Sample records for high purity germanium

  1. Operation of a high purity germanium crystal in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John L. Orrell; Craig E. Aalseth; John F. Amsbaugh; Peter J. Doe; Todd W. Hossbach

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A high purity germanium crystal was operated in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer. Spectroscopic quality resolution of less than 1% of the full-width half maximum of full energy deposition peaks was demonstrated. The construction of the small apparatus used to obtain these results is reported. The design concept is to use the liquid argon bath to both cool the germanium crystal to operating temperatures and act as a scintillating veto. The scintillation light from the liquid argon can veto cosmic-rays, external primordial radiation, and gamma radiation that does not fully deposit within the germanium crystal. This technique was investigated for its potential impact on ultra-low background gamma-ray spectroscopy. This work is based on a concept initially developed for future germanium-based neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments.

  2. High Purity Germanium Detectors at LBNL | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Purity Germanium Detectors at LBNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear...

  3. High-Purity Germanium Spectroscopy at Rates in Excess of 10^{6} Events/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDevender, Brent A.; Dion, Michael P.; Fast, James E.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Wilen, Christopher D.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wright, Michael E.

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—In gamma spectroscopy, a compromise must be made between energy resolution and event-rate capability. Some foreseen nuclear material safeguards applications require a spectrometer with energy resolution typical of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, operated at rates up to and exceeding 106 events per second. We report the performance of an HPGe spectrometer adapted to run at such rates. Our system consists of a commercial semi-coaxial HPGe detector, a modified high-voltagerail, resistive-feedback, charge-sensitive preamplifier and a continuous waveform digitizer. Digitized waveforms are analyzed offline with a novel time-variant trapezoidal filter algorithm. Several time-invariant trapezoidal filters are run in parallel and the slowest one not rejected by instantaneous pileup conditions is used to measure each pulse height. We have attained full-widthat- half-maximum energy resolution of less than 8 keV measured at 662 keV with 1:08*106 per second incoming event rate and 38% throughput. An additional constraint on the width of the fast trigger filter removes a significant amount of edge pileup that passes the first pileup cut, reducing throughput to 26%. While better resolution has been reported by other authors, our throughput is over an order of magnitude higher than any other reported HPGe system operated at such an event rate.

  4. Search of Axions from a Nuclear Power Reactor with a High-Purity Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Chang; TEXONO Collaboration

    2007-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of axions produced in nuclear transitions was performed at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station with a high-purity germanium detector of mass 1.06 kg at a distance of 28 m from the 2.9 GW reactor core. The expected experimental signatures were mono-energetic lines produced by their Primakoff or Compton conversions at the detector. Based on 459.0/96.3 days of Reactor ON/OFF data, no evidence of axion emissions were observed and constraints on the couplings $\\gagg$ and $\\gaee$ versus axion mass $m_a$ within the framework of invisible axion models were placed. The KSVZ and DFSZ models can be excluded for 10^4 eV < m_a < 10^6 ~eV. Model-independent constraints on \\gagg \\gv1 < 7.7 X 10^{-9} GeV^{-2} for m_{a} < 10^5 eV and \\gaee \\gv1 < 1.3 X 10^{-10} for m_{a} < 10^6 eV at 90% confidence level were derived. This experimental approach provides a unique probe for axion mass at the keV--MeV range not accessible to the other techniques.

  5. Pulse shapes from electron and photon induced events in segmented high-purity germanium detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Abt; A. Caldwell; K. Kröninger; J. Liu; X. Liu; B. Majorovits

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments built to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay are limited in their sensitivity not only by the exposure but also by the amount of background encountered. Radioactive isotopes in the surrounding of the detectors which emit gamma-radiation are expected to be a significant source of background in the GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA. Methods to select electron induced events and discriminate against photon induced events inside a germanium detector are presented in this paper. The methods are based on the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. Data were taken with a segmented GERDA prototype detector. It is shown that the analysis of the time response of the detector can be used to distinguish multiply scattered photons from electrons.

  6. Search of Neutrino Magnetic Moments with a High-Purity Germanium Detector at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. T. Wong; TEXONO Collaboration

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of neutrino magnetic moments was carried out at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station at a distance of 28 m from the 2.9 GW reactor core. With a high purity germanium detector of mass 1.06 kg surrounded by scintillating NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) crystals as anti-Compton detectors, a detection threshold of 5 keV and a background level of 1 $\\cpd$ near threshold were achieved. Details of the reactor neutrino source, experimental hardware, background understanding and analysis methods are presented. Based on 570.7 and 127.8 days of Reactor ON and OFF data, respectively, at an average Reactor ON electron anti-neutrino flux of $\\rm{6.4 \\times 10^{12} cm^{-2} s^{-1}}$, the limit on the neutrino magnetic moments of $\\rm{\\munuebar < 7.4 \\times 10^{-11} \\mub}$ at 90% confidence level was derived. Indirect bounds on the $\

  7. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Storage Pigs for 321-M Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG and G Dart system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel g-ray spectra to assay for 235U content in 268 uranium shipping and storage pigs. This report includes a description of three efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  8. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  9. CARBON IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grown crystals. Nuclear radiation detectors made from thethe fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors, it was foundsamples can be made into nuclear radiation detectors. Becau:

  10. Preparation of high purity vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, O.N.; Burkholder, H.R.; Martsching, G.A.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the various reduction and refining methods that have been used to prepare vanadium metal. Earlier work on metallothermic and carbothermic reduction processes is discussed. Recent work on improving the scaling up the aluminothermic reduction process is described in detail. Iron and silicon are first removed from commercial V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ by an ion exchange separation technique and the purified oxide is then exothermically reduced with aluminum metal. The resulting V-Al ingot is heated in a vacuum to 1700/sup 0/C to remove the aluminum and dissolved oxygen, and the sponge is then electron-beam melted to remove residual volatile impurities to yield vanadium metal of 99.98% purity. Precautions taken during each processing stage to minimize carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contamination are described. Metal containing < 50 ppmw each of C, N and O, < 20 ppmw Si, and < 10 ppmw of Fe and Al has been prepared in kilogram quantities by this method. The hardness of the beam melted is 60 to 70 DPH. Experiments designed to scale up the reduction process and to increase the efficiency of the separation and melting steps are described. Various refining techniques that have been applied to the preparation of high purity vanadium are described and comparisons made between the quality of metal obtained by each.

  11. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  12. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report Home Gosreports's picture Submitted by Gosreports(70) Contributor 2 July, 2015 - 21:10 Global High-purity...

  13. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick (Ames, IA); Carlson, O. Norman (Ames, IA)

    1986-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing high purity vanadium having a low silicon content has been developed. Vanadium pentoxide is reduced with a stoichiometric, or slightly deficient amount of aluminum to produce a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing an excess of oxygen. Silicon is removed by electron-beam melting the alloy under oxidizing conditions to promote the formation of SiO which is volatile at elevated temperatures. Excess oxygen is removed by heating the alloy in the presence of calcium metal to form calcium oxide.

  14. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.; Carlson, O.N.

    1984-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing high purity vanadium having a low silicon content has been developed. Vanadium pentoxide is reduced with a stoichiometric, or slightly deficient amount of aluminum to produce a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing an excess of oxygen. Silicon is removed by electron-beam melting the alloy under oxidizing conditions to promote the formation of SiO which is volatile at elevated temperatures. Excess oxygen is removed by heating the alloy in the presence of calcium metal to form calcium oxide.

  15. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, F.; Carlson, O.N.

    1986-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of preparing high-purity, low-silicon vanadium metal from vanadium pentoxide containing silicon, iron and other impurities comprising: mixing the vanadium pentoxide with aluminum to form a reaction mixture, the quantity of aluminum in the mixture being from about stoichiometric to about 10% deficient in the amount necessary to completely reduce the vanadium pentoxide to vanadium metal: heating the mixture under reducing conditions to a temperature sufficient to react the mixture to reduce the vanadium pentoxide and form a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing silicon, iron and from about 0.6 to about 3 weight percent oxygen; heating the alloy under reduced pressure to a temperature sufficient to vaporize the aluminum and iron in the alloy and to react the silicon with some of the oxygen to form volatile silicon monoxide which vaporizes away from the alloy thereby removing aluminum, iron, silicon and some of the oxygen from the vanadium metal, and heating the vanadium metal in the presence of calcium metal to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient for the oxygen to diffuse from the vanadium and react with the calcium to form calcium oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the vanadium metal, forming a high-purity, low-silicon vanadium metal.

  16. Production of high purity titanium by electrorefining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanda, Minoru; Sato, Kazusuke; Kimura, Etsuji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Omiya, Saitama (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of impurities in electrorefining of Ti by NaCl-KCl-TiClx molten salts and the production process of its molten salts have been studied. As a result, purification of salts, materials for the apparatus and the quality of anode Ti were important for the production of high purity Ti. By using purified molten salts and the apparatus constructed of Ni, impurities of the Ti deposit, such as Fe, Ni, could be lowered to about 0.01 ppm. The contents of Al and Cr of this Ti were about 0.1 ppm. Volatile impurities were removed from the Ti obtained in this process by electron beam melting and Ti ingots with grades in excess of 6N (except for gas elements) were obtained.

  17. Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

  18. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    melting point. By analogy, hydrogen permeation measurementsin silicon suggest that the hydrogen solubility also is notNo. 1, February 1982 HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION

  19. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen can only be purified with great difficulty because it reacts with strong getters such as titanium,

  20. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo [CBMM-Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineracao, Fazenda Corrego da Mata, P.O. Box 838.183.903, Araxa, MG (Brazil)

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  1. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  2. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  3. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of this first analysis are reported here.

  4. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  5. Springback in Deep Drawn High Purity Niobium for Superconductor Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from deep drawn high-purity niobium have become a popular approach for the design of particle accelerators. A number of current accelerators use this technology and it is a leading candidate for future designs. The development of this technology has required significant advances in many scientific fields including metallurgy, high vacuum physics, surface science, and forming. Recently proposed modifications to the current process for fabrication of these cavities has resulted in increased concern about the distribution of deformation, residual stress patterns, and springback. This presentation will report on the findings of a recently initiated program to study plastic flow and springback in the fabrication of these cavities and the influence of metallurgical variables including grain size and impurity content.

  6. RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity Niobium W degradation and gas absorption of high purity niobium welded at different electron beam (EB) facilities are summarized. The oxygen and nitrogen content is increased as a rule at the welding seam. The absorption

  7. Synthesis of high purity sinterable silicon carbide powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boecker, W.D.; Mehosky, B.L.; Rogers, R.S.C.; Storm, R.S.; Venkateswaran, V. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (USA). Structural Ceramics Div.)

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High purity, submicron silicon carbide powders were produced via gas phase synthesis using a hydrogen/argon plasma. Two test facilities were constructed, a bench-scale unit and a larger pilot scale reactor. Three candidate silicon sources were evaluated:silicon tetrachloride (SiCl{sub 4}). dimethyldichlorosilane (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(SiCl{sub 2}) and methyltrichlorosilane (CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}). Product powders were evaluated on the basis of pressureless sinterability, surface area, agglomeration, particle size distribution, phase distribution and chemistry. Three commercial powders, Starck A10, Starck B10, and Carborundum submicron alpha silicon carbide, were also evaluated for comparison to the product powders. Powders were reproducibly synthesized at a rate of one pound per hour for standard run times of five hours. Product powders exhibited chemical and physical properties equal to or exceeding the commercial powders evaluated. In limited attempts to pressureless sinter the product powders, densities of 91% of theoretical were obtained with as-produced powder. Post-processing permitted densities in excess of 97% of theoretical. X-ray diffraction of the product indicates that the product powders are primarily beta poly-types, with traces of alpha present. Increased production rates to a target level of seven pounds per hour were not possible due to current transients produced by the pilot scale power supply. Extensive unsuccessful efforts to reduce or eliminate the transients are described. Low recovered product yields resulted from a failure of a product collection filter that was not discovered until the completion of the project.

  8. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  9. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  10. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  11. High-efficiency spectral purity filter for EUV lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An asymmetric-cut multilayer diffracts EUV light. A multilayer cut at an angle has the same properties as a blazed grating, and has been demonstrated to have near-perfect performance. Instead of having to nano-fabricate a grating structure with imperfections no greater than several tens of nanometers, a thick multilayer is grown on a substrate and then cut at an inclined angle using coarse and inexpensive methods. Effective grating periods can be produced this way that are 10 to 100 times smaller than those produced today, and the diffraction efficiency of these asymmetric multilayers is higher than conventional gratings. Besides their ease of manufacture, the use of an asymmetric multilayer as a spectral purity filter does not require that the design of an EUV optical system be modified in any way, unlike the proposed use of blazed gratings for such systems.

  12. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium in Scrap Cans for 321-M Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. This report includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  13. High Purity Germanium Detectors at LBNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurTheBrookhaven NationalRegionalsResearch »FundingGlenn6-7,Heavy-Ions| U.S.

  14. Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandic, Vuk

    2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

  15. High-germanium-content SiGe islands formed on compliant oxide by SiGe Haizhou Yina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-germanium-content SiGe islands formed on compliant oxide by SiGe oxidation Haizhou Yina and the nonuniformity of the enhanced germanium content during the SiGe oxidation were improved by depositing a silicon was relaxed by lateral expansion of the SiGe islands, showing that dislocations were not required

  16. Signal modeling of high-purity Ge detectors with a small read-out electrode and application to neutrinoless double beta decay search in Ge-76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Agostini; C. A. Ur; D. Budjáš; E. Bellotti; R. Brugnera; C. M. Cattadori; A. di Vacri; A. Garfagnini; L. Pandola; S. Schönert

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 using high-purity germanium detectors enriched in Ge-76. The analysis of the signal time structure provides a powerful tool to identify neutrinoless double beta decay events and to discriminate them from gamma-ray induced backgrounds. Enhanced pulse shape discrimination capabilities of "Broad Energy Germanium" detectors with a small read-out electrode have been recently reported. This paper describes the full simulation of the response of such a detector, including the Monte Carlo modeling of radiation interaction and subsequent signal shape calculation. A pulse shape discrimination method based on the ratio between the maximum current signal amplitude and the event energy applied to the simulated data shows quantitative agreement with the experimental data acquired with calibration sources. The simulation has been used to study the survival probabilities of the decays which occur inside the detector volume and are difficult to assess experimentally. Such internal decay events are produced by the cosmogenic radio-isotopes Ge-68 and Co-60 and the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. Fixing the experimental acceptance of the double escape peak of the 2.614 MeV photon to 90%, the estimated survival probabilities at Qbb = 2.039 MeV are (86+-3)% for Ge-76 neutrinoless double beta decays, (4.5+-0.3)% for the Ge-68 daughter Ga-68, and (0.9+0.4-0.2)% for Co-60 decays.

  17. Low-temperature germanium ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition for back-end photonic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) grown on amorphous Si (a-Si) by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) over oxide barriers at low temperatures (Tles450degC) exhibits a larger grain size and lower defect ...

  18. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

  19. High Purity Americium-241 for Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously the U.S. Department of Energy released Am-241 for various applications such as smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources for oil wells. At this date there is a shortage of usable, higher purity Am-241 in metal and oxide form available in the United States. Recently, the limited source of Am-241 has been from Russia with production being contracted to existing customers. The shortage has resulted in the price per gram rising dramatically over the last few years. DOE-NE currently has need for high purity Am-241 metal and oxide to fabricate fuel pellets for reactor testing in the Fuel Cycle R&D program. All the available high purity americium has been gathered from within the DOE system of laboratories. However, this is only a fraction of the projected needs of FCRD over the next 10 years. Therefore, FCR&D has proposed extraction and purification concepts to extract Am-241 from a mixed AmO2-PuO2 feedstock stored at the Savannah River Site. The most simple extraction system is based upon high temperature reduction using lanthanum metal with concurrent evaporation and condensation to produce high purity Am metal. Metallic americium has over a four order of magnitude higher vapor pressure than plutonium. Results from small-scale reduction experiments are presented. These results confirm thermodynamic predictions that at 1000 deg C metallic lanthanum reduces both PuO2 and AmO2. Faster kinetics are expected for temperatures up to about 1500 deg C.

  20. Electrical and mechanical studies of high purity aluminum single crystals at 4.2 K under cyclic strain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Hong

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of orientation on strain hardening and resistivity degradation in high purity aluminum single crystals resulting from uniaxial cyclic strain at 4.2 K. Aluminum crystals with various...

  1. Novel synthesis of high phase-purity Mg2SnO4 from metallic precursors via powder metallurgy route

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Novel synthesis of high phase-purity Mg2SnO4 from metallic precursors via powder metallurgy route of composition Mg2Sn was prepared by the conventional powder metallurgy route. This up on heating in air under

  2. Electrical and mechanical studies of high purity aluminum single crystals at 4.2 K under cyclic strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Hong

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of orientation on strain hardening and resistivity degradation in high purity aluminum single crystals resulting from uniaxial cyclic strain at 4.2 K. Aluminum crystals with various...

  3. New red phosphor for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high color-purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhengliang, E-mail: wzhl_ww@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); He, Pei; Wang, Rui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China); Zhao, Jishou [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming, Yunnan 650031 (China); Gong, Menglian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New red phosphors, Na{sub 5}Eu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} doped with boron oxide were prepared by the solid-state reaction. Their structure and photo-luminescent properties were investigated. With the introduction of boron oxide, the red emission intensity of the phosphors under 395 nm excitation is strengthened, with high color-purity (x = 0.673, y = 0.327). The single red light-emitting diode was obtained by combining InGaN chip with the red phosphor, bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red light-emitting diodes under a forward bias of 20 mA.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PURITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2 FROM SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda Denton; Hana Lorethova; Tomasz Wiltowski; Court Moorefield; Parag Kulkarni; Vladimir Zamansky; Ravi Kumar

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes a dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of simultaneous production of hydrogen and separated stream of CO{sub 2} was proved using a fixed bed 2 reactor system at GE-EER. This bench-scale cyclic fixed-bed reactor system designed to reform natural gas to syngas has been fabricated in another coordinated DOE project. This system was modified to reform natural gas to syngas and then convert syngas to H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The system produced 85% hydrogen (dry basis).

  5. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

  6. Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150.degree. to 250.degree. F. at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C.sub.3 to C.sub.6 and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom.

  7. Experimental investigation of welding penetration-depth in high-purity aluminium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, W. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States). Naval Nuclear Fuel Div.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the superconducting splice design is the welding penetration-depth because it determines the electrical resistivity across the welded joints through the high-purity aluminum stabilizers. Highly resistive welds could lead to conductor instability when the superconductor goes normal. In the present investigation, experiments were performed using gas tungsten-arc welding to identify the effects of the welding parameters on the penetration-depth. The experimental results will be applied to the optimization of the superconducting splice design. The mock-up test data and theoretical analysis have shown that the higher energy input and lower welding speed produce the deeper penetration-depth in high-purity aluminum. In order to achieve an approximately uniform penetration-depth, three methods were explored: (i) a starting-delay at the welding start point, (ii) an external cooling, and (iii) staggered overlapping weldments. The experimental results have suggested that a uniform penetration-depth can be obtained under the thermal equilibrium welding conditions.

  8. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  9. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  10. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieler, T. R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wright, N. T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Pourboghrat, F. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Compton, C. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hartwig, K. T. [Texas A& M University; Baars, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zamiri, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Chandrasekaran, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Darbandi, P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Jiang, H. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Skoug, E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Balachandran, S. [Texas A& M University; Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Liu, W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, high Q values have been achieved in high purity Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Fundamental understanding of the physical metallurgy of Nb that enables these achievements is beginning to reveal what challenges remain to establish reproducible and cost-effective production of high performance SRF cavities. Recent studies of dislocation substructure development and effects of recrystallization arising from welding and heat treatments and their correlations with cavity performance are considered. With better fundamental understanding of the effects of dislocation substructure evolution and recrystallization on electron and phonon conduction, as well as the interior and surface states, it will be possible to design optimal processing paths for cost-effective performance using approaches such as hydroforming, which minimizes or eliminates welds in a cavity.

  11. Highly Conductive Germanium Nanowires Made by a Simple, One-Step...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Jay Switzer Scanning electron micrograph image of germanium nanowires electrodeposited onto an indium tin...

  12. Pitting Corrosion in CVD SiC at 300?C in Deoxygenated High-Purity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.; Senor, David J.; Geelhood, Ken J.; Painter, Chad L.

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    SiC is a candidate for nuclear applications at elevated temperatures but has not been fully studied under typical light-water reactor operating conditions, such as moderate temperatures and high pressures. Coupons of high-purity chemical vapor deposited SiC were exposed to deoxygenated, pressurized water at 573K and 100 Bar for up to 4000 hours. Ceramographic examination of the exposed SiC surfaces revealed both embryonic and large, d > 300 µm, pits on the surface. The pits were characterized using scanning electron microscopy for structure and chemistry analysis. Pit densities were also determined by standard counting methods. The chemical analysis revealed that the pits are associated with the formation of silica and subsequent loss of Si, which is expected due to several suggested reactions between SiC and water.

  13. In-growth of an electrically active defect in high-purity silicon after proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Juul Pedersen, H.; Christian Petersen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Privitera, V. [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy)] [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy); Gurimskaya, Y.; Mesli, A. [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)] [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Defect-related energy levels in the lower half of the band gap of silicon have been studied with transient-capacitance techniques in high-purity, carbon and oxygen lean, plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition grown, n-and p-type silicon layers after 2-MeV proton irradiations at temperatures at or just below room temperature. The in-growth of a distinct line in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra, corresponding to a level in the band gap at E{sub V} + 0.357 eV where E{sub V} is the energy of the valence band edge, takes place for anneal temperatures at around room temperature with an activation energy of 0.95 ± 0.08 eV. The line disappears at an anneal temperature of around 450 K. The corresponding defect is demonstrated not to contain boron, carbon, oxygen, or phosphorus. Possible defect candidates are discussed.

  14. HIGH EFFICIENCY AMORPHOUS SILICON GERMANIUM SOLAR CELLS X. Liao, W. Du, X. Yang, H. Povolny, X. Xiang and X. Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    HIGH EFFICIENCY AMORPHOUS SILICON GERMANIUM SOLAR CELLS X. Liao, W. Du, X. Yang, H. Povolny, X ABSTRACT We report high-efficiency single-junction a-SiGe n-i-p solar cells deposited using rf PECVD-area efficiencies have been improved to 12.5-13.0% and 10.4%, respectively, for 0.25 cm 2 a-SiGe cells

  15. HIGH PURITY GE GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER ON JAPANESE LUNAR POLAR ORBITER , M.-N. Kobayashi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berezhnoi, Aleksei A.

    of three parts; gamma-ray detector (GRD), compressor driver unit (CDU) and gamma- ray and particle purified Ge detector is employed as a main detector, by which gamma-rays can be detected in the energyHIGH PURITY GE GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER ON JAPANESE LUNAR POLAR ORBITER SELENE. N. Hasebe1 , M

  16. High-Order Harmonic Generation Yielding Tunable Extreme-Ultraviolet Radiation of High Spectral Purity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    harmonic photon. The universal cutoff in high-order har- monic generation (HHG) processes exists at Ip 3 (ponderomotive) energy of a quasifree electron quivering in the laser field in the neighborhood of the ionic core [9] and for resonance-enhanced wave mixing [10]. In contrast to these studies, in the nonperturbative

  17. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the high-energy proton damage than was the planar detector.as far as radiation damage is concerned. Unfortunately, some28-29, 1978 LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

  18. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0germanium exhibit a combination of improved capacities, cycle lives, and/or cycling rates compared with similar electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  19. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  20. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  1. Preparation of high purity niobium by electron beam melting and external gettering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Ono, Katsutoshi [Kyoto Univ., Yoshida-Honmachi (Japan)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical properties of niobium are deteriorated by interstitial impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen. The removal of these gaseous impurities was studied by electron beam (EB) melting and solid state external gettering with Ti, Y and Zr. The buttons and ingots were repeatedly remelted and refined by the EB furnace (max.; l4OkW). Subsequently, the external gettering for oxygen and nitrogen in niobium was carried out by wrapping samples with active metal foils and annealing in evacuated quartz ampoules over 1273K. The purity of refined niobium was characterized by its hardness, specific resistivity, internal friction and residual resistivity ratio (RRR={rho}{sub 273}/{rho}{sub 4.2}). The results of these measurements were compared with conventional gas analysis. Niobium was purified to the RRR of 100 through EB melting and 700 through external gettering.

  2. Application of a Barrier Filter at a High Purity Synthetic Graphite Plant, CRADA 99-F035, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Superior Graphite Company and the US Department of Energy have entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the application of ceramic barrier filters at its Hopkinsville, Kentucky graphite plant. Superior Graphite Company is a worldwide leader in the application of advanced thermal processing technology to produce high purity graphite and carbons. The objective of the CRADA is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating the use of high-temperature filters to improve the performance of the offgas treatment system. A conceptual design was developed incorporating the ceramic filters into the offgas treatment system to be used for the development of a capital cost estimate and economic feasibility assessment of this technology for improving particulate removal. This CRADA is a joint effort of Superior Graphite Company, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  3. CLEAN-ROOM AND C02 -LASER PROCESSING OF ULTRA HIGH-PURITY AL2 0 3 P.A. Morris , R.H. French*, R.L. Coble*, F.N. Tebbe*, U. Chowdhry**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    79 CLEAN-ROOM AND C02 -LASER PROCESSING OF ULTRA HIGH-PURITY AL2 0 3 P.A. Morris , R.H. French*ý, R of the material. The microstructure of a C02 - laser ultra high-purity A12 03 is illustrated. Densification with a C02 -laser. The microstructure of the laser fired ultra high purity A1 2 03 is discussed. Chemical

  4. HYDROGEN IN GERMANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    •^f-1? c^4--^ LBL-7996 HYDROGEN IN GERMANIUM E. E. HallerW-7405-ENG-48 LBL-7996 HYDROGEN IN GERMANIUM* E. E. Haller48. LBL-7996 Abstract Hydrogen is shown to form molecular

  5. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficient and affordable solar cells so highly coveted? Volume. The amount of solar energy lighting up Earth's land mass every year is nearly 3,000 times current usage. But to...

  6. RRR-Measurement Techniques on High Purity Niobium W. Singer, A. Ermakov, X. Singer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    proportional to thermal conductivity. A simplified relationship between the thermal conductivity and RRR at 4 of superconducting RF cavities a high thermal conductivity in the cavity wall is required (at least 10 W/mK at 2K) to guide the dissipated radio frequency (RF) power to the liquid helium coolant. For bulk niobium cavities

  7. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urakaev, F.K. [Institute of Geology & Mineral SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  8. Initial Component Testing for a Germanium Array Cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Seifert, Allen

    2009-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress on the construction of two ultra-low-background cryostats that are part of the NA-22 funded “Radionuclide Laboratories” (RN Labs) project. Each cryostat will house seven high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe). These cryostats are being built from a limited set of materials that are known to have very low levels of radioactive impurities. The RN Labs instrument is designed to take advantage of low background performance, high detection efficiency, and ?-? coincidence signatures to provide unprecedented gamma spectroscopy sensitivity. The project is focused on improving gamma analysis capabilities for nuclear detonation detection (NDD) applications. The instrument also has the potential for basic nuclear physics research. Section 1 provides the background for the project. Section 2 discusses germanium crystal acceptance testing. Design problems were found after the first delivery of new detectors from the vendor, Canberra Semiconductors. The first four crystals were returned for repair, resulting in a delay in crystal procurement. Section 3 provides an update on copper electroforming. In general, electroforming parts for RN Labs has proceeded smoothly, but there have been recent problems in electroforming three large copper parts necessary for the project. Section 4 describes the first round of testing for the instrument: anti-cosmic scintillator testing, electronics testing, and initial vacuum testing. Section 5 concludes with an overall description of the state of the project and challenges that remain.

  9. Couples Magnetic and Structural Transitions in High-Purity Dy and Gd5SbxGe4-x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander S. Chernyshov

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic materials exhibiting magnetic phase transitions simultaneously with structural rearrangements of their crystal lattices hold a promise for numerous applications including magnetic refrigeration, magnetomechanical devices and sensors. We undertook a detailed study of a single crystal of dysprosium metal, which is a classical example of a system where magnetic and crystallographic sublattices can be either coupled or decoupled from one another. Magnetocaloric effect, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of high purity single crystals of dysprosium have been investigated over broad temperature and magnetic field intervals with the magnetic field vector parallel to either the a- or c-axes of the crystal. Notable differences in the behavior of the physical properties when compared to Dy samples studied in the past have been observed between 110 K and 125 K, and between 178 K and {approx}210 K. A plausible mechanism based on the formation of antiferromagnetic clusters in the impure Dy has been suggested in order to explain the reduction of the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the Neel point. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the influence of commensurability effects on the magnetic phase diagram and the value of the magnetocaloric effect have been conducted. The presence of newly found anomalies in the physical properties has been considered as evidence of previously unreported states of Dy. The refined magnetic phase diagram of dysprosium with the magnetic field vector parallel to the a-axis of a crystal has been constructed and discussed. The magnetic and crystallographic properties of Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudo-binary system were studied by x-ray diffraction (at room temperature), heat capacity, ac-magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization in the temperature interval 5-320 K in magnetic fields up to 100 kOe. The magnetic properties of three composition (x = 0.5, 1,2) were examined in detail. The Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compound that adopts Tm{sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type of structure (space group is Cmca), shows a second order FM-PM transition at 200 K, whereas Gd{sub 5}Sb{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} compounds for x = 0.5 and x = 1 (Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type of structure, space group is Pnma) exhibit first order phase transformations at 45 K and 37 K, respectively.

  10. Astroparticle Physics with a Customized Low-Background Broad Energy Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAJORANA Collaboration; C. E. Aalseth; M. Amman; F. T. Avignone III; H. O. Back; A. S. Barabash; P. S. Barbeau; M. Bergevin; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; W. Bugg; T. H. Burritt; M. Busch; G. Capps; Y-D. Chan; J. I. Collar; R. J. Cooper; R. Creswick; J. A. Detwiler; J. Diaz; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Ely; J. Esterline; H. Farach; J. E. Fast; N. Fields; P. Finnerty; B. Fujikawa; E. Fuller; V. M. Gehman; G. K. Giovanetti; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusey; A. L. Hallin; G. C Harper; R. Hazama; R. Henning; A. Hime; E. W. Hoppe; T. W. Hossbach; M. A. Howe; R. A. Johnson; K. J. Keeter; M. Keillor; C. Keller; J. D. Kephart; M. F. Kidd; A. Knecht; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; L. Leviner; J. C. Loach; P. N. Luke; S. MacMullin; M. G. Marino; R. D. Martin; D. -M. Mei; H. S. Miley; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; A. W. Meyers; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; D. Peterson; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; G. Prior; J. Qian; D. C. Radford; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; L. Rodriguez; K. P. Rykaczewski; H. Salazar; A. G. Schubert; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; D. Steele; J. Strain; G. Swift; K. Thomas; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; T. D. Van Wechel; I. Vanyushin; R. L. Varner; K. Vetter; J. F. Wilkerson; B. A. Wolfe; W. Xiang; E. Yakushev; H. Yaver; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov; C. Zhang; S. Zimmerman

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is building the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c^2 mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the MAJORANA Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  11. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c{sup 2} mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  12. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard, E-mail: richard.ares@usherbrooke.ca [Institut Interdisciplinaire d’Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)-CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Korinek, Andreas [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  13. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  14. The production of ultra-high purity single isotopes or tailored isotope mixtures by ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Dion, Michael P.; Thomas, Linda MP; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the development and testing of a simple collector arrangement for a commercial quadrupole ICP-MS that for the first time has been used to produce small quantities of highly enriched (>99.99%) single isotopes, with deposition rates >10 ng/hour. The collector assembly replaces the standard instrument detector allowing for implantation with simultaneous monitoring of the incident ion current. Even under zero bias implant conditions, low energy (<10 eV), ion collection efficiency was observed to be very high ~99%. 151Eu ion currents of 0.1-0.5 nA were collected on a simple, planar foil without resorting to any type of cup configuration. Recovery of the enriched isotope from such foils is much simpler than from a more complex cup configuration. High rejection of adjacent mass isotopes was demonstrated by selectively implanting 167Er without any discernible co-implantation of 166Er and 168Er. The important analytical possibilities of the new approach to isotope ratio measurement, tracer purification and radiation measurements are discussed.

  15. Liquid phase epitaxial growth and characterization of germanium far infrared blocked impurity band detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Jordana

    2001-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors require a high purity blocking layer (< 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) approximately 1 mm thick grown on a heavily doped active layer ({approx} 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) approximately 20 mm thick. Epilayers were grown using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of germanium out of lead solution. The effects of the crystallographic orientation of the germanium substrate on LPE growth modes were explored. Growth was studied on substrates oriented by Laue x-ray diffraction between 0.02{sup o} and 10{sup o} from the {l_brace}111{r_brace} toward the {l_brace}100{r_brace}. Terrace growth was observed, with increasing terrace height for larger misorientation angles. It was found that the purity of the blocking layer was limited by the presence of phosphorus in the lead solvent. Unintentionally doped Ge layers contained {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} phosphorus as determined by Hall effect measurements and Photothermal Ionization Spectroscopy (PTIS). Lead purification by vacuum distillation and dilution reduced the phosphorus concentration in the layers to {approx} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} but further reduction was not observed with successive distillation runs. The graphite distillation and growth components as an additional phosphorus source cannot be ruled out. Antimony ({approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) was used as a dopant for the active BIB layer. A reduction in the donor binding energy due to impurity banding was observed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. A BIB detector fabricated from an Sb-doped Ge layer grown on a pure substrate showed a low energy photoconductive onset ({approx}6 meV). Spreading resistance measurements on doped layers revealed a nonuniform dopant distribution with Sb pile-up at the layer surface, which must be removed by chemomechanical polishing. Sb diffusion into the pure substrate was observed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) for epilayers grown at 650 C. The Sb concentration at the interface dropped by an order of magnitude over {approx} 1.5 {micro}m. Layers grown at 550 C did not show significant Sb diffusion. Sn doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) was studied for use in far infrared transparent low temperature contacts for BIB arrays. It was found that {approx}100 nm of ITO deposited on Ge remains electrically conducting at 4 K and is {approx}90% transparent in the far infrared. ITO should be suitable for passivating contacts to Ge BIB arrays.

  16. Germanium films by polymer-assisted deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Burrell, Anthony K.; Bauer, Eve; Ronning, Filip; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly ordered Ge films are prepared directly on single crystal Si substrates by applying an aqueous coating solution having Ge-bound polymer onto the substrate and then heating in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere. A coating solution was prepared by mixing water, a germanium compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and polyethyleneimine to form a first aqueous solution and then subjecting the first aqueous solution to ultrafiltration.

  17. Use of Electrodeposition for Sample Preparation and Rejection Rate Prediction for Assay of Electroformed Ultra High Purity Copper for 232Th and 238U Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Seifert, Allen; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (<0.1µBq/kg). Although electrodeposition processes are almost sophisticated enough to produce copper of this purity, to date there are no methods sensitive enough to assay it. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) can detect thorium and uranium at femtogram levels, but in the past, this assay has been hindered by high copper concentrations in the sample. Electrodeposition of copper samples removes copper from the solution while selectively concentrating thorium and uranium contaminants to be assayed by ICP/MS. Spiking 232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry.

  18. Influence of germanium and the melting method on the mechanical properties of NM23KhYu alloy at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, D.V.; Rozonova, V.M.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the investigation was to increase the plasticity and ductility of NM233KhYu alloy without a detrimental effect on its service properties, selection of methods evaluation of placticity and ductility at increased temperatures, and establishment on the basis of the results obtained of the optimum temperature range for hot working by pressure. To evaluate the mechanical properties at increased temperature tension, impact strength and torsion tests were made. Alloying with germanium of NM23KhYu alloy leads to a two-to-three-time increase in its impact strength. Electron beam remelting of NM23KhYu alloy with germanium increases the impact strength, and the characteristics of plasticity by 1.5-2 times in comparison with the similar properties of this alloy produced by vacuum induction melting.

  19. Identification of photons in double beta-decay experiments using segmented germanium detectors - studies with a GERDA Phase II prototype detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Abt; A. Caldwell; K. Kröninger; J. Liu; X. Liu; B. Majorovits

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The sensitivity of experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta-decay of germanium was so far limited by the background induced by external gamma-radiation. Segmented germanium detectors can be used to identify photons and thus reduce this background component. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, will use highly segmented germanium detectors in its second phase. The identification of photonic events is investigated using a prototype detector. The results are compared with Monte Carlo data.

  20. Preparation of High Purity, High Molecular-Weight Chitin from Ionic Liquids for Use as an Adsorbate for the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater (Workscope MS-FC: Fuel Cycle R&D)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, Robin

    2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ensuring a domestic supply of uranium is a key issue facing the wider implementation of nuclear power. Uranium is mostly mined in Kazakhstan, Australia, and Canada, and there are few high-grade uranium reserves left worldwide. Therefore, one of the most appealing potential sources of uranium is the vast quantity dissolved in the oceans (estimated to be 4.4 billion tons worldwide). There have been research efforts centered on finding a means to extract uranium from seawater for decades, but so far none have resulted in an economically viable product, due in part to the fact that the materials that have been successfully demonstrated to date are too costly (in terms of money and energy) to produce on the necessary scale. Ionic Liquids (salts which melt below 100{degrees}C) can completely dissolve raw crustacean shells, leading to recovery of a high purity, high molecular weight chitin powder and to fibers and films which can be spun directly from the extract solution suggesting that continuous processing might be feasible. The work proposed here will utilize the unprecedented control this makes possible over the chitin fiber a) to prepare electrospun nanofibers of very high surface area and in specific architectures, b) to modify the fiber surfaces chemically with selective extractant capacity, and c) to demonstrate their utility in the direct extraction and recovery of uranium from seawater. This approach will 1) provide direct extraction of chitin from shellfish waste thus saving energy over the current industrial process for obtaining chitin; 2) allow continuous processing of nanofibers for very high surface area fibers in an economical operation; 3) provide a unique high molecular weight chitin not available from the current industrial process leading to stronger, more durable fibers; and 4) allow easy chemical modification of the large surface areas of the fibers for appending uranyl selective functionality providing selectivity and ease of stripping. The resulting sorbent should prove economically feasible, as well as providing an overall net energy gain.

  1. GERMANIUM--2001 32.1 By Robert D. Brown, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GERMANIUM--2001 32.1 GERMANIUM By Robert D. Brown, Jr. Domestic survey data and table were prepared. In 2001, the domestic germanium industry consisted of two zinc mining operations in Alaska and Tennessee of germanium was estimated to have remained about the same in 2001. The USGS estimated domestic germanium

  2. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAJORANA Collaboration; S. R. Elliott; N. Abgrall; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; A. S. Barabash; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; A. S. Caldwell; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; D. C. Combs; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; J. Esterline; J. E. Fast; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkleo; A. Galindo-Uribarri; G. K. Giovanetti; J. Goett; M. P. Green; J. Gruszko; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusev; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; A. Hegai; R. Henning; E. W. Hoppe; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; K. J. Keeter; M. F. Kidd; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. D. LaFerriere; J. Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; S. MacMullin; R. D. Martin; S. Mertens; L. Mizouni; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; C. OShaughnessy; N. R. Overman; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; K. Pushkin; D. C. Radford; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; M. C. Ronquest; A. G. Schubert; B. Shanks; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; N. Snyder; A. Soin; J. Strain; A. M. Suriano; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; R. L. Varner; S. Vasilyev; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; B. R. White; J. F. Wilkerson; W. Xu; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The {\\sc Majorana} collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using $^{76}$Ge, which has been shown to have a number of advantages in terms of sensitivities and backgrounds. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would show that lepton number is violated and that neutrinos are Majorana particles and would simultaneously provide information on neutrino mass. Attaining sensitivities for neutrino masses in the inverted hierarchy region, $15 - 50$ meV, will require large, tonne-scale detectors with extremely low backgrounds, at the level of $\\sim$1 count/t-y or lower in the region of the signal. The {\\sc Majorana} collaboration, with funding support from DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and NSF Particle Astrophysics, is constructing the {\\sc Demonstrator}, an array consisting of 40 kg of p-type point-contact high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, of which $\\sim$30 kg will be enriched to 87% in $^{76}$Ge. The {\\sc Demonstrator} is being constructed in a clean room laboratory facility at the 4850' level (4300 m.w.e.) of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. It utilizes a compact graded shield approach with the inner portion consisting of ultra-clean Cu that is being electroformed and machined underground. The primary aim of the {\\sc Demonstrator} is to show the feasibility of a future tonne-scale measurement in terms of backgrounds and scalability.

  3. The Majorana Demonstrator: A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S. R.; Boswell, M.; Goett, J.; Rielage, K.; Ronquest, M. C.; Xu, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abgrall, N.; Chan, Y-D.; Hegai, A.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Soin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); and others

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using {sup 76}Ge, which has been shown to have a number of advantages in terms of sensitivities and backgrounds. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would show that lepton number is violated and that neutrinos are Majorana particles and would simultaneously provide information on neutrino mass. Attaining sensitivities for neutrino masses in the inverted hierarchy region, 15 - 50 meV, will require large, tonne-scale detectors with extremely low backgrounds, at the level of ?1 count/t-y or lower in the region of the signal. The MAJORANA collaboration, with funding support from DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and NSF Particle Astrophysics, is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array consisting of 40 kg of p-type point-contact high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, of which ?30 kg will be enriched to 87% in {sup 76}Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR is being constructed in a clean room laboratory facility at the 4850' level (4300 m.w.e.) of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. It utilizes a compact graded shield approach with the inner portion consisting of ultra-clean Cu that is being electroformed and machined underground. The primary aim of the DEMONSTRATOR is to show the feasibility of a future tonne-scale measurement in terms of backgrounds and scalability.

  4. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR REVERSE ELECTRODE COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS W.L. Hansenon Semiconductor Nuclear Radiation Detectors", IEEE Trans.COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS LBL-10726 W.

  5. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless...

  6. Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. Abstract: Bottom-up nanostructure synthesis has played a pivotal role in...

  7. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay...

  8. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  9. IMPROVED FORMABILITY OF ALUMINUM-GERMANIUM NEAR EUTECTIC COMPOSITIONS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF SUPERPLASTICITY PRINCIPLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pech, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPROVED FORMABILITY OF ALUMINUM-GERMANIUM NEAR EUTECTICIMPROVED FORMABILITY OF ALUMINUM-GERMANIUM NEAR EUTECTICAl-Ge) wire. Al-Ge «00F Aluminum-Germanium Atomic Percentage

  10. D794 Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 161 (14) D794-D800 (2014) Electrodeposition of High-Purity Indium Thin Films and Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D794 Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 161 (14) D794-D800 (2014) Electrodeposition of High, the electrodeposited In films are phosphorized via the thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth method. The resulting poly of fully reduced phosphorus from aqueous solution is very difficult without a catalyst, such as nickel,2

  11. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  12. \\textsc{MaGe} - a {\\sc Geant4}-based Monte Carlo Application Framework for Low-background Germanium Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melissa Boswell; Yuen-Dat Chan; Jason A. Detwiler; Padraic Finnerty; Reyco Henning; Victor M. Gehman; Rob A. Johnson; David V. Jordan; Kareem Kazkaz; Markus Knapp; Kevin Kröninger; Daniel Lenz; Lance Leviner; Jing Liu; Xiang Liu; Sean MacMullin; Michael G. Marino; Akbar Mokhtarani; Luciano Pandola; Alexis G. Schubert; Jens Schubert; Claudia Tomei; Oleksandr Volynets

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a physics simulation software framework, MAGE, that is based on the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. MAGE is used to simulate the response of ultra-low radioactive background radiation detectors to ionizing radiation, specifically the MAJORANA and GERDA neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. MAJORANA and GERDA use high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge, and MAGE is jointly developed between these two collaborations. The MAGE framework contains the geometry models of common objects, prototypes, test stands, and the actual experiments. It also implements customized event generators, GEANT4 physics lists, and output formats. All of these features are available as class libraries that are typically compiled into a single executable. The user selects the particular experimental setup implementation at run-time via macros. The combination of all these common classes into one framework reduces duplication of efforts, eases comparison between simulated data and experiment, and simplifies the addition of new detectors to be simulated. This paper focuses on the software framework, custom event generators, and physics lists.

  13. MaGe - a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo Application Framework for Low-background Germanium Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Finnerty, P.; Henning, R.; Gehman, Victor; Johnson, Robert A.; Jordan, David V.; Kazkaz, Kareem; Knapp, Markus; Kroninger, Kevin; Lenz, Daniel; Leviner, L.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Xiang; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Mokhtarani, A.; Pandola, Luciano; Schubert, Alexis G.; Schubert, J.; Tomei, Claudia; Volynets, Oleksandr

    2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a physics simulation software framework, MAGE, that is based on the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. MAGE is used to simulate the response of ultra-low radioactive background radiation detectors to ionizing radiation, speci?cally the MAJ ORANA and GE RDA neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. MAJ ORANA and GERDA use high-purity germanium technology to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 76 Ge isotope, and MAGE is jointly developed between these two collaborations. The MAGE framework contains simulated geometries of common objects, prototypes, test stands, and the actual experiments. It also implements customized event generators, GE ANT 4 physics lists, and output formats. All of these features are available as class libraries that are typically compiled into a single executable. The user selects the particular experimental setup implementation at run-time via macros. The combination of all these common classes into one framework reduces duplication of efforts, eases comparison between simulated data and experiment, and simpli?es the addition of new detectors to be simulated. This paper focuses on the software framework, custom event generators, and physics list.

  14. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerung, Henry (Albuquerque, NM); Boyle, Timothy J. (Kensington, MD); Bunge, Scott D. (Cuyahoga Falls, OH)

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  15. PHYSICS OF ULTRA-PURE GERMANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of germanium; for example, the divacancy~hydrogenproperties of dislocations. It is reasonable to assume that hydrogenproperties that are important in electronic devices. Interest is now grow- ing because hydrogen

  16. High-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Russia. The stated isotope enrichments are summarized inenrichments >99% have been achieved for each isotope andthe enrichment is highest, are presented. isotope at. % nat.

  17. The Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay: The Case for Germanium Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Morales; J. Morales

    2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the current status of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay is presented, emphasizing on the case of Germanium Detectors.

  18. Recovery of germanium-68 from irradiated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Hamilton, Virginia T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective separation of germanium-68 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 0.7 to about 3.0, adjusting the soluble metal halide concentration in the second ion-containing solution to a level adapted for subsequent separation of germanium, contacting the pH-adjusted, soluble metal halide-containing second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material whereby germanium ions are separated by the dextran-based material, and recovering the germanium from the dextran-based material, preferably by distillation.

  19. GERMANIUM--1997 32.1 By Robert D. Brown, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GERMANIUM--1997 32.1 GERMANIUM By Robert D. Brown, Jr. Germaniumisagrayish production, which amounted to slightly less than one-third of the world refinery production in 1997 in 1997. The USGS estimated domestic germanium reserves at 450,000 kilograms (kg), equivalent to 16 years

  20. Silicon And Silicon-germanium Epitaxy For Quantum Dot Device Fabrications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as they provide highly tunable structures for trapping and manipu- lating individual electrons/silicon- germanium material heterosystem. We describe the growth of two-dimensional electron gas structures advisor Professor James C. Sturm, whose perpetual enthusiasm, stimulating insight, and constant

  1. Purity distribution for bipartite random pure states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Giraud

    2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytic expressions for the probability density distribution of the linear entropy and the purity are derived for bipartite pure random quantum states. The explicit distributions for a state belonging to a product of Hilbert spaces of dimensions p and q are given for p=3 and any q>=3, as well as for p=q=4.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bulk, Vitreous Cadmium Germanium Arsenide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    is presented to enable fabrication of high-purity, vitreous, crack-free ingots with sizes up to 10 mm diameter are the key function material in several important technological areas such as xerography,1 photovoltaics,2 formation within the CdGexAs2 system has been re- ported for x 5 0.02­1.3.12­18 The basic glass forming

  3. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2003 producer. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics, infrared

  4. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2008 producer of 2008. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics

  5. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2007 producer in the fourth quarter of 2007. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production

  6. Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

    2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

  7. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). We show that the following equality holds for the subgroups of the group F(K): `` p2Spec R;htp=1 imf for the subgroups of G(K): `` p2Spec R; htp=1 imfG(R p ) ! G(K)g = imfG(R) ! G(K)g; (\\Lambda) where all maps is a local regular ring we may rewrite the purity condition for the functor FR as `` p2SpecR; htp=1 F(R p

  8. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ?4 ?m spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  9. Screening of the quantum-confined Stark effect in AlN/GaN nanowire superlattices by germanium doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hille, P., E-mail: Pascal.Hille@physik.uni-giessen.de; Müßener, J.; Becker, P.; Teubert, J.; Schörmann, J.; Eickhoff, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany)] [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Mata, M. de la [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, CAT (Spain)] [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, CAT (Spain); Rosemann, N.; Chatterjee, S. [Faculty of Physics and Materials Science Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and Materials Science Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Magén, C. [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon-ARAID, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon-ARAID, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Arbiol, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, CAT (Spain) [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, CAT (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, CAT (Spain)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on electrostatic screening of polarization-induced internal electric fields in AlN/GaN nanowire heterostructures with germanium-doped GaN nanodiscs embedded between AlN barriers. The incorporation of germanium at concentrations above 10{sup 20}?cm{sup –3} shifts the photoluminescence emission energy of GaN nanodiscs to higher energies accompanied by a decrease of the photoluminescence decay time. At the same time, the thickness-dependent shift in emission energy is significantly reduced. In spite of the high donor concentration, a degradation of the photoluminescence properties is not observed.

  10. Empirical Correction of Crosstalk in a Low-Background Germanium ?–? Analysis System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, Martin E.; Erikson, Luke E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a custom software suite capable of automating many of the tasks required to accurately analyze coincident signals within gamma spectrometer arrays. During the course of this work, significant crosstalk was identified in the energy determination for spectra collected with a new low-background intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array at PNNL. The HPGe array is designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive gamma gamma coincidence detection. The first half of the array, a single cryostat containing 7 HPGe crystals, was recently installed into a new shallow underground laboratory facility. This update will present a brief review of the germanium array, describe the observed crosstalk, and present a straight-forward empirical correction that significantly reduces the impact of this crosstalk on the spectroscopic performance of the system.

  11. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2004 producer refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery

  12. Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions Zishuai Huang, Wei Hua, Dominique of salt purity on the interactions between Na+ ions and the carboxylate (COO- ) head group of palmitic frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous

  13. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, Teresa J. (Arizona State University); Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  14. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and Issues: World refinery production of germanium remained steady in 2000. The recycling of scrap continued

  15. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. The refinery in Oklahoma doubled its production

  16. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania@usgs.gov, fax: (703) 648-7757] #12;73 GERMANIUM Events, Trends, and Issues: World refinery production

  17. Neutron Interactions as Seen by A Segmented Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Abt; A. Caldwell; K. Kroeninger; J. Liu; X. Liu; B. Majorovits

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed for the search for ``neutrinoless double beta decay'' (0-nu-2-beta) with germanium detectors enriched in Ge76. An 18-fold segmented prototype detector for GERDA Phase II was exposed to an AmBe neutron source to improve the understanding of neutron induced backgrounds. Neutron interactions with the germanium isotopes themselves and in the surrounding materials were studied. Segment information is used to identify neutron induced peaks in the recorded energy spectra. The Geant4 based simulation package MaGe is used to simulate the experiment. Though many photon peaks from germanium isotopes excited by neutrons are correctly described by Geant4, some physics processes were identified as being incorrectly treated or even missing.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of germanium-on-silicon photodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiLello, Nicole Ann

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium is becoming an increasingly popular material to use in photonic systems. Due to its strong absorption in the near infrared and its relative ease of integration on silicon, it is a promising candidate for the ...

  19. Lattice site and thermal stability of transition metals in germanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyns, Valérie; Pereira, Lino

    Although the first transistor was based on germanium, current chip technology mainly uses silicon due to its larger abundance, a lower price and higher quality silicon-oxide. However, a very important goal in microelectronics is to obtain faster integrated circuits. The advantages of germanium compared to silicon (e.g. a higher mobility of the charge carriers) motivates further research on germanium based materials. Semiconductor doping (e.g. introducing impurities into silicon and germanium in order to alter - and control - their properties) can be done by ion implantation or by in situ doping, whereby the host material is doped during growth. This thesis focuses on introducing dopants by ion implantation. The implantation as well as the subsequent measurements were performed in ISOLDE (CERN) using the emission channeling technique. Although ion implantation generates undesired defects in the host material (e.g. vacancies), such damage can be reduced by performing the implantation at an elevated temperature....

  20. Flaw-limited transport in germanium-on-silicon photodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orcutt, Jason S. (Jason Scott)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial germanium growth on silicon substrates has enabled a new class of photodiodes that can be integrated with traditional silicon electronics. Previous workers using lowthroughput growth techniques have demonstrated ...

  1. Actinium radioisotope products of enhanced purity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David Herbert; Todd, Terry Allen; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A product includes actinium-225 (.sup.225Ac) and less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) of iron (Fe) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225. The product may have a radioisotopic purity of greater than about 99.99 atomic percent (at %) actinium-225 and daughter isotopes of actinium-225, and may be formed by a method that includes providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one of uranium-233 (.sup.233U) and thorium-229 (.sup.229Th), extracting the at least one of uranium-233 and thorium-229 into an organic phase, substantially continuously contacting the organic phase with an aqueous phase, substantially continuously extracting actinium-225 into the aqueous phase, and purifying the actinium-225 from the aqueous phase. In some embodiments, the product may include less than about 1 nanogram (ng) of iron per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225, and may include less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) each of magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225.

  2. Loss of purity by wave packet scattering at low energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia Wang; C. K. Law; M. -C. Chu

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum entanglement produced by a head-on collision between two gaussian wave packets in three-dimensional space. By deriving the two-particle wave function modified by s-wave scattering amplitudes, we obtain an approximate analytic expression of the purity of an individual particle. The loss of purity provides an indicator of the degree of entanglement. In the case the wave packets are narrow in momentum space, we show that the loss of purity is solely controlled by the ratio of the scattering cross section to the transverse area of the wave packets.

  3. Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.

  4. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    They have demonstrated the ability to directly "write" nanostructures of Si, Ge, and SiGe with deterministic size, geometry, and placement control. As purity is essential for...

  5. Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, Yukihito, E-mail: matsuura@chem.nara-k.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nara National College of Technology Yatacho 22, Yamato-koriyama, Nara 539-1080 (Japan)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended ?-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant ?, which is defined as e{sup ??L}, of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length.

  6. Demonstration of Surface Electron Rejection with Interleaved Germanium Detectors for Dark Matter Searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fox, J.; Fritts, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hasi, J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kenney, C. J.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Radpour, R.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2013-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of Surface Electron Rejection with Interleaved Germanium Detectors for Dark Matter Search to be published in Physical Review Letters

  7. Search for 2{nu}{beta}{beta} Decay of {sup 130}Te to the First Excited State of {sup 130}Xe with an Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizouni, L. K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States); University of South Carolina, 712 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Aalseth, C. E.; Erikson, L. E.; Hossbach, T. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Orrell, J. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland WA 99352 (United States); Avignone, F. T. III [University of South Carolina, 712 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of searching for zero-neutrino double-beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay is to probe an absolute neutrino mass scale suggested by the mass-splitting parameters observed by neutrino oscillation experiments. Furthermore, observation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is an explicit instance of Lepton-number non-conservation. A sensitive measurement of two-neutrino double-beta (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay can provide critical input to Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations of the nuclear matrix elements in models similar to those used to extract the absolute neutrino mass from (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay experiments. Tellurium-130, an even-even nucleus, can undergo 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay to the first 0+ excited state of {sup 130}Xe producing three possible {gamma}-ray cascades as it transitions to the ground state. The Cascades detector is a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array consisting of two ultra-low-background copper cryostats each housing a hexagonal array of seven crystals. The project is currently being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA (USA), and aims to obtain very high {gamma}-ray detection efficiency while utilizing highly effective and low-background shielding. GEANT4 simulations of the detector are performed for a {sup 130}Te sample in order to determine the optimum size and geometry of the source for maximum detection efficiency and predict its sensitivity for measuring 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay to the first 0+ excited state of {sup 130}Xe. These simulations are validated with calibration sources and presented.

  8. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    to the enhanced boundary scattering. Among the nanoscale semiconductor materials, Silicon-Germanium(SiGe) alloy nanowire is a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials The thermal conductivities of SiGe core-shell nanowires with core diameters of 96nm, 129...

  9. Germanium Nanowire Spin-Valve Device (DMR-0819860)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Germanium Nanowire Spin-Valve Device (DMR-0819860) E-S Liu, J. Nah, K.Varahramyan, and E. Tutuc (Univ. of Texas at Austin) Figure 1 The spin-valve device comprised of a Ge nanowire bracketed by two in direction, the spin current is suppressed (spin-valve action). An applied magnetic field By is used

  10. Axion Detection with Germanium Detectors Hannah LeTourneau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    of germanium detectors which will be used primarily to search for neutrinoless double beta decay, which would matter, and dark energy.[2] Neutrinoless double beta decay (0) is an energet- ically possible decay method for determining the crystal axis orientation of Ge detectors. I. BACKGROUND A. Neutrinoless Double

  11. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    overview; industry policies and plans; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures and so on. Then it analyzed the world's main region market conditions,...

  12. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the determination of low Z impurities (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) is a prerequisite for gaining an understanding of the effects of chemical imperfections on the physical, metallurgical, and chemical properties of magnesium (2). The purpose of this study... of nitrogen was accomplished with a 7. 8 MeV Be beam and 9 3 some modifications of the preceeding He procedure were necessary due to the nature of the ion beam. Sam les and Standards Eleven magnesium ingots were received from Dow Chemical Co. , Texas...

  13. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,800 10,100 7,100 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 681 1,760 7,190 4,510 4,000 Consumption.S. germanium consumption. The major end uses for germanium, worldwide, were estimated to be polymerization catalysts, 31%; fiber-optic systems, 24%; infrared optics, 23%; electronics/solar electric applications, 12

  14. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,200 13,800 26,500 Shipments from Government stockpile excesses 5,730 681 1,760 7,190 5,000 Consumption.S. germanium consumption. The major end uses for germanium, worldwide, were estimated to be polymerization catalysts, 31%; fiber-optic systems, 24%; infrared optics, 23%; electronics/solar electric applications, 12

  15. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refineries in New York and Oklahoma and set up in New York. The refinery in Oklahoma expanded, and a new secondary facility was built in North

  16. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995 producer price, was approximately industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery production Reserves6 Reserve base6 1994

  17. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and chemotherapy), 5%. Salient Statistics--United States: 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996e Production, refinery 13,000 10

  18. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are implemented to attain an annual canister production goal of 400 canisters. Since no Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) exists for germanium in the Tank Farm, the Effluent Treatment Project, or the Saltstone Production Facility, DWPF has requested an evaluation of the fate of the germanium in the caustic environment of the RCT, the 2H evaporator, and the tank farm. This report evaluates the effect of the addition of germanium to the tank farm based on: (1) the large dilution of Ge in the RCT and tank farm; (2) the solubility of germanium in caustic solutions (pH 12-13); (3) the potential of germanium to precipitate as germanium sodalites in the 2H Evaporator; and (4) the potential of germanium compounds to precipitate in the evaporator feed tank. This study concludes that the impacts of transferring up to 4 kg/yr germanium to the RCT (and subsequently the 2H evaporator feed tank and the 2H evaporator) results in <2 ppm per year (1.834 mg/L) which is the maximum instantaneous concentration expected from DWPF. This concentration is insignificant as most sodium germanates are soluble at the high pH of the feed tank and evaporator solutions. Even if sodium aluminosilicates form in the 2H evaporator, the Ge will likely substitute for some small amount of the Si in these structures and will be insignificant. It is recommended that the DWPF continue with their strategy to add germanium as a laboratory chemical to Attachment 8.2 of the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan (WCP).

  19. A digital method for separation and reconstruction of pile-up events in germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakhostin, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Walker, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of pulse pile-up is very often encountered in precise measurements of {gamma}-rays using germanium detectors. The standard method of treating the pile-up events is to identify and reject them using an appropriate electronic system. Digital acquisition techniques now allow the recording of waveforms of pile-up events that can be analyzed and the contributing single pulses recovered, rather than simply tolerating the losses associated with pile-up. In this paper, a method for the off-line digital processing of pile-up events from germanium detectors is demonstrated. The method is based on an appropriate fitting of the detector signals, shaped with a suitable digital pulse shaper. It is shown that the method is able to recover the pile-up events with good accuracy even when the constituent signals are in close proximity. The method is very useful for {gamma}-ray spectroscopy in nuclear physics experiments, where the low intensity signals can be lost due to the pile-up in a high-rate environment.

  20. GeMini: The Next Generation Mechanically-Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burks, M

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The next-generation mechanically-cooled germanium spectrometer has been developed. GeMini (GErmanium MINIature spectrometer) has been designed to bring high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy to a range of demanding field environments. Intended applications include short-notice and surprise inspections where positive nuclide identification of radioactive materials is required. GeMini weighs 2.75 kg (6 lbs) total including the detector, cryostat, cryocooler, batteries, electronics and readout. It is very low power allowing it to operate for 10 hours on a single set of rechargeable batteries. This instrument employs technology adapted from the gamma-ray spectrometer currently flying on NASA's Mercury MESSENGER spacecraft. Specifically, infrared shielding techniques allow for a vast reduction of thermal load. This in turn allows for a smaller, lighter-weight design, well-suited for a hand-held instrument. Two working prototypes have been built and tested in the lab. The target energy resolution is 3 keV fwhm or better for 1332 keV gamma-rays. The detectors currently achieve around 4.5 keV resolution, which is slightly higher than our goal due to microphonic noise. Our present work focuses on improving the resolution through mechanical and electronic means of reducing the microphonic noise. This paper will focus on the performance of the instrument and its applicability for inspectors in the field.

  1. Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

  2. Titanium and germanium lined hohlraums and halfraums as multi-keV x-ray radiators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girard, F.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Stemmler, Ph.; Jacquet, L.; Babonneau, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As multi-keV x-ray radiators, hohlraums and halfraums with inner walls coated with metallic materials (called liner) have been tested for the first time with laser as the energy drive. For titanium, conversion efficiencies (CEs) are up to {approx}14% for emission into 4{pi}, integrating between 4.6 and 6.5 keV when a large diameter hohlraum is used. Germanium CE is {approx}0.8% into 4{pi} between 9 and 13 keV. The highest CEs have been obtained with a 1 ns squared pulse and phase plates giving laser absorption near 99%. These high CEs are due to long-lasting, good plasma conditions for multi-keV x-ray production maintained by plasma confinement inside the plastic cylinder and plasma collision leading to a burst of x rays at a time that depends on target size. As photon emitters at 4.7 keV, titanium-lined hohlraums are the most efficient solid targets and data are close to CEs for gas targets, which are considered as the upper limit for x-ray yields since their low density allows good laser absorption and low kinetics losses. As 10.3 keV x-ray emitters, exploded germanium foils give best results one order of magnitude more efficient than thick targets; doped aerogels and lined hohlraums give similar yields, about three times lower than those from exploded foils.

  3. Synthesis and Gas Phase Thermochemistry of Germanium-Containing Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan Robert Classen

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The driving force behind much of the work in this dissertation was to gain further understanding of the unique olefin to carbene isomerization observed in the thermolysis of 1,1-dimethyl-2-methylenesilacyclobutane by finding new examples of it in other silicon and germanium compounds. This lead to the examination of a novel phenylmethylenesilacyclobut-2-ene, which did not undergo olefin to carbene rearrangement. A synthetic route to methylenegermacyclobutanes was developed, but the methylenegermacyclobutane system exhibited kinetic instability, making the study of the system difficult. In any case the germanium system decomposed through a complex mechanism which may not include olefin to carbene isomerization. However, this work lead to the study of the gas phase thermochemistry of a series of dialkylgermylene precursors in order to better understand the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of dialkylgermylenes. The resulting dialkylgermylenes were found to undergo a reversible intramolecular {beta} C-H insertion mechanism.

  4. asymmetric reflection-type germanium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: of germanium detectors which will be used primarily to search for neutrinoless double beta decay, which would matter, and dark energy.2 Neutrinoless double beta decay...

  5. Background reduction and sensitivity for germanium double beta decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Gómez; S. Cebrián; J. Morales; J. A. Villar

    2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium detectors have very good capabilities for the investigation of rare phenomena like the neutrinoless double beta decay. Rejection of the background entangling the expected signal is one primary goal in this kind of experiments. Here, the attainable background reduction in the energy region where the neutrinoless double beta decay signal of 76Ge is expected to appear has been evaluated for experiments using germanium detectors, taking into consideration different strategies like the granularity of the detector system, the segmentation of each individual germanium detector and the application of Pulse Shape Analysis techniques to discriminate signal from background events. Detection efficiency to the signal is affected by background rejection techniques, and therefore it has been estimated for each of the background rejection scenarios considered. Finally, conditions regarding crystal mass, radiopurity, exposure to cosmic rays, shielding and rejection capabilities are discussed with the aim to achieve a background level of 10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the region of interest, which would allow to explore neutrino effective masses around 40 meV.

  6. Distribution of germanium in Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x < 0.1) layers grown on the Si(001) substrate as a function of layer thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaev, V. S.; Krivobok, V. S.; Martovitsky, V. P., E-mail: victormart@yandex.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The germanium distribution in Si(001)/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} layers as a function of the layer thickness at a low dopant concentration (x < 6%) has been investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and low-temperature photoluminescence. It has been shown that the germanium concentration increases with increasing thickness of the SiGe layer with the formation of lateral inhomogeneities at the boundary between this layer and a silicon cap layer for a layer thickness of 30 nm or more. These inhomogeneities have an oriented character and give rise to anisotropic diffuse scattering for the system of (113) and (224) asymmetric reflections from SiGe. The luminescence of these films at low temperatures and low excitation densities is an emission of localized and delocalized excitons, which is characteristic of systems with disorder. The revealed nonuniform germanium distribution in the lateral direction is associated with the accumulation of germanium in the near-surface SiGe layer and with the partial relaxation of elastic strains due to the development of surface roughness and the preferred incorporation of germanium atoms into one side of the surface ripples.

  7. GERMANIUM--2003 31.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Carolyn F. Crews, statistical assistant. Germanium is a hard, brittle semimetal that first came into use. The zinc- mining operations in Alaska and Tennessee supplied byproduct germanium concentrates for export extent from coal ash and cobalt-copper ores. Legislation and Government Programs As a strategic

  8. Influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within R. S. Cai,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within SiO2 glass D. Barba,1 R online 17 March 2014) We study the influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion of several orders of magnitudes.12,16­18 This may suggest that Si dangling bonds can affect the diffusion

  9. Preparation of germanium doped plasma polymerized coatings as ICF target ablators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Saculla, M.D.; Cook, R.C.

    1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilize an organic (CH) ablator coating prepared by plasma polymerization. Some of these experiments require a mid-Z dopant in the ablator coating to modify the opacity of the shell. Bromine had been used in the past, but the surface finish of brominated CH degrades rapidly with time upon exposure to air. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of plasma polymer layers containing germanium as a dopant at concentrations of between 1.25 and 2.25 atom percent. The coatings are stable in air and have an rms surface roughness of 7--9 nm (modes 10--1,000) which is similar to that obtained with undoped coatings. High levels of dopant result in cracking of the inner mandrel during target assembly. Possible explanations for the observed cracking behavior will be discussed.

  10. Influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within SiO{sub 2} glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barba, D.; Martin, F.; Ross, G. G. [INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Cai, R. S.; Wang, Y. Q. [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Demarche, J.; Terwagne, G. [LARN, Centre de Recherche en Physique de la Matière et du Rayonnement (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Rosei, F. [INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications, 1650 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6 (Canada)

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the influence of silicon dangling bonds on germanium thermal diffusion within silicon oxide and fused silica substrates heated to high temperatures. By using scanning electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, we determine that the lower mobility of Ge found within SiO{sub 2}/Si films can be associated with the presence of unsaturated SiO{sub x} chemical bonds. Comparative measurements obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that 10% of silicon dangling bonds can reduce Ge desorption by 80%. Thus, the decrease of the silicon oxidation state yields a greater thermal stability of Ge inside SiO{sub 2} glass, which could enable to considerably extend the performance of Ge-based devices above 1300?K.

  11. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania Production, refinery 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000 22,000e Total imports 14,700 16,200 27,500 23,700 20

  12. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, refinery 10,000 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000e Total imports 15,000 15,000 16,000 27,000 17,0001 Exports NA

  13. A DONOR COMPLEX WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN IN PURE GERMANIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joos, B.; Haller, E.E.; Falicov, L.M.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A shallow donor complex observed by several authors in ultrapure germanium grown in a hydrogen atmosphere is attributed to an oxygen-hydrogen system. Photoconductivity data under stress are presented. An abrupt transition in the spectra at a well-defined stress (2.1 x 10{sup 8} dyn cm{sup -2}) is found. It is explained by a theory which involves dynamic tunneling of the hydrogen in the vicinity of an oxygen center. The comparison with other complex donors and acceptors supports the model.

  14. Cryostat for Ultra-low-energy Threshold Germanium Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Fast, James E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; VanDevender, Brent A.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: This paper presents progress on the development of a cryostat intended to improve upon the low-energy threshold (below 0.5 keV) of p-type point contact germanium gamma-ray spectrometers. Ultra-low energy thresholds are important in the detection of low-energy nuclear recoils, an event class relevant to both dark matter direct detection and measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The cryostat design, including a thermal and electrical-field model, is presented. A prototype cryostat has been assembled and data acquired to evaluate its vacuum and thermal performance.

  15. Cryostat for Ultra-low-energy Threshold Germanium Spectrometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig E. Aalseth; Ricco M. Bonicalzi; James E. Fast; Todd W. Hossbach; John L. Orrell; Cory T. Overman; Brent A. Vandevender

    2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents progress on the development of a cryostat intended to improve upon the low-energy threshold (below 0.5 keV) of p-type point contact germanium gamma-ray spectrometers. Ultra-low energy thresholds are important in the detection of low-energy nuclear recoils, an event class relevant to both dark matter direct detection and measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The cryostat design, including a thermal and electrical-field model, is given. A prototype cryostat has been assembled and data acquired to evaluate its vacuum and thermal performance.

  16. Extreme argon purity in a large, non-evacuated cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tope, Terry; Adamowski, Mark; Carls, B.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Skup, E.; Stancari, M.; Yang, T. [Particle Physics Division, Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) show promise as scalable devices for the large detectors needed for long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics. Over the last several years at Fermilab a staged approach to developing the technology for large detectors has been developed. The TPC detectors require ultra-pure liquid argon with respect to electronegative contaminants such as oxygen and water. The tolerable electronegative contamination level may be as pure as 60 parts per trillion of oxygen. Three liquid argon cryostats operated at Fermilab have achieved the extreme purity required by TPCs. These three cryostats used evacuation to remove atmospheric contaminants as the first purification step prior to filling with liquid argon. Future physics experiments may require very large detectors with tens of kilotonnes of liquid argon mass. The capability to evacuate such large cryostats adds significant cost to the cryostat itself in addition to the cost of a large scale vacuum pumping system. This paper describes a 30 ton liquid argon cryostat at Fermilab which uses purging to remove atmospheric contaminants instead of evacuation as the first purification step. This cryostat has achieved electronegative contamination levels better than 60 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent. The results of this liquid argon purity demonstration will strongly influence the design of future TPC cryostats.

  17. Reduction of phosphorus diffusion in germanium by fluorine implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mubarek, H. A. W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of phosphorus (P) diffusion in germanium (Ge) is essential for the realisation of ultrashallow n-type junctions in Ge. This work reports a detailed study of the effect of fluorine (F) co-implantation on P diffusion in Ge. P and F profiles were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The ion implantation damage was investigated using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that F co-implantation reduces the implanted P profile width and reduces both intrinsic and extrinsic P diffusion in Ge. A defect mediated mechanism for the strong influence of F co-implantation on P diffusion in Ge is proposed and invokes the formation of F{sub n}V{sub m} clusters in the F-amorphized Ge layer. A fraction of these F{sub n}V{sub m} clusters decorate the interstitial type end-of-range defects in the re-grown Ge layer and the rest react during re-growth with interstitial germanium atoms diffusing back from the amorphous crystalline interface. The Ge vacancies are then annihilated and mobile interstitial F is released and out diffuses from the surface. This results in a re-grown Ge layer which has a low vacancy concentration and in which the P diffusion rate is reduced. These results open the way to the realization of enhanced Ge n-type devices.

  18. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will evaluate these detector systems on the bench top and eventually in RASA systems to insure reliable and practical operation.

  19. Corrosion in Supercritical carbon Dioxide: Materials, Environmental Purity, Surface Treatments, and Flow Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is gaining importance for power conversion in the Generation IV fast reactor system because of its high conversion efficiencies. When used in conjunction with a sodium fast reactor, the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle offers additional safety advantages by eliminating potential sodium-water interactions that may occur in a steam cycle. In power conversion systems for Generation IV fast reactors, supercritical CO{sub 2} temperatures could be in the range of 30°C to 650°C, depending on the specific component in the system. Materials corrosion primarily at high temperatures will be an important issue. Therefore, the corrosion performance limits for materials at various temperatures must be established. The proposed research will have four objectives centered on addressing corrosion issues in a high-temperature supercritical CO{sub 2} environment: Task 1: Evaluation of corrosion performance of candidate alloys in high-purity supercritical CO{sub 2}: The following alloys will be tested: Ferritic-martensitic Steels NF616 and HCM12A, austenitic alloys Incoloy 800H and 347 stainless steel, and two advanced concept alloys, AFA (alumina forming austenitic) steel and MA754. Supercritical CO{sub 2} testing will be performed at 450°C, 550°C, and 650°C at a pressure of 20 MPa, in a test facility that is already in place at the proposing university. High purity CO{sub 2} (99.9998%) will be used for these tests. Task 2: Investigation of the effects of CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} impurities in supercritical CO{sub 2} on corrosion: Impurities that will inevitably present in the CO{sub 2} will play a critical role in dictating the extent of corrosion and corrosion mechanisms. These effects must be understood to identify the level of CO{sub 2} chemistry control needed to maintain sufficient levels of purity to manage corrosion. The individual effects of important impurities CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} will be investigated by adding them separately to high purity CO{sub 2}. Task 3: Evaluation of surface treatments on the corrosion performance of alloys in supercritical CO{sub 2}: Surface treatments can be very beneficial in improving corrosion resistance. Shot peening and yttrium and aluminum surface treatments will be investigated. Shot peening refines the surface grain sizes and promotes protective Cr-oxide layer formation. Both yttrium and aluminum form highly stable oxide layers (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which can get incorporated in the growing Fe-oxide layer to form an impervious complex oxide to enhance corrosion resistance. Task 4: Study of flow-assisted corrosion of select alloys in supercritical CO{sub 2} under a selected set of test conditions: To study the effects of flow-assisted corrosion, tests will be conducted in a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow loop. An existing facility used for supercritical water flow studies at the proposing university will be modified for use in this task. The system is capable of flow velocities up to 10 m/s and can operate at temperatures and pressures of up to 650°C and 20 MPa, respectively. All above tasks will be performed in conjunction with detailed materials characterization and analysis using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) techniques, and weight change measurements. Inlet and outlet gas compositions will be monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS).

  20. Strain Heterogeneity and Damage Nucleation at Grain Boundaries during Monotonic Deformation in Commercial Purity Titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieler, T. R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Crimp, M. A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Yang, Y. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Eisenlohr, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Eisenforschung, Germany; Mason, D. E. [Albion College; Liu, W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heteroeneous strain was analyzed in polycrystalline, commercial-purity titanium using many experimental techniques that provide information about microstructure, dislocation arrangement, grain orientation, orientation gradients, surface topography, and local strain gradients. The recrystallized microstructure with 50-200 ?m grains was extensively characterized before and after deformation using 4-point bending to strains between 2% and 15%. Extremely heterogeneous deformation occurred along some grain boundaries, leading to orientation gradients exceeding 10{sup o} over 10-20 {micro}m. Patches of highly characterized microstructure were modeled using crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) analysis to simulate the deformation to evaluate the ability of the CPFE model to capture local deformation processes. Damage nucleation events were identified that are associated with twin interactions with grain boundaries. Progress toward identifying fracture initiation criteria based upon slip and twin interactions with grain boundaries is illustrated with related CPFE simulations of deformation in a TiAl alloy.

  1. Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L. (San Francisco, CA); Pickus, Milton R. (Oakland, CA); Douglas, Kent E. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

  2. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAJORANA The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76 DEMONSTRATOR PANIC11 Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0) · Observation indicates: · Neutrino is a Majorana

  3. Experimental Investigation of Size Effects on the Thermal Conductivity of Silicon-Germanium Alloy Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheaito, Ramez

    We experimentally investigate the role of size effects and boundary scattering on the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys. The thermal conductivities of a series of epitaxially grown Si[subscript 1-x] Ge[subscript ...

  4. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, Himadri R., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  5. Results from a Low-Energy Analysis of the CDMS II Germanium Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    We report results from a reanalysis of data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Data taken between October 2006 and September 2008 using eight germanium detectors ...

  6. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  7. Silicon-germanium saturable absorbers and erbium-doped waveguides for integrated mode-locked lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byun, Hyunil

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Saturable Bragg Reflectors (SBR) and Erbium-doped waveguide chips are fabricated and characterized as crucial components for integration of a mode-locked laser on a Si-chip. The ...

  8. Structure of amorphous silicon and germanium alloy films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norberg, R.E.; Fedders, P.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the research is to improve the understanding at the microscopic level of amorphous silicon and germanium film structures deposited under various methods. The work is to correlate and theoretically analyze, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, ESR, electron spin resonance, and other measurements. The alloys of concern include those obtained by adding dopants to hydrogenated silicon and germanium. The work has been directed to continue deuteron magnetic resonance DMR studies and to pay particulate attention to those structural features which may correlate with the photoelectronic properties of the material. The 1990 (DMR) accomplishments have included correlation of inhomogeneous nuclear spin relaxation with photovoltaic quality. In a second project, a structural rearrangement of atoms has been demonstrated to be associated with the light-induced metastability in a-Si:D, H films. A third approach has employed proton-deuteron coupled spin dynamics to examine hydrogen and deuterium motions in quality films of a-Si:H; a-Si:P,H; and a-Si:D,H. The B- P-doped films show a significantly enhanced hydrogen mobility above 200 K. We also have performed a number of detailed calculations on the effects coordination and strain on the deep electronic states rising from B and P dopants in a-Si as well as the band tail states in the gap of a-Si arising from strained bonds. This work gives a rather complete picture of the effects on the gap states of strain and dopants in the absence of H and for a given configuration of the a-Si network. We conclude that the methods that we have developed over the past three years are capable of describing many of the effects of strained bonds, especially their effect on dopants. 25 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Behavior of germanium ion-implanted into SiO{sub 2} near the bonding interface of a silicon-on-insulator structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyschenko, I. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)], E-mail: tys@isp.nsc.ru; Voelskow, M. [Research Center Rossendorf, Institute of Ion-Beam Physics (Germany); Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of germanium implanted into the SiO{sub 2} layers in the vicinity of the bonding interface of silicon-on-insulator structures are studied. It is shown that, under conditions of high-temperature (1100 deg. C) annealing, germanium nanocrystals are not formed, while the implanted Ge atoms segregate at the Si/SiO{sub 2} bonding interface. It is established that, in this case, Ge atoms are found at sites that are coherent with the lattice of the top silicon layer. In this situation, the main type of traps is the positive-charge traps; their effect is interpreted in the context of an increase in the surface-state density due to the formation of weaker Ge-O bonds. It is found that the slope of the drain-gate characteristics of the back MIS transistors increases; this increase is attributed to an increased mobility of holes due to the contribution of an intermediate germanium layer formed at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  10. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, M. E.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J. E.; Glasgow, B. D.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Miley, H. S.; Myers, A. W.; Seifert, A.; Stavenger, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}--{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g. samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g.<10{sup 5} fissions) as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  11. CASCADES: An Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Seifert, Allen; Stavenger, Timothy J.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art treaty verification techniques, environmental surveillance, and physics experiments require increased sensitivity for detecting and quantifying radionuclides of interest. This can be accomplished with new detector designs that establish high detection efficiency and reduced instrument backgrounds. Current research is producing an intrinsic germanium (HPGe) array designed for high detection efficiency, ultra-low-background performance, and sensitive {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence detection. The system design is optimized to accommodate filter paper samples, e.g., samples collected by the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer. The system will provide high sensitivity for weak collections on atmospheric filter samples (e.g., < 10{sup 5} fissions), as well as offering the potential to gather additional information from higher activity filters using gamma cascade coincidence detection. The first of two HPGe crystal arrays in ultra-low-background vacuum cryostats has been assembled, with the second in progress. Traditional methods for constructing ultra-low-background detectors were followed, including use of materials known to be low in radioactive contaminants, use of ultra-pure reagents, and clean room assembly. The cryostat is constructed mainly from copper electroformed into near-final geometry at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Details of the detector assembly and initial background and spectroscopic measurement results are presented; also a description of the custom analysis package used by this project is given.

  12. Germanium-rich silicon-germanium materials for field-effect modular application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of electric-field-induced optical modulation in the materials capable of monolithically integrated on silicon (Si) substrates offer the possibility of high-speed modulation in a pico second timeframe as ...

  13. CMPO purity tests in the TRUEX solvent using americium-241

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) Process was developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to separate the +4, +6, and +3 actinides from acidic aqueous solutions of nuclear wastes. Octyl (phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) is the active actinide complexant used in the TRUEX solvent. CMPO is combined with tributyl phosphate (TBP) in an organic diluent, typically n-dodecane, to form the TRUEX solvent. Small quantities of impurities in the CMPO resulting from: (1) synthesis, (2) acid hydrolysis, or (3) radiolysis can result in actinide stripping problems from the solvent. The impurity, octylphenylphosphinic acid (POPPA), ia a powerful extractant at low acid concentrations which may be formed during CMPO synthesis. Consequently, commercial CMPO may contain sufficient quantities of POPPA to significantly impact the stripping of actinides from the TRUEX solvent. The purpose of these tests was to (1) determine if commercially available CMPO is sufficiently pure to alleviate actinide stripping problems from the TRUEX process and (2) to determine if solvent cleanup methods are sufficient to purify the commercially purchased CMPO. Extraction and solvent cleanup methodologies used by Horwitz and coworkers at ANL were used to determine CMPO purity with {sup 241}Am. The improvement of the americium distribution coefficient in dilute nitric acid resulting from further purifying this CMPO is not significant enough to warrant additional CMPO purifying steps. The commercially purchased CMPO is found to be acceptable to use, as received, in a full-scale TRUEX process.

  14. Temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing in crystalline and amorphous germanium isotope multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radek, M.; Bracht, H., E-mail: bracht@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Materials Physics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Posselt, M.; Liedke, B.; Schmidt, B. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Bougeard, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-atom mixing induced by 310 keV gallium (Ga) ion implantation in crystalline and preamorphized germanium (Ge) at temperatures between 164 K and 623 K and a dose of 1?×?10{sup 15}?cm{sup ?2} is investigated using isotopic multilayer structures of alternating {sup 70}Ge and {sup nat}Ge layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The distribution of the implanted Ga atoms and the ion-beam induced depth-dependent self-atom mixing was determined by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Three different temperature regimes of self-atom mixing, i.e., low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature regimes are observed. At temperatures up to 423 K, the mixing is independent of the initial structure, whereas at 523?K, the intermixing of the preamorphized Ge structure is about twice as high as that of crystalline Ge. At 623?K, the intermixing of the initially amorphous Ge structure is strongly reduced and approaches the mixing of the crystalline material. The temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing is described by competitive amorphization and recrystallization processes.

  15. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

  16. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  17. GERDA, a GERmanium Detector Array for the search for neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay in 76Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandola, L.; Tomei, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S.S. 17 bis km 18.910, 67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERDA project, searching for neutrinoless double beta-decay of 76Ge with enriched germanium detectors submerged in a cryogenic bath, has been approved for installation at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. The GERDA technique is aiming at a dramatic reduction of the background due to radioactive contaminations of the materials surrounding the detectors. This will lead to a sensitivity of about 1026 years on the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay. Already in the first phase of the experiment, GERDA will be able to investigate with high statistical significance the claimed evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge based on the data of the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment.

  18. Boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon germanium alloy nanocrystals—Nonthermal plasma synthesis and gas-phase thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, David J., E-mail: rowex108@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu; Kortshagen, Uwe R., E-mail: rowex108@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloyed silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures are the topic of renewed research due to applications in modern optoelectronics and high-temperature thermoelectric materials. However, common techniques for producing nanostructured SiGe focus on bulk processing; therefore little is known of the physical properties of SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from molecular precursors. In this letter, we synthesize and deposit thin films of doped SiGe NCs using a single, flow-through nonthermal plasma reactor and inertial impaction. Using x-ray and vibrational analysis, we show that the SiGe NC structure appears truly alloyed for Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} for 0.16 < x < 0.24, and quantify the atomic dopant incorporation within the SiGe NC films.

  19. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  20. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAJORANA Collaboration; A. G. Schubert; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; H. O. Back; A. S. Barabash; M. Bergevin; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; J. I. Collar; D. C. Combs; R. J. Cooper; J. A. Detwiler; J. Leon; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Esterline; J. E. Fast; N. Fields; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; V. M. Gehman; G. K. Giovanetti; M. P. Green; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusey; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; R. Henning; A. Hime; E. W. Hoppe; M. Horton; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; R. A. Johnson; K. J. Keeter; M. E. Keillor; C. Keller; J. D. Kephart; M. F. Kidd; A. Knecht; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. LaFerriere; B. H. LaRoque; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; S. MacMullin; M. G. Marino; R. D. Martin; D. -M. Mei; J. Merriman; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; N. Overman; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; G. Perumpilly; G. Prior; D. C. Radford; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; M. C. Ronquest; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; V. Sobolev; D. Steele; J. Strain; K. Thomas; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; I. Vanyushin; R. L. Varner; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; J. F. Wilkerson; B. A. Wolfe; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. ?H. Yu; V. Yumatov; C. Zhan

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle and provide information on the absolute scale of neutrino mass. The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array of germanium detectors, to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76-Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76-Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment. Operation of the DEMONSTRATOR aims to determine whether a future tonne-scale germanium experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76-Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay Q-value of 2039 keV.

  1. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  2. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  3. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E. (Berkeley, CA); Brundermann, Erik (Berlin, DE)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  4. Extraction of Physics Signals Near Threshold with Germanium Detectors in Neutrino and Dark Matter Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The TEXONO Collaboration; A. K. Soma; G. Kiran Kumar; F. K. Lin; M. K. Singh; H. Jiang; S. K. Liu; L. Singh; Y. C. Wu; L. T. Yang; W. Zhao; M. Agartioglu; G. Asryan; Y. C. Chuang; M. Deniz; C. L. Hsu; Y. H. Hsu; T. R. Huang; H. B. Li; J. Li; F. T. Liao; H. Y. Liao; C. W. Lin; S. T. Lin; J. L. Ma; V. Sharma; Y. T. Shen; V. Singh; J. Su; V. S. Subrahmanyam; C. H. Tseng; J. J. Wang; H. T. Wong; Y. Xu; S. W. Yang; C. X. Yu; X. C. Yuan; Q. Yue; M. Zeyre

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium ionization detectors with sensitivities as low as 100 eVee open new windows for the studies of neutrino and dark matter physics. The physics motivations of sub-keV germanium detectors are summarized. The amplitude of physics signals is comparable to those due to fluctuations of the pedestal electronic noise. Various experimental issues have to be attended before the promises of this new detector technique can be fully exploited. These include quenching factors, energy definition and calibration, signal triggering and selection together with their associated inefficiencies derivation. The efforts and results of an R&D program to address these challenges are presented.

  5. Optimization of the Transport Shield for Neutrinoless Double Beta-decay Enriched Germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents results of an investigation of the material and geometry choice for the transport shield of germanium, the active detector material used in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The objective of this work is to select the optimal material and geometry to minimize cosmogenic production of radioactive isotopes in the germanium material. The design of such a shield is based on the calculation of the cosmogenic production rate of isotopes that are known to cause interfering backgrounds in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  6. Kinetic lattice Monte Carlo simulations of interdiffusion in strained silicon germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Renyu; Dunham, Scott T.

    2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Point-defect-mediated diffusion processes are investigated in strained SiGe alloys using kinetic lattice Monte Carlo *KLMC* simulation technique. The KLMC simulator incorporates an augmented lattice domain and includes defect structures, atomistic hopping mechanisms, and the stress dependence of transition rates obtained from density functional theory calculation results. Vacancy-mediated interdiffusion in strained SiGe alloys is analyzed, and the stress effect caused by the induced strain of germanium is quantified separately from that due to germanium-vacancy binding. The results indicate that both effects have substantial impact on interdiffusion. © 2010 American Vacuum Society.

  7. J. PHYS ZV FRANCE 7 ( 1997) Colloque C2, SupplCmentau Journal de Physique I11d'avril 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    synchrotronradiationfrom the HE-PGM2plane grating nionochromator at BESSY. The L,,edges for Se,Zn and different transition ~nonocltro~natorat BESSY and utilizing the fluorescence chamber with high purity germanium detector. The L

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 205209 (2011) Study of the ferroelectric phase transition in germanium telluride using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku?el, Petr

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    semiconductor belonging to the class of so-called phase- change materials; its conducting properties, as wellPHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 205209 (2011) Study of the ferroelectric phase transition in germaniumTe) is a ferroelectric material presenting, at room temperature, both spontaneous polarization and electrical

  9. GERMANIUM--2002 32.1 References that include a section mark () are found in the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    b). The USGS estimated that U.S. refinery production of germanium from primary and semirefined. Pasminco Limited (Australia), the owner of the zinc refinery at Clarksville, TN, went into receivership reserves at the mine will not be recovered unless the mine reopens. The Clarksville refinery will continue

  10. By Errol D. Sehnke Germanium is a grayish-white, metallic the same as in 1993.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Domestic refinery production and 1994, Union Minière of Belgium sold its zin c consumption for germanium the new management, the Estimated domestic refinery production of Clarksville, TN, zinc refinery continued for fiscal year 1995. Production principally for military guidance and The USBM estimated domestic refinery

  11. A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    light emission. Here, we introduce the `suspension platform for optoelectronics under tension-bandgap semi- conductors. In an E­k diagram plotting electron energy E against wave vector k, which describes suffers from limitations imposed by its band structure. Although bulk germanium represents an attractive

  12. -tin ! Imma ! sh Phase Transitions of Germanium Xiao-Jia Chen,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;-tin ! Imma ! sh Phase Transitions of Germanium Xiao-Jia Chen,1 Chao Zhang,2 Yue Meng,3 Rui March 2011) New paths were designed for the investigations of the #12;-tin ! Imma ! sh phase transitions in nanocrystalline Ge under conditions of hydrostatic stress. A second-order transition between the #12;-tin and Imma

  13. Maximally Accessible Purity in Coherently Controlled Open Quantum Systems: Application to Quantum State Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Li; Dawei Lu; Zhihuang Luo; Raymond Laflamme; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental problem in quantum control is to precisely characterize the controlled system dynamics when decoherence effects are present. In this work, we derive the upper bound of achievable purity for coherently driven dissipative systems, which is rather useful for assessing control performances. The theory is further testified on a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. Under joint effects of coherent pulses and system relaxation, we are able to implement the tasks of open system polarization transfer and pseudopure state preparation with remarkably, both of them approaching near optimal performance in purity. Our work shows great applicative potential of utilizing rather than suppressing relaxation effects in open system control protocols.

  14. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton...

  15. Ionbombardmentenhanced grain growth in germanium, silicon, and gold Harry A. Atwater, Carl V. Thompson, and Henry I. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    , Carl V. Thompson, and Henry I. Smith Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 64, 2337 (1988); doi: 10..bombardment..enhanced grain growth in germanium, silicon, and gold thin films Harry A. Atwater,a) Carl V. Thompson

  16. Anomalous small angle x-ray scattering studies of amorphous metal-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation addresses the issue of composition modulation in sputtered amorphous metal-germanium thin films with the aim of understanding the intermediate range structure of these films as a function of composition. The investigative tool used in this work is anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS). The primary focus of this investigation is the amorphous iron-germanium (a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) system with particular emphasis on the semiconductor-rich regime. Brief excursions are made into the amorphous tungsten-germanium (a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) and the amorphous molybdenum-germanium (a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) systems. All three systems exhibit an amorphous structure over a broad composition range extending from pure amorphous germanium to approximately 70 atomic percent metal when prepared as sputtered films. Across this composition range the structures change from the open, covalently bonded, tetrahedral network of pure a-Ge to densely packed metals. The structural changes are accompanied by a semiconductor-metal transition in all three systems as well as a ferromagnetic transition in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system and a superconducting transition in the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system. A long standing question, particularly in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} and the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems, has been whether the structural changes (and therefore the accompanying electrical and magnetic transitions) are accomplished by homogeneous alloy formation or phase separation. The application of ASAXS to this problem proves unambiguously that fine scale composition modulations, as distinct from the simple density fluctuations that arise from cracks and voids, are present in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, and a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems in the semiconductor-metal transition region. Furthermore, ASAXS shows that germanium is distributed uniformly throughout each sample in the x<25 regime of all three systems.

  17. Investigations of segregation phenomena in highly strained Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and Ge quantum dots embedded in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prestat, E., E-mail: eric.prestat@gmail.com; Porret, C.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Tainoff, D.; Boukhari, M.; Bayle-Guillemaud, P.; Jamet, M.; Barski, A., E-mail: andre.barski@cea.com [INAC, SP2M, CEA and Université Joseph Fourier, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we investigate manganese diffusion and the formation of Mn precipitates in highly strained, few monolayer thick, Mn-doped Ge wetting layers and nanometric size Ge quantum dot heterostructures embedded in silicon. We show that in this Ge(Mn)/Si system manganese always precipitates and that the size and the position of Mn clusters (precipitates) depend on the growth temperature. At high growth temperature, manganese strongly diffuses from germanium to silicon, whereas decreasing the growth temperature reduces the manganese diffusion. In the germanium quantum dots layers, Mn precipitates are detected, not only in partially relaxed quantum dots but also in fully strained germanium wetting layers between the dots.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring purity of noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin, Robert (Largo, FL)

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for detecting impurities in a noble gas includes a detection chamber and a source of pulsed ultraviolet light. The pulse of the ultraviolet light is transferred into the detection chamber and onto a photocathode, thereby emitting a cloud of free electrons into the noble gas within the detection chamber. The cloud of electrons is attracted to the opposite end of the detection chamber by a high positive voltage potential at that end and focused onto a sensing anode. If there are impurities in the noble gas, some or all of the electrons within the cloud will bond with the impurity molecules and not reach the sensing anode. Therefore, measuring a lower signal at the sensing anode indicates a higher level of impurities while sensing a higher signal indicates fewer impurities. Impurities in the range of one part per billion can be measured by this device.

  19. Evaluating the purity of a {sup 57}Co flood source by PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiFilippo, Frank P., E-mail: difilif@ccf.org [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Flood sources of {sup 57}Co are commonly used for quality control of gamma cameras. Flood uniformity may be affected by the contaminants {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co, which emit higher energy photons. Although vendors specify a maximum combined {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co activity, a convenient test for flood source purity that is feasible in a clinical environment would be desirable. Methods: Both {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co emit positrons with branching 19.6% and 14.9%, respectively. As is known from {sup 90}Y imaging, a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner is capable of quantitatively imaging very weak positron emission in a high single-photon background. To evaluate this approach, two {sup 57}Co flood sources were scanned with a clinical PET/CT multiple times over a period of months. The {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co activity was clearly visible in the reconstructed PET images. Total impurity activity was quantified from the PET images after background subtraction of prompt gamma coincidences. Results: Time-of-flight PET reconstruction was highly beneficial for accurate image quantification. Repeated measurements of the positron-emitting impurities showed excellent agreement with an exponential decay model. For both flood sources studied, the fit parameters indicated a zero intercept and a decay half-life consistent with a mixture of {sup 56}Co and {sup 58}Co. The total impurity activity at the reference date was estimated to be 0.06% and 0.07% for the two sources, which was consistent with the vendor’s specification of <0.12%. Conclusions: The robustness of the repeated measurements and a thorough analysis of the detector corrections and physics suggest that the accuracy is acceptable and that the technique is feasible. Further work is needed to validate the accuracy of this technique with a calibrated high resolution gamma spectrometer as a gold standard, which was not available for this study, and for other PET detector models.

  20. Recommendations for a Static Cosmic Ray Shield for Enriched Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Orrell, John L.; Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a detailed study of cost and materials that could be used to shield the detector material of the international Tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment from hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at the Earth's surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during storage; in particular, when the detector material is being worked on at the detector manufacturer's facility. This work considers two options for shielding the detector material from cosmic ray particles. One option is to use a pre-existing structure already located near the detector manufacturer, such as Canberra Industries in Meriden, Connecticut. The other option is to build a shield onsite at a detector manufacturer's site. This paper presents a cost and efficiency analysis of such construction.

  1. Solution Synthesis of Germanium Nanocrystals: Success and Open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the form of a black powder. It relies on high temperature decomposition of tetraethylgermane (TEG

  2. Asymptotic geometric phase and purity for phase qubit dispersively coupled to lossy LC circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, A.-B.A., E-mail: abdelbastm@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Obada, A.-S.F. [Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical descriptions of the geometric phases (GPs) for the total system and subsystems are studied for a current biased Josephson phase qubit strongly coupled to a lossy LC circuit in the dispersive limit. It is found that, the GP and purity depend on the damping parameter which leads to the phenomenon of GP death. Coherence parameter delays the phenomenon of a regular sequence of deaths and births of the GP. The asymptotic behavior of the GP and the purity for the qubit-LC resonator state closely follow that for the qubit state, but however, for the LC circuit these asymptotic values are equal to zero. - Highlights: > The model of a current biased Josephson phase qubit, strongly coupled to loss LC circuit, is considered. > Analytical descriptions of the geometric phase (GP) of this model, in the dispersive limit, are studied. > The GP and purity depend on the dissipation which leads to the GP death phenomenon. > Coherence parameter delays the phenomenon of a regular sequence of deaths and births of the GP.

  3. The M-band transmission flux of the plastic foil with a coated layer of silicon or germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liling; Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Guo, Liang; Qing, Bo; Li, Zhichao; Zhang, Jiyan; Yang, Jiamin; Ding, Yongkun [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) can be used as the dopant in the ablator material for the purpose of reducing preheating in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Their performances in reducing preheating are quite different. A method to evaluate the difference of these two kinds of dopants has been presented in this letter. In the Shenguang-II high power laser facility, the M-band (1.6–4.4?keV) transmission flux of Si-coated plastic (CH) and Ge-coated plastic (CH) has been measured by using the M-band x-ray diode. In the experiment, we find that the Si-coated CH can absorb more M-band x-rays and thus reduce the preheating of the fuel in our experiment condition. By using the radiation hydrodynamic code MULTI-1D, we got the simulation result which was well suited for the experiment. The comparison of their opacities (T{sub e} = 60–100?eV and ??=?0.1–0.5?g/cm{sup 3}) also shows that the opacity of Si is higher than that of Ge almost in the whole range of 1.6–4.4?keV.

  4. HIGH PURITY FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS BY SOL-GEL PROCESS FOR MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    The possibility of having a material where the electric properties ( or µ) can be changed under the effect infact the driven energy required to change the property of the material goes primarily to the change is required to control the property of the material. FEM also allow faster phase shifting compared

  5. HIGH PURITY FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS BY SOL-GEL PROCESS FOR MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    in methanol at a concentration of 0.1 M titanium isopropoxide, Ti(C3H7C)4), is then added to the solution to yield a 1:1 molar ratio of barium-titanium complex alkoxide solution. This precursor is produced at room temperature and in dry nitrogen atmosphere. BTO powder can be obtained by calcimining the precursor to 550"C

  6. Process for the production of high purity zirconium tetrafluoride and other fluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, H.P.; Woytek, A.J.; Lileck, J.T.

    1991-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for producing metal fluorides for low optical loss glass applications selected from the group. It comprises: aluminum trifluoride, hafnium tetrafluoride and zirconium tetrafluoride. The steps comprise: incompletely reacting reactants of a fluorinating agent selected from the group consisting of F{sub 2}, NF{sub 3}, N{sub 2}F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}F{sub 4}, ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 3}, IF{sub 5} and SF{sub 4} and a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, hafnium and zirconium, or the corresponding metal's compound to produce a reaction product comprising the metal fluoride and at least an amount of the residual metal or its compound effective to react with any metal fluoride impurities in the reactants, and separating the metal fluoride from the reaction product by heating the reaction product to selectively vaporize the metal fluoride for separate recovery from the reaction product and to react the residual metal or its compound with the metal fluoride impurities.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of High-Purity Metal Fluorides for Photonic Applications*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    is quantified directly by inductively cou- pled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and indirectly by laser,4­7 scintillators,8,9 up-con- version phosphors,10 solid-state optical refrigerators,11 and emerging crystals

  8. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report | OpenEI

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd toWell2008)InformationGlobalIndustries

  9. Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market Research Report | OpenEI

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd

  10. OpenEI Community - Global High-purity Pentoxide Industry 2015 Market

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOfficeOhio: Energy Resourcesen)5/0 en Global8/0 en

  11. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,AuditTheImpact of Spatialvariability

  12. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,AuditTheImpact of

  13. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,AuditTheImpact ofCells The

  14. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,AuditTheImpact ofCells TheCells

  15. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,AuditTheImpact ofCells

  16. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2Dand WaterThe Future is NowTheand provides

  17. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2Dand WaterThe Future is NowTheand

  18. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2Dand WaterThe Future is NowTheandCells

  19. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: An R&D project towards a tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyco Henning; for the MAJORANA Collaboration

    2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Ge-76. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs in the 1-10 GeV/c^2 mass range. It will consist of approximately 60-kg of germanium detectors in an ultra-low background shield located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The DEMONSTRATOR will also perform background and technology studies, and half of the detector mass will be enriched germanium. This talk will review the motivation, design, technology and status of the DEMONSTRATOR.

  20. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: An R and D project towards a tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fuller, E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Keillor, M.; Kouzes, R. T.; Miley, H. S.; Orrell, J. L.; Thompson, R.; Warner, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Fujikawa, B.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P. N.; Poon, A. W. P; Prior, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)] (and others)

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs in the 1-10 GeV/c{sup 2} mass range. It will consist of approximately 60 kg of germanium detectors in an ultra-low background shield located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The DEMONSTRATOR will also perform background and technology studies, and half of the detector mass will be enriched germanium. This talk will review the motivation, design, technology and status of the Demonstrator.

  1. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: An R&D project towards a tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, A.; Barbeau, Phil; Beene, Jim; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lesko, Kevin; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Montoya, A.; Myers, A. W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Odom, Brian; Orrell, John L.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Thompson, Robert C.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Vetter, Kai; Warner, Ray A.; Wilkerson, J.; Wouters, Jan; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C. L.; Zimmerman, S.

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs in the 1?10GeV/c2 mass range. It will consist of approximately 60 kg. of germanium detectors in an ultra-low background shield located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The DEMONSTRATOR will also perform background and technology studies, and half of the detector mass will be enriched germanium. This talk will review the motivation, design, technology and status of the Demonstrator.

  2. Holey Germanium - New Routes to Ordered Nanoporous Semiconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High SchoolBundlesHistory NewHoldrenvacuum vessel

  3. Laterally self-ordered silicon-germanium islands with optimized confinement properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabel, Thomas; Sircar, Narayan [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany) [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Hauke, Norman; Kaniber, Michael; Finley, Jonathan J. [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zweck, Josef; Bougeard, Dominique [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Döblinger, Markus [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian Universität München, D-81377 Munich (Germany)] [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian Universität München, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Abstreiter, Gerhard [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany) [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arakawa, Yasuhiko [Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany) [Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Industrial Science, Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the electronic confinement properties of self-assembled islands forming via silicon and germanium co-deposition in molecular beam epitaxy. This approach allows the fabrication of laterally self-ordered three dimensional islands in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. Using a systematic structural analysis, we derive a realistic fit-parameter free island model for band structure simulations. A comparison between these band structure simulations and photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that such islands have a significant three dimensional spatial electron-hole wave function overlap. In addition, we show that this spatial wave function overlap overcompensates a weak wave function spreading in k-space.

  4. Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium Detector for Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering and Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry T. Wong

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status and plans of a research program on the development of ultra-low-energy germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities are reported. We survey the scientific goals which include the observation of neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, the studies of neutrino magnetic moments, as well as the searches of WIMP dark matter. In particular, a threshold of 100-200 eV and a sub-keV background comparable to underground experiments were achieved with prototype detectors. New limits were set for WIMPs with mass between 3-6 GeV. The prospects of the realization of full-scale experiments are discussed.

  5. Theory for the Direct Detection of Solar Axions by Coherent Primakoff Conversion in Germanium Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Creswick; F. T. Avignone III; J. I. Collar; H. A. Farach; A. O. Gattone; S. Nussinov; K. Zioutas

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is assumed that axions exist and are created in the Sun by Primakoff conversion of photons in the Coulomb fields of nuclei. Detection rates are calculated in germanium detectors due to the coherent conversion of axions to photons in the lattice when the incident angle fulfills the Bragg condition for a given crystalline plane. The rates are correlated with the relative positions of the Sun and detector, yielding a characteristic recognizable sub-diurnal temporal pattern. A major experiment is proposed based on a large detector array.

  6. Next-Generation Germanium Spectrometer Background Reduction Techniques at 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Majorana project, a next-generation 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment being undertaken by a large international collaboration, has the goal of measuring the neutrinoless double-beta decay rate by observing monochromatic events at 2039 keV in 500 kg of isotopically enriched 76Ge gamma-ray spectrometers. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity limit, the background in the 2037-2041 keV region must be reduced to <1 event per year in the entire germanium array. The effects of various background reduction techniques, and the combination thereof, to produce a huge 76Ge spectrometer array with virtually zero background are discussed.

  7. Process for the production of ultrahigh purity silane with recycle from separation columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Larry M. (Tonawanda, NY)

    1982-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tri- and dichlorosilanes formed by hydrogenation in the course of the reaction of metallurgical silicon, hydrogen and recycle silicon tetrachloride are employed as feed into a separation column arrangement of sequential separation columns and redistribution reactors which processes the feed into ultrahigh purity silane and recycle silicon tetrachloride. A slip stream is removed from the bottom of two sequential columns and added to the recycle silicon tetrachloride process stream causing impurities in the slip streams to be subjected to reactions in the hydrogenation step whereby waste materials can be formed and readily separated.

  8. Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2602 (Australia); Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E. [Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Reynolds, Eva M. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

  9. A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76 J.F. Wilkerson1, 2, 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76 J.F. Wilkerson1, 2, 3 and S.R. Elliott4, The Majorana collaboration[1] is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using 76 Ge, which has previously of neutrinoless double-beta decay would show that lepton number is violated, neutrinos are Majorana particles

  10. Dynamical behavior of the entanglement, purity and energy between atomic qubits in motion under the influence of thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Tan; Y. Q. Zhang; Z. H. Zhu; L. W. Liu

    2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The entanglement, purity and energy of two isolated two-level atoms which are initially prepared in Bell state and each interacts with a thermal cavity field are investigated by considering the atomic motion and the field-mode structure. We achieve the analytical solutions of the atomic qubits by using the algebraic dynamical approach and the influences of the field-mode structure parameter, the strength of the thermal field and the detuning on the entanglement, purity and energy are discussed. We also investigate the state evolution of the atomic qubits based on the entanglement-purity-energy diagrams. Our results show that the disentanglement process of the atomic qubits accompanies by excitations transferring from atomic subsystem to cavity field modes and atomic state from a pure state convert to the mixed states.

  11. Measurement of 238U muonic x-rays with a germanium detector setup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyadera, Haruo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoteling, Nathan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heffner, Robert H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adelmann, Andreas [PAUL SCHERRER INSTITUT; Stocki, Trevor [HEALTH CANADA; Mitchell, Lee [NAVAL RESEARCH LAB

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the field of nuclear non-proliferation muon interactions with materials are of great interest. This paper describes an experiment conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland where a muon beam is stopped in a uranium target. The muons produce characteristic muonic x-rays. Muons will penetrate shielding easily and the produced characteristic x-rays can be used for positive isotope identification. Furthermore, the x-rays for uranium isotopes lie in the energy range of 6-7 MeV, which allows them to have an almost optimal mean free path in heavy shielding such as lead or steel. A measurement was conducted at PSI to prove the feasibility of detecting muonic x-rays from a large sample of depleted uranium (several kilograms) with a germanium detector. In this paper, the experimental setup and analysis of the measurement itself is presented.

  12. Demonstration of surface electron rejection with interleaved germanium detectors for dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnese, R.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Welliver, B. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Anderson, A. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Hertel, S. A.; McCarthy, K. A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Basu Thakur, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States) [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illnois 61801 (United States); Bauer, D. A.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Loer, B.; Schmitt, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)] [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory/Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)] [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory/Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Collaboration: The SuperCDMS Collaboration; and others

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The SuperCDMS experiment in the Soudan Underground Laboratory searches for dark matter with a 9-kg array of cryogenic germanium detectors. Symmetric sensors on opposite sides measure both charge and phonons from each particle interaction, providing excellent discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils, and between surface and interior events. Surface event rejection capabilities were tested with two {sup 210}Pb sources producing ?130 beta decays/hr. In ?800 live hours, no events leaked into the 8–115 keV signal region, giving upper limit leakage fraction 1.7 × 10{sup ?5} at 90% C.L., corresponding to < 0.6 surface event background in the future 200-kg SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment.

  13. Atomic-scale characterization of germanium isotopic multilayers by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Y.; Takamizawa, H.; Toyama, T.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y. [Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2145-2 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kawamura, Y.; Uematsu, M.; Itoh, K. M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Haller, E. E. [University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report comparison of the interfacial sharpness characterization of germanium (Ge) isotopic multilayers between laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). An alternating stack of 8-nm-thick naturally available Ge layers and 8-nm-thick isotopically enriched {sup 70}Ge layers was prepared on a Ge(100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The APT mass spectra consist of clearly resolved peaks of five stable Ge isotopes ({sup 70}Ge, {sup 72}Ge, {sup 73}Ge, {sup 74}Ge, and {sup 76}Ge). The degree of intermixing at the interfaces between adjacent layers was determined by APT to be around 0.8 {+-} 0.1 nm which was much sharper than that obtained by SIMS.

  14. Prospects of cold dark matter searches with an ultra-low-energy germanium detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. T. Wong

    2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the research program on the development of ultra-low-energy germanium detectors, with emphasis on WIMP dark matter searches. A threshold of 100 eV is achieved with a 20 g detector array, providing a unique probe to the low-mas WIMP. Present data at a surface laboratory is expected to give rise to comparable sensitivities with the existing limits at the $\\rm{5 - 10 GeV}$ WIMP-mass range. The projected parameter space to be probed with a full-scale, kilogram mass-range experiment is presented. Such a detector would also allow the studies of neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering and neutrino magnetic moments.

  15. Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430 D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.

  16. Method using laser irradiation for the production of atomically clean crystalline silicon and germanium surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ownby, Gary W. (Knoxville, TN); White, Clark W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Zehner, David M. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a new method for removing surface impurities from crystalline silicon or germanium articles, such as off-the-shelf p- or n-type wafers to be doped for use as junction devices. The principal contaminants on such wafers are oxygen and carbon. The new method comprises laser-irradiating the contaminated surface in a non-reactive atmosphere, using one or more of Q-switched laser pulses whose parameters are selected to effect melting of the surface without substantial vaporization thereof. In a typical application, a plurality of pulses is used to convert a surface region of an off-the-shelf silicon wafer to an automatically clean region. This can be accomplished in a system at a pressure below 10.sup.-8 Torr, using Q-switched ruby-laser pulses having an energy density in the range of from about 60 to 190 MW/cm.sup.2.

  17. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leviner, L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ahmed, M. W.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Boswell, M.; De Braeckeleer, L.; Brudanin, V.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Elliott, Steven R.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Lesko, Kevin; Li, Jingyi; Mei, Dongming; Mikhailov, S.; Miley, Harry S.; Radford, D. C.; Reeves, James H.; Sandukovsky, Viatcheslav; Umatov, Valdimir; Underwood, T. A.; Tornow, W.; Wu, Y. K.; Young, A.

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data characterizing the performance of the _rst segmented, N- type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% 76Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6x2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the Majorana collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the Majorana resolution goal below 4 keV FWHM at 2039 keV, and all channels are below 4.5 keV FWHM.

  18. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. E. Leviner; C. E. Aalseth; M. W. Ahmed; F. T. Avignone III; H. O. Back; A. S. Barabash; M. Boswell; L. De Braeckeleer; V. B. Brudanin; Y-D Chan; V. G. Egorov; S. R. Elliott; V. M. Gehman; T. W. Hossbach; J. D. Kephart; M. F. Kidd; S. I. Konovalov; K. T. Lesko; Jingyi Li; D-M Mei; S. Mikhailov; H. Miley; D. C. Radford; J. Reeves; V. G. Sandukovsky; V. I. Umatov; T. A. Underwood; W. Tornow; Y. K. Wu; A. R. Young

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data characterizing the performance of the first segmented, N-type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% $^{76}$Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6x2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the {\\sc Majorana} collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the {\\sc Majorana} resolution goal below 4 keV FWHM at 2039 keV, and all channels are below 4.5 keV FWHM.

  19. Electrical properties of germanium-based insulator-semiconductor structures with an insulating layer of polynucleotides, and their monomer components on the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yafyasov, A. M., E-mail: yafyasov@bk.ru; Bakulev, V. M.; Konorov, P. P.; Bogevolnov, V. V. [St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that adsorption of nucleic acid molecules and their monomeric components, i.e., nitrogenous bases, from aqueous solutions results in the formation of an insulating layer on the germanium surface. Comparatively small values of the insulator charge and the surface-state density point to promising applications of nucleotides for both the formation of germanium-based insulator-semiconductor structures with nanoscale insulating layers and low surface-state densities at the phase interface, and for germanium surface passivation. Changes in the electronic properties of the space-charge region of germanium during nucleotide adsorption on its surface can be used as a method for determining the nucleotide molecule concentration in aqueous solutions.

  20. High-resolution microcalorimeter detectors as a tool in the future of nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoteling, Nathan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New measurements are presented from the LANL-NIST microcalorimeter array for two standard plutonium sources. The results demonstrate substantially smaller error bars obtained from the spectral analysis program FRAM. Some areas of improvement to the analysis technique have been identified, indicating that the micro calorimeter results can be improved upon. These results support the viability of a device for performing real nuclear safeguards measurements in the near future. The challenge of providing reliably accurate and precise data is a critical component of any safeguards initiative. In the realm of nuclear safeguards, this is an especially daunting task since inaccurate and/or imprecise data could have very serious international consequences. As such, there is a constant drive within the community to establish better measurement and analysis techniques in order to further reduce the associated errors and uncertainties. Even with todays state of the art equipment, measurement uncertainties can extend to several significant quantities worth of material over a relatively modest period of time. Furthermore, there is a strong desire for improved nondestructive analysis techniques in order to reduce both the cost, turnover rate, and inconvenience of destructive analyses. One promising new technology that may help to realize these goals is that of gamma-ray microcalorimeter detectors. The hallmark quality of this new technique is the ability to achieve energy resolution nearly an order of magnitude better than typical planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Such an improvement may help reduce uncertainties associated with, for instance, plutonium isotopics or uranium enrichment measurements. This may, in turn, help to reduce uncertainties in total plutonium and/or uranium content in a given sample without the need for destructive analysis. In this paper, we will describe this new detector technology as well as some recent measurements carried out with the LANL-NIST gamma-ray microcalorimeter ({micro}cal) array. Discussion will focus on the capabilities of this technology as well as the progress toward a practical measurement device.

  1. Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt

  2. arXiv:1311.5074v1[physics.ins-det]20Nov2013 Recent integral cross section validation measurements at the ASP facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    elemental foils were carried out using gamma spectrometry in a high efficiency, high-purity germanium (HPGe exposure to high intensity, high energy neutrons produced in such devices is certainly towards, if not at, the top of the list. The absence of avail- able high energy neutron irradiation testing facilities

  3. Improved WIMP-search reach of the CDMS II germanium data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnese, R; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Cerdeño, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yang, X; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CDMS II data from the 5-tower runs at the Soudan Underground Laboratory were reprocessed with an improved charge-pulse fitting algorithm. Two new analysis techniques to reject surface-event backgrounds were applied to the 612 kg days germanium-detector WIMP-search exposure. An extended analysis was also completed by decreasing the 10 keV analysis threshold to $\\sim$5 keV, to increase sensitivity near a WIMP mass of 8 GeV/$c^2$. After unblinding, there were zero candidate events above a deposited energy of 10 keV and 6 events in the lower-threshold analysis. This yielded minimum WIMP-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross-section limits of $1.8 \\times 10^{-44}$ and $1.18 \\times 10 ^{-41}$ cm$^2$ at 90\\% confidence for 60 and 8.6 GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs, respectively. This improves the previous CDMS II result by a factor of 2.4 (2.7) for 60 (8.6) GeV/$c^2$ WIMPs.

  4. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  5. Laser-induced self-organization in silicon-germanium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weizman, M.; Nickel, N. H.; Sieber, I. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Yan, B. [United Solar Ovonic Corp., 1100 West Maple Road, Troy, Michigan 48084 (United States)

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the formation of self-organized structures in thin films of silicon-germanium (Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}) with 0.3

  6. Microsegregation effects on the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Yongjin; Hwang, Gyeong S., E-mail: gshwang@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloy is a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials; while it shows a significantly reduced thermal conductivity (?) as compared to pure Si and Ge, the ? values obtained from previous experiments and computations tend to be widely scattered. We present here a computational analysis of thermal transport in SiGe, particularly the effects of the local segregation (microsegregation) of alloying elements. Our nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations confirm the strong dependence of ? on the Si:Ge ratio and the occurrence of the minimum ? around Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2}, consistent with existing experimental observations. Moreover, our study clearly demonstrates that the ? of Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.2} increases substantially and monotonically as Ge atoms undergo segregation; that is, the magnitude of alloy scattering is found to be sensitive to homogeneity in the distribution of alloying elements. Nonequilibrium Green's function analysis also shows that such microsegregation enhances phonon transmission due to the reduced number of scattering centers. The findings highlight that distribution homogeneity, along with composition, can be a critical factor in determining the ? of SiGe alloys.

  7. Division of Water, Parts 700-750 and Parts 800-941: Classes and Standards of Quality and Purity (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe general standards of water quality and purity as well as standards for specific water bodies (Parts 800-941). The regulations provide classifications for different types of...

  8. Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Satcher, J. H.; May, M. J.; Poco, J. F.; Sorce, C. M.; Colvin, J. D.; Hansen, S. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Moon, S. J.; Davis, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Direction des Application Militaires (CEA/DAM), Ile-de-France, F91297 Arpajon (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Beutler, D. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas have been measured in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx_equal}15 keV at the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The targets' x-ray yields have been studied for variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length, and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx_equal}10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of x rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the x-ray spectral yields, the x-ray temporal waveforms have been measured and it is observed that the emitted x rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted x-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Further, the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities is found to be 2%-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx_equal}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The propagation of the laser heating in the target volume has been characterized with two-dimensional imaging. Source-region heating is seen to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted x-ray power.

  9. Features of the stress-strain state of Si/SiO{sub 2}/Ge heterostructures with germanium nanoislands of a limited density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuryliuk, V. V., E-mail: kuryluk@univ.kiev.ua; Korotchenkov, O. A., E-mail: olegk@univ.kiev.ua [Kyiv National University, Physics Faculty (Ukraine)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the elastic continuum model, with the use of the finite-element method, the stress-strain state of silicon-germanium heterostructures with semispherical germanium islands grown on an oxidized silicon surface is calculated. It is shown that as the density of islands is increased to limiting values, in the SiGe structure with open quantum dots the value and spatial distribution of the elastic-strain fields significantly change. The results of theoretical calculation allow the heterostructure portions with the maximum variation in the stress-strain state to be determined. The position of such a portions can be controlled by changing the density of islands.

  10. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach towards observing effects on FRAM's enrichment analysis has been conducted with regards to count and dead time.

  11. Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of Sputter-deposited Germanium Cxide (GeOx) Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Neil R.; Grant, J. T.; Sun, L.; Jones, J. G.; Jakubiak, R.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium oxide (GeOx) films were grown on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive Direct-Current (DC) magnetron sputter-deposition using an elemental Ge target. The effects of oxygen gas fraction, ? = O2/(Ar + O2), on the deposition rate, structure, chemical composition and optical properties of GeOx films have been investigated. The chemistry of the films exhibits an evolution from pure Ge to mixed Ge + GeO + GeO2 and then finally to GeO2 upon increasing ? from 0.00 to 1.00. Grazing incidence X-ray analysis indicates that the GeOx films grown were amorphous. The optical properties probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry indicate that the effect of ? is significant on the optical constants of the GeOx films. The measured index of refraction (n) at a wavelength (?) of 550 nm is 4.67 for films grown without any oxygen, indicating behavior characteristic of semiconducting Ge. The transition from germanium to mixed Ge + GeO + GeO2 composition is associated with a characteristic decrease in n (? = 550 nm) to 2.62 and occurs at ? = 0.25. Finally n drops to 1.60 for ? = 0.50–1.00, where the films become GeO2. A detailed correlation between ?, n, k and stoichiometry in DC sputtered GeOx films is presented and discussed.

  12. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  13. Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactor for the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulk silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Russia. The stated isotope enrichments are summarized inenrichments >99% have been achieved for each isotope and

  14. Total plastic strain and electrical resistivity in high purity aluminum cyclically strained at 4.2 K 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehan, James Terence

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    important implications to the electrical behavior of aluminum reported here. B. Conce ts of Strain Controlled Tests The following section is a description of one type of mechanical test used to investigate fatigue characteristics in materials. While other... Stress 72 73 76 78 79 LIST OF TABLES Ta. ble Page I. Stopping Points and Parameter Settings of the Mechanical Test . 39 II. Test Variables of Experiments III. Rate of Mechanical Cycling and Average Number of Data Points Collected by Computer...

  15. High spectral purity 26 GHz oscillator based on a SiO2 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the achievement of low phase noise microwave source . Introduction : Achievement of low phase noise microwave(f) is dominated by flicker phase noise (1/f noise) at low Fourier frequencies, S(f) shows flicker frequency noise to reach low phase noise performances. Ultrahigh Q values can be obtained with sapphire (Al2O3 monocrystal

  16. High-purity hydrogen gas from the reaction between BOF steel slag and water in the 473e673 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    . Iron reduction is achieved witha reducing gas (generally,a gas mixture ofH2 and CO produced by coal reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.03.163 #12;agent such as coke, in a blast furnace

  17. Foundations for quantitative microstructural models to track evolution of the metallurgical state during high purity Nb cavity fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieler, Thomas R [Michigan State University; Wright, Neil T [Michigan State University; Compton, Chris C [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Materials Science SRF Cavity Group of Michigan State University and the National Superconducting Cyclotron has been (and continues to be) to understand quantitatively the effects of process history on functional properties. These relationships were assessed via studies on Nb samples and cavity parts, which had various combinations of forming processes, welding, heat treatments, and surface preparation. A primary focus was on large-grain cavity building strategies. Effects of processing operations and exposure to hydrogen on the thermal conductivity has been identified in single and bi-crystal samples, showing that the thermal conductivity can be altered by a factor of 5 depending on process history. Characterization of single crystal tensile samples show a strong effect of crystal orientation on deformation resistance and shape changes. Large grain half cells were examined to characterize defect content and surface damage effects, which provided quantitative information about the depth damage layers from forming.

  18. Total plastic strain and electrical resistivity in high purity aluminum cyclically strained at 4.2 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehan, James Terence

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Air Force, contract monitored by Dr. C. Oberly. To my mother and father for the love and support they have given me. V1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Ps. ge ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS DEDICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS nl IV V1 LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES... CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION vu1 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Observations of Resistivity Increase in Pure Aluminum at Low Temperatures B. Concepts of Strain Controlled Tests C. Eddy Current Decay Method of Resistivity...

  19. A SPRAY REACTOR CONCEPT FOR CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF P-XYLENE TO PRODUCE HIGH-PURITY TEREPHTHALIC ACID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LI, MENG

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzing and solving problems, about perseverance and staying positive when research hits a snag. Prof. Subramaniam has been and will always be a great mentor and an invaluable asset to me. Special thanks are also due to Prof. Daryle Busch, Prof. Raghunath...: T = 200 °C, P = 15 bar; Initial pX = 25 mM, Co = 12.5 mM, Mn = 12.5 mM, Br = 32.5 mM; O2:CO2 (mol:mol) = 1:1) ....................................42 Figure 2.9 Figure 2.9: Color changes of the reaction solution due to the formation of various cobalt...

  20. Synthesis of Germanium-Gallium-Tellurium (Ge-Ga-Te) ceramics by ball-milling and sintering Mathieu Hubert, Elena Petracovschi, Xiang-Hua Zhang and Laurent Calvez*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synthesis of Germanium-Gallium-Tellurium (Ge-Ga-Te) ceramics by ball-milling and sintering Mathieu, France *laurent.calvez@univ-rennes1.fr Tel: (33) 2 23 23 67 13 Fax: (33) 2 23 23 56 11 Abstract, the semiconductor behavior of CdTe is exploited for the production of solar panels [1, 2], the rapid and reversible

  1. Recycling effect of Germanium on ECR Ion Source P. Leherissier, C. Baru, C. Canet, M. Dubois, M. Dupuis, J.L. Flambard, G. Gaubert, P. Jardin, N. Lecesne,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Recycling effect of Germanium on ECR Ion Source P. Leherissier, C. Barué, C. Canet, M. Dubois, M investigated the recycling effect of an SF6 plasma. The initial beam was produced by the classical method of production, the recycling effect and perspectives are described in this paper. #12;2 I. INTRODUCTION At GANIL

  2. Characterization of wound monitoring systems used to quantify and locate plutonium contamination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmerling, Paul James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When an accident involving the possibility of a plutonium contaminated wound occurs, the contamination is often quantified using sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and high purity germanium (HPGe) detection systems. The NaI(Tl) system is used to quantify...

  3. Characterization of wound monitoring systems used to quantify and locate plutonium contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmerling, Paul James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When an accident involving the possibility of a plutonium contaminated wound occurs, the contamination is often quantified using sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and high purity germanium (HPGe) detection systems. The NaI(Tl) system is used to quantify...

  4. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  5. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee, E-mail: seokheelee@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 169-148 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  6. Large-Mass Ultra-Low Noise Germanium Detectors: Performance and Applications in Neutrino and Astroparticle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Barbeau; J. I. Collar; O. Tench

    2007-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of radiation detector, a p-type modified electrode germanium diode, is presented. The prototype displays, for the first time, a combination of features (mass, energy threshold and background expectation) required for a measurement of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering in a nuclear reactor experiment. The device hybridizes the mass and energy resolution of a conventional HPGe coaxial gamma spectrometer with the low electronic noise and threshold of a small x-ray semiconductor detector, also displaying an intrinsic ability to distinguish multiple from single-site particle interactions. The present performance of the prototype and possible further improvements are discussed, as well as other applications for this new type of device in neutrino and astroparticle physics (double-beta decay, neutrino magnetic moment and WIMP searches).

  7. Impact of growth conditions on vacancy-type defects in silicon-germanium structures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoukri, Kareem M.; Haddara, Yaser M.; Knights, A.P.; Coleman, P.G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon-germanium layers of either 200 nm or 250 nm have been grown via molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on p-type (001) silicon substrates. Each sample was prepared using a unique combination of buffer-layer type, buffer-layer growth temperature, and layer Ge content. Vacancy-type defects have been identified using beam-based positron annihilation. These results, combined with those from previous work, indicate the size and concentration of defects in MBE grown SiGe layers depend strongly upon the buffer-layer growth temperature (T). For T>500 deg. C vacancy point defect concentrations are below the detectable limit of the measurement. As T is decreased to 300 deg. C, vacancy clusters form in the buffer layer and point defects appear in the SiGe film, even for a SiGe growth temperature of 500 deg. C.

  8. IRON IM PURITY IN AgC1 USING MOSSBAUER EFFECT 209 charged Co'7 is present as Fe++ only. This is to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    IRON IM PURITY IN AgC1 USING MOSSBAUER EFFECT 209 charged Co'7 is present as Fe++ only for the first time in the Mossbauer effect. (e) The silver-ion-vacancy jump times are much faster than those

  9. Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Brandt, Riley E.; Ievskaya, Yulia; Heffernan, Shane; Musselman, Kevin P.; Buonassisi, Tonio; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ,5,6 The presence of surface CuO is detrimental to device performance because its conduction band energy is further from the vacuum level than that of Cu2O, and so it produces interfacial defect states that can enhance recombination and reduce photovoltaic device... to be a versatile technique, with the capability of producing ZnO, TiO2, and Cu2O for high-performing solar cells, in addition to having the ability to introduce dopants into the metal oxides to tune their electronic properties.3 While to date only single...

  10. A Germanium-on-Silicon Laser for on-Chip Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Jurgen

    Lasing from Ge was achieved by highly n-type doping and biaxially tensile strain to overcome free carrier absorption. High n-type doping and efficient carrier injection remain the most important issues for electrical ...

  11. Monitoring of tritium purity during long-term circulation in the KATRIN test experiment LOOPINO using laser Raman spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Sebastian; Schlösser, Magnus; Bornschein, Beate; Drexlin, Guido; Priester, Florian; Lewis, Richard J; Telle, Helmut H

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas circulation loop LOOPINO has been set up and commissioned at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to perform Raman measurements of circulating tritium mixtures under conditions similar to the inner loop system of the neutrino-mass experiment KATRIN, which is currently under construction. A custom-made interface is used to connect the tritium containing measurement cell, located inside a glove box, with the Raman setup standing on the outside. A tritium sample (purity > 95%, 20 kPa total pressure) was circulated in LOOPINO for more than three weeks with a total throughput of 770 g of tritium. Compositional changes in the sample and the formation of tritiated and deuterated methanes CT_(4-n)X_n (X=H,D; n=0,1) were observed. Both effects are caused by hydrogen isotope exchange reactions and gas-wall interactions, due to tritium {\\beta} decay. A precision of 0.1% was achieved for the monitoring of the T_2 Q_1-branch, which fulfills the requirements for the KATRIN experiment and demonstrates the feasibility ...

  12. A multi-scale analysis of the impact of pressure on melting of crystalline phase change material germanium telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: liujie@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, 185 Stevens Way, Paul Allen Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of the moderate pressure (about 10{sup 0?}GPa) on the melting of crystalline (c-) phase change material (PCM) germanium telluride (GeTe) is analyzed, by combining the heat transfer equation in the PCM device scale (10{sup 1}–10{sup 2?}nm and beyond), and the ab initio molecular dynamics and the nudged elastic band simulations in the atomistic scale (10{sup ?1}–10{sup 0?}nm). The multi-scale analysis unravels that a pressure P?=?1.0?GPa can increase the melting temperature of c-GeTe and the PCM device “reset” operation energy consumption by 6%–7%. It is shown that the melting temperature increase originates from the pressure-induced raise of the energy barrier of the umbrella-flip transition of the Ge atom from the octahedral symmetry site to the tetrahedral symmetry site. It is revealed that when P?>?1.0?GPa, which is normal in PCM devices, the “reset” energy will be increased even by more. Based on the analysis, suggestions to alleviate pressure-induced raise of melting temperature and “reset” energy are provided.

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTIONS AT HIGH STRAIN RATES OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    characteristics of high purity nickel processed by electrodeposition tested in compression up to a dynamic strainMECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTIONS AT HIGH STRAIN RATES OF ELECTRODEPOSITED NICKEL H. Couque1 , A. Ouarem2 , G. Dirras2 and J. Gubicza3 Summary ­ The mechanical and microstructural

  14. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  15. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  16. Measurement of the cross sections for the production of the isotopes {sup 74}As, {sup 68}Ge, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 60}Co from natural and enriched germanium irradiated with 100-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabanov, I. R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Gurentsov, V. I.; Zhuykov, B. L.; Kianovsky, S. V.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kohanuk, V. M.; Yanovich, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross sections for the production of the radioactive isotopes {sup 74}As, {sup 68}Ge, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 60}Co in metallic germanium irradiated with 100-MeV protons were measured, the experiments being performed both with germanium of natural isotopic composition and germanium enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge. The targets were irradiated with a proton beam at the facility for the production of radionuclides at the accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow). The data obtained will further be used to calculate the background of radioactive isotopes formed by nuclear cascades of cosmic-ray muons in new-generation experiments devoted to searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at underground laboratories.

  17. Nanoheteroepitaxy of gallium arsenide on strain-compliant silicon-germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, Hock-Chun; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Ng, Tien Khee; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wong, Choun Pei; Shen, Zexiang [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Heterogeneous integration of high-quality GaAs on Si-based substrates using a selective migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) of GaAs on strain-compliant SiGe nanowires was demonstrated for the first time. The physics of compliance in nanoscale heterostructures was captured and studied using finite-element simulation. It is shown that nanostructures can provide additional substrate compliance for strain relief and therefore contribute to the formation of defect-free GaAs on SiGe. Extensive characterization using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy was performed to illustrate the successful growth of GaAs on SiGe nanowire. Raman and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the quality of the GaAs grown and the high growth selectivity of the MEE process.

  18. Evolution of microstructural defects with strain effects in germanium nanocrystals synthesized at different annealing temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Minghuan; Cai, Rongsheng; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Chao [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Yiqian, E-mail: yqwang@qdu.edu.cn [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Physics Science, Qingdao University, No. 308, Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Ross, Guy G.; Barba, David [INRS-EMT, 1650 Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were produced by implantation of {sup 74}Ge{sup +} into a SiO{sub 2} film on (100) Si, followed by high-temperature annealing from 700 °C to 1100 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the average size of Ge-ncs increases with the annealing temperature. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations reveal the presence of planar and linear defects in the formed Ge-ncs, whose relative concentrations are determined at each annealing temperature. The relative concentration of planar defects is almost independent of the annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. However, from 1000 °C to 1100 °C, its concentration decreases dramatically. For the linear defects, their concentration varies considerably with the annealing temperatures. In addition, by measuring the interplanar spacing of Ge-ncs from the HRTEM images, a strong correlation is found between the dislocation percentage and the stress field intensity. Our results provide fundamental insights regarding both the presence of microstructural defects and the origin of the residual stress field within Ge-ncs, which can shed light on the fabrication of Ge-ncs with quantified crystallinity and appropriate size for the advanced Ge-nc devices. - Highlights: • Growth of Ge nanocrystals at different annealing temperatures was investigated. • Strain field has great effects on the formation of dislocations. • Different mechanisms are proposed to explain growth regimes of Ge nanocrystals.

  19. UV-Photoreflectance and Raman Characterization of Strain Relaxation in Si on Silicon-Germanium Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Current, Michael [Current Scientific, 1729 Comstock Way, San Jose, CA 95124 (United States); Chism, Will [Xitronix Corporation, 106 East Sixth Street, Ninth Floor, Austin TX, 78701 (United States); Yoo, Woo Sik [WaferMasters, Inc., 246 East Gist Road, San Jose, CA 95112 (United States); Vartanian, Victor [International Sematech Manufacturing Initiative, 257 Fuller Road, Suite 2200, Albany NY 12203 (United States)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoreflectance (PR), using a uv (374 nm) diode laser probe beam, and Raman spectroscopy, using a multi-wavelength Ar{sup +} laser coupled to a high-resolution multi-wavelength spectrometer, were used to characterize the strain relaxation of Si top layers grown on a graded and relaxed SiGe buffer stack with a final Ge concentration of 20%. The Si top layer thicknesses ranged from 1.6 to 18 nm. Considerable radial variation in the strain relaxation was seen in all sampled wafers, highlighting the need for rapid, local strain characterization. Strong correlation between shift in the Si layer dielectric response, measured by uv-PR, and the Si top layer strain, measured by Raman, is reported.

  20. Systematic uncertainties of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination for $0\

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abt, I; Cossavella, F; Majorovits, B; Palioselitis, D; Volynets, O

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate the systematic uncertainties of the method. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5\\%. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples.

  1. Systematic uncertainties of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination for $0???$-decay searches using true-coaxial HPGe detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Caldwell; F. Cossavella; B. Majorovits; D. Palioselitis; O. Volynets

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5\\%. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples.

  2. Role of hydrogen in hydrogen-induced layer exfoliation of germanium J. M. Zahler,1 A. Fontcuberta i Morral,1,2 M. J. Griggs,1 Harry A. Atwater,1 and Y. J. Chabal3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Role of hydrogen in hydrogen-induced layer exfoliation of germanium J. M. Zahler,1 A. Fontcuberta i 2006; published 9 January 2007 The role of hydrogen in the exfoliation of Ge is studied using cross for the physical and chemical action of hydrogen in the exfoliation of these materials is presented, in which H

  3. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Second annual technical report for the period 1978 September 1-1979 December 31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, M.J.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new computer program was developed for simultaneously solving heat and mass balance at steady state for a flowing one-dimensional chemical reactor. Bench scale reactor results confirmed that minimum final stage reaction temperature is 1950 to 2000/sup 0/C, depending on the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ concentration in the burden. Additions of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to the charge produced significant increase in metallic yield. A new bench reactor was designed, built, and operated to facilitate semi-continuous operation, using O/sub 2/ injection to burn coke supporting the burden, resulting in burden movement. Validity of the equipment and test procedures was demonstrated by successfully operating the reactor as an iron blast furnace at 1500/sup 0/C. Bench scale fractional crystallizer runs were continued to determine the impurity effects of Fe up to 6.9% and Ti up to 1.25% on alloy product purity and yield. High initial impurity concentrations resulted in less pure Al-Si product and product yield below 50% due to Al and Si losses as Fe-Si-Al and Ti-Si-Al intermetallics. Long term testing was continued in the large bench scale membrane cell to evaluate woven cloth membrane and other construction materials, operating procedures, and effects of operating parameters on cell performance. Included in the latter were starting alloy composition, current density, anode-cathode spacing, and electrolyte composition.

  4. Report of spectral gamma-ray surveys acquired for the 200-UP-2 project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kos, S.E.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten boreholes were logged with the high-resolution, high-purity germanium (PHGe) passive gamma-ray tool, Radionuclide Logging System (RLS), for the 200-UP-2 project. The surveys were acquired during the period September, 1993 to March, 1994. All of the surveys identified the presence of gamma-emitting man-made radionuclides in the sediments surrounding the boreholes. In all of the wells, contamination occurred at or very near ground surface.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA); Goulding, Frederick S. (Lafayette, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons Compton backscattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to monimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Limits on Low-Mass WIMP Dark Matter with an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium Detector at 220 eV Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin-Ted Lin; H. T. Wong; for the TEXONO Collaboration

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy threshold of (220$\\pm$10) eV was achieved at an efficiency of 50% with a four-channel ultra-low-energy germanium detector each with an active mass of 5 g\\cite{wimppaper}. This provides a unique probe to WIMP dark matter with mass below 10 GeV. With low background data taken at the Kuo-Sheng Laboratory, constraints on WIMPs in the galactic halo were derived. Both spin-independent WIMP-nucleon and spin-dependent WIMP-neutron bounds improve over previous results for WIMP mass between 3$-$6 GeV. These results, together with those on spin-dependent couplings, will be presented. Sensitivities for full-scale experiments were projected. This detector technique makes the unexplored sub-keV energy window accessible for new neutrino and dark matter experiments.

  8. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  9. Proceedings of SPIE 8242 / Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers II Tunable high-purity microwave signal generation from a dual-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    or externally with an electro-optic modulator) and optical phase-locking of two independent lasers [2 in atomic clock experiments, however it requires a complex and costly wideband phase-locked electronics loop on the coupling of the two hyperfine ground states of an alkali atom through excitation to a common atomic level

  10. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Dale L.; Wilkinson, T. J.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, alpha-PbO, litharge, and the yellow, orthorhombic form, beta-PbO, massicot, have been synthesized from lead(II) salts in aqueous media at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the size, morphology, and crystallographic structural forms of the products. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the materials and microstructural variations in the final products are described, and the implications of these observations with respect to the synthesis of different conducting lead oxides and other related materials are discussed.

  11. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials D. L. PERRY andred, tetragonal form of lead oxide, ?-PbO, litharge, and thedifferent conducting lead oxides and other related materials

  12. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dale L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structural forms of lead(II) oxide X-ray diffractionand Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials D. L. PERRY andThe red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, ?-PbO, litharge, and

  13. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba [Department of Science, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, City of Aalishahr, Bushehr Province, Iran P.O.Box: 7519619555 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  14. A Novel Approach to Plant-Friendly Multivariable Identification of Highly Interactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittelmann, Hans D.

    signals. A case study involves a high-purity distillation column that illustrates the usefulness-friendliness in the design procedure is accomplished by using advanced optimization solvers that minimize the crest factor conditions in comparison to classical designs. e-mail: hyunjin.lee@asu.edu To whom all correspondence should

  15. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Brandt, Riley E.; Ievskaya, Yulia; Heffernan, Shane; Musselman, Kevin P.; Buonassisi, Tonio; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ,5,6 The presence of surface CuO is detrimental to device performance because its conduction band energy is further from the vacuum level than that of Cu2O, and so it produces interfacial defect states that can enhance recombination and reduce photovoltaic device... to be a versatile technique, with the capability of producing ZnO, TiO2, and Cu2O for high-performing solar cells, in addition to having the ability to introduce dopants into the metal oxides to tune their electronic properties.3 While to date only single...

  16. Strained-Silicon on Silicon and Strained-Silicon on Silicon-Germanium on Silicon by Relaxed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the self-heating effect. This self-heating effect is of most concern in high-power devices and can lead

  17. Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, David Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaic devices with a world record efficiency ofhigh efficiencies as compared to traditional photovoltaic

  18. Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, David Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    film photovoltaics [1]. This roughly doubling of efficiencyMJ photovoltaics. MJ solar cells achieve higher efficiencies

  19. Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, David Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III! V Multijunction Solar Cells,” (2003). J. F. Geisz, etEfficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells A thesis submitted inEfficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells By David Michael Fong

  20. Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, David Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    matched materials of Ge/GaInAs/InGaP commonly used in triplesee that Ge, GaInAs, and InGaP all have a similar latticeinitial substrate to grow an InGaP top layer followed by a

  1. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ?15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  2. Test of Purity by LOCC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiji Matsumoto

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Given n-copies of unknown bipartite (possiblly mixed) state, our task is to test whether the state is a pure state of not. Allowed to use the global operations, optimal one-sided error test is the projection onto the symmetric subspace, obviously. Is it possible to approximate the globally optimal measurement by LOCC when n is large?

  3. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.

  4. Measurement and analysis of gamma-rays emitted from spent nuclear fuel above 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Anderson, Elaina R.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Campbell, Luke W.; Fast, James E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Runkle, Robert C.; Stave, Sean

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Safeguard Initiative (NGSI) includes an effort to determine the mass content of fissile isotopes contained within spent fuel through the spectroscopy of high-energy delayed gamma rays. Studies being performed indicate the primary difficulty is the ability to detect the desired signal in the presence of the intense background associated with spent fuel fission products. An enabling technology for this application is high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors capable of operating efficiently in at extremely high count rates. This presentation will describe the prospects of high-rate germanium detectors and delayed-gamma techniques, primarily discussing the efforts to merge these into a unique and viable system for measuring spent fuel.

  5. High Flux Ti Nanofiltration Membrane

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    compared to competing technologies. The benefits include the production of higher purity products and cleaner water using less energy. Targeted industries include Unconventional...

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  7. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single, combined analysis, with sensitivity to lower-energy interactions, careful control of data quality and stability, and further development of techniques for reconstructing event location and rejecting near-surface interactions from beta decays. They also present a revision to the previously published Run 119 analysis, a demonstration of the feasibility of a low-threshold (1 or 2 keV) analysis of Soudan data, and a review of the literature on charge generation and quenching relevant to the ionization signal.

  8. DETECTOR MATERIALS: GERMANIUM AND SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    most important for the radiation detection will be reviewedones for nuclear radiation detection are what we call the

  9. Uranium Isotopic and Quantitative Analysis Using a Mechanically-Cooled HPGe Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, portable high-resolution spectroscopy system based on a high-purity germanium detector cooled with a miniature Stirling-cycle cooler, ORTEC trans-SPEC, has recently become commercially available. The use of a long-life mechanical cooling system eliminates the need for liquid nitrogen. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of this new instrument for isotopic and quantitative analyses of uranium samples. The results of the performance of the trans-SPEC with the combination of PC-FRAM and ISOTOPIC software packages are described in this paper. An optimal set of analysis parameters for uranium measurements is proposed.

  10. The Majorana Demonstrator for 0vBB: Current Status and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Matthew P [ORNL; Avignone, F. T. [University of South Carolina/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Radford, David C [ORNL; Romero-Romero, Elisa [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; White, Brandon R [ORNL; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL; Majorana, [The MAJORANA Collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless-double-beta decay (0 ) in 76Ge, while establishing the feasibility of a future tonne-scale germanium-based 0 experiment, and performing searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model. The experiment, currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD, will consist of a pair of modular high-purity germanium detector arrays housed inside of a compact copper, lead, and polyethylene shield. Through a combination of strict materials qualifications and assay, low-background design, and powerful background rejection techniques, the Demonstrator aims to achieve a background rate in the 0 region of interest (ROI) of no more than 3cnts/(ROI-t-y). The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  11. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  12. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  13. A Dark Matter Search with MALBEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. K. Giovanetti; N. Abgrall; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; A. S. Barabash; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; D. Byram; A. S. Caldwell; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; D. C. Combs; C. Cuesta; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. E. Fast; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; A. Galindo-Uribarri; J. Goett; M. P. Green; J. Gruszko; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusev; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; A. Hegai; R. Henning; E. W. Hoppe; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; K. J. Keeter; M. F. Kidd; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. D. LaFerriere; J. Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; J. MacMullin; S. MacMullin; R. D. Martin; S. Meijer; S. Mertens; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; C. O'Shaughnessy; N. R. Overman; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; K. Pushkin; D. C. Radford; J. Rager; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; E. Romero-Romero; M. C. Ronquest; A. G. Schubert; B. Shanks; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; N. Snyder; A. M. Suriano; J. Thompson; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; J. E. Trimble; R. L. Varner; S. Vasilyev; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; B. R. White; J. F. Wilkerson; C. Wiseman; W. Xu; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an array of natural and enriched high purity germanium detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76-Ge and perform a search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with masses below 10 GeV. As part of the MAJORANA research and development efforts, we have deployed a modified, low-background broad energy germanium detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. With its sub-keV energy threshold, this detector is sensitive to potential non-Standard Model physics, including interactions with WIMPs. We discuss the backgrounds present in the WIMP region of interest and explore the impact of slow surface event contamination when searching for a WIMP signal.

  14. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  15. Evaluation of the neutron background in an HPGe target for WIMP direct detection when using a reactor neutrino detector as a neutron veto system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Xiangpan; Xu, Ye, E-mail: xuye76@nankai.edu.cn; Lin, Junsong; Feng, Yulong; Li, Haolin [Nankai University, School of Physics (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) detector with a neutron veto system is designed to better reject neutrons. The experimental configuration is studied in this paper involves 984 Ge modules placed inside a reactor-neutrino detector. The neutrino detector is used as a neutron veto device. The neutron background for the experimental design is estimated using the Geant4 simulation. The results show that the neutron background can decrease to O(0.01) events per year per tonne of high-purity germanium and it can be ignored in comparison with electron recoils.

  16. Report of spectral gamma-ray surveys acquired for the 200-UP-1 project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kos, S.E.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four (4) boreholes were surveyed for the 200-UP-1 project utilizing the high-purity germanium and sodium logging systems. The surveys were acquired during the period April-September, 1994. The objectives of the surveys were to identify the presence, species, and relative activities of man-made gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, and to use log data to correlate stratigraphic features between boreholes. No man-made radionuclides were detected in the subsurface below 2 feet in depth in any of the boreholes.

  17. Search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of Ge-76 with GERDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl-Tasso Knoepfle

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    GERDA, the GERmanium Detector Array experiment, is a new double beta-decay experiment which is currently under construction in the INFN National Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. It is implementing a new shielding concept by operating bare Ge diodes - enriched in Ge-76 - in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The aim of GERDA is to verify or refute the recent claim of discovery, and, in a second phase, to achieve a two orders of magnitude lower background index than recent experiments. The paper discusses motivation, physics reach, design and status of construction of GERDA, and presents some R&D results.

  18. Inelastic scattering of fast neutrons from $^{56}$Fe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beyer, R; Hannaske, R; Junghans, A R; Massarczyk, R; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Ferrari, A; Kögler, T; Röder, M; Schmidt, K; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inelastic scattering of fast neutrons from $^{56}$Fe was studied at the photoneutron source nELBE. The neutron energies were determined on the basis of a timeof- flight measurement. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. The total scattering cross sections deduced from the present experiment in an energy range from 0.8 to 9.6 MeV agree within 15% with earlier data and with predictions of the statistical-reaction code Talys.

  19. Search for CPT-odd decays of positronium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vetter, Paul A.; Freedman, Stuart J.

    2003-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have limited a CPT-violating correlation in annihilationsof polarized ortho-positronium. We searched for an asymmetry in thetriple correlations dot k1 cross k2, where k1 and k2 are the two largestphoton momenta, and s is the spin of the positronium. Using theGammasphere array of Compton-suppressed high-purity germanium detectors,we detected 2.65e7 events of ortho-Ps annihila tion. The amplitude of aCPT-violating asymmetry in the data set is found to be 0.0026 plus orminus 0.0031, a factor of 6 smaller than previousexperiments.

  20. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  1. Reproducibility of High-Q SRF Cavities by High Temperature Heat Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work on high-temperature (> 600 °C) heat treatment of ingot Nb cavities in a customized vacuum furnace for several hours showed the possibility of achieving Q0-values of up to ~5×1010 at 2.0 K, 1.5 GHz and accelerating gradients of ~20 MV/m. This contribution presents results on further studies of the heat treatment process to produce cavities with high Q0 values for continuous-wave accelerator application. Single-cell cavities of different Nb purity have been processed through few cycles of heat-treatments and chemical etching. Measurements of Q0 as a function of temperature at low RF field and of Q0 as a function of the RF field at or below 2.0 K have been made after each treatment. Measurements by TOF-SIMS of the impurities? depth profiles were made on samples heat treated with the cavities.

  2. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  3. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  4. Feasibility study of the observation of the neutrino accompanied double beta-decay of Ge-76 to the 0+(1) excited state of Se-76 using segmented germanium detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Kroeninger; L. Pandola; V. Tretyak

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino accompanied double beta-decay of Ge-76 can populate the ground state and the excited states of Se-76. While the decay to the ground state has been observed with a half-life of 1.74 +0.18 -0.16 10^21 years, decays to the excited states have not yet been observed. Nuclear matrix elements depend on details of the nuclear transitions. A measurement of the half-life of the transition considered here could help to reduce the uncertainties of the calculations of the nuclear matrix element for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. This parameter relates the half-life of the process to the effective Majorana neutrino mass. The results of a feasibility study to detect the neutrino accompanied double beta-decay of Ge-76 to the excited states of Se-76 are presented in this paper. Segmented germanium detectors were assumed in this study. Such detectors, enriched in Ge-76 to a level of about 86%, will be deployed in the GERDA experiment located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. It is shown that the decay of Ge-76 to the 1122 keV 0+ level of Se-76 can be observed in GERDA provided that the half-life of the process is in the range favoured by the present calculations which is 7.5 10^21 y to 3.1 10^23 y.

  5. UK low-background infrastructure for delivering SuperNEMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin Ran

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SuperNEMO is a next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with a design capability to reach a half-life sensitivity of $10^{26}$ years corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of $\\langle m_{\\beta\\beta} \\rangle$ $<$ 50 - 100 meV. To achieve this sensitivity, stringent radio-purity requirements are imposed resulting in an equally stringent screening programme. Dedicated facilities have been established in the UK for screening and selection of detector construction materials. Gamma ray spectroscopy using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors has been the standard method for the measurement of material contamination. A low-background facility has been established at Boulby Underground Laboratory. The first results from the 2 current HPGe detector are shown. Radon is one of the most critical backgrounds for SuperNEMO and most other low background experiments. It can enter the detector either through diffusion, contamination during construction or emanation from the detector material...

  6. Study of thermal neutron capture gamma rays using a lithium-drifted germanium spectrometer / [by] Victor John Orphan [and] Norman C. Rasmussen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orphan, V. J.

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma-ray spectrometer, using a 30 cc coaxial Ge(Li) detector, which can be operated as a pair spectrometer at high energies and in the Compton suppression mode at low energies provides an effective means of obtaining ...

  7. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  8. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). We show that the following equality holds for the subgroups of the group F(K): # p#SpecR,htp=1 im for the subgroups of G(K): # p#SpecR, htp=1 im{G(R p ) # G(K)} = im{G(R) # G(K)}, (#) where all maps are induced condition for the functor FR as # p#SpecR, htp=1 F(R p ) = F(R), (# # ) where the left and the right parts

  9. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    {F(R) ! F(K)}, p2SpecR,htp=1 where all maps are induced by the canonical inclusions. #12(K)}, (* **) p2SpecR, htp=1 where all maps are induced by the canonical inclusions

  10. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). We show that the following equality holds for the subgroups of the group F(K): pSpec R,htp=1 im for the subgroups of G(K): pSpec R, htp=1 im{G(Rp) G(K)} = im{G(R) G(K)}, () where all maps are induced condition for the functor FR as pSpec R, htp=1 F(Rp) = F(R), ( ) where the left and the right parts

  11. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    map). We show that the following equality holds for the subgroups of the group F(K): # p#SpecR,htp=1 for the subgroups of G(K): # p#SpecR, htp=1 im{G(R p ) # G(K)} = im{G(R) # G(K)}, (#) where all maps are induced condition for the functor FR as # p#SpecR, htp=1 F(R p ) = F(R), (# # ) where the left and the right parts

  12. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    map). We show that the following equality holds for the subgroups of the group F(K): pSpec R,htp=1 im for the subgroups of G(K): pSpec R, htp=1 im{G(Rp) G(K)} = im{G(R) G(K)}, () where all maps are induced condition for the functor FR as pSpec R, htp=1 F(Rp) = F(R), ( ) where the left and the right parts

  13. A PURITY THEOREM FOR FUNCTORS WITH TRANSFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (K)}, p2SpecR,htp=1 where all maps are induced by the canonical inclusions. #12(K)}, (* **) p2SpecR, htp=1 where all maps are induced by the canonical inclusions

  14. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x} gate stack on germanium substrate fabricated by in situ cycling ozone oxidation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xu; Zeng, Zhen-Hua [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Sheng-Kai, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn; Sun, Bing; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Hu-Dong; Liu, Honggang, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Xiong, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x}/Ge gate stack fabricated by an in situ cycling ozone oxidation (COO) method in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) system at low temperature is systematically investigated. Excellent electrical characteristics such as minimum interface trap density as low as 1.9?×?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?2?}eV{sup ?1} have been obtained by COO treatment. The impact of COO treatment against the band alignment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to Ge is studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Based on both XPS and SE studies, the origin of gate leakage in the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the sub-gap states, which may be correlated to the OH-related groups in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network. It is demonstrated that the COO method is effective in repairing the OH-related defects in high-k dielectrics as well as forming superior high-k/Ge interface for high performance Ge MOS devices.

  15. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

  16. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  17. Economical Route to Produce High Seebeck Coefficient Calcium Cobaltate for Bulk Thermoelectric Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase pure calcium cobaltate (Ca1.24Co1.62O3.86) was prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) followed by a short post heat treatment. Prepared powders were characterized by XRD for phase purity, and SEM for particle size and distribution. Temperature histories at the center and on the surface of reaction pellet during the SHS process were monitored and recorded. Particles size of synthesized powders was reduced using a planetary mill to increase its specific surface area. Electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the prepared power were measured and figure of merit was reported.

  18. High-performance single-photon generation with commercial-grade optical fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Söller; Offir Cohen; Brian J. Smith; Ian A. Walmsley; Christine Silberhorn

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality quantum sources are of paramount importance for the implementation of quantum technologies. We present here a heralded single-photon source based on commercial-grade polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The heralded photons exhibit a purity of at least 0.84 and an unprecedented heralding efficiency into single-mode fiber of 85%. The birefringent phase-matching condition of the underlying four-wave mixing process can be controlled mechanically to optimize the wavelength tuning needed for interfacing multiple sources, as are required for large-scale entanglement generation.

  19. Microwave power spectral density and its effects on exciting electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, S.J.; Goss, H.H.; Lapatovich, W.P. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Salem, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a microwave source generating a spectrally dense power spectrum on the operation of an electrodeless high intensity discharge lamp were measured. Spectrally pure sources operating within ISM bands at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz produce stable capacitively coupled discharges useful for producing flicker-free light for numerous applications. The internal plasma temperature distribution and lamp geometry define acoustic resonance modes within the lamp which can be excited with power sidebands. The operation of lamps with commercially available power sources and custom built generators are discussed. Estimates of the spectral purity required for stable operation are provided.

  20. High damage-resistant Mo mirror for high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Okamoto, H.; Matsusue, N.; Kitajima, K.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-purity molybdenum (Mo) mirror was developed by an electron-beam melting method (e.b.m. Mo mirror). For high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser, the e.b.m. Mo mirror has two to four times higher surface damage threshold than that of an Au-coated glass mirror and three times longer lifetime than that of a powder metallurgy Mo mirror (p.m. Mo mirror) when laser energy density lower than 60 J/cm/sup 2/ was irradiated with a 0.5-pps repetition rate. It was found that the difference between the e.b.m. Mo mirror and the p.m. Mo mirror at the laser-damage threshold was due to the five surface without voids and the small amount of impurities.

  1. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  2. Interfacial band alignment and structural properties of nanoscale TiO{sub 2} thin films for integration with epitaxial crystallographic oriented germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, N.; Zhu, Y.; Hudait, M. K., E-mail: mantu.hudait@vt.edu [Advanced Devices and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ADSEL), Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Maurya, D.; Varghese, R.; Priya, S. [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the structural and band alignment properties of nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films deposited on epitaxial crystallographic oriented Ge layers grown on (100), (110), and (111)A GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited at low temperature by physical vapor deposition were found to be amorphous in nature, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed a sharp heterointerface between the TiO{sub 2} thin film and the epitaxially grown Ge with no traceable interfacial layer. A comprehensive assessment on the effect of substrate orientation on the band alignment at the TiO{sub 2}/Ge heterointerface is presented by utilizing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. A band-gap of 3.33?±?0.02?eV was determined for the amorphous TiO{sub 2} thin film from the Tauc plot. Irrespective of the crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial Ge layer, a sufficient valence band-offset of greater than 2?eV was obtained at the TiO{sub 2}/Ge heterointerface while the corresponding conduction band-offsets for the aforementioned TiO{sub 2}/Ge system were found to be smaller than 1?eV. A comparative assessment on the effect of Ge substrate orientation revealed a valence band-offset relation of ?E{sub V}(100)?>??E{sub V}(111)?>??E{sub V}(110) and a conduction band-offset relation of ?E{sub C}(110) >??E{sub C}(111)?>??E{sub C}(100). These band-offset parameters are of critical importance and will provide key insight for the design and performance analysis of TiO{sub 2} for potential high-? dielectric integration and for future metal-insulator-semiconductor contact applications with next generation of Ge based metal-oxide field-effect transistors.

  3. Identification and rejection of scattered neutrons in AGATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. ?enyi?it; A. Ataç; S. Akkoyun; A. Ka?ka?; D. Bazzacco; J. Nyberg; F. Recchia; S. Brambilla; F. Camera; F. C. L. Crespi; E. Farnea; A. Giaz; A. Gottardo; R. Kempley; J. Ljungvall; D. Mengoni; C. Michelagnoli; B. Million; M. Palacz; L. Pellegri; S. Riboldi; E. ?ahin; P. A. Söderström; J. J. Valiente Dobon; the AGATA collaboration

    2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma rays and neutrons, emitted following spontaneous fission of 252Cf, were measured in an AGATA experiment performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy. The setup consisted of four AGATA triple cluster detectors (12 36-fold segmented high-purity germanium crystals), placed at a distance of 50 cm from the source, and 16 HELENA BaF2 detectors. The aim of the experiment was to study the interaction of neutrons in the segmented high-purity germanium detectors of AGATA and to investigate the possibility to discriminate neutrons and gamma rays with the gamma-ray tracking technique. The BaF2 detectors were used for a time-of-flight measurement, which gave an independent discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays and which was used to optimise the gamma-ray tracking-based neutron rejection methods. It was found that standard gamma-ray tracking, without any additional neutron rejection features, eliminates effectively most of the interaction points due to recoiling Ge nuclei after elastic scattering of neutrons. Standard tracking rejects also a significant amount of the events due to inelastic scattering of neutrons in the germanium crystals. Further enhancements of the neutron rejection was obtained by setting conditions on the following quantities, which were evaluated for each event by the tracking algorithm: energy of the first and second interaction point, difference in the calculated incoming direction of the gamma ray, figure-of-merit value. The experimental results of tracking with neutron rejection agree rather well with Geant4 simulations.

  4. The Performance of the Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-Beam Nuclear Array GRETINA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschalis, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lee, I. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Macchiavelli, A. O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Campbell, C. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, The Scripps Research Institite and The Skaggs Institute; Cromaz, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gros, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Pavin, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Qian, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Clark, R. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Crawford, H. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Doering, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Lionberger, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Loew, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Petri, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Stezelberger, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Zimmerman, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Lagergren, Karin B [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Anderson, J. T, [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Beausang, C. W. [University of Richmond

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-beam Nuclear Array (GRETINA) is a new generation high-resolution -ray spectrometer consisting of electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. GRETINA is capable of reconstructing the energy and position of each -ray interaction point inside the crystal with high resolution. This enables -ray energy tracking which in turn provides an array with large photopeak efficiency, high resolution and good peak-to-total ratio. GRETINA is used for nuclear structure studies with demanding -ray detection requirements and it is suitable for experiments with radioactive-ion beams with high recoil velocities. The GRETINA array has a 1 solid angle coverage and constitutes the first stage towards the full 4 array GRETA. We present in this paper the main parts and the performance of the GRETINA system.

  5. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  6. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  7. PHYSICS OF ULTRA-PURE GERMANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanisms involved in nuclear radiation detectors so as toproduce the be al nuclear radiation detectors. This stronglydegrades the performance of nuclear radiation detectors. The

  8. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  9. Electrical characterization of germanium-silicon alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishore, Kumar P.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The fabrication procedure involved sputter deposition of silicon dioxide, oxide patterning, deposition of aluminum metal and metal patterning. Each test structure was square-shaped and consisted of eight sets of peripheral metal contacts. The results...

  10. Electrical characterization of germanium-silicon alloy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishore, Kumar P.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The fabrication procedure involved sputter deposition of silicon dioxide, oxide patterning, deposition of aluminum metal and metal patterning. Each test structure was square-shaped and consisted of eight sets of peripheral metal contacts. The results...

  11. Germanium Oxide Nanoparticlesfor Superior Battery Electrodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Pump Basics GeothermalGeraldNERSCInnovation

  12. Recent Observation of Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of High-Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, Jr, C J; Liu, Xinyu; Kameda, Jun; Morgan, Michael J

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present progress report shows that the ultra-high-strength 4340-type steel, even if ideally pure, cannot safely be used for service in a hydrogen environment. Some of the strength must be given up in favor of more toughness, which can be achieved by reducing the carbon content and increasing the nickel content. The 5%NiCrMoV steel with about 0.1% carbon shows promise in this regard, especially in an aqueous environment and in hydrogen at around atmospheric pressure. However, we have not yet achieved a purity level high enough to establish the baseline behavior of an ideally pure version of this steel in high-pressure hydrogen.

  13. 2009 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Bowers Michelle Diane Highly Distinguished Bowling Joseph David Highly Distinguished Ashley Highly Distinguished Bryant Catherine Clancy Highly Distinguished Buckheister Elaine A Highly

  14. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  15. AC transport in p-Ge/GeSi quantum well in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drichko, I. L.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Golub, L. E.; Tarasenko, S. A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Suslov, A. V. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Mironov, O. A. [Warwick SEMINANO R and D Center, University of Warwick Science Park, Coventry CV4 7EZ (United Kingdom); Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The contactless surface acoustic wave technique is implemented to probe the high-frequency conductivity of a high-mobility p-Ge/GeSi quantum well structure in the regime of integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) at temperatures 0.3–5.8 K and magnetic fields up to 18 T. It is shown that, in the IQHE regime at the minima of conductivity, holes are localized and ac conductivity is of hopping nature and can be described within the “two-site” model. The analysis of the temperature and magnetic-field-orientation dependence of the ac conductivity at odd filing factors enables us to determine the effective hole g-factor, |g{sub zz}|?4.5. It is shown that the in-plane component of the magnetic field leads to a decrease in the g-factor as well as increase in the cyclotron mass, which is explained by orbital effects in the complex valence band of germanium.

  16. High speed, multi-channel, user programmable digital data acquisition system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabourov, Konstantin [XIA LLC; Hennig, Wolfgang [XIA LLC; Walby, Mark [XIA LLC

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As applications for radiation detection become more demanding, and in turn improvements are made in the technology of radiation detection, there is a need for high speed digital detector readout electronics matching these improvements. Specifically, full control over the on-line processing resources of modern digital electronics is desirable so that researchers can develop custom algorithms for special applications.In the proposed effort, the 500 MHz digital readout electronics previously developed by our company will be redesigned to allow user access to the on-line processing resources. In Phase I, the division of online processing into vendor and user firmware sections has been studied on existing hardware. In Phase II, the hardware will be upgraded to better facilitate the division, and the firmware will be restructured into a robust vendor logic block (providing standard functions such as host I/O, on-board memory I/O, energy computation, MCA spectra, timestamps, waveform capture, run statistics, and triggering and timing) and a user logic block for custom algorithms (with templates and examples for frequently used functions). Investigating several options to divide online processing, it was determined that the most promising approach is to “partition” a single FPGA integrated circuit into a vendor and user section, which is supported in newer devices. The analog front end of the existing electronics proved suitable for most applications, in particular high rate measurements with germanium detectors. The design architecture for new electronics was developed, combining one of the new FPGA device with the analog front end.

  17. AGATA - Advanced Gamma Tracking Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Akkoyun; A. Algora; B. Alikhani; F. Ameil; G. de Angelis; L. Arnold; A. Astier; A. Ataç; Y. Aubert; C. Aufranc; A. Austin; S. Aydin; F. Azaiez; S. Badoer; D. L. Balabanski; D. Barrientos; G. Baulieu; R. Baumann; D. Bazzacco; F. A. Beck; T. Beck; P. Bednarczyk; M. Bellato; M. A. Bentley; G. Benzoni; R. Berthier; L. Berti; R. Beunard; G. Lo Bianco; B. Birkenbach; P. G. Bizzeti; A. M. Bizzeti-Sona; F. Le Blanc; J. M. Blasco; N. Blasi; D. Bloor; C. Boiano; M. Borsato; D. Bortolato; A. J. Boston; H. C. Boston; P. Bourgault; P. Boutachkov; A. Bouty; A. Bracco; S. Brambilla; I. P. Brawn; A. Brondi; S. Broussard; B. Bruyneel; D. Bucurescu; I. Burrows; A. Bürger; S. Cabaret; B. Cahan; E. Calore; F. Camera; A. Capsoni; F. Carrió; G. Casati; M. Castoldi; B. Cederwall; J. -L. Cercus; V. Chambert; M. El Chambit; R. Chapman; L. Charles; J. Chavas; E. Clément; P. Cocconi; S. Coelli; P. J. Coleman-Smith; A. Colombo; S. Colosimo; C. Commeaux; D. Conventi; R. J. Cooper; A. Corsi; A. Cortesi; L. Costa; F. C. L. Crespi; J. R. Cresswell; D. M. Cullen; D. Curien; A. Czermak; D. Delbourg; R. Depalo; T. Descombes; P. Désesquelles; P. Detistov; C. Diarra; F. Didierjean; M. R. Dimmock; Q. T. Doan; C. Domingo-Pardo; M. Doncel; F. Dorangeville; N. Dosme; Y. Drouen; G. Duchêne; B. Dulny; J. Eberth; P. Edelbruck; J. Egea; T. Engert; M. N. Erduran; S. Ertürk; C. Fanin; S. Fantinel; E. Farnea; T. Faul; M. Filliger; F. Filmer; Ch. Finck; G. de France; A. Gadea; W. Gast; A. Geraci; J. Gerl; R. Gernhäuser; A. Giannatiempo; A. Giaz; L. Gibelin; A. Givechev; N. Goel; V. González; A. Gottardo; X. Grave; J. Gr?bosz; R. Griffiths; A. N. Grint; P. Gros; L. Guevara; M. Gulmini; A. Görgen; H. T. M. Ha; T. Habermann; L. J. Harkness; H. Harroch; K. Hauschild; C. He; A. Hernández-Prieto; B. Hervieu; H. Hess; T. Hüyük; E. Ince; R. Isocrate; G. Jaworski; A. Johnson; J. Jolie; P. Jones; B. Jonson; P. Joshi; D. S. Judson; A. Jungclaus; M. Kaci; N. Karkour; M. Karolak; A. Ka?ka?; M. Kebbiri; R. S. Kempley; A. Khaplanov; S. Klupp; M. Kogimtzis; I. Kojouharov; A. Korichi; W. Korten; Th. Kröll; R. Krücken; N. Kurz; B. Y. Ky; M. Labiche; X. Lafay; L. Lavergne; I. H. Lazarus; S. Leboutelier; F. Lefebvre; E. Legay; L. Legeard; F. Lelli; S. M. Lenzi; S. Leoni; A. Lermitage; D. Lersch; J. Leske; S. C. Letts; S. Lhenoret; R. M. Lieder; D. Linget; J. Ljungvall; A. Lopez-Martens; A. Lotodé; S. Lunardi; A. Maj; J. van der Marel; Y. Mariette; N. Marginean; R. Marginean; G. Maron; A. R. Mather; W. M?czy?ski; V. Mendéz; P. Medina; B. Melon; R. Menegazzo; D. Mengoni; E. Merchan; L. Mihailescu; C. Michelagnoli; J. Mierzejewski; L. Milechina; B. Million; K. Mitev; P. Molini; D. Montanari; S. Moon; F. Morbiducci; R. Moro; P. S. Morrall; O. Möller; A. Nannini; D. R. Napoli; L. Nelson; M. Nespolo; V. L. Ngo; M. Nicoletto; R. Nicolini; Y. Le Noa; P. J. Nolan; M. Norman; J. Nyberg; A. Obertelli; A. Olariu; R. Orlandi; D. C. Oxley; C. Özben; M. Ozille; C. Oziol; E. Pachoud; M. Palacz; J. Palin; J. Pancin; C. Parisel; P. Pariset; G. Pascovici; R. Peghin; L. Pellegri; A. Perego; S. Perrier; M. Petcu; P. Petkov; C. Petrache; E. Pierre; N. Pietralla; S. Pietri; M. Pignanelli; I. Piqueras; Z. Podolyak; P. Le Pouhalec; J. Pouthas; D. Pugnére; V. F. E. Pucknell; A. Pullia; B. Quintana; R. Raine; G. Rainovski; L. Ramina; G. Rampazzo; G. La Rana; M. Rebeschini; F. Recchia; N. Redon; M. Reese; P. Reiter; P. H. Regan; S. Riboldi; M. Richer; M. Rigato; S. Rigby; G. Ripamonti; A. P. Robinson; J. Robin; J. Roccaz; J. -A. Ropert; B. Rossé; C. Rossi Alvarez; D. Rosso; B. Rubio; D. Rudolph; F. Saillant; E. ?ahin; F. Salomon; M. -D. Salsac; J. Salt; G. Salvato; J. Sampson; E. Sanchis; C. Santos; H. Schaffner; M. Schlarb; D. P. Scraggs; D. Seddon; M. ?enyi?it; M. -H. Sigward; G. Simpson; J. Simpson; M. Slee; J. F. Smith; P. Sona; B. Sowicki; P. Spolaore; C. Stahl; T. Stanios; E. Stefanova; O. Stézowski; J. Strachan; G. Suliman; P. -A. Söderström; J. L. Tain; S. Tanguy; S. Tashenov; Ch. Theisen; J. Thornhill; F. Tomasi; N. Toniolo; R. Touzery; B. Travers; A. Triossi; M. Tripon; K. M. M. Tun-Lanoë; M. Turcato; C. Unsworth; C. A. Ur; J. J. Valiente-Dobon; V. Vandone; E. Vardaci; R. Venturelli; F. Veronese; Ch. Veyssiere; E. Viscione; R. Wadsworth; P. M. Walker; N. Warr; C. Weber; D. Weisshaar; D. Wells; O. Wieland; A. Wiens; G. Wittwer; H. J. Wollersheim; F. Zocca; N. V. Zamfir; M. Zi?bli?ski; A. Zucchiatti

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realization of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly-segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterization of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximize its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.

  18. The gamma-ray spectrometer HORUS and its applications for nuclear astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Netterdon; V. Derya; J. Endres; C. Fransen; A. Hennig; J. Mayer; C. Müller-Gatermann; A. Sauerwein; P. Scholz; M. Spieker; A. Zilges

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated setup for the in-beam measurement of absolute cross sections of astrophysically relevant charged-particle induced reactions is presented. These, usually very low, cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest are important to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis processes of heavy nuclei. Particular emphasis is put on the production of the $p$ nuclei during the astrophysical $\\gamma$ process. The recently developed setup utilizes the high-efficiency $\\gamma$-ray spectrometer HORUS, which is located at the 10 MV FN tandem ion accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne. The design of this setup will be presented and results of the recently measured $^{89}$Y(p,$\\gamma$)$^{90}$Zr reaction will be discussed. The excellent agreement with existing data shows, that the HORUS spectrometer is a powerful tool to determine total and partial cross sections using the in-beam method with high-purity germanium detectors.

  19. Low background detector with enriched 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators to search for double beta decay of 116Cd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barabash, A S; Bernabei, R; Boiko, R S; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Chernyak, D M; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Di Vacri, M L; Dossovitskiy, A E; Galashov, E N; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Konovalov, S I; Kovtun, G P; Kudovbenko, V M; Laubenstein, M; Mikhlin, A L; Nisi, S; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Shcherban, A P; Shlegel, V N; Solopikhin, D A; Stenin, Yu G; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vasiliev, Ya V; Virich, V D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cadmium tungstate crystal boule enriched in $^{116}$Cd to 82% with mass of 1868 g was grown by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique. The isotopic composition of cadmium and the trace contamination of the crystal were estimated by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry. The crystal scintillators produced from the boule were subjected to characterization that included measurements of transmittance and energy resolution. A low background scintillation detector with two $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ crystal scintillators (586 g and 589 g) was developed. The detector was running over 1727 h deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy), which allowed to estimate the radioactive contamination of the enriched crystal scintillators. The radiopurity of a third $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ sample (326 g) was tested with the help of ultra-low background high purity germanium $\\gamma$ detector. Monte Carlo simulations of double $\\beta$ processes in $^{116}$Cd were used to estimate ...

  20. 2011 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Elizabeth Campbell Highly Distinguished Bowker Ripley Eden Highly Distinguished Brandfass Lara Rose Highly Distinguished Brotherton Cara Price Highly Distinguished Brown Anna Laughlin Highly Distinguished Brown Chloe Alix Highly Distinguished Brown Kelsey Michelle Highly Distinguished Brown Kyle Truman Highly

  1. Experimental Demonstration of High Frequency ELM Pacing by Pellet Injection on DIII-D and Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL] [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL] [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego] [General Atomics, San Diego; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, San Diego] [General Atomics, San Diego; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego] [University of California, San Diego; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics] [General Atomics; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics] [General Atomics; Strait, E. J. [General Atomics] [General Atomics; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL] [ORNL; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France] [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The injection of high repetition rate deuterium pellets is shown to trigger high-frequency edge localized modes (ELMs) in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The resulting triggered ELMs have significantly lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input power just above the H-mode power threshold. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  2. 2012 Spring : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Highly Distinguished Beck Misty Nicole Highly Distinguished Beckett Ethan Patrick Highly Distinguished Sara Nicole Highly Distinguished Borland Kelly Nicole Highly Distinguished Bosshardt Zachary Michael

  3. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); STFC, ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton Didcot Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  4. Chapter 4: High-Density Regimes in the FTU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigione, D.; Pieroni, L.; Buratti, P.; Giovannozzi, E.; Romanelli, M.; Esposito, B.; Leigheb, M.; Gabellieri, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione (Italy)

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density plasmas (n{sub o} {approx} 8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) achieving steady improved core-confinement have been obtained in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) up to the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T) by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas exhibit also high purity, efficient electron-ion coupling, and peaked density profiles sustained for several energy confinement times. Neutron yields in excess of 1 x 10{sup 13} n/s are measured, consistent with the reduction of the ion transport to neoclassical levels. Improved performance is associated with sawtooth stabilization that occurs when the pellet penetrates close to the q = 1 surface. In this regime, impurity accumulation can be prevented if a slow sawtooth activity is maintained. Experiments aimed at obtaining radiation-improved modes at high field have also been carried out using neon injection. The observed increase of the average density, with respect to the reference discharge, is significantly larger than the contribution of Ne. The neutron yield increases also by a factor of 3 to 6, and the energy confinement time increases by a factor up to 1.4.

  5. 2012 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Distinguished Andersen Meredith Esther Highly Distinguished Anderson Anna Kathleen Highly Distinguished Anderson Leah Ellen Highly Distinguished Anderson Lucy Paige Highly Distinguished Andrews James Matheson Highly Distinguished Aquino Jeri-Lynn Highly Distinguished Armistead Mary Chandler Highly Distinguished Armstrong Jessa

  6. Lignol Innovations, Inc. Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lignol Innovations, Inc., biorefinery will produce cellulosic ethanol, high purity lignin, and furfural from hardwoods.

  7. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV Colloque C8, supplkmentau Journal de PhysiqueDI,Volume 6, dCcembre 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Argentina Abstract. The effects of nitrogen irradiation employing a plasma focus device on high purity

  8. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  9. Structural Characterization of Germanium and Gold - Germanium Nanoclusters Embedded in Silica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Julian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pulsed-laser meting (PLM) was performed. This processJ/cm 2 was used. During PLM, the energy of the laser pulse (crystalline Au and Ge. After PLM, however, the peaks due to

  10. Low background high efficiency radiocesium detection system based on positron emission tomography technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ogata, Yoshimune [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)] [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    After the 2011 nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, radiocesium contamination in food became a serious concern in Japan. However, low background and high efficiency radiocesium detectors are expensive and huge, including semiconductor germanium detectors. To solve this problem, we developed a radiocesium detector by employing positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Because {sup 134}Cs emits two gamma photons (795 and 605 keV) within 5 ps, they can selectively be measured with coincidence. Such major environmental gamma photons as {sup 40}K (1.46 MeV) are single photon emitters and a coincidence measurement reduces the detection limit of radiocesium detectors. We arranged eight sets of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO) scintillation detectors in double rings (four for each ring) and measured the coincidence between these detectors using PET data acquisition system. A 50 × 50 × 30 mm BGO was optically coupled to a 2 in. square photomultiplier tube (PMT). By measuring the coincidence, we eliminated most single gamma photons from the energy distribution and only detected those from {sup 134}Cs at an average efficiency of 12%. The minimum detectable concentration of the system for the 100 s acquisition time is less than half of the food monitor requirements in Japan (25 Bq/kg). These results show that the developed radiocesium detector based on PET technology is promising to detect low level radiocesium.

  11. Measurements of D-T neutron induced radioactivity in plasma-facing materials and their role in qualification of activation cross-section libraries and codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    USDOE/JAERI collaborative program on induced radioactivity measurements has been spread over last five years and has covered, among others, a large number of plasma facing materials of interest to D-T fusion reactors, including ITER and DEMO. The experiments have consisted of irradiation of high purity material samples in a range of neutron energy spectra in simulated fusion environments of prototypical blanket assemblies driven by D-T neutrons at FNS/JAERI. A typical sample measured 10 mm in diameter by 1 mm thickness, and the neutron fluence ranged from {approximately}10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} to {approximately}10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, over an irradiation period of 30 m and 10 h. The irradiated samples were then cooled for varying times, from {approximately}10 m to {approximately}3 weeks, and their activity was derived by counting associated {gamma}-rays with intrinsic germanium detectors.

  12. Testing the Ge detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Xu; N. Abgrall; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; A. S. Barabash; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; D. Byram; A. S. Caldwell; Y-D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; D. C. Combs; C. Cuesta; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. E. Fast; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; A. Galindo-Uribarri; G. K. Giovanetti; J. Goett; M. P. Green; J. Gruszko; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusev; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; A. Hegai; R. Henning; E. W. Hoppe; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; K. J. Keeter; M. F. Kidd; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. D. LaFerriere; J. Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; J. MacMullin; S. MacMullin; R. D. Martin; S. Meijer; S. Mertens; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; C. O'Shaughnessy; N. R. Overman; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; K. Pushkin; D. C. Radford; J. Rager; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; E. Romero-Romero; M. C. Ronquest; A. G. Schubert; B. Shanks; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; N. Snyder; A. M. Suriano; J. Thompson; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; J. E. Trimble; R. L. Varner; S. Vasilyev; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; B. R. White; J. F. Wilkerson; C. Wiseman; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. H. Yu; V. Yumatov

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High purity germanium (HPGe) crystals will be used for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, where they serve as both the source and the detector for neutrinoless double beta decay. It is crucial for the experiment to understand the performance of the HPGe crystals. A variety of crystal properties are being investigated, including basic properties such as energy resolution, efficiency, uniformity, capacitance, leakage current and crystal axis orientation, as well as more sophisticated properties, e.g. pulse shapes and dead layer and transition layer distributions. In this paper, we will present our measurements that characterize the HPGe crystals. We will also discuss our simulation package for the detector characterization setup, and show that additional information can be extracted from data-simulation comparisons.

  13. Portable X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detection System was designed and built by Ames Laboratory and the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. The system uses a C-frame inspection head with an X-ray tube mounted on one side of the frame and an imaging unit and a high purity germanium detector on the other side. the inspection head is portable and can be easily positioned around ventilation ducts and pipes up to 36 inches in diameter. Wide angle and narrow beam X-ray shots are used to identify the type of holdup material and the amount of the contaminant. Precise assay data can be obtained within minutes of the interrogation. A profile of the containerized holdup material and a permanent record of the measurement are immediately available.

  14. Ion-induced gamma-ray detection of fast ions escaping from fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishiura, M., E-mail: nishiura@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Mushiake, T. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Doi, K.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Taniike, A.; Matsuki, T. [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Shimazoe, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Yoshino, M. [Furukawa Co. Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan); Nagasaka, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Fujimoto, Y.; Fujioka, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamaoka, H. [RIKEN SPring-8 center, RIKEN, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y. [Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 12 × 12 pixel detector has been developed and used in a laboratory experiment for lost fast-ion diagnostics. With gamma rays in the MeV range originating from nuclear reactions {sup 9}Be(?, n?){sup 12}C, {sup 9}Be(d, n?){sup 12}C, and {sup 12}C(d, p?){sup 13}C, a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector measured a fine-energy-resolved spectrum of gamma rays. The HPGe detector enables the survey of background-gamma rays and Doppler-shifted photo peak shapes. In the experiments, the pixel detector produces a gamma-ray image reconstructed from the energy spectrum obtained from total photon counts of irradiation passing through the detector's lead collimator. From gamma-ray image, diagnostics are able to produce an analysis of the fast ion loss onto the first wall in principle.

  15. In situ determination of /sup 241/Am on Enewetak Atoll. Date of survey: July 1977-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipton, W.J.; Fritzsche, A.E.; Jaffe, R.J.; Villaire, A.E.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ gamma ray spectrometer system was operated at Enewetak Atoll from July 1977 to December 1979 in support of the Enewetak Cleanup Project. The system employed a high purity germanium planar detector suspended at a height of 7.4 m above ground. Conversion factors were established to relate measured photopeak count rate data to source concentration in the soil. Data obtained for /sup 241/Am, together with plutonium-to-americium ratios obtained from soil sample analyses, were used to establish area-averaged surface (0 to 3 cm) transuranic concentration values. In areas which exceeded cleanup criteria, measurements were made in an iterative fashion to guide soil removal until levels were reduced below the cleanup criteria. Final measurements made after soil removal had been completed were used to document remaining surface transuranic concentration values and to establish external exposure rate levels due to /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  16. Spectroscopy of 153Gd and 157Gd using the (p,d ) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, T.J. [University of Richmond; Hughes, R.O. [University of Richmond; Allmond, James M [ORNL; Beausang, C.W. [University of Richmond; Angell, C.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Basunia, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bleuel, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burke, J.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Casperson, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Escher, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Munson, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Paschalis, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Petri, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Phair, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ressler, J.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-spin single quasineutron levels in 153Gd and 157Gd have been studied following the 154Gd(p,d- )153Gd and 158Gd(p,d- )157Gd reactions. A combined Si telescope and high-purity germanium array was utilized, allowing d- and d- - coincidence measurements. Almost all of the established low-excitation-energy, low-spin structures were confirmed in both 153Gd and 157Gd. Several new levels and numerous new rays are observed in both nuclei, particularly for Ex > 1 MeV. Residual effects of a neutron subshell closure at N = 64 are observed in the form of a large excitation energy gap in the single quasineutron level schemes.

  17. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  18. Measurement of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. MacMullin; G. K. Giovanetti; M. P. Green; R. Henning; R. Holmes; K. Vorren; J. F. Wilkerson

    2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 days following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products I-131 and Cs-137 were measured with maximum activities of 4.2 +/- 0.6 mBq/m^3 and 0.42 +/- 0.07 mBq/m^3 respectively. Additional activity from I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137 and Te-132 were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  19. Measurement of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Fukushima I reactor accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMullin, S; Green, M P; Henning, R; Holmes, R; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 days following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products I-131 and Cs-137 were measured with maximum activities of 4.2 +/- 0.6 mBq/m^2 and 0.42 +/- 0.07 mBq/m^2 respectively. Additional activity from I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137 and Te-132 were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  20. Measurement of the neutron-capture cross section of ??Ge and ??Ge below 15 MeV and its relevance to 0??? decay searches of ??Ge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Tornow, W.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron radiative-capture cross section of ??Ge was measured between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV using the activation technique. Germanium samples with the isotopic abundance of ~86% ??Ge and ~14% ??Ge used in the 0??? searches by the GERDA and Majorana Collaborations were irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons produced at eleven energies via the ³H(p,n)³He, ²H(d,n)³He and ³H(d,n)?He reactions. Previously, data existed only at thermal energies and at 14 MeV. As a by-product, capture cross-section data were also obtained for ??Ge at neutron energies below 8 MeV. Indium and gold foils were irradiated simultaneously for neutron fluence determination. High-resolution ?-ray spectroscopy wasmore »used to determine the ?-ray activity of the daughter nuclei of interest. For the ??Ge total capture cross section the present data are in good agreement with the TENDL-2013 model calculations and the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations, while for the ??Ge(n,?)??Ge reaction, the present data are about a factor of two larger than predicted. It was found that the ??Ge(n,?)??Ge yield in the High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used by the GERDA and Majorana Collaborations is only about a factor of two smaller than the ??Ge(n,?)??Ge yield due to the larger cross section of the former reaction.« less

  1. 2013 Fall : Highly Distinguished Honors Highly Distinguished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Anderson Chelsea Mariah Highly Distinguished Anderson Madison Olivia Highly Distinguished Andrews James Askew Mary Frances Highly Distinguished Augustine Andrew William Highly Distinguished Austin Adrian Bailes Mary Elizabeth Highly Distinguished Bailey Erika Leigh Highly Distinguished Bailey Margaret

  2. High e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footworke ne rgy data s am

  3. Search for double beta decay with HPGe detectors at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Chkvorets

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is practically the only way to establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino mass and its decay rate provides a probe of an effective neutrino mass. Double beta experiments are long-running underground experiments with specific challenges concerning the background reduction and the long term stability. These problems are addressed in this work for the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM), GENIUS Test Facility (TF) and GERDA experiments. The HdM experiment collected data with enriched 76Ge high purity (HPGe) detectors from 1990 to 2003. An improved analysis of HdM data is presented, exploiting new calibration and spectral shape measurements with the HdM detectors. GENIUS-TF was a test-facility that verified the feasibility of using bare germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen. The first year results of this experiment are discussed. The GERDA experiment has been designed to further increase the sensitivity by operating bare germanium detectors in a high purity cryogenic liquid, which simultaneously serves as a shielding against background and as a cooling media. In the preparatory stage of GERDA, an external background gamma flux measurement was done at the experimental site in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso laboratory. The characterization of the enriched detectors from the HdM and IGEX experiments was performed in the underground detector laboratory for the GERDA collaboration. Long term stability measurements of a bare HPGe detector in liquid argon were carried out. Based on these measurements, the first lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double electron capture of 36Ar was established to be 1.85*10^18 years at 68% C.L.

  4. A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

    1995-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for {gamma} and {alpha}/{beta} monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in {alpha}/{beta} liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure {sup 241}Am produced from {sup 241}Pu by {beta} decay. Because {sup 241}Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., {sup 137}Cs).

  5. CO2/oxalate Cathodes as Safe and Efficient Alternatives in High Energy Density Metal-Air Type Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemeth, Karoly

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical analysis on why and how rechargeable metal-air type batteries can be made significantly safer and more practical by utilizing CO2/oxalate conversions instead of O2/peroxide or O2/hydroxide ones, in the positive electrode. Metal-air batteries, such as the Li-air one, may have very large energy densities, comparable to that of gasoline, theoretically allowing for long range all-electric vehicles. There are, however, still significant challenges, especially related to the safety of their underlying chemistries, the robustness of their recharging and the need of supplying high purity O2 from air to the battery. We point out that the CO2/oxalate reversible electrochemical conversion is a viable alternative of the O2-based ones, allowing for similarly high energy density and almost identical voltage, while being much safer through the elimination of aggressive oxidant peroxides and the use of thermally stable, non-oxidative and environmentally benign oxalates instead.

  6. High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Alloy Based Solar Cells and Modules; Final Technical Progress Report, 30 May 2002--31 May 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this R&D program is to expand, enhance, and accelerate knowledge and capabilities for development of high-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe:H) related thin-film multijunction solar cells and modules with low manufacturing cost and high reliability. Our strategy has been to use the spectrum-splitting triple-junction structure, a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, to improve solar cell and module efficiency, stability, and throughput of production. The methodology used to achieve the objectives included: (1) explore the highest stable efficiency using the triple-junction structure deposited using RF glow discharge at a low rate, (2) fabricate the devices at a high deposition rate for high throughput and low cost, and (3) develop an optimized recipe using the R&D batch large-area reactor to help the design and optimization of the roll-to-roll production machines. For short-term goals, we have worked on the improvement of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H alloy solar cells. a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H are the foundation of current a-Si:H based thin-film photovoltaic technology. Any improvement in cell efficiency, throughput, and cost reduction will immediately improve operation efficiency of our manufacturing plant, allowing us to further expand our production capacity.

  7. High precision measurement of undulator polarization in the regime of hard x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marx, B., E-mail: berit.marx@uni-jena.de [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.; Kämpfer, T.; Wehrhan, O.; Förster, E.; Paulus, G. G. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wille, H. C.; Schlage, K.; Röhlsberger, R.; Weckert, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Stöhlker, T. [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the polarization purity of undulator radiation at 12.9?keV, with hitherto unachievable precision. We could measure a polarization purity of 1.8?×?10{sup ?4} by using a silicon channel-cut crystal with six Bragg reflections at 45° as analyzer.

  8. Operation of a GERDA Phase I prototype detector in liquid argon and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Barnabé Heider; A. Bakalyarov; L. Bezrukov; C. Cattadori; O. Chkvorets; K. Gusev; M. Hult; I. Kirpichnikov; V. Lebedev; G. Marissens; P. Peiffer; S. Schönert; M. Shirchenko; A. Smolnikov; A. Vasenko; S. Vasiliev; S. Zhukov

    2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment aiming to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge at the Laboratori Nazionali Del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy, will operate bare enriched high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in liquid argon. GERDA Phase I will use the enriched diodes from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) and IGEX experiments. With the HPGe detectors mounted in a low-mass holder, GERDA aims at an excellent energy resolution and extremely low background. The goal is to check the claim for the neutrinoless double beta decay evidence in the HdM 76Ge experiment within one year of data taking. Before dismounting the enriched diodes from their cryostat, the performance parameters of the HdM and the IGEX detectors have been measured. The diodes have been removed from their cryostats, their dimensions measured and they have been put under va-cuum in a transportation container. They are now being refurbished for GERDA Phase I at Canberra Semiconductor NV. Before operating the enriched diodes, a non-enriched HPGe p-type detector mounted in a low-mass holder is operated in the liquid argon test facility of the GERDA Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. Since January 2006, the testing of the prototype detector is being carried out in the GDL as well as at the site of the detector manufacturer.

  9. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  10. Majorana Demonstrator Bolted Joint Mechanical and Thermal Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is designed to probe for neutrinoless double-beta decay, an extremely rare process with a half-life in the order of 1026 years. The experiment uses an ultra-low background, high-purity germanium detector array. The germanium crystals are both the source and the detector in this experiment. Operating these crystals as ionizing radiation detectors requires having them under cryogenic conditions (below 90 K). A liquid nitrogen thermosyphon is used to extract the heat from the detectors. The detector channels are arranged in strings and thermally coupled to the thermosyphon through a cold plate. The cold plate is joined to the thermosyphon by a bolted joint. This circular plate is housed inside the cryostat can. This document provides a detailed study of the bolted joint that connects the cold plate and the thermosyphon. An analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of this bolted joint is presented. The force applied to the joint is derived from the torque applied to each one of the six bolts that form the joint. The thermal conductivity of the joint is measured as a function of applied force. The required heat conductivity for a successful experiment is the combination of the thermal conductivity of the detector string and this joint. The thermal behavior of the joint is experimentally implemented and analyzed in this study.

  11. Chemical beam epitaxy for high efficiency photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensaoula, A.; Freundlich, A.; Vilela, M. F.; Medelci, N.; Renaud, P.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InP-based multijunction tandem solar cells show great promise for the conversion efficiency (eta) and high radiation resistance. InP and its related ternary and quanternary compound semiconductors such as InGaAs and InGaAsP offer desirable combinations for energy bandgap values which are very suitable for multijunction tandem solar cell applications. The monolithically integrated InP/In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tandem solar cells are expected to reach efficiencies above 30 percent. Wanlass, et.al., have reported AMO efficiencies as high as 20.1% for two terminal cells fabricated using atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). The main limitations in their technique are first related to the degradation of the intercell ohmic contact (IOC), in this case the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tunnel junction during the growth of the top InP subcell structure, and second to the current matching, often limited by the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As bottom subcell. Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) has been shown to allow the growth of high quality materials with reproducible complex compositional and doping profiles. The main advantage of CBE compared to metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the most popular technique for InP-based photovoltaic device fabrication, is the ability to grow high purity epilayers at much lower temperatures (450 C - 530 C). In a recent report it was shown that cost-wise CBE is a breakthrough technology for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy progress in the energy conversion efficiency of InP-based solar cells fabricated using chemical beam epitaxy. This communication summarizes recent results on PV devices and demonstrates the strength of this new technology.

  12. Time-of-Flight SIMS | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the high vapor... A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments. We present data characterizing the performance of the rst...

  13. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1?s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18?×?10{sup ?8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (?10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800?°C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  14. A purity theorem for linear algebraic groups Ivan Panin #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    property # htp=1 Im[F(R p ) # F(K)] = Im[F(R) # F(K)]. Let k be a characteristic zero field and â?¢ k be its

  15. Formalization, Primitive Concepts, and Purity John T. Baldwin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, John T.

    based primarily on the papers of Hallet [17] and Arana-Mancosuo [3]. In an appendix written with William Paolo Mancosu for introducing me to this topic and acknowledge helpful comments from Andrew Arana, Phil

  16. Inventing purity in the Atlantic sugar world, 1860-1930

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singerman, David Roth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation illuminates how expert labor makes a complex natural substance into a uniform global commodity. Drawing on both published sources and extensive archival research in the continental United States, in ...

  17. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

  18. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Niobium for SRF Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimized mechanical and physical properties of high purity niobium are crucial for obtaining high performance SRF particle beam accelerator structures consistently. This paper summarizes these important material properties for both high purity polycrystalline and single crystal niobium.

  20. Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

  1. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  2. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for...

  3. Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, A.; Jacobson, D.L. (Department of Chemical, Bio Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States)); Ponnappan, R. (Universal Energy Systems, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States))

    1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature [plus minus]100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed that both Al and Cr were dissolved in the fluoride salts at high temperatures. The changes in melting temperature and heat of fusion of fluoride salts during thermal cycling were measured with Thermal Differential Analysis. A modified diffusion equation for a one-dimensional semi-infinite bar was applied to the depletion of Al on the interior surfaces of the containers. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis and the measured concentration profiles. The present study suggests that the corrosion was a diffusion controlled process and an expected lifetime of 5--7 years is reasonable and predictable based upon the limited diffusion processes.

  4. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temp

  5. Integrated High Temperature Coal-to-Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Ruud; Anthony Ku; Vidya Ramaswamy; Wei Wei; Patrick Willson

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant barrier to the commercialization of coal-to-hydrogen technologies is high capital cost. The purity requirements for H{sub 2} fuels are generally met by using a series of unit clean-up operations for residual CO removal, sulfur removal, CO{sub 2} removal and final gas polishing to achieve pure H{sub 2}. A substantial reduction in cost can be attained by reducing the number of process operations for H{sub 2} cleanup, and process efficiency can be increased by conducting syngas cleanup at higher temperatures. The objective of this program was to develop the scientific basis for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H{sub 2} from a coal-based system. The approach was to evaluate the feasibility of a 'one box' process that combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membrane to convert CO to CO{sub 2}, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO{sub 2} in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. A system-level design was produced for a shift reactor that incorporates a high-temperature membrane. The membrane performance targets were determined. System level benefits were evaluated for a coal-to-hydrogen system that would incorporate membranes with properties that would meet the performance targets. The scientific basis for high temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membranes was evaluated by developing and validating a model for high temperature surface flow membranes. Synthesis approaches were pursued for producing membranes that integrated control of pore size with materials adsorption properties. Room temperature reverse-selectivity for CO{sub 2} was observed and performance at higher temperatures was evaluated. Implications for future membrane development are discussed.

  6. 172 Newark High School 83 Reynoldsburg High School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    AU09 HS 172 Newark High School 83 Reynoldsburg High School 71 Heath High School 69 Granville High School 57 Licking Valley High School 54 Northridge High School 54 Watkins Memorial High Scho 51 Sheridan High School 50 Lincoln High School 49 Mount Vernon High School 46 Tri-valley High School 43 Utica High

  7. DEFECTS IN GERMANIUM: NEW RESULTS AND NOVEL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is radiation damage in nuclear radiation detectors made froma practical point of view, Nuclear radiation detectors maderadiation damage in nuclear radiation detectors lies in the

  8. An analysis of a germanium diode detector circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Ray LaVon

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery to be used. The first stage is essentially a self-oscillatipg con- verter unit. The incoming H. P. signal is picked up by a ferrite core antenna coil and. is coupled. to the base of VI by a low impedance winding. The local oscillator consists... detector circui'I m". j bu co'. L ' 1baI, od 2 p:L im:. rily to t Le a-c d-c i:t'1Tied ance ratio o, " 'i '; dpi ode load. Conslcler only thc corn. onents shown ii- Fi;. ? wl'e Rv (= . yGO ohms) is assumed to be the or I y rosi st. ' vo com? ponent...

  9. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR REVERSE ELECTRODE COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy under Contract W-7405-ENG-48 FABRICATION TECHNIQUESunder Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48. References to a company or

  10. ACCEPTOR COMPLEXES IN GERMANIUM: SYSTEMS WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SYSTEMS WIT! l 7UNNELING HYDROGEN E. E. Haller, B. Joos andSYSTEMS WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN E. E. Haller, B. Joos and L.SYSTEMS WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN E. E. Haller, B. Jo6s and L.

  11. Spin Transport and Relaxation in Graphene and Germanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Wei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steps: 3.1.1 Preparation of the graphene The graphene areKawakami, in preparation. 9.1 Introduction Graphene is

  12. Adsorption of Carbon, Silicon, and Germanium Adatoms on Graphene Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahyadi, Erica

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the IVA group atoms adsorption on graphene. J. Appl.surface. We observe that adsorption energy of carbon onsurface coverage. The adsorption energy tapers at 3x3 cell.

  13. aluminum germanium powders: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear applications. Two specific uses for which this powder is intended are Al2O3 pellets and Al2O 3 ? B4C composite pellets for use as thermal insulator or burnable neutron...

  14. Study of phonon modes in germanium nanowires and Ali Shakourib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 Bin Yu, Xuhui Sun, and Meyya Meyyappan the size distribution of nanowires. © 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10 temperature was kept at room temperature 22 °C . Experiment was conducted in a clean room to minimize

  15. Low-energy tetrahedral polymorphs of carbon, silicon, and germanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mujica, Andres; Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    that of carbon diamond, which could be of technological importance.28–32 For silicon, the main material used so far in the fabrication of solar cells, there is interest in new phases with electronic band structures and optical properties better suited than... to the diamond structure, when the latter is viewed along its ?110? direction. In analogy to (a) (b) (c) (d) FIG. 5. Construction of P42/ncm as a network of tilted diamond-like tetrahedra. Panel (a) shows a single slab of corner-sharing regular tetrahedra...

  16. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR REVERSE ELECTRODE COAXIAL GERMANIUM NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a LiN03-KN03 eutectic molten salt bath held at the diffusionelec- trolysis from a molten salt bath--a method which hasis attacked by the molten salt). FRAME Spot welded Fig. The

  17. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck...

  18. Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanowires . Abstract: From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating...

  19. Nanoscale resonant-cavity-enhanced germanium photodetectors with lithographically defined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    ). 10. D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y­177 (2005). 13. C. B. Li, R. W. Mao, Y. H. Z

  20. Medium energy ion implantation of Germanium into heated Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCoy, John Curtis

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , but significant damage remains afler the 1100'C anneal with a y, ?of 0. 17 in the Ge region of the spectra. Additionally, some diffusion is seen afler the 1000 o &, e o Legend 800 600 400 200 o 4 D~ dt's WIDDPS e', ?. e ~ 2000k og orp' egoo o oo 0...

  1. Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices E.E. Haller Department ofrapidly rising interest in SiGe alloys, we are just startingstrained and unstrained SiGe multilayer structures [58]. 9.

  2. Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McComber, Kevin A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integration of photonics with electronics has emerged as a leading platform for microprocessor technology and the continuation of Moore's Law. As electronic device dimensions shrink, electronic signals encounter crippling ...

  3. amorphous silicon germanium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Si-I or Ge Wang, Wei Hua 37 Integration of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors through selective crystallization of amorphous silicon Engineering...

  4. Growth of Germanium Nanowires on a Flexible Organic Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    2000; Wu and Yang 2000; Hanrath and Korgel 2002; Hanrath and Korgel 2004) (Greytak 2004) The small size-efficient substrate for potential applications such as those of photovoltaics or display technologies, due in large be manufactured to enable the extension of our methods to other nanowire/nanotube growth systems such as silicon

  5. Germanium abundances in lunar basalts: Evidence of mantle metasomatism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, T.; Taylor, G.J.; Keil, T.K.; Bild, R.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To fill in gaps in the present Ge data base, mare basalts were analyzed for Ge and other elements by RNAA and INAA. Mare basalts from Apollo 11, 12, 15, 17 landing sites are rather uniform in Ge abundance, but Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts and KREEP are enriched in Ge by factors of up to 300 compared to typical mare basalts. These Ge enrichments are not associated with other siderophile element enrichments and, thus, are not due to differences in the amount of metal segregated during core formation. Based on crystal-chemical and inter-element variations, it does not appear that the observed Ge enrichments are due to silicate liquid immiscibility. Elemental ratios in Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, green and orange glass, average basalts and KREEP suggest that incorporation of late accreting material into the source regions or interaction of the magmas with primitive undifferentiated material is not a likely cause for the observed Ge enrichments. We speculate that the most plausible explanation for these Ge enrichments is complexing and concentration of Ge by F, Cl or S in volatile phases. In this manner, the KREEP basalt source regions may have been metasomatized and Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalt magmas may have become enriched in Ge by interacting with these metasomatized areas. The presence of volatile- and Ge-rich regions in the Moon suggests that the Moon was never totally molten. 71 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel pricesDiesel28,Collapse |

  7. Thermoelectric Properties of Rare-Earth-Ruthenium-Germanium Compounds |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2DandEnergy ThereceiverInnovationEnergy

  8. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal FinancialDirect KineticInnovation

  9. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal FinancialDirect KineticInnovationDirect-Write

  10. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal FinancialDirect

  11. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal FinancialDirectDirect-Write of Silicon and

  12. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature,...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A UHT WATER PASTEURIZATION SYSTEM USING MICROCHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGER TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    . For this market, it is highly desirable (perhaps even critical) to have "infusible" water purity per AAMI

  14. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  15. Measurement of the neutron-capture cross section of 76Ge and 74Ge below 15 MeV and its relevance to 0??? decay searches of 76Ge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Tornow, W.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron radiative-capture cross section of 76Ge was measured between 0.4 and 14.8 MeV using the activation technique. Germanium samples with the isotopic abundance of View the MathML source?86%Ge76 and View the MathML source?14%Ge74 used in the 0???0??? searches by the GERDA and Majorana Collaborations were irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons produced at eleven energies via the View the MathML sourceH3(p,n)He3, View the MathML sourceH2(d,n)He3 and View the MathML sourceH3(d,n)He4 reactions. Previously, data existed only at thermal energies and at 14 MeV. As a by-product, capture cross-section data were also obtained for 74Ge at neutron energies below 8 MeV. Indium andmore »gold foils were irradiated simultaneously for neutron fluence determination. High-resolution ?-ray spectroscopy was used to determine the ?-ray activity of the daughter nuclei of interest. For the 76Ge total capture cross section the present data are in good agreement with the TENDL-2013 model calculations and the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations, while for the View the MathML sourceGe74(n,?)Ge75 reaction, the present data are about a factor of two larger than predicted. It was found that the View the MathML sourceGe74(n,?)Ge75 yield in the High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used by the GERDA and Majorana Collaborations is only about a factor of two smaller than the View the MathML sourceGe76(n,?)Ge77 yield due to the larger cross section of the former reaction.« less

  16. Chemical Engineering Science. Vol. 43, No. 1. pp. 3348, 1988. Printed in Great Britain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    -control of a high-purity distillation column is presented. Linear controllers designed based on a linearized model~2509/88 53.00+0.00 0 1988 Psrgamon Journals Ltd. LV-CONTROL OF A HIGH-PURITY DISTILLATION COLUMN SIGLJRD 1.2. Nonlinearity In this paper we study the high-purity distillation column in Table 1 using reflux

  17. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.

  18. Strontium ruthenate perovskites with high specific capacitance for use in electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, P.M.; Guther, T.J.; Oesten, R.; Garche, J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strontium ruthenates with the perovskite type structure ABO{sub 3} have been shown to exhibit attractive capacitive properties. Doping on the A site with La lead to typical capacitance values of 21 F/g. These materials were synthesized by coprecipitating metal hydroxides from a stoichiometric salt solution and subsequent firing at 800 C in air. In this paper the authors present a new procedure to synthesize the materials which are crystalline and nevertheless show appreciable capacitances in contrast to ruthenium dioxide material, which only works in a hydrated amorphous structure. The process basically consists in a pyrolysis of concentrated metal salt solutions of the respective chlorides and nitrates at 500 C for several minutes. Excess soluble phases are removed by washing out with water. X-ray diffraction experiments revealed similar phase purity and crystallinity as known from the coprecipitated materials. However the measured capacitances of undoped perovskites reached high values of 200 F/g exceeding twenty times the value of respective coprecipitated materials. First experiments on doping the materials promise further progress. The new synthesis route introduces a higher surface area by leaving cavities from leached soluble phases and bulk defects into the crystal structure. The first effect increases the number of active sites in contact with the electrolyte while the latter enhances the protonic conduction which is necessary to keep the charge balance within the material during cycling.

  19. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultra-High Purification System for the MuCap Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Ganzha; P. A. Kravtsov; O. E. Maev; G. N. Schapkin; G. G. Semenchuk; V. Trofimov; A. A. Vasilyev; M. E. Vznuzdaev; S. M. Clayton; P. Kammel; B. Kiburg; M. Hildebrandt; C. Petitjean; T. I. Banks; B. Lauss

    2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The MuCap experiment is a high-precision measurement of the rate for the basic electroweak process of muon capture, mu- + p -> n + nu . The experimental approach is based on an active target consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) operating with pure hydrogen gas. The hydrogen has to be kept extremely pure and at a stable pressure. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultrahigh Purification System was designed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to continuously clean the hydrogen from impurities. The system is based on an adsorption cryopump to stimulate the hydrogen flow and on a cold adsorbent for the hydrogen cleaning. It was installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 2004 and performed reliably during three experiment runs. During several months long operating periods the system maintained the hydrogen purity in the detector on the level of 20 ppb for moisture, which is the main contaminant, and of better than 7 ppb and 5 ppb for nitrogen and oxygen, respectively. The pressure inside the TPC was stabilized to within 0.024% of 10 bar at a hydrogen flow rate of 3 standard liters per minute.

  20. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with themore »GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.« less

  1. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  2. 258 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 5, MAY 2002 Self-Aligned SiGe NPN Transistors With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieh, Jae-Sung

    258 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 5, MAY 2002 Self-Aligned SiGe NPN Transistors, Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper reports on SiGe NPN HBTs with unity gain cutoff frequency ( )of 207 GHz (HBTs), high- speed devices, germanium, silicon, SiGe. I. INTRODUCTION THE BiCMOS silicon-germanium (SiGe

  3. How far from stability can we go using gammasphere and the FMA?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new results obtained using the US national gamma-ray facility Gammasphere, which has been operating at the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory since January 1998. Gammasphere was built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and used primarily as a powerful spectrometer for studying nuclei at the highest spins. For pioneering research in the high-spin regime, it was constructed with high photopeak efficiency (about 10% for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays), good energy resolution (< 2.4 keV at 1.33 meV), good photopeak-to-total response (> 55% of 1.33 MeV events are in the photopeak) and high granularity (> 100 high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector channels, of which 65 are segmented, to allow precise Doppler correction and minimize the chance of double-hits). The device has a high degree of mechanical symmetry which is ideal for angular correlation studies. The whole spectrometer, both HpGe detectors and their BGO anti-Compton shields, can be used for photon calorimetry by adding the energy deposited in the nearly 900 active elements.

  4. HIGH-POWER, HIGH-EFFICIENCY FELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Kumada, "Scaling of the FEL-ID Equations", ELF Note 128,Instability in a High-power, Short- Wavelength FEL", Proc.of the Ninth FEL" Conference, Williamsburg (1988), and

  5. Use of Crystals for High Energy Photon Beam Linear Polarization Conversion into Circular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Z. Akopov; A. B. Apyan; S. M. Darbinyan

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility to convert the photon beam linear polarization into circular one at photon energies of hundreds GeV with the use of crystals is considered. The energy and orientation dependencies of refractive indexes are investigated in case of diamond, silicon and germanium crystal targets. To maximize the values for figure of merit, the corresponding crystal optimal orientation angles and thickness are found. The degree of circular polarization and intensity of photon beam are estimated and possibility of experimental realization is discussed.

  6. Use of Crystals for High Energy Photon Beam Linear Polarization Conversion into Circular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akopov, N Z; Darbinian, S M

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility to convert the photon beam linear polarization into circularone at photon energies of hundreds GeV with the use of crystals is considered.The energy and orientation dependencies of refractive indexes are investigatedin case of diamond, silicon and germanium crystal targets. To maximize thevalues for figure of merit, the corresponding crystal optimal orientationangles and thickness are found. The degree of circular polarization andintensity of photon beam are estimated and possibility of experimentalrealization is discussed.

  7. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements...

  9. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric...

  10. High Voltage Safety Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Voltage Safety Act is to prevent injury to persons and property and interruptions of utility service resulting from accidental or inadvertent contact with high-voltage...

  11. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  12. High-performance combinatorial algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinar, Ali

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mathematics, and high performance computing. The numericalalgorithms on high performance computing platforms.algorithms on high performance computing platforms, which

  13. High energy astrophysical processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todor Stanev

    2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review the high energy astrophysical processes that are related to the production of high energy $\\gamma$-ray and neutrino signals and are likely to be important for the energy loss of high and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We also give examples for neutrino fluxes generated by different astrophysical objects and describe the cosmological link provided by cosmogenic neutrinos.

  14. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  15. High Performance Computing in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    High Performance Computing in Bioinformatics Thomas Ludwig (t.ludwig@computer.org) Ruprecht PART I: High Performance Computing Thomas Ludwig PART II: HPC Computing in Bioinformatics Alexandros #12;© Thomas Ludwig, Alexandros Stamatakis, GCB'04 3 PART I High Performance Computing Introduction

  16. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  17. The Design of an Ultra-Low Background Thermosyphon for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Busch, Matthew; Daniels, Randy; Fast, James E.; Green, Matthew P.; Reid, Douglas J.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is an ultra-low background neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???) experiment that will deploy up to 40 kg of high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a detector array with less than 1 event/ton-year in a 4 keV region of interest around the 0??? signal. HPGe diodes, when used as ionizing radiation detectors, need to be maintained at a temperature close to that of liquid nitrogen (77 K). This work describes the R&D results of a cryogenic system capable of meeting the requirements of low background and the cooling capacity required to successfully operate such a detector system. The MJD germanium detector modules will operate at liquid nitrogen temperature to provide adequate cooling for a full range of HPGe impurity concentrations. This paper shows the experimental results obtained using a two-phase horizontal thermosyphon using liquid nitrogen as the MJD’s cooling system. The cold test shows that the proposed thermosyphon has sufficient cooling power to handle the heat load of an MJD module. Results for the temperature gradient across the thermosyphon, cooling capacity, and design considerations demonstrate that the thermosyphon can effectively remove the calculated heat load of each module of the experiment. The thermosyphon will be bolted to a cold plate from which detector strings will hang. The thermal conductivity of a mockup of the MJD bolted thermal joint is experimentally determined to be below 0.1 K/W.

  18. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  19. Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M. [and others

    1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) and (D{sub x}H{sub 1-x}){sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different {open_quotes}vintages{close_quotes} of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic`s resolution to LLNL`s standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm{sup 2} (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning.

  20. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  1. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  2. Background Radiation Survey of the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colin Okada

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation for operations at the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex (Rad/NucCTEC), the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DHS/DNDO) requested that personnel from the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) conduct a survey of the present radiological conditions at the facility. The measurements consist of the exposure rate from a high-pressure ion chamber (HPIC), high-resolution spectra from a high-purity germanium (HPGe) system in an in situ configuration, and low-resolution spectra from a sodium iodide (NaI) detector in a radiation detection backpack. Measurements with these systems were collected at discrete locations within the facility. Measurements were also collected by carrying the VECTOR backpack throughout the complex to generate a map of the entire area. The area was also to be surveyed with the Kiwi (an array of eight-2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors) from the Aerial Measuring Systems; however, conflicts with test preparation activities at the site prevented this from being accomplished.

  3. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M., E-mail: mhoh@lle.rochester.edu; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Döppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J. [National Security Technologies LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostic–a multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20–500 keV range–has been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ?300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub ?}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (?90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  4. High Resolution EELS | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EELS EMSL's ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface chemistry-high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) system is designed to study the molecular-level chemistry...

  5. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological and Environmental Research Fusion Energy Sciences High Energy Physics Nuclear Physics Advanced Scientific Computing...

  6. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ever-demanding workloads 13:01 Gary Grider, HPC Divison Leader The High Performance Computing (HPC) Division supports the Laboratory mission by managing world-class...

  7. Beverly Hills High Emily Bloom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Kai

    Students Ali Abadi Beverly Hills High Emily Bloom Bakersfield High Camila Castro Rodriguez Mills E. Godwin High Nafiz'Ammar Fatani Da Vinci Science High Diana Felix San Marino High Karen Girdner

  8. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Copsey, Jesse F. (Germantown, MD); Garber, Jr., William E. (Poolesville, MD); Kwong, Vincent H. (Vancouver, CA); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Steiner, Paul E. (Olney, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  9. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  10. High-Throughput, High-Precision Hot Testing Tool for High-Brightness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Throughput, High-Precision Hot Testing Tool for High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diode Testing High-Throughput, High-Precision Hot Testing Tool for High-Brightness Light-Emitting...

  11. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggs Boson May| ArgonneHighDISCLAIMER

  12. Reduction of Edge Localized Mode Intensity on DIII-D by On-demand triggering with High Frequency Pellet Injection and Implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Jernigan, T. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics; Strait, E. J. [General Atomics; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Huijsmans, G.T.A. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Futantani, S. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12 the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12 lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  13. Reduction of edge localized mode intensity on DIII-D by on-demand triggering with high frequency pellet injection and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6169 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-6169 (United States); Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Moyer, R. A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)] [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Futatani, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)] [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12× the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized ? operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  14. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  15. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingashoter2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  16. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  17. High-Tc Superconductor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School footballHigh-Pressure MOFDonghui Lu, Kyle

  18. High-fidelity Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School footballHigh-PressureBiofuel Production

  19. High-speed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School footballHigh-PressureBiofuelEnergyspeed

  20. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterfeldt, M., E-mail: martin.winterfeldt@fbh-berlin.de; Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910?nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  1. In situ mapping of radionuclides in subsurface and surface soils: 1994 Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites occasionally caused local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils. The thorough cleanup of these sites is a major public concern and a high priority for the US Department of Energy, but before any effective remedial protocols can be established, the three-dimensional distributions of target contaminants must be characterized. Traditional means of measuring radionuclide activities in soil are cumbersome, expensive, time-consuming, and often do not accurately reflect conditions over very large areas. New technologies must be developed, or existing ones improved, to allow cheaper, faster, and safer characterization of radionuclides in soils at these sites. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies to measure uranium in surface and subsurface soils. In partial completion of this effort, PNL developed an improved in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to satisfy the technical requirements. This document summarizes fiscal-year 1994 efforts at PNL to fulfill requirements for TTP {number_sign}321103 (project {number_sign}19307). These requirements included (a) developing a user-friendly software package for reducing field-acquired gamma-ray spectra, (b) constructing an improved data-acquisition hardware system for use with high-purity germanium detectors, (c) ensuring readiness to conduct field mapping exercises as specified by the sponsor, (d) evaluating the in situ gamma-ray spectrometer for the determination of uranium depth distribution, and (e) documenting these efforts.

  2. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G Gigante

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of {approx}10 {mu}m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a 'step-and-repeat' mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

  3. Low background detector with enriched 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators to search for double beta decay of 116Cd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash; P. Belli; R. Bernabei; R. S. Boiko; F. Cappella; V. Caracciolo; D. M. Chernyak; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; M. L. Di Vacri; A. E. Dossovitskiy; E. N. Galashov; A. Incicchitti; V. V. Kobychev; S. I. Konovalov; G. P. Kovtun; V. M. Kudovbenko; M. Laubenstein; A. L. Mikhlin; S. Nisi; D. V. Poda; R. B. Podviyanuk; O. G. Polischuk; A. P. Shcherban; V. N. Shlegel; D. A. Solopikhin; Yu. G. Stenin; V. I. Tretyak; V. I. Umatov; Ya. V. Vasiliev; V. D. Virich

    2011-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A cadmium tungstate crystal boule enriched in $^{116}$Cd to 82% with mass of 1868 g was grown by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique. The isotopic composition of cadmium and the trace contamination of the crystal were estimated by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry. The crystal scintillators produced from the boule were subjected to characterization that included measurements of transmittance and energy resolution. A low background scintillation detector with two $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ crystal scintillators (586 g and 589 g) was developed. The detector was running over 1727 h deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy), which allowed to estimate the radioactive contamination of the enriched crystal scintillators. The radiopurity of a third $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ sample (326 g) was tested with the help of ultra-low background high purity germanium $\\gamma$ detector. Monte Carlo simulations of double $\\beta$ processes in $^{116}$Cd were used to estimate the sensitivity of an experiment to search for double $\\beta$ decay of $^{116}$Cd.

  4. Deconvolution of mixed gamma emitters using peak parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadd, Milan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Francisco [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Magadalena, Vigil M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When evaluating samples containing mixtures of nuclides using gamma spectroscopy the situation sometimes arises where the nuclides present have photon emissions that cannot be resolved by the detector. An example of this is mixtures of {sup 241}Am and plutonium that have L x-ray emissions with slightly different energies which cannot be resolved using a high-purity germanium detector. It is possible to deconvolute the americium L x-rays from those plutonium based on the {sup 241}Am 59.54 keV photon. However, this requires accurate knowledge of the relative emission yields. Also, it often results in high uncertainties in the plutonium activity estimate due to the americium yields being approximately an order of magnitude greater than those for plutonium. In this work, an alternative method of determining the relative fraction of plutonium in mixtures of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239}Pu based on L x-ray peak location and shape parameters is investigated. The sensitivity and accuracy of the peak parameter method is compared to that for conventional peak decovolution.

  5. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W. K.; Robinson, Eric

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the design, construction, and testing of a digital versatile disc (DVD) based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either real or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use in a variety of sitiuations. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument.

  6. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  7. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB) requirements of DOE Order 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Cancels DOE G 413.3-6.

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  9. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  11. Creating high performance enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanke, Alexis K. (Alexis Kristen), 1977-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How do enterprises successfully conceive, design, deliver, and operate large-scale, engineered systems? These large-scale projects often involve high complexity, significant technical challenges, a large number of diverse ...

  12. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  13. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  14. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  15. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Embury, John David (Hamilton, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  16. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  17. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  18. High performance polymeric foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L. [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB)-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Iannace, S. [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB)-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy) and Technological District on Polymeric and Composite Materials Engineering and Structures (IMAST), P.le E.Fermi 1, location Porto del Granatello, 80055 Portici (Naples)

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

  20. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a gas dryer, significant time and energy savings, combined with dramatically reduced fabric temperatures, was achieved in a cost-effective manner. The key design factor lay in developing a system that matches the heat input to the dryer with the fabrics ability to absorb it. The development work done on the modulating gas dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) Up to 25% reduction in energy consumption for small and medium loads; (2) Up to 35% time savings for large loads with 10-15% energy reduction and no adverse effect on cloth temperatures; (3) Reduced fabric temperatures, dry times and 18% energy reduction for delicate loads; and, (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions.