporize the particle and form at least one high molecular weight analyte ion, but is low enough to avoid fragmenting the high molecular weight analyte ion. The high molecular weight analyte ion is extracted out from the ion trap, and is then analyzed using a detector. The detector is preferably a pyrolyzing and ionizing detector.

  20. A digital map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-07-03

    This dataset represent a map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for the arctic coastal plain at Barrow, Alaska. The polygon troughs are considered as the surface expression of the ice-wedges. The troughs are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The trough widths were initially identified from LiDAR data, and the boundary between two polygons assumed to be located along the lowest elevations on trough widths between them.

  1. A digital map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wullschleger, Stan

    This dataset represent a map of the high center (HC) and low center (LC) polygon boundaries delineated from high resolution LiDAR data for the arctic coastal plain at Barrow, Alaska. The polygon troughs are considered as the surface expression of the ice-wedges. The troughs are in lower elevations than the interior polygon. The trough widths were initially identified from LiDAR data, and the boundary between two polygons assumed to be located along the lowest elevations on trough widths between them.

  2. Field-Deployable, High-Resolution, Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado C-130 aircraft study near Mexico City, showing high correlation with independent measurements high vacuum followed by electron impact ionization (EI) and mass analysis by a quadrupole mass

  3. Creating a high-resolution picture of Cygnus with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Amanda; Casanova, Sabrina; Di Girolamo, Tristano; Dyrda, Michael; Hahn, Joachim; Majumdar, Pratik; Rodriguez, Jerome; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The Cygnus region hosts one of the most remarkable star-forming regions in the Milky Way. Indeed, the total mass in molecular gas of the Cygnus X complex exceeds 10 times the total mass of all other nearby star-forming regions. Surveys at all wavelengths, from radio to gamma-rays, reveal that Cygnus contains such a wealth and variety of sources---supernova remnants (SNRs), pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), H II regions, Wolf-Rayet binaries, OB associations, microquasars, dense molecular clouds and superbubbles---as to practically be a galaxy in microcosm. The gamma-ray observations along reveal a wealth of intriguing sources at energies between 1 GeV and tens of TeV. However, a complete understanding of the physical phenomena producing this gamma-ray emission first requires us to disentangle overlapping sources and reconcile discordant pictures at different energies. This task is made more challenging by the limited angular resolution of instruments such as the Fermi Large Area Telescope, ARGO-YBJ, and HAW...

  4. Compact NE213 neutron spectrometer with high energy resolution for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimbal, A.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Bertalot, L.; Esposito, B.; Poli, F.; Adams, J.M.; Popovichev, S.; Kiptily, V.; Murari, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesalleee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati, I-00044, Roma (Italy); Association Euratom-UKAEA Fusion, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Consorzio RFX--Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padua (Italy)

    2004-10-01

    Neutron spectrometry is a tool for obtaining important information on the fuel ion composition, velocity distribution and temperature of fusion plasmas. A compact NE213 liquid scintillator, fully characterized at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, was installed and operated at the Joint European Torus (JET) during two experimental campaigns (C8-2002 and trace tritium experiment-TTE 2003). The results show that this system can operate in a real fusion experiment as a neutron (1.5 MeVresolution ({delta}E/E<4% at E{sub n}=2.5 MeV and {delta}E/E<2% at E{sub n}=14 MeV). First measurements performed under different plasma scenarios, including trace tritium experiments, are presented. The analysis of the pulse height data was carried out using a newly developed method based on maximum entropy unfolding. The results indicate that this efficient, inexpensive, and compact scintillator is suitable for use as a broadband spectrometer in large fusion devices (JET and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

  5. A Very High Spectral Resolution Study of Ground-State OH Masers in W3(OH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent L. Fish; Walter F. Brisken; Loránt O. Sjouwerman

    2006-04-25

    We present VLBA observations of the ground-state hydroxyl masers in W3(OH) at 0.02 km s-1 spectral resolution. Over 250 masers are detected, including 56 Zeeman pairs. Lineshapes are predominantly Gaussian or combinations of several Gaussians, with normalized deviations typically of the same magnitude as in masers in other species. Typical FWHM maser linewidths are 0.15 to 0.38 km s-1 and are larger in the 1665 MHz transition than in the other three ground-state transitions. The satellite-line 1612 and 1720 MHz masers show no evidence of sigma^+/-2,3 components. The spatial positions of most masers are seen to vary across the line profile, with many spots showing clear, organized positional gradients. Equivalent line-of-sight velocity gradients in the plane of the sky typically range from 0.01 to 1 km s-1 AU-1 (i.e., positional gradients of 1 to 100 AU (km s-1)-1). Small velocity gradients in the 1667 MHz transition support theoretical predictions that 1667 MHz masers appear in regions with small velocity shifts along the amplification length. Deconvolved maser spot sizes appear to be larger in the line wings but do not support a spherical maser geometry.

  6. Towards the Event Horizon - High Resolution VLBI Imaging of Nuclei of Active Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Krichbaum; D. A. Graham; A. Witzel; J. A. Zensus; A. Greve; M. Grewing; M. Bremer; S. Doeleman; R. B. Phillips; A. E. E. Rogers; H. Fagg; P. Strittmatter; L. Ziurys

    2006-07-05

    We report on new developments in VLBI, with emphasis on experiments performed at the highest frequencies possible to date (so called mm-VLBI). We have observed the nucleus of M 87 (Virgo A) with global VLBI at 3 mm. We show a new image of the inner-most jet region with an angular resolution of approx. 300 x 60 micro-arcseconds. In terms of Schwarzschild radii, this leads to an upper limit of the jet base of approx. 100 x 20 Schwarzschild radii. We also report on two VLBI pilot-experiments, which demonstrate the technical feasibility of global VLBI at 150 and 230 GHz (2 mm and 1.3 mm). The experiments lead to upper limits to the size of the unresolved AGN-cores in the 25 - 30 micro-arcsecond range. The participation of new and near-future mm-telescopes (like APEX, CARMA, SMA, LMT, ALMA, etc.) in global mm-VLBI will provide the necessary sensitivity for the imaging of black holes and their immediate environment.

  7. Recent progress of avalanche photodiodes in high-resolution X-rays and Gamma-rays detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kataoka; T. Saito; Y. Kuramoto; T. Ikagawa; Y. Yatsu; J. Kotoku; M. Arimoto; N. Kawai; Y. Ishikawa; N. Kawabata

    2006-02-17

    We have studied the performance of large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs) recently developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K, in high-resolution X-rays and Gamma-rays detections. We show that reach-through APD can be an excellent soft X-ray detector operating at room temperature or moderately cooled environment. We obtain the best energy resolution ever achieved with APDs, 6.4 % for 5.9 keV X-rays, and obtain the energy threshold as low as 0.5 keV measured at -20deg. Thanks to its fast timing response, signal carriers in the APD device are collected within a short time interval of 1.9 nsec (FWHM). This type of APDs can therefore be used as a low-energy, high-counting particle monitor onboard the forthcoming Pico-satellite Cute1.7. As a scintillation photon detector, reverse-type APDs have a good advantage of reducing the dark noise significantly. The best FWHM energy resolutions of 9.4+-0.3 % and 4.9+-0.2 % were obtained for 59.5 keV and 662 keV Gamma-rays, respectively, as measured with a CsI(Tl) crystal. Combination of APDs with various other scintillators (BGO, GSO, and YAP) also showed better results than that obtained with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). These results suggest that APD could be a promising device for replacing traditional PMT usage in some applications. In particular 2-dim APD array, which we present in this paper, will be a promising device for a wide-band X-ray and Gamma-ray imaging detector in future space research and nuclear medicine.

  8. A novel apparatus for in situ compression of submicron structures and particles in a high resolution SEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romeis, S.; Paul, J.; Ziener, M.; Peukert, W. [Institute of Particle Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a novel in situ manipulation device to perform stressing experiments on the submicron scale inside a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. The instrument comprises two main assembly groups: an upper part for positioning and moving a mounted probe and a force sensor as well as a specimen support as lower part. The upper part consists of a closed loop tripod piezoelectric scanner mounted on a self-locking coarse positioning stage. Two interlocked steel springs and a linear variable differential transformer measuring the springs' deflections compose the lower part of the instrument. This arrangement acts as force-sensor and sample support. In comparison to already well-established concepts a wide measuring range is covered by adjusting the spring constant between 30 N/m and 50000 N/m. Moreover, the new device offers striking advantages with respect to force calibration and sample deformation measurements. Force calibration is performed using the eigenfrequency of the force detection system directly inside the SEM. Deformation data are obtained with high accuracy by simultaneously recording displacements above and below the specimen. The detrimental apparatus compliance is determined, and the influence on measured data subsequently minimized: an easy to validate two-springs-in-series model is used for data correction. A force resolution in normal direction of 100 nN accompanied by a sample deformation resolution of 5 nm can be achieved with the instrument using an appropriate load cell stiffness. The capabilities and versatility of this instrument are exemplified by compression experiments performed on submicron amorphous silica particles.

  9. High resolution reanalysis of wind speeds over the British Isles for wind energy integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Samuel Lennon

    2012-11-29

    The UK has highly ambitious targets for wind development, particularly offshore, where over 30GW of capacity is proposed for development. Integrating such a large amount of variable generation presents enormous challenges. ...

  10. Geoacoustic inversion in laterally varying shallow-water experiments using high-resolution wavenumber estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Kyle M

    2002-01-01

    Sound propagation in shallow water is highly dependent on the interaction of the sound field with the bottom. In order to fully understand this problem, it is necessary to obtain reliable estimates of bottom geoacoustic ...

  11. Thin optic surface analysis for high resolution X-ray telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akilian, Mireille

    2004-01-01

    The art of glass developed throughout the years has covered artifacts ranging from crude ornaments to high precision optics used in flat panel displays, hard disk drives, and x-ray telescopes. Methods for manufacturing ...

  12. High Resolution Study of Micro-Meter Particle Detachment and Resuspension on Different Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassab, Asmaa 1983-

    2012-08-16

    obtained by high-speed imaging reveal three different types of motion: rolling/bouncing, immediate liftoff and complex motion. Surface roughness significantly affects the particle initial motion prior to liftoff. The majority of particle trajectories from...

  13. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, A. C.

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

  14. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. III. Comparison with High-Resolution Spectroscopy of SDSS/SEGUE Field Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Allende Prieto; T. Sivarani; T. C. Beers; Y. S. Lee; L. Koesterke; M. Shetrone; C. Sneden; D. L. Lambert; R. Wilhelm; C. M. Rockosi; D. Lai; B. Yanny; I. I. Ivans; J. A. Johnson; W. Aoki; C. A. L. Bailer-Jones; P. Re Fiorentin

    2007-10-31

    We report high-resolution spectroscopy of 125 field stars previously observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and its program for Galactic studies, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). These spectra are used to measure radial velocities and to derive atmospheric parameters, which we compare with those reported by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). The SSPP obtains estimates of these quantities based on SDSS ugriz photometry and low-resolution (R = 2000) spectroscopy. For F- and G-type stars observed with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), we empirically determine the typical random uncertainties in the radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities delivered by the SSPP to be 2.4 km/s, 130 K (2.2%), 0.21 dex, and 0.11 dex, respectively, with systematic uncertainties of a similar magnitude in the effective temperatures and metallicities. We estimate random errors for lower S/N spectra based on numerical simulations.

  15. Ellipsoidal primary of the RS CVn binary zeta And: Investigation using high-resolution spectroscopy and optical interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korhonen, H; Kovari, Zs; Granzer, Th; Hackman, T; Strassmeier, K G

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopy, optical interferometry, and long-term broad band photometry of the ellipsoidal primary of the RS CVn-type binary system zeta And. Based on the optical interferometry the apparent limb darkened diameter of zeta And is 2.55 +/- 0.09 mas using a uniform disk fit. The Hipparcos distance and the limb-darkened diameter obtained with a uniform disk fit give stellar radius of 15.9 +/- 0.8 Rsolar, and combined with bolometric luminosity, it implies an effective temperature of 4665 +/- 140 K. The temperature maps obtained from high resolution spectra using Doppler imaging show a strong belt of equatorial spots and hints of a cool polar cap. The equatorial spots show a concentration around the phase 0.75. This spot configuration is reminiscent of the one seen in the earlier published temperature maps of zeta And. Investigation of the Halpha line reveals both prominences and cool clouds in the chromosphere. Long-term photometry spanning 12 years shows hints of a spot activit...

  16. The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky Survey for pulsars and transients -I. Survey description and initial discoveries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Malenta, Mateusz; Roy, Jayanta; Chengalur, Jayaram N; Keith, Michael; Kudale, Sanjay; McLaughlin, Maura; Ransom, Scott M; Ray, Paul S; Stappers, Benjamin W

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting a survey for pulsars and transients using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky (GHRSS) survey is an off-Galactic-plane (|b|>5) survey in the declination range -40 deg to -54 deg at 322 MHz. With the high time (up to 30.72 micro-sec) and frequency (up to 0.016275 MHz) resolution observing modes, the 5-sigma detection limit is 0.5 mJy for a 2 ms pulsar with 10% duty cycle at 322 MHz. Total GHRSS sky coverage of 2866 square-deg, will result from 1953 pointings, each covering 1.8 square-deg. The 10-sigma detection limit for a 5 ms transient burst is 1.6 Jy for the GHRSS survey. In addition, the GHRSS survey can reveal transient events like the rotating radio transients or the fast radio bursts. With 35% of the survey completed (i.e. 1000 square-deg), we report the discovery of 10 pulsars, one of which is a millisecond pulsar (MSP), this is one of the highest pulsar per square degree discovery rate for any off-Galactic plane survey. We re-detected 23 k...

  17. Analog morphocorrelation: new technique with implications for high-resolution absolute age dating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Berggren, W.A.

    1986-05-01

    The conventional approach to increased biostratigraphic resolution involves identifying additional datum planes defined by discrete events. Multivariate techniques used to refine a conventional taxonomic zonal scheme offer no improvement in precision; however, since the characters on which the zonal boundaries are based often show continuous stratigraphic variation, they offer an opportunity for continuous stratigraphic correlation based on the stage of evolution. Morphometric analysis was conducted on two lineages: (1) the Globorotalia cibaoensis-G. crassaformis linage, using a reference section from the early Pliocene of the Rio Grande rise, spanning approximately 2.6 m.y.; and (2) the G. conoidea-G.inflata lineage, using a reference section from the late Miocene to the Holocene from the southwest Pacific, spanning approximately 8 m.y. Stepwise multiple regression of morphologic variates generated an equation with an age-prediction precision (95% confidence) of +/- 122 k.y. in the G. crassaformis lineage and +/- 463 k.y. in the G conoidea lineage (accuracy depends on calibration of absolute dates in the reference section and our knowledge of sedimentation rates over the measured interval). Using single-equation analog morphocorrelation, any sample overlapped by the reference lineage can be correlated, which reduce the need for repeated sampling in a search for discrete events. The authors demonstrate that analysis of continuous morphologic variation can increase stratigraphic precision with a few carefully chosen variables, and that analog morpho-correlation can yield absolute dates, rather than relative dates with quantified error. Any disadvantages inherent in analog morphocorrelation are also found in conventional biostratigraphic techniques, but are usually unquantified and unrecognized.

  18. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore »>1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of ?/?? > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  19. High resolution InSb quantum well ballistic nanosensors for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.; Lambert, C. J.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-12-04

    We report the room temperature operation of a quasi-ballistic InSb quantum well Hall sensor that exhibits a high frequency sensitivity of 560nT/?Hz at 20uA bias current. The device utilizes a partitioned buffer layer design that suppresses leakage currents through the mesa floor and can sustain large current densities.

  20. Biennial Workshop on Aerial Photography, Videography, and High Resolution Digital Imagery for Resource Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, I-Kuai

    the advent of drilling for petroleum and natural gas in the United States, there has been a problem the high salt content of the brine has caused the soil in these areas to no longer support the growth). Without vegetation cover, these soils are subject to severe erosion, causing salt and sediments to impact

  1. HRENSEMBLEHR High Resolution Ensemble for Horns Rev: A project overview Mhrlen, C.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of large wind farms change between nearly constant output to highly variable power output. A balance benefits of offshore wind power is a smoothing effect on the energy price, because it has it's own of 14GW wind power in the Northsea. For this purpose an algorithm based on ensemble predictions

  2. Stochastic Generation of Synthetic Precipitation Time Series with High Temporal and Spatial Resolution for Engineering Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Stochastic Generation of Synthetic Precipitation Time Series with High Temporal and Spatial.Brommundt@iws.uni-stuttgart.de Introduction The stochastic precipitation time series generator, NiedSim, has been developed and installed been generated. In the year 2004 NiedSim was set up for Hessen and Rheinland-Pfalz. The total project

  3. Characterization of a Compact, High Resolution Readout System for Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, L; Mjörnmark, U

    2013-01-01

    A Linear e^+e^- collider, either ILC or CLIC will be the next platform for high energy physics study to complement the LHC. Results discovered by LHC may need precision measurements before we can get full understanding of the physics. International collaborations are in the process to prepare both for the accelerator and for the experimental setup.

  4. Spatially resolved high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZajaPc, S.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Rosmej, O.; Yongtao, Zhao; Gojska, A.

    2010-10-15

    Soft x-ray emission from a Mather-type plasma-focus device (PF-1000) operated at {approx}400 kJ was measured. The high density and temperature plasma were generated by the discharge in the deuterium-argon gas mixture in the modified (high-current) plasma-focus configuration. A spherically bent mica crystal spectrograph viewing the axial output of the pinch region was used to measure the x-ray spectra. Spatially resolved spectra including the characteristic x-ray lines of highly ionized Ar and continua were recorded by means of an x-ray film. The x-ray emission of PF-1000 device was studied at different areas of the pinch.

  5. Resolution of safety issues associated with the storage of high-level radioactive waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellinger, G.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Tseng, J.C. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-08-01

    A number of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) safety issues have been identified at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Resolution of these issues is one of the Highest Priorities of the US Department of Energy. The most urgent issues are the potential for explosions in certain tanks (due to periodic venting of large quantities of flammable gases, or the presence of substantial quantities of ferrocyanide and/or organic compounds in combination with nitrates-nitrites). Other safety issues have been identified as well, such as the requirement for periodic water additions to one tank to control its temperature and the release of noxious vapors from a number of tanks. Substantial progress has been made toward safety issue resolution. Potential mechanisms have been identified for the generation, retention and periodic venting of flammable gas mixtures; potential methods for controlling the periodic release behavior have been identified and in-tank testing will be initiated in 1992. Research is being conducted to determine the initiation temperatures, energetics, reaction sequences and effects of catalysts and initiators on ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reactions; waste characterization on a tank-by-tank basis will be required to identify whether ferrocyanide-containing wastes are safe to store as-is or will require further treatment to eliminate safety concerns. Resolution of all of the Hanford Site HLW safety issues will be accomplished as an integral part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, that has been established to manage the storage of these wastes and their preparation for disposal.

  6. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K.

    2013-09-03

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  7. High-resolution truncated plurigaussian simulations for the characterization of heterogeneous formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariethoz, Grégroire; Cornaton, Fabien; Jaquet, Olivier; 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2008.00489.x

    2011-01-01

    Integrating geological concepts, such as relative positions and proportions of the different lithofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. The truncated plurigaussian simulation method provides a way of using both local and conceptual geological information to infer the distributions of the facies and then those of hydraulic parameters. The method (Le Loc'h and Galli 1994) is based on the idea of truncating at least two underlying multi-Gaussian simulations in order to create maps of categorical variable. In this manuscript we show how this technique can be used to assess contaminant migration in highly heterogeneous media. We illustrate its application on the biggest contaminated site of Switzerland. It consists of a contaminant plume located in the lower fresh water Molasse on the western Swiss Plateau. The highly heterogeneous character of this formation calls for efficient stochastic methods in order to characterize transport processes.

  8. TU-F-BRE-04: Development of a High-Resolution EPID Based Dosimetry Strategy for Radiosurgery QA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, B; Ding, A; Xing, L; Wang, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically investigate a high spatial-resolution (0.2mm) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for CyberKnife (CK) based radiosurgery system quality assurance (QA). Methods: An EPID-based dosimetric measurement technique is applied to CK output measurement and field size verification. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulated pixel-to-pixel EPID response specific to CK is used to convert a raw EPID-measured image of a radiosurgery field into water-based dose distribution. The output factors are measured using EPID for radiosurgery fields formed by fixed and variable aperture (Iris) cones. Circular fields of 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 30 and 60mm diameters are measured and compared with diode measurements. The equivalent diameters are determined by analyzing the area received dose greater than half maximum. Results: For both fixed and Iris cones, the EPID measured output factors of circular fields of 5mm to 60mm diameters are in good agreement with the radiosurgery diode measurements. The mean output differences are 1.0% and 1.5% for fixed and Iris cone respectively. The max differences are 2.2% for the 15mm fixed cone, and 1.8% for the 10mm Iris field. The equivalent diameters derived from the EPID measurements are in good agreement comparing to the water scan result with mean differences of 0.21±0.09mm and 0.02±0.22mm for fixed and Iris cone, respectively. The high detector density EPID is able to measure the whole radiation field and identify the field edge and center. Therefore, there is no need to align the detector center perfectly at field center and the setup time is greatly reduced for QA. Conclusion: The high spatial-resolution EPID is proved to be an accurate and efficient dosimetric tool for radiosurgery QA and especially useful in Cyberknife QA for variable aperture collimators.

  9. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. This algorithm assumed radial 1D variations of fluid saturation due to mud-filtrate invasion. Subsequently, we adapted the estimation method to interpret borehole field measurements acquired in both a shaly-sand sedimentary sequence and a tight-gas sandstone formation. In the two cases, we simulated the process of mud-filtrate invasion and concomitantly honored sonic and EM measurements. We produced reliable estimates of permeability and dry-rock moduli that were successfully validated with rock-core measurements. Finally, we introduced a new stochastic inversion procedure to estimate elastic, electrical, and petrophysical properties of layered media jointly from waveform sonic and frequency-domain EM measurements. The procedure was based on Bayesian statistical inversion and delivered estimates of uncertainty under various forms of a-priori information about the unknown properties. Tests on realistic synthetic models confirmed the reliability of this procedure to estimate elastic and petrophysical properties jointly from sonic and EM measurements. Several extended abstracts and conference presentations stemmed from this project, including 2 SEG extended abstracts, 1 SPE extended abstract, and 2 SPWLA extended abstracts. Some of these extended abstracts have been submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals.

  10. High-resolution line-shape spectroscopy during a laser pulse based on Dual-Broad-Band-CARS interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M E-mail: Al_Vereshchagin@mail.r E-mail: stelmakh@kapella.gpi.r

    2006-07-31

    A high-resolution spectroscopic method is developed for recording Raman spectra of molecular transitions in transient objects during a laser pulse with a resolution of {approx}0.1 cm{sup -1}. The method is based on CARS spectroscopy using a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis of the CARS signal and detecting a circular interferometric pattern on a two-dimensional multichannel photodetector. It is shown that the use of the Dual-Broad-Band-CARS configuration to obtain the CARS process provides the efficient averaging of the spectral-amplitude noise of the CARS signal generated by a laser pulse and, in combination with the angular integration of the two-dimensional interference pattern, considerably improves the quality of interferograms. The method was tested upon diagnostics of the transient oxygen-hydrogen flame where information on the shapes of spectral lines of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules required for measuring temperature was simultaneously obtained and used. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

  11. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at Jlab Hall C and the New Spectroscopy of ^12_Lambda B Hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Liguang; Chen, Chunhua; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Kawama, Daisuke; Han, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lulin; Matsumura, Akihiko; Okayasu, Yuichi; Seva, Tomislav; Rodriguez, Victor; Baturin, Pavlo; Acha Quimper, Armando; Achenbach, Carsten; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Ates, Ozgur; Badui, Rafael; Baker, Oliver; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Boeglin, Werner; Bono, Jason; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Carter, Philip; Carlini, Roger; Chiba, Atsushi; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Dalton, Mark; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; De Leo, Raffaele; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Doi, Daisuke; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D.; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hungerford, Ed; Jayalath, Chandana; Jones, Mark; Johnston, Kathleen; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, Seigo; Kawai, Masaharu; Keppel, Cynthia; Khanal, Hari; Kohl, M.; Kramer, Laird; Lan, Kejian; Li, Ya; Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Maeda, Kazushige; Malace, Simona; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Markowitz, Pete; Maruta, Tomofumi; Maruyama, Nayuta; Maxwell, Victor; Millener, David; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Motoba, Toshio; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narayan, Amrendra; Neville, Casey; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Nunez, Angel; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, Xiyu; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera, R.; Roche, Julie; Samanta, Chhanda; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segbefia, Edwin; Schott, Diane; Shichijo, Ayako; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Song, Yushou; Sumihama, Mizuki; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Taniya, Naotaka; Tsukada, Kyo; Tvaskis, Vladas; Veilleux, Micah; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yamamoto, Taku; Yan, Chen; Ye, Z.; Yokota, Kosuke; Zhamkochyan, Simon; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-09-01

    Since the pioneering experiment, E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "Tilt Method", to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet were added to produce precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. These two experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, resulted in two new data sets, producing sub-MeV energy resolution in the spectra of ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{28}_{\\Lambda} \\text{Al}$ and ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{10}_{\\Lambda}\\text{Be}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{52}_{\\Lambda}\\text{V}$. All three experiments obtained a ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$, spectrum, which is the most characteristic $p$-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ spectrum.

  12. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  13. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-30

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. 20 figs.

  14. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  15. High resolution imaging with Fresnel interferometric arrays: suitability for exoplanet detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Koechlin; D. Serre; P. Duchon

    2005-10-13

    We propose a new kind of interferometric array that yields images of high dynamic range and large field. The numerous individual apertures in this array form a pattern related to a Fresnel zone plate. This array can be used for astrophysical imaging over a broad spectral bandwidth spanning from the U.V. (50 nanometers) to the I.R. (20 microns). Due to the long focal lengths involved, this instrument requires formation-flying of two space borne vessels. We present the concept and study the S/N ratio in different situations, then apply these results to probe the suitability of this concept to detect exoplanets.

  16. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcomingmagnetoresistanceand Governmentm D m r ecmswL, Attachment3 3 Home

  17. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTechHigh-contrastproperties ofwall chemistry

  18. High Resolution Lithium Mapping Using Fe State of Charge in Energy-Filtered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect High Rate and StableTEM.

  19. High Resolution Lithium Mapping Using Fe State of Charge in Energy-Filtered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect High Rate and

  20. High-resolution Soft-RIXS: Scientific Goals and Technical Challenges |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: ProfessorHigh-Pressureand

  1. Reconstruction of a high-resolution late holocene arctic paleoclimate record from Colville River delta sediments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiner, Kathryn Melissa; Lowry, Thomas Stephen

    2013-10-01

    This work was partially supported by the Sandia National Laboratories,Laboratory Directed Research and Development' (LDRD) fellowship program in conjunction with Texas A&M University (TAMU). The research described herein is the work of Kathryn M. Schreiner (Katie') and her advisor, Thomas S. Bianchi and represents a concise description of Katie's dissertation that was submitted to the TAMU Office of Graduate Studies in May 2013 in partial fulfillment of her doctorate of philosophy degree. High Arctic permafrost soils contain a massive amount of organic carbon, accounting for twice as much carbon as what is currently stored as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, with current warming trends this sink is in danger of thawing and potentially releasing large amounts of carbon as both carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. It is difficult to make predictions about the future of this sink without knowing how it has reacted to past temperature and climate changes. This project investigated long term, fine scale particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery by the high-Arctic Colville River into Simpson's Lagoon in the near-shore Beaufort Sea. Modern POC was determined to be a mixture of three sources (riverine soils, coastal erosion, and marine). Downcore POC measurements were performed in a core close to the Colville River output and a core close to intense coastal erosion. Inputs of the three major sources were found to vary throughout the last two millennia, and in the Colville River core covary significantly with Alaskan temperature reconstructions.

  2. Resolution of the ferrocyanide safety issue for the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cash, R.J.; Babad, H.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the approach used to resolve the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue, a process that began in 1990 after heightened concern was expressed by various government agencies about the safety of Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. At the time, little was known about ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reactions and the potential for offsite releases of radioactivity from the Hanford Site. Recent studies have shown that the combined effects of temperature, radiation, and pH during more than 38 years of storage have destroyed most of the ferrocyanide originally added to tanks. This has been proven in the laboratory using flowsheet-derived waste simulants and confirmed by waste samples obtained from the ferrocyanide tanks. The resulting tank waste sludges are too dilute to support a sustained exothermic reaction, even if dried out and heated to temperatures of at least 250{degrees}C. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been requested to close the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue.

  3. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  4. A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR THE REMAINING DONOR FOR TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Yong, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jeffery, C. Simon [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Podsiadlowski, Philipp [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Venn, Kim A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Elliott Building, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: wkerzend@mso.anu.edu.au [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    In this paper, we report on our analysis using Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and Keck-I HIRES spectroscopy of the central six stars of Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572). With these data, we measured the proper motions, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and chemical abundances of these objects. Regarding the chemical abundances, we do not confirm the unusually high [Ni/Fe] ratio previously reported for Tycho-G. Rather, we find that for all metrics in all stars, none exhibit the characteristics expected from traditional Type Ia supernova single-degenerate-scenario calculations. The only possible exception is Tycho-B, a rare, metal-poor A-type star; however, we are unable to find a suitable scenario for it. Thus, we suggest that SN 1572 cannot be explained by the standard single-degenerate model.

  5. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  6. A global view of gravity waves in the Martian atmosphere inferred from a high-resolution general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Yi?it, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Global characteristics of the small-scale gravity wave (GW) field in the Martian atmosphere obtained from a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are presented for the first time. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. The model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere, and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered while propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates body forces of tens of m~s$^{-1}$~sol$^{-1}$, which tend to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCM si...

  7. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  8. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  9. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana; Li Luhua; Chen Ying; Cowie, Bruce C. C.

    2013-05-15

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  10. SU-E-I-40: New Method for Measurement of Task-Specific, High-Resolution Detector System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loughran, B; Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although generalized linear system analytic metrics such as GMTF and GDQE can evaluate performance of the whole imaging system including detector, scatter and focal-spot, a simplified task-specific measured metric may help to better compare detector systems. Methods: Low quantum-noise images of a neuro-vascular stent with a modified ANSI head phantom were obtained from the average of many exposures taken with the high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and with a Flat Panel Detector (FPD). The square of the Fourier Transform of each averaged image, equivalent to the measured product of the system GMTF and the object function in spatial-frequency space, was then divided by the normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) for each respective system to obtain a task-specific generalized signal-to-noise ratio. A generalized measured relative object detectability (GM-ROD) was obtained by taking the ratio of the integral of the resulting expressions for each detector system to give an overall metric that enables a realistic systems comparison for the given detection task. Results: The GM-ROD provides comparison of relative performance of detector systems from actual measurements of the object function as imaged by those detector systems. This metric includes noise correlations and spatial frequencies relevant to the specific object. Additionally, the integration bounds for the GM-ROD can be selected to emphasis the higher frequency band of each detector if high-resolution image details are to be evaluated. Examples of this new metric are discussed with a comparison of the MAF to the FPD for neuro-vascular interventional imaging. Conclusion: The GM-ROD is a new direct-measured task-specific metric that can provide clinically relevant comparison of the relative performance of imaging systems. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  11. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Yellow Hypergiant Rho Cassiopeiae from 1993 Through the Outburst of 2000-2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lobel; A. K. Dupree; R. P. Stefanik; G. Torres; G. Israelian; N. Morrison; C. de Jager; H. Nieuwenhuijzen; I. Ilyin; F. Musaev

    2003-01-14

    We present an overview of the spectral variability of the peculiar F-type hypergiant Rho Cas, obtained from our long-term monitoring campaigns over the past 8.5 years with four spectrographs in the northern hemisphere. Between 2000 June and September an exceptional variability phase occurred when the V-brightness dimmed by about a full magnitude. The star recovered from this deep minimum by 2001 April. It is the third outburst of Rho Cas on record in the last century. We observe TiO absorption bands in high-resolution near-IR spectra obtained with the Utrecht Echelle Spectrograph during the summer of 2000. TiO formation in the outer atmosphere occurred before the deep brightness minimum. Atmospheric models reveal that the effective temperature decreases by at least 3000 K, and the TiO shell is driven supersonically with Mdot ~= 5.4 10^{-2} Msun/yr. Strong episodic mass loss and TiO have also been observed during the outbursts of 1945-47 and 1985-86. A detailed analysis of the exceptional outburst spectra is provided, by comparing with high-resolution optical spectra of the early M-type supergiants Mu Cep (Ia) and Betelgeuse (Iab). The outburst spectra indicate the formation of a low-temperature, optically thick circumstellar gas shell of 3 10^{-2} Msun during ~200 d, caused by dynamic instability of the upper atmosphere of this pulsating massive supergiant near the Eddington luminosity limit. We observe that the mass-loss rate during the outburst is of the same order of magnitude as has been proposed for the outbursts of Eta Carinae. We present calculations that correctly predict the outburst time-scale, whereby the shell ejection is driven by the release of hydrogen ionization-recombination energy.

  12. Single-shot high-resolution characterization of optical pulses by temporal phase diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dorrer, C.; Waxer, L. J.; Kalb, A.; Hill, E. M.; Bromage, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of temporal phase diversity is proposed and applied to the temporal characterization of optical pulses. The experimental trace is composed of the measured power of a plurality of ancillary optical pulses derived from the pulse under test by adding known amounts of chromatic dispersion. The spectral phase of the pulse under test is retrieved by minimizing the error between the experimental trace and a trace calculated from the optical spectrum using the known diagnostic parameters. An assembly composed of splitters and dispersive delay fibers has been used to generate 64 ancillary pulses whose instantaneous power can be detectedmore »in a single shot with a high-bandwidth photodiode and oscilloscope. Pulse-shape reconstruction for pulses shorter than the photodetection impulse response has been demonstrated.The diagnostic is experimentally shown to accurately characterize pulses from a chirped-pulse–amplification system when its stretcher is detuned from the position for optimal recompression. Various investigations of the performance with respect to the number of ancillary pulses and the range of chromatic dispersion generated in the diagnostic are presented.« less

  13. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P., E-mail: emily@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: norris@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P. O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); and others

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.?01 and 1.?0 and brighter than ?m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  14. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  15. Associations of water and methanol masers at milli-arcsec angular resolution in two high-mass young stellar objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Goddi; L. Moscadelli; A. Sanna; R. Cesaroni; V. Minier

    2006-10-16

    Most previous high-angular (methanol masers. While high-angular resolution observations have clarified that water masers originate from shocks associated with protostellar jets, different environments have been proposed in several sources to explain the origin of methanol masers. Tha aim of the paper is to investigate the nature of the methanol maser birthplace in SFRs and the association between the water and methanol maser emission in the same young stellar object. We have conducted phase-reference Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of water and methanol masers toward two high-mass SFRs, Sh 2-255 IR and AFGL 5142. In Sh 2-255 IR water masers are aligned along a direction close to the orientation of the molecular outflow observed on angular scales of 1-10 arcsec, tracing possibly the disk-wind emerging from the disk atmosphere. In AFGL 5142 water masers trace expansion at the base of a protostellar jet, whilst methanol masers are more probably tracing infalling than outflowing gas. The results for AFGL 5142 suggest that water and methanol masers trace different kinematic structures in the circumstellar gas.

  16. High-resolution multi-MeV x-ray radiography using relativistic laser-solid interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Barbotin, M.; Bazzoli, S.; Brebion, D.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Le Dain, L.; Lefebvre, E.; Pichoff, N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Biddle, L.; Drew, D.; Gardner, M.; Ramsay, M.; Simons, A.; Sircombe, N. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    When high intensity ({>=}10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}) laser light interacts with matter, multi-MeV electrons are produced. These electrons can be utilized to generate a MeV bremsstrahlung x-ray emission spectrum as they propagate into a high-Z solid target positioned behind the interaction area. The short duration (<10 ps) and the small diameter (<500 {mu}m) of the x-ray pulse combined with the MeV x-ray spectrum offers an interesting alternative to conventional bremsstrahlung x-ray sources based on an electron accelerator used to radiograph dense, rapidly moving objects. In experiments at the Omega EP laser, a multi-MeV x-ray source is characterized consistently with number of independent diagnostics. An unfiltered x-ray dose of approximately 2 rad in air at 1 m and a source diameter of less than 350 {mu}m are inferred. Radiography of a complex and high area density (up to 61 g/cm{sup 2}) object is then performed with few hundred microns spatial resolution.

  17. High spatial resolution radiation detectors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, T [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering-Nuclear Engineering

    1995-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as a large-area thin film semiconductor with ease of doping and low-cost fabrication capability has given a new impetus to the field of imaging sensors; its high radiation resistance also makes it a good material for radiation detectors. In addition, large-area microelectronics based on a-Si:H or polysilicon can be made with full integration of peripheral circuits, including readout switches and shift registers on the same substrate. Thin a-Si:H p-i-n photodiodes coupled to suitable scintillators are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. The response speed of CsI/a-Si:H diode combinations to individual particulate radiation is limited by the scintillation light decay since the charge collection time of the diode is very short (< 10ns). The reverse current of the detector is analyzed in term of contact injection, thermal generation, field enhanced emission (Poole-Frenkel effect), and edge leakage. A good collection efficiency for a diode is obtained by optimizing the p layer of the diode thickness and composition. The CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an a-Si:H photodiode detector shows a capability for detecting minimum ionizing particles with S/N {approximately}20. In such an arrangement a p-i-n diode is operated in a photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). In addition, a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3--8 for shaping times of 1 {micro}s. The mechanism of the formation of structured CsI scintillator layers is analyzed. Initial nucleation in the deposited layer is sensitive to the type of substrate medium, with imperfections generally catalyzing nucleation. Therefore, the microgeometry of a patterned substrate has a significant effect on the structure of the CsI growth.

  18. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  19. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  20. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  1. High-resolution imaging of the molecular outflows in two mergers: IRAS17208-0014 and NGC1614

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Aalto, S; Colina, L; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hunt, L K; Arribas, S; Costagliola, F; Labiano, A; Neri, R; Pereira-Santaella, M; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into ULIRGs, and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. We have used the PdBI array to image with high spatial resolution (0.5"-1.2") the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) line emissions in NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, respectively. The velocity fields of the gas are analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum and energy of these components. While most (>95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially-resolved (~2-3kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that ex...

  2. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Smith; K. H. Hinkle; K. Cunha; B. Plez; D. L. Lambert; C. A. Pilachowski; B. Barbuy; J. Melendez; S. Balachandran; M. S. Bessell; D. P. Geisler; J. E. Hesser; C. Winge

    2002-08-22

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to supernovae of type Ia.

  3. Nanosecond molecular relaxations in lipid bilayers studied by high energy resolution neutron scattering and in-situ diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maikel C. Rheinstädter; Tilo Seydel; Tim Salditt

    2006-07-20

    We report a high energy-resolution neutron backscattering study to investigate slow motions on nanosecond time scales in highly oriented solid supported phospholipid bilayers of the model system DMPC -d54 (deuterated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine), hydrated with heavy water. Wave vector resolved quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is used to determine relaxation times $\\tau$, which can be associated with different molecular components, i.e., the lipid acyl chains and the interstitial water molecules in the different phases of the model membrane system. The inelastic data are complemented both by energy resolved and energy integrated in-situ diffraction. From a combined analysis of the inelastic data in the energy and time domain, the respective character of the relaxation, i.e., the exponent of the exponential decay is also determined. From this analysis we quantify two relaxation processes. We associate the fast relaxation with translational diffusion of lipid and water molecules while the slow process likely stems from collective dynamics.

  4. HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF DY Cen: DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS IN A PROTO-FULLERENE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Rao, N. Kameswara [543, 17th Main, IV Sector, HSR Layout, Bangalore 560102 (India); Lambert, David L., E-mail: agarcia@iac.es, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W.J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1083 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We search high-resolution and high-quality VLT/UVES optical spectra of the hot R Coronae Borealis star DY Cen for electronic transitions of the C{sub 60} molecule and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We report the non-detection of the strongest C{sub 60} electronic transitions (e.g., those at {approx}3760, 3980, and 4024 A). The absence of C{sub 60} absorption bands may support recent laboratory results, which show that the {approx}7.0, 8.5, 17.4, and 18.8 {mu}m emission features seen in DY Cen-and other similar objects with polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-like dominated IR spectra-are attributable to proto-fullerenes or fullerene precursors rather than to C{sub 60}. DIBs toward DY Cen are normal for its reddening; the only exception is the DIB at 6284 A (possibly also the 7223 A DIB) which is found to be unusually strong. We also report the detection of a new broad (FWHM {approx} 2 A) and unidentified feature centered at {approx}4000 A. We suggest that this new band may be related to the circumstellar proto-fullerenes seen at infrared wavelengths.

  5. Y High-Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single MicropulseXun Lu Xun Lu Xun Lu5:

  6. Probing Structural Dynamics with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Research Team: Nigel Browning, James Evans, Patricia Abellan, Russell Tonkyn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -corrected dynamic TEM (DTEM), where a photoemission source will enable these time-resolved images to be obtained at/near atomic resolution Expected Outcomes Single-shot imaging with atomic spatial resolution for in situ gas operational 10/13 Application of in situ methods in the DTEM and development of new capabilities for battery

  7. Chemical Characterization of Crude Petroleum Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-07

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for the first time for the analysis of liquid petroleum crude oil samples. The analysis was performed in both positive and negative ionization modes using three solvents one of which (acetonitrile/toluene mixture) is commonly used in petroleomics studies while two other polar solvents (acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures) are generally not compatible with petroleum characterization using mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that nano-DESI analysis efficiently ionizes petroleum constituents soluble in a particular solvent. When acetonitrile/toluene is used as a solvent, nano-DESI generates electrospray-like spectra. In contrast, strikingly different spectra were obtained using acetonitrile/water and methanol/water. Comparison with the literature data indicates that these solvents selectively extract water-soluble constituents of the crude oil. Water-soluble compounds are predominantly observed as sodium adducts in nano-DESI spectra indicating that addition of sodium to the solvent may be a viable approach for efficient ionization of water-soluble crude oil constituents. Nano-DESI enables rapid screening of different classes of compounds in crude oil samples using solvents that are rarely used for petroleum characterization.

  8. CoRoT photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of the interacting eclipsing binary AU Mon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desmet, M; Baudin, F; Harmanec, P; Lampens, P; Pacheco, E Janot; Briquet, M; Degroote, P; Neiner, C; Mathias, P; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Uytterhoeven, K; Amado, P J; Valtier, J -C; Prsa, A; Maceroni, C; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of very accurate CoRoT space photometry, past Johnson V photoelectric photometry and high-resolution \\'echelle spectra led to the determination of improved and consistent fundamental stellar properties of both components of AU Mon. We derived new, accurate ephemerides for both the orbital motion (with a period of 11.113d) and the long-term, overall brightness variation (with a period of 416.9d) of this strongly interacting Be + G semi-detached binary. It is shown that this long-term variation must be due to attenuation of the total light by some variable circumbinary material. We derived the binary mass ratio $M_{\\rm G}/M_{\\rm B}$ = 0.17\\p0.03 based on the assumption that the G-type secondary fills its Roche lobe and rotates synchronously. Using this value of the mass ratio as well as the radial velocities of the G-star, we obtained a consistent light curve model and improved estimates of the stellar masses, radii, luminosities and effective temperatures. We demonstrate that the observed lines of the...

  9. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Balmer-Dominated Shocks in the RCW 86, Kepler and SN 1006 Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesper Sollerman; Parviz Ghavamian; Peter Lundqvist; R. Chris Smith

    2003-06-10

    We report results from high resolution optical spectroscopy of three non-radiative galactic supernova remnants, RCW 86, Kepler's supernova remnant and SN 1006. We have measured the narrow component H-alpha line widths in Balmer-dominated filaments in RCW 86 and SN 1006, as well as the narrow component width in a Balmer-dominated knot in Kepler's SNR. The narrow component line widths measured in RCW 86 and Kepler's SNR show FWHM of 30-40 km/s, similar to what has been seen in other Balmer-dominated remnants. Of the remnants in our sample, SN 1006 is the fastest shock (~3000 km/s). The narrow component H-alpha and H-beta lines in this remnant have a FWHM of merely 21 km/s. Comparing the narrow component widths measured in our sample with those measured in other remnants shows that the width of the narrow component does not correlate in a simple way with the shock velocity. The implications for the pre-heating mechanism responsible for the observed line widths are discussed.

  10. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-Ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natale, Giovanni; Tuffs, Richard J; Debattista, Victor P; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W

    2015-01-01

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-Ray, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive SED library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-Ray to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, bo...

  11. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Revercomb, David Tobin, Robert Knuteson, Lori Borg, Leslie Moy

    2009-06-17

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004. More specifically, our major achievements for ARM include 1. Development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) to function like a satellite on the ground for ARM, providing a steady stream of accurately calibrated spectral radiances for Science Team clear sky and cloud applications (Knuteson et al. 2004a), 2. Detailed radiometric calibration and characterization of AERI radiances, with uncertainty estimates established from complete error analyses and proven by inter-comparison tests (Knuteson et al. 2004b), 3. AERI data quality assessment and maintenance over the extended time frames needed to support ARM (Dedecker et al., 2005) 4. Key role in the radiative transfer model improvements from the AERI/LBLRTM QME (Turner et al. 2004) and AERI-ER especially from the SHEBA experiment (Tobin et al. 1999), 5. Contributed scientific and programmatic leadership leading to significant water vapor accuracy improvements and uncertainty assessments for the low to mid troposphere (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003), 6. Leadership of the ARM assessment of the accuracy of water vapor observations from radiosondes, Raman Lidar and in situ aircraft observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (Tobin et al. 2002, Ferrare et al. 2004), 7. New techniques for characterizing clouds from AERI (DeSlover et al. 1999, Turner 2003b, Turner et al. 2003b), 8. Initial design and development of the Scanning-HIS aircraft instrument and application to ARM UAV Program missions (Revercomb et al. 2005), and 9. Coordinated efforts leading to the use of ARM observations as a key validation tool for the high resolution Atmospheric IR Sounder on the NASA Aqua platform (Tobin et al. 2005a) 10. Performed ARM site and global clear sky radiative closure studies that shows closure of top-of-atmosphere flux at the level of ~1 W/m2 (Moy et al 2008 and Section 3 of this appendix) 11. Performed studies to characterize SGP site cirrus cloud property retrievals and assess impacts on computed fluxes and heating rate profiles (Borg et al. 2008 and Section 2 of this appendix).

  12. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1? recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  13. Two- and three-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) structures for a high resolution diamond-based MEMS technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.

    2000-01-17

    Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.

  14. Design, assembly, and testing of a high-resolution relay lens used for holography with operation at both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Danny S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pazuchanics, Peter D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Cox, Brian C [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Kaufman, Morris I [NSTEC; Capelle, Gene A [NSTEC/SB; Grover, M [NSTEC/SB; Stevens, Gerald D [NSTEC/SB; Turley, William D [NSTEC/SB

    2009-01-01

    The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.

  15. p-air cross-section measurement at 1018.5 for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    p-air cross-section measurement at 1018.5 eV. K. Belova for the High Resolution Fly's Eye (Hi, USA We present the first measurement of p-air inelastic cross-section at 1018.5 eV using the Hi distribution is proposed. Monte Carlo simulations with the CORSIKA air shower generator and QGSJet and SIBYLL2

  16. Native Chemical Ligation at Asx-Cys, Glx-Cys: Chemical Synthesis and High-Resolution Xray Structure of ShK Toxin by Racemic Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    Native Chemical Ligation at Asx-Cys, Glx-Cys: Chemical Synthesis and High-Resolution Xray Structure Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We have re-examined the utility of native chemical ligation at -Gln- mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPAA), native chemical ligation could be performed at -Gln-Cys- and Asn-Cys- sites without

  17. High-resolution late-glacial chronology for the Gerzensee lake record (Switzerland): O correlation between a Gerzensee-stack and NGRIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    High-resolution late-glacial chronology for the Gerzensee lake record (Switzerland): 18 O Eicher c a Geological Institute, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland b Oeschger Centre, Switzerland c Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland d Institute

  18. Joint stochastic inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data and well logs for high-resolution reservoir characterization and petrophysical modeling: application to deepwater hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Joint stochastic inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data and well logs for high-resolution reservoir of migrated 3D pre-stack seismic data. The inversion algorithm is based on a Bayesian statistical search of elastic and petrophysical properties we resorted to amplitude information of 3D pre-stack seismic data

  19. Parameterization of meander-belt elements in high-resolution three-dimensional seismic data using the GeoTime cube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    the meander belt in the up- and downstream direction. High-resolution three-dimensional seismic (3D HRS) data caused by post-depositional processes. A method called GeoTime cube is presented that over- comes study of a fluvio-estuarine reservoir from Suriname demonstrates how fluvial point bars, channel fills

  20. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  1. High-resolution multiproxy records of sedimentological changes induced by dams in the Sept-les area (Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-resolution multiproxy records of sedimentological changes induced by dams in the Sept. Sedimentological variations have been investigated by wavelet analysis using XRF data and the sharp disappearance sedimentary dam impacts is to disentangle the dam-induced sedimentological variations from the natural

  2. 7 Plots of Biomass Burning and Dust Plumes This supplementary section shows curtain plots from the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    7 Plots of Biomass Burning and Dust Plumes This supplementary section shows curtain plots from the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar for cases of fresh biomass burning plumes and dust: Curtain plots of HSRL backscatter coefficients and intensive properties for transects over fresh biomass

  3. A Long-Term, High-Resolution Wetland Dataset over the Amazon Basin, Downscaled from a Multiwavelength Retrieval Using SAR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Long-Term, High-Resolution Wetland Dataset over the Amazon Basin, Downscaled from Matiere en Astrophysique, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Paris, France FABRICE PAPA Laboratoire d'Etude en Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, France (Manuscript received 29

  4. TU-F-BRE-01: A High Resolution Micro Fiber Scintillator Detector Optimized for SRS and SBRT in Vivo Real Time Treatment Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaguirre, E; Rangaraj, D; Price, S; Knewtson, T; Loyalka, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have built a high resolution real time scintillating fiber detector prototype to determine in real time the accuracy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments when only a fraction of the planned dose was delivered. The motivation of this work is to enhance dose delivery accuracy and to achieve error free radiosurgery. Methods: A high density array of scintillating fibers and a high speed photo detectors array were integrated to implement a high resolution real time dosimeter that can sample with high resolution pulsed SRS and SBRT beams cross sections. The high efficiency of the developed system allows to read each linac pulse in real time and to compute the accumulated dose and dose errors when only a fraction of the beam was delivered. The fibers are highly packed in a substrate that is directly coupled to two 128 pixel arrays with a pitch matching the fiber spacing to achieve accurate spatial localization. The small cross section of the fiber array allows stacking multiple fiber arrays to measure independent angular profiles that are digitally processed in parallel for real time dosimetry. Results: We implemented a high density array detector prototype with a pitch of 0.5 mm, readout speed of 1.2 msec, and a response time of 0.5 usec. The fast reading speed has the capability to determining the dose in flattening free filter beams. The detector can be installed in transmission mode at the output port of a micro-MLC. Treatment deviations smaller than 3% are detected when less than 1/100 of the planned dose was delivered. Conclusions: We built a prototype of a high resolution fiber scintillator array detector for SRS and SBRT in vivo dosimetry. Results show that the developed detector has the potential to assure error free SRS and SBRT treatments.

  5. High-resolution data of the Iceland Basin geomagnetic excursion from ODP sites 1063 and 983: Existence of intense flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niocaill, Conall Mac

    -resolution records of the 185 kyr Iceland Basin (IB) geomagnetic excursion from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site conventional palaeointensity proxies (NRM/ARM and NRM/) to recover relative palaeointensity (RPI) estimates

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE REIONIZATION OF AN ISOLATED MILKY WAY-M31 GALAXY PAIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l'Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Knebe, A.; Yepes, G. [Grupo de Astrofísica, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-8, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-280049 (Spain); Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S. [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Hoffman, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations aimed at studying reionization at the galactic scale. We use a high-resolution realization of the formation of the Milky Way (MW)-M31 system to simulate the reionization of the Local Group. The reionization calculation was performed with the post-processing radiative transfer code ATON and the underlying cosmological simulation was performed as part of the CLUES project (http://www.clues-project.org). We vary the source models to bracket the range of source properties used in the literature. We investigate the structure and propagation of the galactic ionization fronts by a visual examination of our reionization maps. Within the progenitors, we find that reionization is patchy and proceeds locally inside-out. The process becomes patchier with decreasing source photon output. It is generally dominated by one major H II region and one to four additional isolated smaller bubbles, which eventually overlap. Higher emissivity results in faster and earlier local reionization. In all models, the reionization of the MW and M31 are similar in duration, i.e., between 203 Myr and 22 Myr depending on the source model, placing their z{sub reion} between 8.4 and 13.7. In all models except the most extreme, the MW and M31 progenitors reionize internally, ignoring each other despite being relatively close to each other, even during the epoch of reionization. Only in the case of strong supernova feedback suppressing star formation in halos less massive than 10{sup 9} M{sub ?}, and using our highest emissivity, do we find that the MW is reionized by M31.

  7. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biasesmore »versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.« less

  8. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Variable Early-Type Be and B stars Derived from High-Resolution IUE Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myron A. Smith

    2001-07-10

    High-dispersion IUE data encode significant information about aggregate line absorptions that cannot be conveniently extracted from individual spectra. We apply a new technique in which fluxes from each echelle order of a short wavelength IUE spectrum are binned together to construct low-resolution spectra of a rapidly varying B or Be star. The ratio of binned spectra obtained bright- star and faint-star phases contains information about the mechanism responsible for a star's variability, such as from pulsations or occultations of the star by ejected matter. We model the variations caused by these mechanism by means of model atmosphere and absorbing-slab codes. Line absorptions strength changes are sensitive to conditions in circumstellar clouds with T = 8,000--13,000K. To demonstrate proofs of concept, we construct spectral ratios for circumstellar structures associated with flux variability in various Be stars: (1) Vela X1 has bow-shock wind trailing its neutron star companion and shows signatures of gas at 13,000K or 26,000K medium in different sectors, (2) 88 Her undergoes episodic outbursts as its UV flux fades, followed a year later by a dimming in visible wavelengths, a result of a gray opacity that dominates as the shell expands and cools, and (3) zeta Tau and 60 Cyg exhibit periodic spectrum and flux changes, which match model absorptions for occulting clouds. Also, ratioed UV spectra of strongly pulsating stars show unique spectrophotometric signatures which can be simulated with models. An analysis of ratioed spectra obtained for a typical sample of 18 classical Be stars known to have rapid periodic flux variations indicates that 13 of them have ratioed spectra which are relatively featureless or have signatures of pulsation. Ratioed spectra of 3 others in the sample are consistent with the presence of co-rotating clouds.

  9. Non-thermal emission from extragalactic radio sources: a high resolution broad band (radio to X-rays) approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianfranco Brunetti

    2002-07-31

    In the framework of the study of extragalactic radio sources, we will focus on the importance of the spatial resolution at different wavelengths, and of the combination of observations at different frequency bands. In particular, a substantial step forward in this field is now provided by the new generation X-ray telescopes which are able to image radio sources in between 0.1--10 keV with a spatial resolution comparable with that of the radio telescopes (VLA) and of the optical telescopes. After a brief description of some basic aspects of acceleration mechanisms and of the radiative processes at work in the extragalactic radio sources, we will focus on a number of recent radio, optical and X-ray observations with arcsec resolution, and discuss the deriving constraints on the physics of these sources.

  10. Conference & Exhibition --London, UK, 11 -14 June 2007 High Resolution Thin-Bed Inversion Based on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    -wavelength scale. The presented thin-bed seismic inversion method, which makes use of a priori information obtained of Technology) SUMMARY The analysis of seismic data is always an inversion problem since the quantities from a well, is quite sufficient for very thin reservoirs. The resolution of the thin-bed inversion

  11. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  12. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xian-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution IXS spectroscopy.

  13. A search for Fast Radio Bursts at low frequencies with Murchison Widefield Array high time resolution imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Feng, L; Gaensler, B M; Greenhill, L J; Hancock, P J; Hazelton, B J; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Lonsdale, C J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Murphy, T; Oberoi, D; Prabu, T; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot study search for Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at low frequencies (139 - 170 MHz). We utilised MWA data obtained in a routine imaging mode from observations where the primary target was a field being studied for Epoch of Reionisation detection. We formed images with 2 second time resolution and 1.28~MHz frequency resolution for 10.5 hours of observations, over 400 square degrees of the sky. We de-dispersed the dynamic spectrum in each of 372,100 resolution elements of 2$\\times$2 arcmin$^{2}$, between dispersion measures of 170 and 675~pc~cm$^{-3}$. Based on the event rate calculations in Trott, Tingay & Wayth (2013), which assumes a standard candle luminosity of $8\\times10^{37}$ Js$^{-1}$, we predict that with this choice of observational parameters, the MWA should detect ($\\sim10$,$\\sim2$,$\\sim0$) FRBs with spectral indices corresponding to ($-$2, $-$1, 0), based on a 7$\\sigma$ detection threshold. We find no FRB candidates above this...

  14. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J.C.E. Williams, J.J. Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-06-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: • Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization • Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency • X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution • Novel lab-scale XCT data acquisition and data processing methods • 3D characterization of glass-bead mock plastic-bonded-explosive stimulant.

  15. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  16. A Keck Adaptive Optics Survey of a Representative Sample of Gravitationally-Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies: High Spatial Resolution Studies of Kinematics and Metallicity Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S; Stark, Daniel P; Richard, Johan; Zitrin, Adi; Auger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We discuss spatially resolved emission line spectroscopy secured for a total sample of 15 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at a mean redshift of $z\\simeq2$ based on Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics observations undertaken with the recently-improved OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph. By exploiting gravitationally lensed sources drawn primarily from the CASSOWARY survey, we sample these sub-L$^{\\ast}$ galaxies with source-plane resolutions of a few hundred parsecs ensuring well-sampled 2-D velocity data and resolved variations in the gas-phase metallicity. Such high spatial resolution data offers a critical check on the structural properties of larger samples derived with coarser sampling using multiple-IFU instruments. We demonstrate how serious errors of interpretation can only be revealed through better sampling. Although we include four sources from our earlier work, the present study provides a more representative sample unbiased with respect to emission line strength. Contrary t...

  17. Development of a high-frame-rate high-resolution particle image velocimetry system and applications to the characterization of synthetic jet actuators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilarranz, Jose Luis

    1998-01-01

    to 3,000 frames per second and a maximum image resolution of 512 by 512 pixels. The performance of these systems was demonstrated by utilizing them to experimentally characterize the flowfield generated by a synthetic jet actuator, operating at a...

  18. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury VIII: A Wide-Area, High-Resolution Map of Dust Extinction in M31

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Hogg, David W; Lang, Dustin; Leroy, Adam K; Gordon, Karl D; Sandstrom, Karin; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Bell, Eric F; Dong, Hui; Gilbert, Karoline M; Gouliermis, Dimitrious A; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Lauer, Tod R; Schruba, Andreas; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25pc resolution, using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. We develop a new mapping technique that models the NIR color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Fits to the model constrain the median extinction, the width of the extinction distribution, and the fraction of reddened stars. The resulting extinction map has >4 times better resolution than maps of dust emission, while providing a more direct measurement of the dust column. There is superb morphological agreement between the new map and maps of the extinction inferred from dust emission by Draine et al. 2014. However, the widely-used Draine & Li (2007) dust models overpredict the observed extinction by a factor of ~2.5, suggesting that M31's true dust mass is lower and that dust grains are sign...

  19. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  20. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a relational model to predict porosity and permeability profiles from well logs at each well location, and a 3D geostatistical variogram to generate the reservoir characterization over the reservoir volume of interest. A reservoir simulation model was built based upon this characterization and history-matched without making significant changes to it, thus validating the procedure. While not the same procedure as originally planned, the procedure ultimately employed proved successful and demonstrated that the general concepts proposed (i.e., data mining and advanced pattern recognition methods) have the flexibility to achieve the reservoir characterization objectives sought even with imperfect or incomplete data.

  1. A method to determine fault vectors in 4H-SiC from stacking sequences observed on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Mueller, Stephan G.; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward K.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric

    2014-09-14

    A new method has been developed to determine the fault vectors associated with stacking faults in 4H-SiC from their stacking sequences observed on high resolution TEM images. This method, analogous to the Burgers circuit technique for determination of dislocation Burgers vector, involves determination of the vectors required in the projection of the perfect lattice to correct the deviated path constructed in the faulted material. Results for several different stacking faults were compared with fault vectors determined from X-ray topographic contrast analysis and were found to be consistent. This technique is expected to applicable to all structures comprising corner shared tetrahedra.

  2. Measurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics and Nevis Laboratory, New York, New York, USA 6) University of New Mexico, Department of PhysicsMeasurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High of Utah, Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 2

  3. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1506 High-reflectivity high-resolution X-ray crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    , but also in high-tech applications, such as diamond-based electronic devices, wide-bandgap radiationLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1506 High-reflectivity high-ray free-electron laser oscillators1­3 . Diamond is a material with superlative physical qualities: high

  4. High-resolution search for the $?^{+}$ pentaquark via a pion-induced reaction at J-PARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J-PARC E19 Collaboration; :; M. Moritsu; S. Adachi; M. Agnello; S. Ajimura; K. Aoki; H. C. Bhang; B. Bassalleck; E. Botta; S. Bufalino; N. Chiga; H. Ekawa; P. Evtoukhovitch; A. Feliciello; H. Fujioka; S. Hayakawa; F. Hiruma; R. Honda; K. Hosomi; Y. Ichikawa; M. Ieiri; Y. Igarashi; K. Imai; N. Ishibashi; S. Ishimoto; K. Itahashi; R. Iwasaki; C. W. Joo; S. Kanatsuki; M. J. Kim; S. J. Kim; R. Kiuchi; T. Koike; Y. Komatsu; V. V. Kulikov; S. Marcello; S. Masumoto; Y. Matsumoto; K. Matsuoka; K. Miwa; T. Nagae; M. Naruki; M. Niiyama; H. Noumi; Y. Nozawa; R. Ota; K. Ozawa; N. Saito; A. Sakaguchi; H. Sako; V. Samoilov; M. Sato; S. Sato; Y. Sato; S. Sawada; M. Sekimoto; K. Shirotori; H. Sugimura; S. Suzuki; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. N. Takahashi; H. Tamura; T. Tanaka; K. Tanida; A. O. Tokiyasu; N. Tomida; Z. Tsamalaidze; M. Ukai; K. Yagi; T. O. Yamamoto; S. B. Yang; Y. Yonemoto; C. J. Yoon; K. Yoshida

    2014-10-09

    The pentaquark $\\Theta^+$ has been searched for via the $\\pi^-p \\to K^-X$ reaction with beam momenta of 1.92 and 2.01 GeV/$c$ at J-PARC. A missing mass resolution of 2 MeV (FWHM) was achieved but no sharp peak structure was observed. The upper limits on the production cross section averaged over the scattering angle from 2$^{\\circ}$ to 15$^{\\circ}$ in the laboratory frame were found to be less than 0.28 $\\mu$b/sr at the 90\\% confidence level for both the 1.92- and 2.01-GeV/$c$ data. The systematic uncertainty of the upper limits was controlled within 10\\%. Constraints on the $\\Theta^+$ decay width were also evaluated with a theoretical calculation using effective Lagrangian. The present result implies that the width should be less than 0.36 and 1.9 MeV for the spin-parity of $1/2^+$ and $1/2^-$, respectively.

  5. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422 - The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Magnus V; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 5(3,2)-4(4,1) transition of H2-18O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) as well as the 3(1,3)-2(2,0) of H2-18O at 203.40752 GHz and the 3(1,2)-2(2,1) transition of HDO at 225.89672 GHz from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) are presented. The 692 GHz H2-18O line is seen toward both components of the binary protostar. Toward one of the components, "source B", the line is seen in absorption toward the continuum, slightly red-shifted from the systemic velocity, whereas emission is seen off-source at the systemic velocity. Toward the other component, "source A", the two HDO and H2-18O lines are detecte...

  6. Designing Large High-Resolution Display Workspaces Alex Endert, Lauren Bradel, Jessica Zeitz, Christopher Andrews, Chris North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    powerwalls capable of presenting large amounts of information at a high level of detail (Figure 2). Their form factors vary from tabletop displays, to immersive caves, to powerwalls. The computers driving

  7. AMBER/VLTI high spectral resolution observations of the Br$\\gamma$ emitting region in HD 98922. A compact disc wind launched from the inner disc region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garatti, A Caratti o; Lopez, R Garcia; Kraus, S; Schertl, D; Grinin, V P; Weigelt, G; Hofmann, K -H; Massi, F; Lagarde, S; Vannier, M; Malbet, F

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the main physical parameters and the circumstellar environment of the young Herbig Be star HD 98922. We present AMBER/VLTI high spectral resolution (R =12000) interferometric observations across the Br$\\gamma$ line, accompanied by UVES high-resolution spectroscopy and SINFONI-AO assisted near-infrared integral field spectroscopic data. To interpret our observations, we develop a magneto-centrifugally driven disc-wind model. Our analysis of the UVES spectrum shows that HD 98922 is a young (~5x10^5 yr) Herbig Be star (SpT=B9V), located at a distance of 440(+60-50) pc, with a mass accretion rate of ~9+/-3x10^(-7) M_sun yr^(-1). SINFONI K-band AO-assisted imaging shows a spatially resolved circumstellar disc-like region (~140 AU in diameter) with asymmetric brightness distribution. Our AMBER/VLTI UT observations indicate that the Br$\\gamma$ emitting region (radius ~0.31+/-0.04 AU) is smaller than the continuum emitting region (inner dust radius ~0.7+/-0.2 AU), showing significant non-zero V-shaped diff...

  8. Galaxies Probing Galaxies at High Resolution: Co-Rotating Gas Associated with a Milky Way Analog at z=0.4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Moustakas, John; Tremonti, Christy A; Sell, Paul H; Mendez, Alexander J; Hickox, Ryan C; Rudnick, Greg H

    2015-01-01

    We present results on gas flows in the halo of a Milky Way-like galaxy at z=0.413 based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a background galaxy. This is the first study of circumgalactic gas at high spectral resolution towards an extended background source (i.e., a galaxy rather than a quasar). Using longslit spectroscopy of the foreground galaxy, we observe spatially extended H alpha emission with circular rotation velocity v=270 km/s. Using echelle spectroscopy of the background galaxy, we detect Mg II and Fe II absorption lines at impact parameter rho=27 kpc that are blueshifted from systemic in the sense of the foreground galaxy's rotation. The strongest absorber EW(2796) = 0.90 A has an estimated column density (N_H>10^19 cm-2) and line-of-sight velocity dispersion (sigma=17 km/s) that are consistent with the observed properties of extended H I disks in the local universe. Our analysis of the rotation curve also suggests that this r=30 kpc gaseous disk is warped with respect to the stellar disk. In additi...

  9. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  10. Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

  11. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  12. Phase-modulated electronic wave-packet interferometry reveals high resolution vibronic spectra of free Rb atoms and Rb*He molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phase-modulated wave-packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave-packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited $5\\Pi_{3/2}$ and the high-lying electronic states $2^2\\Pi$, $4^2\\Delta$, $6^2\\Sigma$ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments.

  13. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of ?-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore »groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of ?-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm?3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  14. The Lago Cardiel Basin, Argentina (49S): Origin and evolution revealed by high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    The Lago Cardiel Basin, Argentina (49°S): Origin and evolution revealed by high source in the closed lake system of Lago Cardiel, Argentina (49°S). As part of an ongoing study reflection surveys in the closed lake system of Lago Cardiel, Argentina (Fig. 1), with 3.5-kHz and boomer

  15. PRACE Project Access for Seasonal Prediction with a high ResolUtion Climate modEl (SPRUCE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate variations six months ahead, by co mbining our best present tools and data with a high performance are of strong potential value, since society and key economic sectors (energy, agriculture, ...) have to base) and local predictability of temperature over Europe. We will then examine the predictability of summer heat

  16. Stratigraphy and structure of interior layered deposits in west Candor Chasma, Mars, from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) stereo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Stratigraphy and structure of interior layered deposits in west Candor Chasma, Mars, from High the stratigraphy of two adjacent mounds. Layering tends to dip in the same direction as the local topographic slope rotations. The stratigraphy of two adjacent mounds correlates, but the thicknesses of the units differ. Most

  17. High-resolution velocity measurements on fully identified light nuclides produced in 56Fe + hydrogen and 56Fe + titanium systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Napolitani; K. -H. Schmidt; A. S. Botvina; F. Rejmund; L. Tassan-Got; C. Villagrasa

    2004-12-02

    New experimental results on the kinematics and the residue production are obtained for the interactions of 56Fe projectiles with protons and (nat)Ti target nuclei, respectively, at theincident energy of 1 A GeV. The titanium-induced reaction serves as a reference case for multifragmentation. Already in the proton-induced reaction, the characteristics of the isotopic cross sections and the shapes of the velocity spectra of light residues indicate that high thermal energy is deposited in the system during the collision. In the 56Fe+p system the high excitation seems to favour the onset of fast break-up decays dominated by very asymmetric partitions of the disassembling system. This configuration leads to the simultaneous formation of one or more light fragments together with one heavy residue.

  18. High Resolution Spectroscopy of SN1987A's Rings: He I 10830 and H-alpha from the Hotspots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith; Richard McCray

    2007-05-21

    We present the first high-dispersion spectroscopy of He I 10830 from the hotspots in the ring around SN1987A, obtained at Gemini South, spatially resolving the near and far sides of the ring. We compare these line profiles to similar echelle spectra of H$\\alpha$ and [N II] 6583 obtained at the Magellan Observatory. We find that the He I profiles are much broader than H-alpha or [N II], but the He I profiles also have different shapes -- they have enhanced emission at high speeds, with extra blueshifted emission on the north side of the ring, and extra redshifted emission on the south side. To explain this, we invoke a simple geometric picture where the extra He I emission traces hotter gas from faster shocks that strike the apex of the hotspots directly, while the H-alpha preferentially traces cooler lower-ionization gas from slower transverse shocks that penetrate into the sides of the ring.

  19. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  20. Mapping pan-Arctic methane emissions at high spatial resolution using an adjoint atmospheric transport and inversion method and process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Z.; Zhuang, Q.; Henze, D. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Sweeney, C.; Turner, A. J.

    2015-11-18

    Understanding methane emissions from the Arctic, a fast warming carbon reservoir, is important for projecting changes in the global methane cycle under future climate scenarios. Here we optimize Arctic methane emissions with a nested-grid high-resolution inverse model by assimilating both high-precision surface measurements and column-average SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals of methane mole fraction. For the first time, methane emissions from lakes are integrated into an atmospheric transport and inversion estimate, together with prior wetland emissions estimated by six different biogeochemical models. We find that, the global methane emissions during July 2004–June 2005 ranged from 496.4 to 511.5 Tg yr?1, with wetlandmore »methane emissions ranging from 130.0 to 203.3 Tg yr?1. The Arctic methane emissions during July 2004–June 2005 were in the range of 14.6–30.4 Tg yr?1, with wetland and lake emissions ranging from 8.8 to 20.4 Tg yr?1 and from 5.4 to 7.9 Tg yr?1 respectively. Canadian and Siberian lakes contributed most of the estimated lake emissions. Due to insufficient measurements in the region, Arctic methane emissions are less constrained in northern Russia than in Alaska, northern Canada and Scandinavia. Comparison of different inversions indicates that the distribution of global and Arctic methane emissions is sensitive to prior wetland emissions. Evaluation with independent datasets shows that the global and Arctic inversions improve estimates of methane mixing ratios in boundary layer and free troposphere. The high-resolution inversions provide more details about the spatial distribution of methane emissions in the Arctic.« less