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1

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

3

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

5

High Pressure Studies of Superconductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Superconductivity has been studied extensively since it was first discovered over 100 years ago. High pressure studies, in particular, have been vital in furthering our… (more)

Hillier, Narelle Jayne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

7

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

11

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

20

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

High-pressure microhydraulic actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure UHV environment  

SciTech Connect

The major thrust of our research is to carry out for the first time a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that normally is observed only at high pressures (>1 atm) of reactant gas at low pressures (<10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The reaction we have chosen is the steam reforming of methane on a Ni(111) crystal.

Ceyer, S.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

Torres, D. J. (David J.); O'Rourke, P. J. (Peter J.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

26

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

SciTech Connect

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Gap Analysis for Bulk...

30

Guest disorder and high pressure behavior of argon hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The structure of argon hydrate was studied at ambient pressure and low temperature, and between 1.7 and 4.2 GPa at 295 K. This analysis produced a single Ar guest atom, positionally disordered off-center in the large cages of sII. Above 1.7 GPa Ar clathrate transformed to a mixture of a body-centered orthorhombic filled-ice phase, which can be viewed as a polytype of ice-Ih, and high pressure forms of pure ice. The guest disorder is further substantiated by analysis of the guest to host ratio in this high pressure filled-ice structure. The bulk modulus of Ar filled-ice found to be 11.7 {+-} 0.4 GPa.

Yang, L.; Tulk, C.A.; Klug, D.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Ehm, L.; Molaison, J.J.; Parise, J.B.; Simonson, J.M. (NRCC); (SBU); (ORNL)

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

34

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

36

High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

Oeschger, Joseph E. (Palo Alto, CA); Berkeland, James E. (San Jose, CA)

1979-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

Nellis, W J

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

High pressure water jet mining machine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

1981-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

39

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project Number: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt &...

40

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project No.: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

42

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

43

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

44

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High pressure-high temperature effect on the HTSC ceramics structure and properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: high pressures-high temperatures, high temperature superconductors, mechanical properties, structure, superconductive

T. A. Prikhna

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE JIYONG ZHAOa,Ã? , WOLFGANG, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA We introduce the combination of nuclear resonant inelastic X the thermal radiation spectra fitted to the Planck radiation function up to 1700 K. Nuclear resonant

Shen, Guoyin

47

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at high pressures yields more methane, less hydrogen at thermodynamic equilibrium Coke formation tendency increases with increasing pressures Coking tendency can be...

48

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

EXAMINATION OF HIGH PRESSURE RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Speciments of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, Zr-15Nb, iodide titanium, TMCA-45 titanium, A-110AT titanium, and 430 stainless steel were corroded in a highpressure recombiner loop. Analyses were performed to determine the amount of hydrogen pickup. The titanium materials and iodide zirconium showed very high hydrogen pickups, while the zirconium alloys and the 430 stainless steel absorbed smaller amounts of hydrogen Metallographic examination of the specimens showed that recrystallization occurred in all but the Ar-15Nb specimens. There seems to be little difference in the extent of recrystallization and grain growth whether the in the recombiner section at 430 to 500 deg C. Recrystalliplained or correlated in any way with the amount of f hydrogen sion that occured. Since hydrogen is known to seriously embrittle zirconium and titanium, it is recommended that crystal-bar zirconium and titanium alloys not be used as materials of construction in environ ments sinmilar to that of the High Pressure Recombiner Loop. (auth)

Picklesimer, M.L.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

1958-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

53

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

55

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

56

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

57

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas viscosity is one of the gas properties that is vital to petroleum engineering. Its role in the oil and gas production and transportation is indicated by its contribution in the resistance to the flow of a fluid both in porous media and pipes. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly, very few investigations were performed on viscosity of naturally occurring gases, especially gas condensates at low-intermediate pressure and temperature, even fewer lab data were published. No gas viscosity data at high pressures and high temperatures (HPHT) is available. Therefore this gap in the oil industry still needs to be filled. Gas viscosity at HPHT becomes crucial to modern oil industry as exploration and production move to deep formation or deep water where HPHT is not uncommon. Therefore, any hydrocarbon encountered there is more gas than oil due to the chemical reaction causing oil to transfer to gas as temperature increases. We need gas viscosity to optimize production rate for production system, estimate reserves, model gas injection, design drilling fluid, and monitor gas movement in well control. Current gas viscosity correlations are derived using measured data at low-moderate pressures and temperatures, and then extrapolated to HPHT. No measured gas viscosities at HPHT are available so far. The validities of these correlations for gas viscosity at HPHT are doubted due to lack of experimental data. In this study, four types of viscometers are evaluated and their advantages and disadvantages are listed. The falling body viscometer is used to measure gas viscosity at a pressure range of 3000 to 25000 psi and a temperature range of 100 to 415 oF. Nitrogen viscosity is measured to take into account of the fact that the concentration of nonhydrocarbons increase drastically in HPHT reservoir. More nitrogen is found as we move to HPHT reservoirs. High concentration nitrogen in natural gas affects not only the heat value of natural gas, but also gas viscosity which is critical to petroleum engineering. Nitrogen is also one of common inject gases in gas injection projects, thus an accurate estimation of its viscosity is vital to analyze reservoir performance. Then methane viscosity is measured to honor that hydrocarbon in HPHT which is almost pure methane. From our experiments, we found that while the Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin correlation estimates gas viscosity at a low-moderate pressure and temperature accurately, it cannot give good match of gas viscosity at HPHT. Apparently, current correlations need to be modified to predict gas viscosity at HPHT. New correlations constructed for HPHT conditions based on our experiment data give more confidence on gas viscosity.

Ling, Kegang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of a Transonic High Pressure Compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to develop a systematic approach for multidisciplinary high pressure transonic axial compressor conceptual design. Several aspects have to be… (more)

Ersavas, Funda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High-Pressure Protein Digestion System - PNNL: Available ...  

Summary. Researchers at PNNL have developed a system that utilizes high pressure to reduce the time of protein fractionation and improve peptide ...

62

Single Crystal PWA 1472 in High Pressure Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SINGLE CRYSTAL PWA 1472. IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN. D. P. DeLUCA, R. W. HATALA. UNITED TECHNOLOGIES. PRATT & WHITNEY. P. 0.

63

Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental Antiferromagnet MAY 21, 2009 Bookmark and Share...

64

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

65

Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Floating ring seals for compressors: leakage and force coefficients, seal lock up and effect on rotor stability, recommendations to reduce seal cross-coupled effects. Long oil seals as pressure barriers in industrial mixers: leakage and force coefficients, effect on rotor stability, recommendations for grooved seals with reduced leakage and lesser cross-stiffnesses.

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Unsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The widespread use of the gas turbine as a means of aircraft propulsion has provided a considerable impetusUnsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment

Payne, Stephen J.

68

Snubbing yields high-pressure savings  

SciTech Connect

Producing wells become deficient because of mechanical problems within the well or depletion of the oil or gas reservoir. Workover is an operation within the well's bore to repair equipment malfunction or well situation, or to enhance the well's performance. Workover performed through existing tubing by means of smaller diameter tubing is called thru-tubing workover. Snubbing utilizes jointed tubing or drill pipe and a hydraulic snubbing unit to run tubing or pipe under pressure conditions without killing the well. Tubing is run either through the blowout preventers and bore of an uncompleted well or through the well-head and tubing of a completed well. Hydraulic snubbing units offer many advantages to well productivity. Some of these are discussed in this article.

Parkhill, T.; Loring, G.; Lirette, R.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

High differential pressure, radial flow characteristics of gun perforations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tubing conveyed completion techniques are being utilized more frequently than in the past, because of the apparent advantages derived from underbalanced perforating. These advantages include cleaner perforations, reductions of additional stimulation treatments and reduced completion times. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of gun perforations made under high differential pressure, radial flow conditions. In this study, Berea sandstone cores, modified to permit radial flow, are used to determine the relationship between perforation characteristics and the time-dependent pressure differential between pore pressure (i.e. formation pressure) and ''well bore'' pressure during the completion process. The primary perforation characteristic investigated (Radial Flow Ratio) is defined as the ratio of the perforated flow rate to the flow rate of the unperforated core under identical conditions. The perforated flow rate is measured in radial flow after the perforation has been made under various time-dependent pressure differentials.

Regalbuto, J.A.; Riggs, R.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydro-Pac Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of supply and discharge pressures * Select a flow and standardize Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Variable speed drives * Double ended intensifiers * Water cooled cylinders * Flexible operational envelopes * Stop and start under load . Material Research / Installation Requirements

73

High pressure drilling system triples ROPS, stymies bit wear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent West Texas field tests of an experiental high-pressure drilling system have nearly tripled typical penetration rates in hard dolomite while putting virtually no visible wear on the bits, even those designed for much softer formations. With this drilling system, developed by FlowDril Corp. of Kent, Wash., and their joint-venture partner Grace Drilling Co., clarified drilling fluids (minimum solids) are pressurized to nearly 30,000 psi and directed to the bottom of the hole through a special nozzle attached to the drill bit. The action of this high pressure stream augments the bit's job, resulting in higher ROPs and decreased bit wear.

Killalea, M.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

75

High Rate Plasticity under Pressure using a Windowed Pressure-Shear Impact Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique has been developed to study the strength of materials under conditions of moderate pressures and high shear strain rates. The technique is similar to the traditional pressure-shear plate-impact experiments except that window interferometry is used to measure both the normal and transverse particle velocities at a sample-window interface. Experimental and simulation results on vanadium samples backed with a sapphire window show the utility of the technique to measure the flow strength under dynamic loading conditions. The results show that the strength of the vanadium is 600 MPa at a pressure of 4.5 GPa and a plastic strain of 1.7%.

Florando, J N; Jiao, T; Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Ferranti, L; Becker, R C; Minich, R W; Bazan, G

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

76

Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 High Pressure Vessels 3 High Pressure Vessels Applicability This hazard classification applies to working with pressure vessels and systems. Other hazard classifications and associated controls may apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving previously reviewed hazard controls are catergorized as medium risk experiments. Experiments involving new equipment, processes or materials, or modified hazard control schemes are categorized as high risk experiments. Hazard Control Plan Verification Statements Engineered Controls - The establishment of applicable controls in accordance with the (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, ASME B.31 Piping Code and applicable federal, state, and local codes. Verify vessel is stampled with ASME Code Symbol or allowable

77

High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

79

High Pressure Materials Research: Novel Extended Phases of Molecular Triatomics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and thus the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid [1]. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies [2], it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration [3]. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune exotic properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Simple molecular solids like H{sub 2}, C, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4} are bounded by strong covalent intramolecular bonds, yet relatively weak intermolecular bonds of van der Waals and/or hydrogen bonds. The weak intermolecular bonds make these solids highly compressible (i.e., low bulk moduli typically less than 10 GPa), while the strong covalent bonds make them chemically inert at least initially at low pressures. Carbon-carbon single bonds, carbon-oxygen double bonds and nitrogen-nitrogen triple bonds, for example, are among the strongest. These molecular forms are, thus, often considered to remain stable in an extended region of high pressures and high temperatures. High stabilities of these covalent molecules are also the basis of which their mixtures are often presumed to be the major detonation products of energetic materials as well as the major constituents of giant planets. However, their physical/chemical stabilities are not truly understood at those extreme pressure-temperature conditions. In fact, an increasing amount of experimental evidences contradict the assumed stability of these materials at high pressures and temperatures.

Yoo, C

2004-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

80

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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81

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)

Edeskuty, F.J.; Mills, R.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

83

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

85

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Survey of processes for high temperature-high pressure gas purification. [52 references  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the optimum operating efficiency of a combined-cycle electric power generating system, it is necessary to provide gas treatment processes capable of operating at high temperatures (> 1000/sup 0/F) and high pressures (> 10 atm (absolute)). These systems will be required to condition the inlet stream to the gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) to be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. A survey of the available and developmental processes for the removal of these various contaminant materials has been conducted. Based on the data obtained from a variety of sources, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of potential cleanup processes in view of the overall system needs. The results indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup systems (for the removal of H/sub 2/S, particulate matter, alkali, and nitrogen compounds) capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for turbine use will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J.P.; Edwards, M.S.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is propsed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. Our assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubilities of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, and a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, were measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. Preliminary results of initial extraction tests at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi in sub-pilot scale equipment are also presented.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.; Netherton, R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Magnetism In 3d Transition Metals at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

This research project examined the changes in electronic and magnetic properties of transition metals and oxides under applied pressures, focusing on complex relationship between magnetism and phase stability in these correlated electron systems. As part of this LDRD project, we developed new measurement techniques and adapted synchrotron-based electronic and magnetic measurements for use in the diamond anvil cell. We have performed state-of-the-art X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the dedicated high-pressure beamline HP-CAT (Sector 16 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory), maintained in collaboration with of University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Geophysical Laboratory of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. Using these advanced measurements, we determined the evolution of the magnetic order in the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) under pressure, and found that at high densities, 3d band broadening results in diminished long range magnetic coupling. Our experiments have allowed us to paint a unified picture of the effects of pressure on the evolution of magnetic spin in 3d electron systems. The technical and scientific advances made during this LDRD project have been reported at a number of scientific meetings and conferences, and have been submitted for publication in technical journals. Both the technical advances and the physical understanding of correlated systems derived from this LDRD are being applied to research on the 4f and 5f electron systems under pressure.

Iota, V

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

89

INSTRUMENT TRANSMITTERS FOR HIGH-PRESSURE, AQUEOUS, NUCLEAR REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

A review of the criteria involved in the selection of primary sensing elements for the measurement of process variables in high-pressure, aqueous, nuclear reactors is presented. Some acceptable types of sensing elements now in use at ORNL are described. (auth)

Moore, R.L.

1958-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

An Electrical Cathode Model of a High Pressure Sodium Lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrical cathode model (ECM) of a high pressure sodium lamp (HPS) based on physical laws has been developed. The proposed ECM calculates the instantaneous voltage drop in a cathode sheath and the temperature distribution inside the cathode using ... Keywords: cathode model, HPS lamp ballast designs

Jose Luis Tapia; Joel O. Pacheco Sotelo; Eduardo Diaz Rodriguez; Yulia Nikolaevna Ledeneva; Rene Arnulfo Garcia Hernandez

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Blade-Vortex Interactions in High Pressure Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation of the transport of streamwise (passage) vortices in high-pressure axial turbines and their interaction with the downstream blade rows was performed. The results indicate large variations in the downstream flow field, notably the development of the secondary flows. The mechanism of passage vortex transport was studied in two differently configured high-pressure turbine stages. In the first configuration, the blades are radially stacked while the second configuration features three-dimensionally stacked high-pressure steam turbine blading. The stator hub passage vortex is chopped by the downstream blade row in a similar way to the wake. The bowed vortex tube near the inlet to the rotor appeared to develop two counter-rotating legs extending back to the leading edges of the adjacent blades. These were termed the suction side leg and the pressure side leg. The two legs of the incoming passage vortex then convect with the respective velocities on the blade surfaces. The results are discussed for the radially stacked turbine and the 3-D turbine separately.

Venkata Siva Prasad Chaluvadi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Pressure testing of a high temperature naturally fractured reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 l/s) and surface pressures up to 7000 psi (48 MPa) into the HDR formation at depths from 10,000 to 13,180 feet (3050 to 4000 m). The formation is a naturally fractured granite at temperatures of about 250/sup 0/C. The matrix porosity is <1% and permeability is on the order of 1 nD. Hence most of the injected fluid is believed to move through fractures. There has been no evidence of fracture breakdown phenomena, and hence it is believed that preexisting joints in the formation are opened by fluid injection. Water losses during pumping are significant, most likely resulting from flow into secondary fractures intersecting the main fluid conducting paths. The pressure-time response observed in these tests can be interpreted in terms of non-isothermal, fracture-dominated flow. As the fluid pressure increases from small values to those comparable to fracturing pressures, the formation response changes from linear fracture flow to the highly nonlinear situation where fracture lift-off occurs. A numerical heat and mass flow model was used to match the observed pressure response. Good matches were obtained for pressure buildup and shut-in data by assigning pressure dependent fracture and leak-off permeabilities. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kelkar, S.M.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Dash, Z.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Proposal for high pressure RF cavity test in the MTA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to demonstrate the feasibility of high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF (HPRF) cavities for muon ionization cooling, an HPRF cavity must be tested with a high intensity charged beam. When an HPRF cavity is irradiated with an intense beam each incident particle generates about 1000 electrons and ions per cubic centimeter in a high pressure cavity via ionization. These ionization electrons are influenced by the RF field and the RF quality factor goes down. This Q factor reduction will be a problem with a multi bunch beam, e.g., a muon beam for a muon collider consists of a 12 to 20 bunch train beam with 5 ns timing gap. Thus, the RF field must recover in few nano seconds. We propose to use a 400 MeV proton beam in the MTA and measure a beam loading effect in the HPRF cavity and study the recovery mechanism of the RF field.

Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

Bailey, John M. (Dunlap, IL); Zadoks, Abraham L. (Peoria, IL)

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

97

Effect of changes in viewing window transmission on high-temperature Thomson scattering data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unmonitored changes in the transmission of viewing windows owing to deposited films can produce errors in Thomson scattering temperature measurements. This effect is illustrated by a recent run on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where apparent errors of over 25% in peak temperatures of 9 keV owing to carbon films were noted. Since coatings can also be removed by hydrogen discharges, the transmission of a window may change with time, resulting in variable errors in the temperature. It is proposed that these changes be monitored by calibration {ital in} {ital situ} with the aid of a low-pressure hydrogen glow discharge.

McNeill, D.H. (Princeton Research Forum, P. O. Box 497, Princeton, New Jersey 08542 (USA))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Integrated manufacturing system of high-pressure FRP pipes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to realise industrialised manufacturing of epoxy FRP pipes, the manufacturing system which can accomplish winding, internal heating curing and extraction processes by only one machine tool was developed. The winding motion control is undertaken ... Keywords: FEM, FRP pipes, blowing control, cooling control, curing control, embedded controllers, fibreglass reinforced plastics, finite element method, high-pressure pipes, integrated manufacturing, internal heating curing, motion control, simulation, thermochemical modelling, winding

Bo You; Jiazhong Xu; Xiongjian Wang

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Sky View Factors from High-Resolution Scanned Fish-eye Lens Photographic Negatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computerized method for calculating the sky view factor from fish-eye lens photographic negatives is presented. The images are scanned and stored on CD ROM, each CD holding 100 images. The images can be retrieved at very high resolutions of up ...

Kristina Blennow

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays High-pressure, high-speed fuel sprays are a critical technology for many applications including fuel injection...

106

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10,200, 15,200 and 20,200 rpm and clearances of 0.1 and 0.2 mm. The effects of changes in radial clearance and pressure differential across the seal are studied for various inlet tangential velocities. The results confirm the existence of negative direct stiffness, positive cross-coupled stiffness as shown by Benckert and Wachter and low direct damping (when compared to hole-pattern seals). Experimental results are compared with predictions from the one-control-volume model (Childs and Scharrer) and two-control-volume model (Scharrer). Results show that both models under-predict the rotordynamic coefficients significantly. Leakage is also under predicted by both the codes. However, the effective damping and whirl frequency ratio (wfr) predicted by the one-control volume theory is comparable with the test results.

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

108

High-Temperature Experiments using a Resistively-Heated High-Pressure Membrane Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect

A reliable high-performance heating method using resistive heaters and a membrane driven diamond anvil cell (mDAC) is presented. Two micro-heaters are mounted in a mDAC and use electrical power of less than 150 W to achieve sample temperatures up to 1200 K. For temperature measurement we use two K-type thermocouples mounted near the sample. The approach can be used for in-situ Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures. A W-Re alloy gasket material permits stable operation of mDAC at high temperature. Using this method, we made an isothermal compression at 900 K to pressures in excess of 100 GPa and isobaric heating at 95 GPa to temperatures in excess of 1000 K. As an example, we present high temperature Raman spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen at high pressures.

Jenei, Z; Visbeck, K; Cynn, H; Yoo, C; Evans, W

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

109

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

113

Study of structural change in Wyodak coal in high-pressure CO2 by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

scattering intensities on the exposure of the coal to high- pressure CO2 showed ... ture of coal caused by high-pressure CO2 also confirms that. CO2 at elevated ...

114

Pressurization Tests on High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Underground Transmission Cables of Public Service Electric & Gas Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes pressurization tests performed on 138-kV and 230-kV high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) transmission cable samples. The samples were removed from two Public Service Electric & Gas Company (PSE&G) underground transmission lines.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

115

Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

117

MECHANICAL TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The methods and interim results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. The scope is carbon steels commonly used for natural gas pipelines in the United States that are candidates for hydrogen service in the hydrogen economy. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in 1500 psig hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test program will continue with tests to quantify the fracture behavior in terms of J-R curves for these materials at air and hydrogen pressure conditions.

Duncan, A

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

118

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side temperature of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side temperature of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Protein Structure Could Lead to Better Treatments for HIV, Early Aging Protein Structure Could Lead to Better Treatments for HIV, Early Aging The Superpower behind Iron Oxyfluoride Battery Electrodes Watching a Protein as it Functions Shedding Light on Chemistry with a Biological Twist Teasing Out the Nature of Structural Instabilities in Ceramic Compounds Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough APRIL 11, 2013 Bookmark and Share Bragg CXDI measurements were performed at 0.8, 1.7, 2.5, 3.2, and 6.4 GPa on the same crystal. The reconstructed images (both top and bottom views) are shown above. From W. Yang et al., Nat. Comm. 4 (2013). A team of researchers has made a major breakthrough in measuring the

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121

The dissociation of liquid silica at high pressure and temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid silica at high pressure and temperature is shown to undergo significant structural modifications and profound changes in its electronic properties. Temperature measurements on shock waves in silica at 70-1000 GPa indicate that the specific heat of liquid SiO{sub 2} rises well above the Dulong-Petit limit, exhibiting a broad peak with temperature that is attributable to the growing structural disorder caused by bond-breaking in the melt. The simultaneous sharp rise in optical reflectivity of liquid SiO{sub 2} indicates that dissociation causes the electrical and therefore thermal conductivities of silica to attain metallic-like values of 1-5 x 10{sup 5} S/m and 24-600 W/m.K respectively.

Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Eggert, J; Miller, J; Celliers, P; Collins, G

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

122

GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

123

High temperature vapor pressure and the critical point of potassium  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure of potassium was experimentally determined from 2100 deg F up to-its critical temperature. An empirical equation of the form ln P = A + B/T + C ln T + DT/sup 1.5/ was found to best fit the data. A critical pressure of 2378.2 plus or minus 4.0 psia (161.79 plus or minus 0.27 ata) was measured. The corresponding critical temperature, extrapolated from the pressure-- temperature curve, is 4105.4 plus or minus 5 deg R (2280.8 plus or minus 3 deg K). The technique employed was tae pressure tube method developed earlier in this laboratory and used for determining the vapor pressure of rubidium and cesium. This method measures tae critical pressure directly, as well as the vapor pressure st lower temperatures. (4 tables, 6 figures, 26 references) (auth)

Jerez, W.R.; Bhise, V.S.; Das Gupta, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

125

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

High fidelity field simulations using density and pressure based approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density-based and pressure-based approaches in solving the Navier-Stokes equations for computational field simulations for compressible and incompressible flows have been presented. For the density-based flow solver, a generalized grid based framework ... Keywords: CFD, Density-based method, Pressure-based method

Gary C. Cheng; Roy P. Koomullil; Bharat K. Soni

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is confined between two walls at large normal pressures. The atomic scale motion that occurs when the two, atomic- scale details of the plastic flow mechanism are investigated by means of molecular dynamics- city v over a broad velocity range. Under non-extreme condi- tions (intermediate pressures

Müser, Martin H.

131

Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Pressure Media on High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Natrolite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Structural phase transitions in natrolite have been investigated as a function of pressure and different hydrostatic media using micro-Raman scattering and synchrotron infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Natrolite undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 0.86 and 1.53 GPa under pure water pressure medium. These phase transitions are characterized by the changes in the vibrational frequencies of four- and eight-membered rings related to the variations in the bridging T-O-T angles and the geometry of the elliptical eight-ring channels under pressure. Concomitant to the changes in the framework vibrational modes, the number of the O-H stretching vibrational modes of natrolite changes as a result of the rearrangements of the hydrogen bonds in the channels caused by a successive increase in the hydration level under hydrostatic pressure. Similar phase transitions were also observed at relatively higher pressures (1.13 and 1.59 GPa) under alcohol-water pressure medium. Furthermore, no phase transition was found up to 2.52 GPa if a lower volume ratio of the alcohol-water to natrolite was employed. This indicates that the water content in the pressure media plays a crucial role in triggering the pressure-induced phase transitions in natrolite. In addition, the average of the mode Grueneisen parameters is calculated to be about 0.6, while the thermodynamic Grueneisen parameter is found to be 1.33. This might be attributed to the contrast in the rigidity between the TO{sub 4} tetrahedral primary building units and other flexible secondary building units in the natrolite framework upon compression and subsequent water insertion.

D Liu; W Lei; Z Liu; Y Lee

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

High pressure HC1 conversion of cellulose to glucose  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of ethanol from glucose by means of fermentation represents a potential long-range alternative to oil for use as a transportation fuel. Today's rising oil prices and the dwindling world supply of oil have made other fuels, such as ethanol, attractive alternatives. It has been shown that automobiles can operate, with minor alterations, on a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture popularly known as gasohol. Wood has long been known as a potential source of glucose. Glucose may be obtained from wood following acid hydrolysis. In this research, it was found that saturating wood particles with HCl gas under pressure was an effective pretreatment before subjecting the wood to dilute acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment is necessary because of the tight lattice structure of cellulose, which inhibits dilute acid hydrolysis. HCl gas makes the cellulose more susceptible to hydrolysis and the glucose yield is doubled when dilute acid hydrolysis is preceded by HCl saturation at high pressure. The saturation was most effectively performed in a fluidized bed reactor, with pure HCl gas fluidizing equal volumes of ground wood and inert particles. The fluidized bed effectively dissipated the large amount of heat released upon HCl absorption into the wood. Batch reaction times of one hour at 314.7 p.s.i.a. gave glucose yields of 80% and xylose yields of 95% after dilute acid hydrolysis. A non-catalytic gas-solid reaction model, with gas diffusing through the solid limiting the reaction rate, was found to describe the HCl-wood reaction in the fluidized bed. HCl was found to form a stable adduct with the lignin residue in the wood, in a ratio of 3.33 moles per mole of lignin monomer. This resulted in a loss of 0.1453 lb. of HCl per pound of wood. The adduct was broken upon the addition of water. A process design and economic evaluation for a plant to produce 214 tons per day of glucose from air-dried ground Populus tristi gave an estimated glucose cost of 15.14 cents per pound. This would correspond to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol if the glucose were fermented. Key factors contributing to the cost of glucose production were unrecovered HCl, which contributed 5.70 cents per pound of glucose, and the cost of wood, which at $25 per ton contribute 4.17 cents per pound.

Antonoplis, Robert Alexander; Blanch, Harvey W.; Wilke, Charles R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure  

SciTech Connect

Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

Koski, Kristie Jo

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center); Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.

Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

On the stability of sp-valent materials at high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The behavior of sp-valent solids and liquids under compression is a field of intense re- search. At high pressure, they often undergo phase transitions to… (more)

Boates, Brian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Process for CO2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Process for CO 2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and Moderate Temperature Gas...

138

High-pressure science gets super-sized | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

leap forward with the discovery of a way to generate super high pressures without using shock waves whose accompanying heat turns solids to liquid. This discovery will allow...

139

Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles  

SciTech Connect

Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Heat Treatment of High Pressure Die Castings; Challenges and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat Exchangers · High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

142

Structure Stability of Methane Hydrate at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

The structural stability of methane hydrate under pressure at room temperature was examined by both in-situ single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques on samples with structure types I, II, and H in diamond-anvil cells. The diffraction data for types II (sII) and H (sH) were refined to the known structures with space groups Fd3m and P6{sub 3}/mmc, respectively. Upon compression, sI methanehydrate transforms to the sII phase at 120 MPa, and then to the sH phase at 600 MPa. The sII methanehydrate was found to coexist locally with sI phase up to 500 MPa and with sH phase up to 600 MPa. The pure sH structure was found to be stable between 600 and 900 MPa. Methanehydrate decomposes at pressures above 3 GPa to form methane with the orientationally disordered Fm3mstructure and ice VII (Pn3m). The results highlight the role of guest (CH{sub 4})-host (H{sub 2}O) interactions in the stabilization of the hydratestructures under pressure.

J Shu; X Chen; I Chou; W Yang; J Hu; R Hemley; K Mao

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Structural Behaviors of Cubic Gd2O3 at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

An irreversible structural transformation from the cubic phase to a hexagonal high-pressure phase was verified in Gd2O3 between 7.0 and 15 GPa. The compressibility and bond distances of both phases were determined by the refinement of the x-ray diffraction data. The high-pressure phase of Gd2O3 is 9.2% denser than the cubic phase at 7 GPa. After release of pressure, the high-pressure phase transformed to a monoclinic structure. The pressure-induced phase transition from the monoclinic to the hexagonal phase is reversible. Unlike the case at atmospheric pressure, the hexagonal phase was found to transform to the monoclinic phase by increase of temperature at high pressures. The lattice potential energies and electronic density of states of the cubic, monoclinic, and hexagonal high-pressure phases of Gd2O3 were calculated from the known structural models with density-functional method. The observed phase stability, transition pressure, and volume change are well explained by theoretical calculations.

Zhang,F.; Lang, M.; Wang, J.; Becker, U.; Ewing, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Feasibility study of underground energy storage using high-pressure, high-temperature water. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical, operational and economic feasibility study on the storage of energy as heated high pressure water in underground cavities that utilize the rock overburden for containment is presented. Handling peak load requirements of electric utility power networks is examined in some detail. The cavity is charged by heating water with surplus steaming capacity during periods of low power requirement. Later this hot water supplies steam to peaking turbines when high load demands must be met. This system can be applied to either new or existing power plants of nuclear or fossil fuel type. The round trip efficiency (into storage and back) is higher than any other system - over 90%. Capital costs are competitive and the environmental impact is quite benign. Detailed installation and design problems are studied and costs are estimated. The continental United States is examined for the most applicable geology. Formations favorable for these large cavities exist in widespread areas.

Dooley, J.L.; Frost, G.P.; Gore, L.A.; Hammond, R.P.; Rawson, D.L.; Ridgway, S.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

Böse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Retained Nanostructures in Monoliths by Multi-anvil High Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hybrid Aerogel/Nanorod Functional Materials for Energy and Sensing ... Processing and Characterization of Inorganic, High Temperature Nanomaterial Filter.

151

A Possible Pressure-Induced High-Temperature-Superconducting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Materials Forensics, Three-dimensional Modeling and Fractal Characterization · Vortex Physics in Oxide and Pnictide High Temperature Superconductors.

152

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

153

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to render the safest, fastest, and most cost efficient drilling program for a high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) well the maximization of drilling operational efficiencies is key. Designing an adequate, HT/HP well specific, drilling fluid is of most importance and a technological challenge that can greatly affect the outcome of the overall operational efficiency. It is necessary to have a sound fundamental understanding of the behavior that water-based muds (WBM) exhibit when exposed to HT/HP conditions. Therefore, in order to adequately design and treat a WBM for a HT/HP well specific drilling program, it is essential that the mud be evaluated at HT/HP conditions. Currently, industry standard techniques used to evaluate WBM characteristics involve aging the fluid sample to a predetermined temperature, based on the anticipated bottom hole temperature (BHT), either statically or dynamically, for a predetermined length, then cooling and mixing the fluid and measuring its rheological properties at a significantly lower temperature. This, along with the fact that the fluid is not subjected to the anticipated bottom hole pressure (BHP) during or after the aging process, brings to question if the properties recorded are those that are truly experienced down-hole. Furthermore, these testing methods do not allow the user to effectively monitor the changes during the aging process. The research in this thesis is focused on evaluating a high performance WBM and the current test procedures used to evaluate their validity. Experimental static and dynamic aging tests were developed for comparative analysis as well to offer a more accurate and precise method to evaluate the effects experienced by WBM when subjected to HT/HP conditions. The experimental tests developed enable the user to monitor and evaluate, in real-time, the rheological changes that occur during the aging of a WBM while being subjected to true BHT and BHP. Detailed standard and experimental aging tests were conducted and suggest that the standard industry tests offer false rheological results with respect to true BHT and BHP. Furthermore, the experimental aging tests show that high pressure has a significant effect on the rheological properties of the WBM at elevated temperatures.

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

APPLICATION OF CERAMICS TO HIGH PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel fuel systems are facing increased demands as engines with reduced emissions are developed. Injection pressures have increased to provide finer atomization of fuel for more efficient combustion, Figure 1. This increases the mechanical loads on the system and requires tighter clearances between plungers and bores to prevent leakage. At the same time, fuel lubricity has decreased as a byproduct of reducing the sulfur levels in fuel. Contamination of fuel by water and debris is an ever-present problem. For oil-lubricated fuel system components, increased soot loading in the oil results in increased wear rates. Additionally, engine manufacturers are lengthening warranty periods for engines and systems. This combination of factors requires the development of new materials to counteract the harsher tribological environment.

Mandler, Jr., William F.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

CNT Reinforced Copper Composite for High Contact Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1~10Vol% CNT is dispersed in Copper powder by high energy milling process. ... with FRP Facesheets and Nanoclay-wood Flour Modified Polyurethane Foam.

156

Fermi Surface of Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fermi Surface of ­Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory DMR-Award 0654118 DC Field Facility User Program The fermi surface of ­Uranium has been measured surface of alpha-uranium at ambient pressure, Phys. Rev. B Rapid Commun., 80, 241101 (2009). B//c-axis B

Weston, Ken

157

Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Neutron scattering workshop promotes high-pressure research ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

long-term goals in these areas closer to reality, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), home of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor, is hosting...

159

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure ultrahigh vacuum environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus was been developed which couples high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with molecular beam and scattering techniques. Exposure of Ni(111) to atomic H results in H embedded within the Ni lattice and a monolayer of H adsorbed on the surface. This surface-bound H was removed by an Xe atom beam. Subsequent exposure to CH[sub 4] results in dissociative adsorption, producing adsorbed CH[sub 3] and adsorbed H. Results documents a new mechanism for a surface reaction, a reaction between an adsorbed and a bulk species, and demonstrates the importance of bulk H as a reactant in a heterogeneous catalytic reaction.

Ceyer, S.T.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hydrogen-bond Dynamics and Fermi Resonance in High-pressure Methane Filled Ice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-pressure, variable temperature infrared spectroscopy and first-principles calculations on the methane filled ice structure (MH-III) at high pressures are used to investigate the vibrational dynamics related to pressure induced modifications in hydrogen bonding. Infrared spectroscopy of isotopically dilute solutions of H{sub 2}O in D{sub 2}O is employed together with first-principles calculations to characterize proton dynamics with the pressure induced shortening of hydrogen bonds. A Fermi resonance is identified and shown to dominate the infrared spectrum in the pressure region between 10 and 30 GPa. Significant differences in the effects of the Fermi resonance observed between 10 and 300 K arise from the double-well potential energy surface of the hydrogen bond and quantum effects associated with the proton dynamics.

Klug,D.; Tse, J.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed ... Press Release Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget

165

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injection ISX G Natural Gas Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet details work by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Not Available

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

“Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Design strategies for optimizing high burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is focused on the strategy for utilizing high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR) with special emphasis on the full array of neutronic considerations. The historical increase in batch-averaged discharge ...

Xu, Zhiwen, 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Optimal design of a high pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A team composed of material scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians have used computer simulations as a fundamental design tool in developing a new prototype High Pressure Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use ...

K. J. Bachmann; H. T. Banks; C. Höpfner; G. M. Kepler; S. Lesure; S. D. Mccall; J. S. Scroggs

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation. [Quarterly status] report, October 15, 1991--January 14, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Down-hole damages such as borehole collapse, circulation loss and rock tensile/compressive cracking in the open-hole system are well understood at drilling and well completion stages. However, less effort has been made to understand the instability of cemented sections in High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells. The existing analysis shows that, in the perforation zones, casing/cement is subject to instability, particularly in the presence of cavities. This dissertation focuses on the instability mechanism of casing/cement in the non-perforated zones. We investigate the transient thermal behavior in the casing-cement-formation system resulting from the movement of wellbore fluid using finite element method. The critical value of down-hole stresses is identified in both wellbore heating and cooling effects. Differently with the heating effect, the strong cooling effect in a cased hole can produce significant tension inside casing/cement. The confining formation has an obvious influence on the stability of casing/cement. The proposed results reveal that the casing/cement system in the non-homogeneous formation behaves differently from that in homogeneous formation. With this in mind, a three-dimensional layered finite element model is developed to illustrate the casing/cement mechanical behavior in the non-homogeneous formation. The radial stress of cement sheath is found to be highly variable and affected by the contrast in Young’s moduli in the different formation layers. The maximum stress is predicted to concentrate in the casing-cement system confined by the sandstone. Casing wear in the cased-hole system causes significant casing strength reduction, possibly resulting in the casing-cement tangential collapse. In this study, an approach for calculating the stress concentration in the worn casing with considering temperature change is developed, based on boundary superposition. The numerical results indicate that the casing-cement system after casing wear will suffer from severe tangential instability due to the elevated compressive hoop stress. Gas migration during the cementing process results from the fluid cement’s inability to balance formation pore pressure. Past experience emphasized the application of chemical additives to reduce or control gas migration during the cementing process. This report presents the thermal and mechanical behaviors in a cased hole caused by created gas channels after gas migration. In conclusion, the size and the number of gas channels are two important factors in determining mechanical instability in a casing-cement system.

Shen, Zheng 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22013_earth 22013_earth 12/20/2013 A Lawrence Livermore researcher prepares a sample at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer (SNAP). High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper magnets Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Sometimes you have to apply a little pressure to get magnetic materials to reveal their secrets. By placing a permanent magnet under high pressures, Lawrence Livermore researchers are exploring how atomic structure enhances magnetic strength and resistance to demagnetization. This fundamental research into magnetic behavior has important implications for engineering stronger, cheaper magnets. Permanent magnets based on rare earth elements are in high demand for

174

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

175

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Research on Active Power Factor Correction of the Electronic Ballast for High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Based on L6563  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the design of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballast. Two measures are proposed to improve the power factor of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballasts from the definition of harmonic ... Keywords: high-pressure sodium lamps, electronic ballast, active power factor correction, L6563

Sun Jing

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

REED BESLER BOILER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEM AND THERMAL CYCLING FACILITY. Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure boiler has been installed at ORNL. This Besler boiler is capabie of producing from 150 to 2000 psi saturated steam at steaming rates up to 5000 lbs/hr. The boiler is part of a water-steam circuit whteh also includes two spray water pumps, a steam pressure control valve, a high pressure trapping station, and a low pressure deaerated feedwater system. The new boiler system is piped and instrumented to serve as a thermal cycling facility. Shakedown test thermal cycles to requirements set forth in HRT Specification 1113a have been conducted using the existing Dump Test Autoclave as a test piece. Fourty-four cycles have been run through mid February, 1958. The boiler has been operated a total of 142 hours. Cycles are run completely automatically. Better than three- fourths of the cycles as run fall within the specification prescribed limits. (auth)

Holz, P.P.

1958-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

179

Safety Valve Performance Considerations During High-Pressure Station Black-Out Severe Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment of the operating history and test performance of pressurizer safety valves (PSVs) and main steam safety valves (MSSVs) has led to new conclusions on their expected performance during high-pressure station blackout (SBO) severe accident conditions. This report updates conclusions documented in Volume I, focusing on thermal-hydraulic considerations surrounding the reactor coolant system response to an SBO and valve lifts during an SBO event. The report also reconsiders PSV and MSSV tests and ...

1998-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

180

Oxidation of Fuel Cladding Candidate Materials in Steam Environments at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect

Under certain severe accident conditions, the fuel rods of nuclear power plants are exposed to high temperature/pressure steam environments in which the Zr alloy cladding is rapidly oxidized. As alternative claddings, the oxidation resistances of SiC-based materials and stainless steels with high Cr and/or Al additions have been examined from 800-1200 C in high-pressure steam environments. Very low reaction kinetics were observed with alumina-forming FeCrAl alloys at 1200 C while Fe-Cr alloys with only 15-20% Cr were rapidly attacked.

Cheng, Ting [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

HPS replacement project drives garage costs down. [High-pressure sodium luminaires  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of energy had forced a four-story New York airport parking garage to turn off almost half its low bay lights, leaving it gloomy and vandal-prone. By replacing the original lamps with high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires, the garage brightened its image with 2400 fewer fixtures and netted an annual energy savings of $60,000.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt(M), SFB/TR49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

High-pressure x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of ice VIII Yukihiro Yoshimura,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the phase diagram of ice is incomplete, especially at low temperature and high pressure. Above 2 GPa, dense-pressure ice structures, and at very high-pressures 60 GPa symmetric ice X phase forms. Much recent work VII . Later, Klotz et al.6 re- ported that a phase closely related to ice VI and possibly ice VII can

Stewart, Sarah T.

184

High-pressure structural phase transitions in chromium-doped BaFe2As2  

SciTech Connect

We report on the results from high pressure x-ray powder diffraction and electrical resistance measurements for hole doped BaFe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}As{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.4, 0.61) up to 81 GPa and down to 10 K using a synchrotron source and diamond anvil cell (DAC). At ambient temperature, an isostructural phase transition from a tetragonal (T) phase (I4/mmm) to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) phase is observed at 17 GPa. This transition is found to be dependent on ambient pressure unit cell volume and is slightly shifted to higher pressure upon increase in the Cr-doping. Unlike BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} which superconduct under high pressure, we have not detected any evidence of pressure induced superconductivity in chromium doped samples in the pressure and temperature range of this study. The measured equation of state parameters are presented for both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases for x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.40 and 0.61.

Uhoya, Walter [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Brill, Joseph W. [University of Kentucky; Montgomery, Jeffrey M [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Samudrala, G K [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Tsoi, Georgiy [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Vohra, Y. K. [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Weir, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test.

Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Nichols, R.T. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

On-Line Dissolved Gas Analysis in High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly reliable underground transmission lines are essential to deliver power consistently. Reliability may be affected as underground laminar dielectric cable circuits age and their condition degenerates. High-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) pipe-type cable systems have been the preferred high-voltage transmission cable type in North America from the earliest transmission cable installations in the 1930s through the late 1990s and still account for the largest percentage (80%) of installed length. Although...

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

188

Evaluation of ceramic filters for high-temperature/high-pressure fine particulate control. Final report Dec 75-Jun 76  

SciTech Connect

High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable particulate removal. In order to maintain high thermal efficiency the particulate clean-up must be done at the high temperatures of the process. Many new concepts for fine particulate control at elevated temperatures are presently being proposed. One such concept utilizes ceramic membrane filters. The report gives results of a study to analyze and evaluate ceramic membrane filters as a new, fine particulate (<3 um) control concept for high-temperature (approx. 900/sup 0/C), high-pressure processes. Several ceramic filters were identified as potential candidates for fine particulate removal. There does not seem to be any inherent material limitation to high-temperature operation; however, no evidence of high-temperature filter application was found. The filters typically are 2-6 mm thick, cylindrical, and available with various pore sizes, increasing upward from 0.5 um. These elements may be suitable for fine particulate control in hot gas streams. The most promising, although undeveloped, idea for a ceramic filter is to use ceramic honeycomb monoliths similar to those available for catalyst supports and heat exchangers. The walls of the monoliths are about 0.2-0.4 mm thick and of varying pore size and porosity. Geometric configurations are available which would force the gas to flow through the membrane walls. Pressure losses would be very small relative to those of standard ceramic filter elements. The application of ceramic monoliths to high-temperature fine particulate control appears very promising. It is strongly recommended that this concept be investigated further.

Poe, G.G.; Evans, R.M.; Bonnett, W.S.; Waterland, L.R.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 ?C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

Turcu, Romulus VF; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A diamond anvil cell with resistive heating for high pressure and high temperature x-ray diffraction and absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a prototype of a diamond anvil cell (DAC) for high pressure/high temperature studies. This DAC combines the use of a resistive oven of 250 W power in a very small volume, associated with special conical seats for Boehler-type diamond anvils in order to have a large angular acceptance. To protect the diamond anvils from burning and to avoid the oven oxidation, the heated DAC is enclosed in a vacuum chamber. The assemblage was used to study the melting curve of germanium at high pressure (up to 20 GPa) and high temperature (up to 1200 K) using x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Pasternak, Sebastien; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Pascarelli, Sakura; Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Poloni, Roberta [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain (Spain); Canny, Bernard [IMPMC-CNRS UMR, 7590 Universite Paris VI, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Coulet, Marie-Vanessa [IM2NP-UMR CNRS, 6242 Universite Paul Cezanne Campus de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

A parametric study of double-shell tank response to internal high-frequency pressure loading  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The double-shell waste tank 241SY101 (SY101) is a 3,785,400-liter tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The tank waste has formed two layers of sludge in the tank; a convective and a nonconvective layer. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer of the waste. Various means of preventing the buildup of hydrogen molecules in the nonconvective layer have been investigated, including the use of a sonic probe that would transmit high-frequency acoustic pressure waves into the nonconvective layer of the waste. During the operation of the sonic probe, the pressure waves transmitted from the probe induce pressure time history loading on the inside surface of the primary tank. For low-frequency fluid-structure interaction loads, such as those associated with seismic events, the convective and impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank are well documented. However, for high-frequency loading, such as that associated with acoustic pressure waves, interactions between the waste and the primary tank are not understood. The pressure time history is represented by a harmonic function with a frequency range between 30 and 100 Hz. Structural analyses of the double-shell tank have been performed that address the tank`s response to the sonic probe acoustic pressure loads. This paper addresses the variations in the tank response as a function of percent waste mass considered to be effective in the dynamic excitation of the tank. It also compares results predicted by analyses that discretely model the liquid waste and presents recommendations for the simplified effective mass approach. Also considered in the parametric study is the effect of damping on the tank response for the same pressure loading.

Baliga, R.; Choi, K.; Shulman, J.S. [ADVENT Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Strehlow, J.P.; Abatt, G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Preliminary analysis for adopting high pressure treatment: a simulation-based approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present in this paper a preliminary analysis of the simulation results in introducing high pressure treatment (HPT) into a meat production line. In particular, we first give a brief introduction to HPT and its applications. Next, we present a thorough ... Keywords: business process simulation, perishable products, production management, simulation analysis

Vassiliou Vassos; Menicou Michalis; Chartosia Niki; Christofi Stavros; Charalambides Marios

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Evaluation of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN for use over high zenith angle/long path length viewing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??LOWTRAN and MODTRAN were evaluated in the 2.0-5.5 micron region against field collection data at high zenith angle/long path lengths to determine the degree of… (more)

Wright, Jonathan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the Extreme Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480°F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

High pressure study of changes in energy and intensity of excitations in crystalline metal glyoximes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of high pressure has been measured on the energy and integrated intensity of electronic excitations of several layered crystals of glyoximes containing Ni, Pd, or Pt. Large changes in both energy and intensity were observed, both of which were completely reversible. The shifts in energy with pressure, are explained in terms of the relative spatial extent of the outer d and p orbitals of Ni, Pd, and Pt. The effects of back donation from the ligands and intensity borrowing from the higher energy charge transfer excitations are considered as possible causes of the observed intensity changes. It was concluded that intensity borrowing was the major cause of the observed changes.

Tkacz, M.; Drickamer, H.G.

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured brines: technical evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is proposed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. The assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed, and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into the producing formation, it is concluded that methane extraction processes are not applicable, insofar as maintenance of high surface pressures provides no clear-cut energy benefits. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubility of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, was measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. The solubility of a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, was also measured.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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201

NETL: Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Project No.: DE-FE0009702 Washington University in St. Louis is developing a unique pressurized system to capture carbon from coal-fired power plants that incorporates a fuel-staged combustion approach. By staging the combustion, the temperature and heat transfer can be controlled. The potential benefits of the process are: higher efficiency, reduced process gas volume, increased radiative heat transfer, reduced oxygen demands, reduced capital equipment costs, increased CO2 purity entering the carbon compression and purification unit, and reduced auxiliary power demands. These benefits are expected to yield a lower cost of electricity than alternative approaches to pressurized oxy-combustion.

202

Development of a method for measuring the density of liquid sulfur at high pressures using the falling-sphere technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new method for the in situ measurement of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature using the falling-sphere technique. Combining synchrotron radiation X-ray radiography with a large-volume press, the newly developed falling-sphere method enables the determination of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature based on Stokes' flow law. We applied this method to liquid sulfur and successfully obtained the density at pressures up to 9 GPa. Our method could be used for the determination of the densities of other liquid materials at higher static pressures than are currently possible.

Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Akifumi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid–fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in-situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ~ 350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO2, precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in-situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO3) mineral surface in scCO2; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10¯14) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in-situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid-fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, Alan S.; Higgins, Steven R.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

205

Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

An INTEGRAL view of High Mass X-ray Binaries : their nature, formation and evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe here the nature, formation and evolution of the supergiant high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, i.e. systems accreting the stellar wind of supergiant stars. There are now many new observations, from the high-energy side (mainly from the INTEGRAL satellite), complemented by multi-wavelength observations (mainly in the optical, near and mid-infrared from ESO facilities), showing that a new population of supergiant HMXBs has been recently revealed. We report here on the observational facts about the different categories of HMXBs, allowing to build a consistent scenario explaining the various characteristics of these sources, based on models of accretion in these sources (e.g. transitory accretion disc versus clumpy winds). We also mention new observations suggesting the existence of evolutionary links between Be and stellar wind accreting supergiant X-ray binaries.

Chaty, Sylvain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Field Guide: Compressors for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers, Optimized for Electronic Viewing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-voltage circuit breakers perform essential protection and control functions on power transmission networks. A circuit breaker that fails to operate within its design time period may cause serious damage and extended outages. Proper maintenance of compressors can help to ensure that breakers operate reliably and can prevent premature failures. This field guide, which has been optimized for use on electronic devices such as smart phones and tablets, is intended to help utility field personnel properly...

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

208

Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

Nibur, Kevin A.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Deflagration Behavior of PBXN-109 and Composition B at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report deflagration rate measurements on PBXN-109 (RDWAVHTPB) and Composition B (RXDTTNThrvax) at pressures from 1,500-100,000 psi (10-700 MPa). This was done with the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner, in which embedded wires are used to record the time-of-arrival of the burn front in the cylindrical sample as a function of pressure. The propellant samples are 6.4 mm in diameter and 6.4 mm long, with burn wires inserted between samples. Burning on the cylindrical surface is inhibited with an epoxy or polyurethane layer. With this direct measurement we do not have to account for product gas equation of state or heat losses in the system, and the burn wires allow detection of irregular burning. We report deflagration results for PBXN-109 as received, and also after it has been damaged by heating. The burn behavior of pristine PBXN-109 is very regular, and exhibits a reduction in pressure exponent from 1.32 to 0.85 at pressures above 20,000 psi (135 MPa). When PBXN-109 is thermally damaged by heating to 170-180 C, the deflagration rate is increased by more than a factor of 10. This appears to be a physical effect, as the faster burning may be explained by an increase in surface area. Our results with Composition B show an apparent 2nd order pressure dependence for initial deflagration, followed by deconsolidation and onset of very rapid and erratic burning. The deconsolidation may be the result of the TNT melting as heat flows into the sample.

Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F

2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

216

High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6/2010 6/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop April 29, 2010 Douglas Horne, PE The Facts  High pressure Type 4 gaseous fuel tanks are now designed under standards that specify finite lifetimes of 15, 20 and 25 years based on specific design and testing (the HGV2 standard under development had a life as short as 10 years as an option)  It is unique within the transportation industry to have a critical device (the fuel tank) with a designated life that may be shorter than the vehicle itself  Although vehicle owners are told up front of the limited life fuel storage cylinders some tend to forget after 15 years  A parallel concern is the requirement for these fuel tanks

217

The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

D. Lorca; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Picosecond laser structuration under high pressures: Observation of boron nitride nanorods  

SciTech Connect

We report on picosecond UV-laser processing of hexagonal boron nitride (BN) at moderately high pressures above 500 bar. The main effect is specific to the ambient gas and laser pulse duration in the ablation regime: when samples are irradiated by 5 or 0.45 ps laser pulses in nitrogen gas environment, multiple nucleation of a new crystalline product-BN nanorods-takes place. This process is triggered on structural defects, which number density strongly decreases upon recrystallization. Nonlinear photon absorption by adsorbed nitrogen molecules is suggested to mediate the nucleation growth. High pressure is responsible for the confinement and strong backscattering of ablation products. A strong surface structuring also appears at longer 150 ps laser irradiation in similar experimental conditions. However, the transformed product in this case is amorphous strongly contaminated by boron suboxides B{sub x}O{sub y}.

Museur, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers-LPL CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Petitet, Jean-Pierre; Kanaev, Andrei V. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions-LIMHP CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Michel, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions-LIMHP CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Laboratoire des Proprietes Mecaniques et Thermodynamiques des Materiaux-LPMTM CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Marine, Wladimir [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille-CINaM, UPR CNRS 3118, Faculte des Science de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Anglos, Demetrios [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Fotakis, Costas [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

220

High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Wind Pressure Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Wahl, Jon H. (Richland, WA); Hofstadler, Steven A. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

High-pressure shock behavior of WC and Ta2O5 powders.  

SciTech Connect

Planar shock experiments were conducted on granular tungsten carbide (WC) and tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) using the Z machine and a 2-stage gas gun. Additional shock experiments were also conducted on a nearly fully dense form of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The experiments on WC yield some of the highest pressure results for granular materials obtained to date. Because of the high distention of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the pressures obtained were significantly lower, but the very high temperatures generated led to large contributions of thermal energy to the material response. These experiments demonstrate that the Z machine can be used to obtain accurate shock data on granular materials. The data on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were utilized in making improvements to the P-{lambda} model for high pressures; the model is found to capture the results not only of the Z and gas gun experiments but also those from laser experiments on low density aerogels. The results are also used to illustrate an approach for generating an equation of state using only the limited data coming from nanoindentation. Although the EOS generated in this manner is rather simplistic, for this material it gives reasonably good results.

Knudson, Marcus D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Root, Seth (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

In Situ High-Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of H2O Ice VII  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ice VII was examined over the entire range of its pressure stability by a suite of x-ray diffraction techniques in order to understand a number of unexplained characteristics of its high-pressure behavior. Axial and radial polycrystalline (diamond anvil cell) x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a splitting of diffraction lines accompanied by changes in sample texture and elastic anisotropy. In situ laser heating of polycrystalline samples resulted in the sharpening of diffraction peaks due to release of nonhydrostatic stresses but did not remove the splitting. Radial diffraction measurements indicate changes in strength of the material at this pressure. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for a transition in ice VII near 14 GPa involving changes in the character of the proton order/disorder. The results are consistent with previous reports of changes in phase boundaries and equation of state at this pressure. The transition can be interpreted as ferroelastic with the appearance of spontaneous strain that vanishes at the hydrogen bond symmetrization transition near 60 GPa.

Somayazulu,M.; Shu, J.; Zha, C.; Goncharov, A.; Tschauner, O.; Mao, H.; Hemley, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effects of high pressure-dependent leakoff and high process-zone stress in coal-stimulation treatments  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing in coals has been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, there are factors that were often ignored or incorrectly diagnosed, resulting in screenouts. Assuming that a majority of the perforations are open and there are no problems with the stimulation fluids, screenouts during coal hydraulic-fracture treatments can be attributed to either high pressure-dependent leakoff (PDL), high process-zone stress (PZS) or in some cases both. The objective of this work is to discuss, help identify, and present solutions to address these reservoir-related issues such that screenouts can be avoided in optimized refracture treatments and new well stimulations. The tools for identifying these reservoir-related parameters include a diagnostic fracture-injection test (DFIT) and a grid-oriented fully functional 3D fracture simulator with shear decoupling. An example for each respective case is presented in this paper. In the first example, in which high PZS was considered to be the dominant reason for screenout or pressure out, the well was restimulated successfully by implementing the solutions presented in this paper. In the second example, in which high PDL was considered to be the main reason for screenout, there were several wells in the same project area that exhibited the same behavior resulting in screenouts. After implementing the solutions presented in this paper to address high PDL, all new wells were stimulated successfully without any issues.

Ramurthy, M.; Lyons, B.; Hendrickson, R.B.; Barree, R.D.; Magill, D.R. [Halliburton, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper selection of drilling fluids plays a major role in determining the efficient completion of any drilling operation. With the increasing number of ultra-deep offshore wells being drilled and ever stringent environmental and safety regulations coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most of the existing literature, the testing procedure is simple - increase the temperature of the fluid in steps and record rheological properties at each step. A major drawback of this testing procedure is that it does not represent the continuous temperature change that occurs in a drilling fluid as it is circulated through the well bore. To have a better understanding of fluid behavior under such temperature variation, a continuous test procedure was devised in which the temperature of the drilling fluid was continuously increased to a pre-determined maximum value while monitoring one rheological parameter. The results of such tests may then be used to plan fluid treatment schedules. The experiments were conducted on a Chandler 7600 XHPHT viscometer and they seem to indicate specific temperature ranges above which the properties of the drilling fluid deteriorate. Different fluid compositions and drilling fluids in use in the field were tested and the results are discussed in detail.

Ravi, Ashwin

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

CC Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed at the top of the vessel to view the indicator mounted there. The monitor was viewed at the ante room adjacent to the cleanroom. The holding pressure of 32 psig (4/5 of the maximum test pressure) was only maintained for about 20 minutes instead of the half hour recommendation in the procedure. We felt that this was sufficient time to Snoop test and perform the pressure drop test. After the test was completed, the inspector for CBI Na-Con and the Research Divison Safety Officer signed all of required documentation.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Pressure recovery in a cylindrical heat pipe at high radial Reynolds numbers and at high Mach numbers  

SciTech Connect

The pressure recovery in a cylindrical heat pipe has been investigated. The experiments cover average radial Reynolds numbers between 5 and 150 and average Mach numbers up to the velocity of sound. During preliminary experiments in a cylindrical, gravity-assisted heat pipe at high Mach numbers large condensate flow instabilities were observed. As a consequence the heat pipe power varied strongly. Based on these observations an improved heat pipe design was made that resulted in steady operating conditions throughout the entire parameter range. This heat pipe is described. The pressure recovery was measured and compared with results from a two-dimensional analytical model for describing compressible vapor flow in heat pipes. Good agreement with the experimental data was found.

Haug, F.; Busse, C.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 ? ° C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature ( 22 ? ° C ) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities

Bernhard Seifried; Feral Temelli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Dispersion of CNG following a high-pressure release. Final report, February 1995-March 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research described in the report was designed to evaluate the adequacy of the current convention concerning safeguards against CNG-related fires in transit buildings where CNG powered buses are fueled, stored, or maintained. The convention embraces the belief that precautions need to be taken only at or near the ceiling of the buildings. It is based on the premise that, since CNG is primarily methane and methane is approximately one-half the density of air at ambient temperature and pressure, any natural gas released would immediately rise to the ceiling as a buoyant plume. The experiments described here tested theoretical predictions that challenge this premise. During the tests, infrared imaging was used to track the movement of CNG following release from a high-pressure source close to the floor.

Gaumer, R.L.; Raj, P.K.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High-temperature treatment of In-doped CZT crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the effect of high-temperature treatment of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te:In single crystals using Hall-effect measurements, medium- and high-temperature annealing under various deviations from stoichiometry, and infra-red (IR) transmission microscopy Annealing at ~730 K sharply increased the electrical conductivity (by ~1-2 orders-of-magnitude). Plots of the temperature- and cadmium-pressure dependences of the electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility were obtained. Treating previously annealed Cd-samples under a Te overpressure at 1070 K allowed us to restore their resistance to its initial high values. The main difference in comparing this material with CdTe was its lowered electron density. We explained our results within the framework of Kröger’s theory of quasi-chemical reactions between point defects in solids.

Bolotnikov A.; Fochuk, P.; Nakonechnyi, I.; Kopach, O.; Verzhak, Ye.; Panchuk, O.; Komar, V.; Terzin, I.; Kutnij, V.; Rybka, A.; Nykoniuk, Ye.; Camarda, G.C.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

High pressure/high temperature hydrogen permeability in candidate Stirling engine alloys  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen permeation tests of eight high-temperature alloys were conducted in 20.7 MPa hydrogen at 923 to 1088 K for assessing suitability in Stirling engine application for heater head and heater head tubing. The iron-nickel-base alloys investigated included N-155, Incoloy 800 (IN 800), A-286, and 19-9DL, and cast alloys CRM-6D, SAF-11, and XF-818. Low carbon alloys Stellite 6B (6BLC), a cobalt-base wrought alloy, was also investigated. 15 refs.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Vesely, E.J. Jr.; Hill, V.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Radial Diffraction Strength and Elastic Behavior of CaF2 in Low- and High-Pressure Phases  

SciTech Connect

The radial-diffraction lattice behavior of CaF2 was analyzed in its low-pressure (fluorite) and high-pressure phase up to 11.5 GPa using radial x-ray diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. Between 3.5 and 7.1 GPa, fluorite develops a radial-diffraction strength of {approx}0.8 GPa. The corresponding lattice anisotropy of the fluorite phase was measured to be equal to 0.73, in good agreement with previous Brillouin spectroscopy measurements. By 8.8 GPa, CaF2 has undergone a phase transformation to its high-pressure (orthorhombic) phase, with a corresponding volume decrease of 10.4%. By 11.5 GPa, the volume drop between the low-pressure and high-pressure phase has increased to 11.5%. In addition, the high-pressure phase is found to withstand a significantly larger differential stress than the low-pressure fluorite phase, with a large degree of lattice anisotropy. In the maximum stress direction at 8.8 GPa, we observe a time-dependent evolution of the lattice parameters of CaF2, indicating that the high-pressure structure is still undergoing deformation on time scales of hours after the phase boundary has been crossed.

Kavner,A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Treating high pressure zones in one trip in Canyon Reef area of Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Canyon Reef area near Snyder, Texas, Chevron U.S.A. Inc. is employing ratchet operated, packer type retrievable bridge plugs which have allowed operators to test, treat, or squeeze high pressure zones over a 35-day period on a single trip of the workstring. More zones could have been treated if necessary. The bridge plug was moved and set 31 times while treating the zones. Elapsed time is shown in days starting with T-date being the day tools were first run in for the treatment. The job was run with an average treating pressure of 1,000 psi, and a differential pressure of 2,500 psi that alternated from above the bridge plug to below and back each time the plug was moved to a new zone. The bridge plug used for the job seals by the action of a patented ratcheting mechanism which requires relatively light weight to set. Design of the ratchet enables the sealing elements to hold a seal against the casing wall while the hold-down slips are being set.

Cooley, G.; Mccowen, D.; Fore, M.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Interferometric and Chirped Optical Probe Techniques for High-Pressure Equation-of-State Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present experimental work exploring displacement and velocity interferometry as high spatial and temporal resolution diagnostics for measuring target preheat and the speed, planarity, and steadiness of a shock wave. A chirped pulse reflectometry experiment is also proposed as a frequency domain alternative for shock speed measurements. These techniques fill a need for high-precision diagnostics to derive accurate laboratory-based equation-of-state data at shock wave-driven pressures directly relevant to astrophysical systems. The performance of these optical laser probe techniques may exceed conventional passive techniques such as temporally streaked recording of optical emission upon shock breakout or side-on streaked X-ray radiography. Results from Nova laser and high-intensity ultrashort pulse experiments are presented. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

Gold, D. M.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Budil, K. S.; Cauble, R.; Silva, L. B. da; Foord, M. E.; Stewart, R. E.; Wallace, R. J.; Young, D.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrical resistivity studies on graphite at high pressure and low temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure is shown to give a valuable insight into the intrinsic c-axis resistivity of Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG). For the purpose of improving the understanding of the fundamental behavior of this technologically important material, additional forms of graphitic material such as Grafoil, Single Crystal Graphite (SCG) and polycrystalline natural graphite were explored for a comparative analysis. A novel technique utilizing a gasketed diamond-anvil cell is described that permits four probe resistivity measurements at pressures of up to 40 kbar and temperatures extending down to 2 K while maintaining the integrity of samples as fragile as graphite. The four-lead arrangement is designed to avoid contact and lead-wire resistances which might otherwise obscure the comparatively small resistance changes of interest typical of highly conductive materials. The data on HOPG can be fitted well to a model describing conduction along the c-axis as composed of two components acting in parallel: an ordinary metallic one and a tunnelling conduction between crystallites. The total conductivity was found to be a superposition of both conductivities, and their respective weights depend on the quality of the graphite material.

Hockey, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system risk-based inspection guide: Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the operating experience for the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system at the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station is described in this report. The information for this review was obtained from Pilgrim Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that were generated between 1980 and 1989. These LERs have been categorized into 23 failure modes that have been prioritized based on probabilistic risk assessment considerations. In addition, the results of the Pilgrim operating experience review have been compared with the results of of a similar, industry wide operating experience review. this comparison provides an indication of areas in the Pilgrim HPCI system that should be given increased attention in the prioritization of inspection resources.

Shier, W.; Gunther, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

2005-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

244

Operating experience with gas-bearing circulators in a high-pressure helium loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure engineering test loop has been designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for circulating helium through a test chamber at temperatures to 1000/sup 0/C. The purpose of this loop is to determine the thermal and structural performance of proposed components for the primary loops of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Five MW of power is available to provide the required gas temperature at the test chamber, and an air-cooled heat exchanger, rated at 4.4 MW, serves as a heat sink. This report contains results of tests performed on gas-bearing circulators.

Sanders, J.P.; Gat, Uri; Young, H.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Assessment and Testing of High-Pressure Fluid-Filled (HPFF) Cables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Niagara Power Project of the New York Power Authority (NYPA) includes the Robert Moses Power Plant (RMPP), the Lewiston Pumping Generation Plant (LPGP) and a substation that connects the output of these facilities to the NYPA transmission system. Both of the power plants were built in 1961. The high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) cable systems at these two facilities have been in operation for more than 40 years. NYPA required an assessment of the condition and life expectancy of the HPFF cable systems...

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

246

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Task 1, Proof of principle testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

High-Throughput Thin Film Approach for Screening of Temperature-Pressure-Composition Phase Space  

SciTech Connect

Many solar energy technologies, for example CIGS and CdTe photovoltaics, utilize materials in thin film form. The equilibrium phase diagrams for these and other more novel solar energy materials are not known or are irrelevant because of the non-equilibrium character of the thin film growth processes. We demonstrate a high-throughput thin film approach for screening of temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams and phase spaces. The examples in focus are novel solar absorbers Cu-N, Cu-O and p-type transparent conductors in the Cr2O3-MnO system. The composition axis of the Cr2O3-MnO phase diagram was screened using a composition spread method. The temperature axis of the Mn-O phase diagram was screened using a temperature spread method. The pressure axes of the Cu-N and Cu-O phase diagrams were screened using rate spread method with the aid of non-equilibrium growth phenomena. Overall these three methods constitute an approach to high-throughput screening of inorganic thin film phase diagrams. This research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy as a part of two NextGen Sunshot projects and an Energy Frontier Research Center.

Zakutayev, A.; Subramaniyan, A.; Caskey, C. M.; Ndione, P. F.; Richards, R. M.; O'Hayre, R.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Inter-stage and Performance Tests of a Two-stage High-pressure Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existing 3-stage research turbine at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) facility, Texas A & M University (TAMU) was replaced with a newly designed and manufactured 2-stage turbine in accordance with the design requirements as per DooSan, DHI. This new design of turbine consisted of bowed stator and rotor blades to study the effect on reduction of secondary ow losses and thus improvement in turbine efficiency if any. The new design also incorporated labyrinth seals on both inner and outer shrouds. Extensive Inter-stage and Performance experiments were carried out on this new turbine. Inter-stage measurements were accomplished by traversing three 5-hole probes radially and circumferentially, using the existing probe traverse system in TPFL. Performance tests were conducted for varying pressure ratio, at fixed rotational speed and for varying rotational speed with fixed pressure ratio and the efficiency was plotted against u/c_0. Each condition was tested and measured two to three times to check for reproducibility of the data. The results from inter-stage experiments show that the rotor row loss coefficient is about four times higher than the stator row loss coefficient. This high rotor loss coefficient reduces the total to static efficiency. From the performance tests, the maximum total-to-static efficiency observed was 85.2 percent located at around u/c_0 = 0.75. This relatively low efficiency is in consonance with the inter-stage results (high rotor loss coefficient).

Sharma, Kapil

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

High pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The EFCC cycle is conceptually simple. Air enters the compressor where it is pressurized and becomes the tube-side flow of the ceramic air heater. Heat transferred from the hot combustion gases flowing through the shell-side raises the air temperature to the desired turbine inlet temperature. Internally insulated high pressure piping returns the heated compressor air to the turbine, where it is expanded providing power to drive the electric generator and gas turbine compressor. Exhaust air from the turbine is used as the combustion air for the coal combustor. The EFCC cycle burns pulverized coal in an atmospheric combustion chamber similar to the combustion system in a conventional steam generator. The combustion gas exits the combustor and enters a slag screen, or impact separator, where the larger ash particles are collected to prevent fouling of the heat exchanger. After the slag screen, the combustion gas enters the shell-side of the CerHX where its thermal energy is transferred to the tube side air flow. Shell-side exit temperatures are sufficiently high to provide thermal energy for the bottoming Rankine Cycle through a heat recovery steam generator. Exhaust gas exiting the steam generator passes through a flue gas desulfurization system and a particulate removal system.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Orozxo, N.J.; Seger, J.L.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

NEXT Collaboration; V. Álvarez; F. I. G. M. Borges; S. Cárcel; S. Cebrián; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Díaz; M. Egorov; R. Esteve; P. Evtoukhovitch; L. M. P. Fernandes; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Gil; A. Goldschmidt; H. Gómez; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; M. A. Jinete; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; J. A. M. Lopes; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; T. Miller; A. Moiseenko; F. Monrabal; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; H. Natal da Luz; G. Navarro; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; R. Palma; J. Pérez; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodríguez; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Segui; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; A. Tomás; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; D. Vázquez; J. F. C. A. Veloso; R. Webb; J. T White; N. Yahlali

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injected, Ultra Low-NOx Natural Gas Engine: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontractor report details work done by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Duggal, V. K.; Lyford-Pike, E. J.; Wright, J. F.; Dunn, M.; Goudie, D.; Munshi, S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Experimental and theoretical investigations on the warm-up of a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp  

SciTech Connect

Modern high-pressure discharge lamps are forced to provide instant light and hot relight capabilities - if possible at lower power units. A detailed understanding of the warm-up of high-pressure discharge lamps is therefore required. Complex fluid model codes were developed for the past years including more and more processes like two-dimensional treatment of convection trying to provide a more comprehensive and consistent description of high-pressure discharge lamps. However, there is a lack of experimental data to examine the performance of these models. This work provides a very complete set of geometrical, electrical, spectroscopic, and thermographic data according to the warm-up of a high-pressure mercury discharge lamp that is compared to the results of a state of the art fluid code. Quantitative agreement is achieved for single parameters like wall temperatures. But the paper also reveals the need for further investigations and improvements of the code.

Zalach, J.; Franke, St.; Schoepp, H. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, rte de Kairouan, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Zissis, G. [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie, 118 rte Narbonne, Bat3R2, 31062 Toulouse (France)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Storage of molecular hydrogen in an ammonia borane compound at high pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We studied ammonia borane (AB), NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}, in the presence of excess hydrogen (H{sub 2}) pressure and discovered a solid phase, AB(H{sub 2})x, where x {approx} 1.3-2. The new AB-H{sub 2} compound can store an estimated 8-12 wt % molecular H{sub 2} in addition to the chemically bonded H{sub 2} in AB. This phase formed slowly at 6.2 GPa, but the reaction rate could be enhanced by crushing the AB sample to increase its contact area with H{sub 2}. The compound has 2 Raman H{sub 2} vibron peaks from the absorbed H{sub 2} in this phase: one ({nu}{sub 1}) at frequency 70 cm{sup -1} below the free H{sub 2} vibron, and the other ({nu}{sub 2}) at higher frequency overlapping with the free H{sub 2} vibron at 6 GPa. The peaks shift linearly over the pressure interval of 6-16 GPa with average pressure coefficients of d{nu}{sub 1}/dP = 4 cm{sup -1}/GPa and d{nu}{sub 2}/dP = 6 cm{sup -1}/GPa. The formation of the compound is accompanied by changes in the N-H and B-H stretching Raman peaks resulting from the AB interactions with H{sub 2} which indicate the structural complexity and low symmetry of this phase. Storage of significant amounts of additional molecular H{sub 2} in AB increases the already high hydrogen content of AB, and may provide guidance for developing improved hydrogen storage materials.

Lin, Y.

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

254

Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels in a high pressure flow reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines the premixed urn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, we must understand the chemical kinetic processes which lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF), n-heptane and isooctane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine-like conditions in a high pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and at 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments and comparisons of experimentally measures and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690- 1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed method.

Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Callahan, C.V.; Dryer, F.L. [Princeton Univ., Areospace Engineering. NJ (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. Experimental conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and a residence time of 198 ms for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results clearly indicate a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. The chemistry describing this phenomena is critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers (radicals) with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. Sensitivity analysis identified the key reaction steps that control the rate of oxidation in the NTC region. The model reasonably simulates the profiles for many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments.

Koert, D.N. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cernansky, N.P. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

Winter, M.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment  

SciTech Connect

At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage < 10{sup -7} cc/seconds at 2500 psia. The bell jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

Winter, M.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States); Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

The deterioration in heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure and high heat fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At slightly supercritical pressure and in the neighborhood of the pseudo-critical temperature (defined as the temperature corresponding to the peak in specific heat at the operating pressure), the heat transfer coefficient ...

Shiralkar, B. S.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Open hole packer for high pressure service in a five hundred degree fahrenheit precambrian wellbore  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) from a lower wellbore (EE-2) created a large man-made reservoir which did not intersect the upper well (EE-3). To create a heat extraction flow loop, the upper well was sidetracked and redrilled (EE-3A) down into a microseismic cloud around EE-2 mapped during the MHF. The potential to intersect numerous fracture zones in the redrilled bore was apparent from seismicity. To economically and effectively isolate and test these microseismic zones required that a functional open hole packer be developed. The packer would be exposed to soak temperatures as high as 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C) with cool down to 100/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) at differential pressures exceeding 5000 psi (35 Mpa). A functional packer has been designed, manufactured, and successfully used for the creation of a hot dry rock (HDR) reservoir. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Dreesen, D.S.; Miller, J.R.; Halbardier, F.A.; Nicholson, R.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Probing of the hydrogen melting line at high pressures by dynamic compression  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigate the capabilities of dynamic compression by intense heavy ion beams to yield information about the high pressure phases of hydrogen. Employing ab initio simulations and experimental data, a new wide range equation of state for hydrogen that covers solid, fluid, gas and plasma phases has been constructed for our hydrodynamic simulations. The results show that the melting line up to its maximum as well as the transition from the molecular fl fluid to the fully ionized, metallic phase can be tested with the beam parameters available at the upcoming FAIR facility at GSI-Darmstadt. Using the structural information from the ab initio simulations, we also demonstrate that x-ray scattering is capable of extracting the information about the structure and the dissociation state.

Grinenko, A; Gericke, D; Glenzer, S H; Vorberger, J

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

263

Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5/2010 5/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels DOE - DOT CNG - H 2 Workshop December 10, 2009 Douglas Horne, PE - CVEF President Rob Adams, P.Eng. - Marathon Technical Services The Facts  NGVs have been used in North America for over 30 years  Codes and Standards (C&S) provide opportunity for safe reliable operation of NGVs  C&S evolve with new technology and field experience  People make mistakes, continuous training is critical for safe operations  Cylinders have a limited life -track your cylinders! 2/25/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 2 Incidents in North America  Since 1984 CVEF has recorded 97 incidents of which 67 involved CNG vehicles - 37 incidents involve either a CNG leak (15) or a

264

First principles simulation of a superionic phase of hydrogen fluoride (HF) at high pressures and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have conducted Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen fluoride (HF) at pressures of 5-66 GPa along the 900 K isotherm. They predict a superionic phase at 33 GPa, where the fluorine atoms are fixed in a bcc lattice while the hydrogen atoms diffuse rapidly with a diffusion constant of between 2 x 10{sup -5} and 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s. They find that a transformation from asymmetric to symmetric hydrogen bonding occurs in HF at 66 GPa and 900 K. With superionic HF they have discovered a model system where symmetric hydrogen bonding occurs at experimentally achievable conditions. Given previous results on superionic H{sub 2}O[1,2,3] and NH{sub 3}[1], they conclude that high P,T superionic phases of electronegative element hydrides could be common.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fiber-optic, anti-cycling, high pressure sodium street light control. Final technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the Final Technical Progress Report on a project to develop and market a Fiber-Optic Anti-Cycling High Pressure Sodium Street Light Control. The field test units are now being made with a single vertical PC board design and contains a computer-on-a-chip or PROM IC to take the place of the majority of the components previously contained on the upper logic board. This will reduce the final costs of the unit when it is in production and increase the control`s flexibility. The authors have finished the soft tooling and have made the 400 plastic cases for the field test units. The new configuration of the cases entails a simplified design of the control shell which will have the lenses cast in place. The shell and base plastics are now finished and in final assembly awaiting the completion of the PC boards.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Temperature induced immiscibility in the NaCl?H[subscript 2]O system at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure polymorphs of H{sub 2}O are a major component in many outer planets, extra solar bodies, and icy satellites. This study sought to examine the influence of ionic impurities on the phase stability, thermal expansion, and melting curve of ice VII. Powder diffraction patterns of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solutions were taken at room temperature up to 11.1 {+-} 0.3 and 26.6 {+-} 0.4 GPa, respectively. Thermal expansions, {alpha}, of all ice VII samples were recorded and modeled up to the melting point of the samples. Ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution at pressures greater than 2.2 GPa and less than 500 K can be indexed by ice VII only, whereas at temperatures greater than 500 K, diffraction lines indicative of halite (NaCl) are observed and become more intense with increasing temperature and only disappear at the melting point of the high-pressure ice. This phenomenon was observed in all NaCl-bearing ice samples that were heated to greater than 500 K. The melting curves of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and a 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution suggest that the presence of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} in the ice VII structure results in a depression of the melting curve by approximately 40 K. The exsolution of halite from the NaCl-doped ice VII and the depression of the ice VII melting curve suggest that the presence of ionic impurities in ice VII may promote the formation of a self-segregating zone deep within ice-rich bodies. This zone could initiate the formation of solute-rich melt pockets that may ascend toward the surface and result in surface manifestations such as solute-bearing aqueous vents, unexplained domes/diapirism, and/or salt-rich regions.

Frank, M.R.; Scott, H.P.; Maglio, S.J.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Shen, G. (NIU); (CIW); (UC); (Indiana)

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

267

Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to these same feature surfaces to withstand the pulsating UHIP diesel injection without fatigue failure, through the expected life of the fuel system's components (10,000 hours for the pump and common rail, 5000 hours for the injector). The potential to Caterpillar of this fueling approach and the overall emissions reduction system is the cost savings of the fuel, the cost savings of not requiring a full emissions module and other emissions hardware, and the enabling of the use of biodiesel fuel due to the reduced dependency on after-treatment. A proprietary production CRS generating process was developed to treat the interior of the sac-type injector nozzle tip region (particularly for the sac region). Ninety-five tips passed ultra high pulsed pressure fatigue testing with no failures assignable to treated surfaces or materials. It was determined that the CRS impartation method does not weaken the tip internal seat area. Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development accepts that the CRS method initial production technical readiness level has been established. A method to gage CRS levels in production was not yet accomplished, but it is believed that monitoring process parameters call be used to guarantee quality. A precision profiling process for injector seat and sac regions has been shown to be promising but not yet fully confirmed. It was demonstrated that this precision profiling process can achieve form and geometry to well under an aggressively small micron peak-to-valley and that there are no surface flaws that approach an even tighter micron peak-to-valley tolerance. It is planned to purchase machines to further develop and move the process towards production. The system is targeted towards the high-power diesel electric power generators and high-power diesel marine power generators, with displacement from 20 liters to 80 liters and with power from 800 brake horsepower (BHP) to 3200BHP (0.6 megawatts to 2.4 megawatts). However, with market adoption, this system has the potential to meet EPA exhaust standards for all diesel engines nine liters and up, or 300B

Grant, Marion B.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Pressure oscillations caused by momentum on shut in of a high rate well in a fractured formation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure transient testing techniques are an important part of reservoir and production testing procedures. These techniques are frequently used to determine practical information about underground reservoirs such as the permeability, porosity, liquid content, reservoir and liquid discontinuities and other related data. This information is valuable in helping to analyze, improve and forecast reservoir performance. This report is concerned with developing models for pressure transient well testing in high permeability, high flow rate, naturally fractured reservoirs. In the present work, a study was made of the effects of liquid inertia in the fractures and the wellbore on the pressure response obtained during a well test. The effects of turbulent flow and multi-phase flow effects such as gravitational segregation or anisotropic porous media effects were not considered. The scope of the study was limited to studying inertial effects on the pressure response of a fractured reservoir.

Bhatnagar, S.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Simplified Configuration for the Combustor of an oil Burner using a low Pressure, high flow air-atomizing Nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The inventors have devised a fuel burner that uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle. The improved fuel burner does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design.

Butcher, Thomas; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in the propane-1-propanol system  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium data were measured for the propane-1-propanol system at 81.6, 105.2, and 120.1 C in a static equilibrium cell with liquid-phase sampling by a piston-driven sampling rod and homogenizing the sample with a static jet mixer. The vapor phase was sampled by releasing it into an evacuated manifold, and the gas chromatograph was calibrated with a new variable volumetric device. Satisfactory modeling was achieved with the combined method using the UNIQUAC equation with equations of sate: the group contribution EOS, Peng-Robinson EOS, or the two-parameter Virial EOS. Differences between the measured and calculated vapor-phase mole fractions, however, were significant for the lower pressure regions of the 81.6 and 120.1 C isotherms. UNIQUAC parameters, hitherto unavailable, with fairly strong temperature dependence in the 81.6 to 120.1 C range are proposed for the system. The covariance matrix indicated a significant correlation among the parameters. The classical mixing rule interaction parameters required for the original Peng-Robinson EOS in the combined method were obtained using the direct method and were temperature-independent for the isotherms for which the propane was supercritical. The possibility of propane/1-propanol immiscibility was theoretically examined according to the criteria of Baker et al. The plots of Gibbs energy of mixing vs. phase mole fractions did not indicate liquid-phase splitting, but the inferences are EOS-dependent and must await visual confirmation. The authors earlier vapor-phase thermodynamic consistency test indicated the data for all three data sets not to be inconsistent.

Muehlbauer, A.L.; Raal, J.D. (Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results  

SciTech Connect

A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. The experiment conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and were performed at a residence time of 200 {micro}s for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results include data on negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, where the chemistry describing this phenomena is considered critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. The model simulates properly the production of many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments. Numerical simulations show many of the key reactions involving propylperoxy radicals are in partial equilibrium at 10--15 atm. This indicates that their relative concentrations are controlled by a combination of thermochemistry and rate of minor reaction channels (bleed reactions) rather than primary reaction rates. This suggests that thermodynamic parameters of the oxygenated species, which govern equilibrium concentrations, are important. The modeling results show propyl radical and hydroperoxy-propyl radicals reaction with O{sub 2} proceeds, primarily, through thermalized adducts, not chemically activated channels.

Koert, D.N. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cernansky, N.P. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics

1995-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

272

High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Symmetric and Asymmetric Styrene?Diene Diblocks in Compressible Near Critical Solvents: Micellization Pressures and Cloud Pressures Respond but Micellar Cloud Pressures Insensitive to Copolymer Molecular Weight, Concentration, and Block Ratio Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical nonmicellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Concentration-dependent pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size, and ratio. The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tan, Sugata [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Shen, Youqin [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High-pressure mechanical and sonic properties of a Devonian shale from West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Static mechanical properties and sonic velocities were determined on each of four members of the Devonian shale from Columbia Gas Transmission's well 20403, Huntington, West Virginia. They were: Pressure - volume data to 4.0 GPa; Compressive strength at confining pressures up to 300 MPa, both parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Extensile strength at 100 to 700 MPa confining pressure, both parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Loading and unloading path in uniaxial strain at 20 to 500 MPa confining pressure, both parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Tensile strength at ambient pressure, parallel and perpendicular to bedding. Shear and compressional wave velocities at confining pressures up to 1000 MPa parallel, at 45/sup 0/, and perpendicular to bedding. Results are presented and discussed. 32 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Heard, H.C.; Lin, W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

View / Download  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

to put more heat on a certain part of the piece,” he said. “They try to interact ... blow pipe and then try to propagate the right pressure of air as it moves to the.

276

Equation of State and Material Property Measurements of Hydrogen Isotopes at the High-Pressure, High-Temperature, Insulator-Metal Transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-intensity laser was used to shock compress liquid deuterium to pressures between 0.22 and 3.4 megabars (Mbar). Shock density, pressure, and temperature were determined using a variety of experimental techniques and diagnostics. This pressure regime spans the transformation of deuterium from an insulating molecular fluid to an atomic metallic fluid. Data reveal a significant increase in compressibility and a temperature inflection near 1 Mbar, both indicative of such a transition. Single-wavelength reflectivity measurements of the shock front demonstrated that deuterium shocked above {approx}0.5 Mbar is indeed metallic. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

Cauble, R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Silva, L. B. da; Gold, D. M.; Foord, M. E.; Budil, K. S.; Wallace, R. J.; Ng, A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

High-Efficiency, Ultra-High Pressure Electrolysis With Direct Linkage to PV Arrays - Phase II SBIR Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this Phase II SBIR, Avalence LLC met all proposed objectives. Because the original Phase III partner pulled out of the project, several alternative sites/partners were used to achieve the goals. The on-site operation and PV measurements were performed on a smaller unit at General Motors proving grounds in Milford, MI. The actual equipment targeted for AC Transit will be delivered to Robins Air Force Base in September of 2009 to support the fueling of a fuel cell powered fork lift and 'Bobcat'. In addition the Transit Agency Site Requirements and Constraints were performed for the Greater New Haven Transit District (GNHTD) for the Hamden, CT Public Works building that will be the site for a similar fueling station to be delivered in the Spring of 2010. The Detailed Design Package was also based on the Design for the GNHTD unit. The work on this project successfuly demonstrated the potential of Avalence's high pressure technology to address the need for renewably produced hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. Several follow-on projects in a numerber of related applications are now underway as a result of this SBIR project.

Martin A Shimko

2009-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

278

High-pressure structural phase transitions in chromium-doped BaFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the results from high pressure x-ray powder diffraction and electrical resistance measurements for hole doped BaFe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}As{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.4, 0.61) up to 81 GPa and down to 10 K using a synchrotron source and diamond anvil cell (DAC). At ambient temperature, an isostructural phase transition from a tetragonal (T) phase (I4/mmm) to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) phase is observed at 17 GPa. This transition is found to be dependent on ambient pressure unit cell volume and is slightly shifted to higher pressure upon increase in the Cr-doping. Unlike BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} which superconduct under high pressure, we have not detected any evidence of pressure induced superconductivity in chromium doped samples in the pressure and temperature range of this study. The measured equation of state parameters are presented for both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases for x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.40 and 0.61.

Uhoya, W.O.; Montgomery, J.M.; Samudrala, G.K.; Tsoi, G.M.; Vohra, Y.K.; Weir, S.T.; Sefat, A.S. (UAB); (LLNL); (ORNL)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

279

Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Phase Transition of ZnxMn1-xS Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Nanoparticles under Ultra-high Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-pressure behavior of different doping content of ZnS nanocrystals has been investigated using angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction up to 45.1 GPa. A phase transformation from the zinc-blende(ZB) to the rock-salt (RS) structure is observed at pressures of about 17.7 and 18.3 GPa at room temperature, corresponding to the Mn{sup 2+} ion mole percent content solutions 0.85% and 1.26%, respectively. The obtained results indicate that the Mn{sup 2+} doping could obviously enhance the phase transition pressure of ZnS nanocrystal. The elevation of phase transition pressure could origin from the higher surface energy induced by ion doping.

Z Zong; Y Ma; T Hu; Q Cui; M Zhang; G Zou

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

SPE 142421 PP Cementing at High Pressure Zones in KSA Discovering Mystery behind Pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at an over-pressurized zone, the formation might be underbalanced before cement becomes strong in the sense for the cement column to be underbalanced against Formation-A before it was able to develop static gel strength in the hydrostatic pressure had likely caused the cement column to be underbalanced against Formation-A. Figure#1

Hossain, M. Enamul

282

HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

High-Pressure Evolution of Fe2O3 Electronic Structure Revealed by X-ray Absorption  

SciTech Connect

We report the first high pressure measurement of the Fe K-edge in hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in partial fluorescence yield geometry. The pressure-induced evolution of the electronic structure as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} transforms from a high-spin insulator to a low-spin metal is reflected in the x-ray absorption pre-edge. The crystal field splitting energy was found to increase monotonically with pressure up to 48 GPa, above which a series of phase transitions occur. Atomic multiplet, cluster diagonalization, and density-functional calculations were performed to simulate the pre-edge absorption spectra, showing good qualitative agreement with the measurements. The mechanism for the pressure-induced phase transitions of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed and it is shown that ligand hybridization significantly reduces the critical high-spin/low-spin gap pressure.

Kao, Chi-Chang

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 [times] 10[sup 6] Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Vandervort, C.L.; Seger, J.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

High-pressure ceramic air heater for indirectly fired gas turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) offers a method for operating high-efficiency gas and steam turbine combined cycles on coal. In the EFCC, an air heater replaces the gas turbine combustor so that the turbine can be indirectly fired. Ceramic materials are required for the heat exchange surfaces to accommodate the operating temperatures of modern gas turbines. The ceramic air heater or heat exchanger is the focus of this program, and the two primary objectives are (1) to demonstrate that a ceramic air heater can be reliably pressurized to a level of 225 psia (1.5 MPa); and (2) to show that the air heater can withstand exposure to the products of coal combustion at elevated temperatures. By replacing the gas turbine combustor with a ceramic air heater, the cycle can use coal or other ash-bearing fuels. Numerous programs have attempted to fuel high efficiency gas turbines directly with coal, often resulting in significant ash deposition upon turbine components and corrosion or erosion of turbine blades. This report will show that a ceramic air heater is significantly less susceptible to ash deposition or corrosion than a gas turbine when protected by rudimentary methods of gas-stream clean-up. A 25 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/hr (7 MW) test facility is under construction in Kennebunk, Maine. It is anticipated that this proof of concept program will lead to commercialization of the EFCC by electric utility and industrial organizations. Applications are being pursued for power plants ranging from 10 to 100 megawatts.

LaHaye, P.G.; Briggs, G.F.; Vandervort, C.L.; Seger, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

High-Pressure Multi-Mbar Conductivity Experiments on Hydrogen: The Quest for Solid Metallic Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ultra-dense hydrogen has long been the subject of intense experimental and theoretical research due to the fascinating physics which arises from this supposedly simple system. The properties of ultra-dense hydrogen also have important implications for planetary physics, since the interiors of the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn are believed to consist of cores of dense, metallic hydrogen. Finally, ultra-dense hydrogen is of direct programmatic interest, and multiple-shock compression experiments on hydrogen to the metallic state have stimulated the accelerated development of new hydrogen equation-of-state (EOS) models used for ICF and other applications. The focus of our research has often been described as the ''Holy Grail'' of high-pressure physics research: The metallization of solid hydrogen. Metallic hydrogen has long been considered to be the prototypical system for the study of insulator-to-metal (I-M) transitions. Although metallic hydrogen (Z=1) may superficially appear to be a very simple material, it is in fact an extremely challenging system for theoretical analysis due to the presence of large zero-point atomic motions and the complete absence of any core electrons. Thus, solid metallic hydrogen promises to be a fascinating material. Among its predicted properties is the possibility of being a high temperature superconductor with a critical temperature T{sub c} of the order of {approx} 100K [1]. The successful metallization of solid hydrogen would be a groundbreaking scientific discovery and open up new frontiers in science and possibly technology as well.

Jackson, D

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

Development and testing of a high-pressure downhole pump for jet-assist drilling. Topical report, Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of jet-assisted drilling is to increase the rate of penetration (ROP) in deeper gas and oil wells, where the rocks become harder and more difficult to drill. Increasing the ROP can result in fewer drilling days, and therefore, lower drilling cost. In late 1993, FlowDril and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) began a three-year development of a down hole pump (DHP{reg_sign}) capable of producing 30,000 psi out pressure to provide the high-pressure flow for high-pressure jet-assist of the drill bit. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Morgantown, WV (DOE-Morgantown) field office, joined with GRI and FlowDril to develop and test a second prototype designed for drilling in 7-7/8 inch holes. This project, {open_quotes}Development and Testing of a High-Pressure Down Hole Pump for Jet-Assist Drilling,{close_quotes} is for the development and testing of the second prototype. It was planned in two phases. Phase I included an update of a market analysis, a design, fabrication, and an initial laboratory test of the second prototype. Phase II is continued iterative laboratory and field developmental testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase II. In the downhole pump approach shown in the following figure, conventional drill pipe and drill collars are used, with the DHP as the last component of the bottom hole assembly next to the bit. The DHP is a reciprocating double ended, intensifier style positive displacement, high-pressure pump. The drive fluid and the high-pressure output fluid are both derived from the same source, the abrasive drilling mud pumped downhole through the drill string. Approximately seven percent of the stream is pressurized to 30,000 psi and directed through a high-pressure nozzle on the drill bit to produce the high speed jet and assist the mechanical action of the bit to make it drill faster.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Shock compression of quartz in the high-pressure fluid regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hugoniot of quartz has been measured using laser-driven shock waves with pressures from 2 to 15 Mbars. Within this pressure range silica transforms from a liquid near melt into a dense plasma. Results are in good agreement with previous studies in part of this range performed using explosive- and nuclear-driven shocks indicating the absence of time-dependent effects for time scales between several hundred picoseconds and several hundred microseconds. These data combined with earlier data at lower pressures clearly show the increasing compressibility of silica as it transitions from solid to liquid to dense plasma regimes.

Hicks, D.G.; Boehly, T.R.; Celliers, P.M.; Eggert, J.H.; Vianello, E.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

High strain rate mechanical characterization of trabecular bone utilizing the split-Hopkinson pressure bar technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique has been in use in one form or another for more than fifty years and has recently gained a great deal of attention for its ability to characterize materials such as metals, ...

Johnson, Timothy Paul Mahal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

OH time-histories during oxidation of n-heptane and methylcyclohexane at high pressures and temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OH concentration time-histories during n-heptane and methylcyclohexane (MCH) oxidation were measured behind reflected shock waves in a heated, high-pressure shock tube. Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1121 to 1332 K, pressures near 15 atm, and initial fuel concentrations of 750 and 1000 ppm (by volume), and an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with O{sub 2} as the oxidizer and argon as the bath gas. OH concentrations were measured using narrow-linewidth ring-dye laser absorption near the R-branchhead of the OH A-X(0,0) system at 306.47 nm. These current measurements together with our recent results for n-dodecane oxidation [S.S. Vasu, D.F. Davidson, Z. Hong, V. Vasudevan, R.K. Hanson, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.05.006] provide critically needed validation targets for jet fuel surrogate kinetic mechanisms and further improve understanding of high-pressure, high-temperature oxidation chemistry. Detailed comparisons of these OH time-histories with the predictions of various kinetic mechanisms were made. Sensitivity and pathway analyses for these reference fuel components were performed, leading to reaction rate recommendations with improved model performance. Current results are the first quantitative measurements of OH time-histories during high-pressure oxidation of these fuels, and hence are a critical step toward development of accurate reaction models for jet fuel surrogates. (author)

Vasu, Subith S.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Development of modifications for Coflexip flexible drilling pipe for high-temperature and -pressure geothermal service. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coflexip (France) flexible drilling pipe can provide economies in drilling geothermal wells. However, the current liner materials cannot take the high temperatures (approx.250C) and pressures (approx.69 MPa). Development was undertaken to replace the liner with higher temperature materials and, thus increase the temperature capability of the flexible pipe. DuPont Teflon PFA 350, L'Garde EPDM Y267 and L'Garde AFLAS 291 were considered but they all require backing by a closely woven stainless steel fabric to prevent extrusion. A graphite-reinforced EPDM elastomer was developed which has the potential of meeting the pressure-temperature requirements without the metal fabric reinforcement.

Friese, G.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Ba-ion extraction from a high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended to be used in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in $^{136}$Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the $^{136}$Xe double-beta decay.

T. Brunner; D. Fudenberg; A. Sabourov; V. L. Varentsov; G. Gratta; D. Sinclair; for the EXO collaboration

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

The analysis and specification of large high-pressure, high-temperature valves for combustion turbine protection in second-generation PFB power plants: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to provide a specification for the high-pressure/high-temperature valves for turbine overspeed protection in a commercial-scale second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. In the event of a loss of external (generator) load, the gas turbine rapidly accelerates from its normal operating speed. Protection from excessive overspeed can be maintained by actuation of fuel isolation and air bypass valves. A design specification for these valves was developed by analyses of the turbine/compressor interaction during a loss of load and analyses of pressure and flow transients during operation of the overspeed protection valves. The basis for these analyses was the Phase 1 plant conceptual design prepared in 1987.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

In situ multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for monitoring nanoparticle generation in a high-pressure fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for studying the dynamics of nanoparticles generated by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in a high-pressure fluid. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure optical cell and three spectrometers for in situ measurements. The optical cell was designed for experiments at temperatures up to 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa with fluctuations within {+-}0.1% h{sup -1}. The three spectrometers were used for the following in situ measurements at high pressures: (i) transient absorption spectrum measurements from 350 to 850 nm to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle generation from nanoseconds to milliseconds after laser irradiation, (ii) absorption spectrum measurements from 220 to 900 nm to observe the time evolution of nanoparticles from seconds to hours after laser ablation, and (iii) dynamic light scattering measurements to track nanoparticles with sizes from 10 nm to 10 {mu}m in the time range from seconds to hours after laser ablation. By combining these three spectrometers, we demonstrate in situ measurements of gold nanoparticles generated by PLA in supercritical fluids. This is the first report of in situ time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of nanoparticles generated in a supercritical fluid.

Wei, Shaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Saitow, Ken-ichi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development (N-BARD), 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fluid transport properties of rock fractures at high pressure and temperature. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial stages of a study on the fluid transport properties of rock at high pressure and temperature are reported. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical hydraulic interactions, in an attempt to clarify the process of fracture closure and its influence on fracture permeability. To determine the fluid transport properties of a fracture, the effect of surface roughness, geometry, and filling on fracture permeability was investigated. Permeability of these fractures was measured at various effective normal stresses at room temperature. The law of effective stress appears valid for fractures without filling but permeability of filled fractures is more sensitive to confining pressure than pore pressure. Permeability of smooth surfaces varied 5 to 0.5 darcys over a range of effective stresses from 0 to 3000 bars. Filled fractures were an order of magnitude more permeable.

Engelder, T.; Scholz, C.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

299

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Promising high-pressure DF - CO{sub 2} laser for amplifying picosecond radiation pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme of the experiment is described and the results of measuring the small-signal gain in the active medium of a pulsed chemical DF - CO{sub 2} laser at a medium pressure in the range from 1 to 2.5 atm are reported. The values obtained (above 5 m{sup -1} at a pressure of 2.5 atm) make this laser a promising final amplifier of a multiterawatt laser system in the 10-{mu}m wavelength region. (lasers)

Agroskin, V Ya; Bravy, B G; Vasil'ev, G K; Kashtanov, S A; Makarov, E F; Sotnichenko, S A; Chernyshev, Yu A [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials at high pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of nanocrystals under extreme pressure was investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A major part of this investigation was the testing of a prototype synchrotron endstation on a bend magnet beamline at the Advanced Light Source for high pressure work using a diamond anvil cell. The experiments conducted and documented here helped to determine issues of efficiency and accuracy that had to be resolved before the construction of a dedicated ''super-bend'' beamline and endstation. The major conclusions were the need for a cryo-cooled monochromator and a fully remote-controllable pressurization system which would decrease the time to change pressure and greatly reduce the error created by the re-placement of the diamond anvil cell after each pressure change. Two very different types of nanocrystal systems were studied, colloidal iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and thin film TiN/BN. Iron oxide nanocrystals were found to have a transition from the {gamma} to the {alpha} structure at a pressure strongly dependent on the size of the nanocrystals, ranging from 26 GPa for 7.2 nm nanocrystals to 37 GPa for 3.6 nm nanocrystals. All nanocrystals were found to remain in the {alpha} structure even after release of pressure. The transition pressure was also found, for a constant size (5.7 nm) to be strongly dependent on the degree of aggregation of the nanocrystals, increasing from 30 GPa for completely dissolved nanocrystals to 45 GPa for strongly aggregated nanocrystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction pattern of the pressure induced {alpha} phase demonstrated a decrease in intensity for certain select peaks. Together, these observations were used to make a complete picture of the phase transition in nanocrystalline systems. The size dependence of the transition was interpreted as resulting from the extremely high surface energy of the {alpha} phase which would increase the thermodynamic offset and thereby increase the kinetic barrier to transition that must be overridden with pressure. The anomalous intensities in the x-ray diffraction patterns were interpreted as being the result of stacking faults, indicating that the mechanism of transition proceeds by the sliding of {gamma}(111) planes to form {alpha}(001) planes. The increasing transition pressure for more aggregated samples may be due to a positive activation volume, retarding the transition for nanocrystals with less excess (organic) volume available to them. The lack of a reverse transition upon decompression makes this interpretation more difficult because of the lack of an observable hysteresis, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain kinetic effects for certain. In the case TiN/BN nanocomposite systems, it was found that the bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) of the TiN nanoparticles was not correlated to the observed hardness or Young's modulus of the macroscopic thin film. This indicates that the origin of the observed super-hard nature of these materials is not due to any change in the Ti-N interatomic potential. Rather, the enhanced hardness must be due to nano-structural effects. It was also found that during pressurization the TiN nanoparticles developed a great deal of strain. This strain can be related to defects induced in individual nanoparticles which generates strain in adjacent particles due to the highly coupled nature of the system.

Prilliman, Gerald Stephen

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High-Pressure Studies on CeO2 Nano-Octahedrons with a (111)-Terminated Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopies have been performed on well-shaped CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons enclosed by eight (111) planes. The CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons are shown to be more stable than their bulk counterparts and some other reported CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals of smaller size. The transition pressure from cubic to orthorhombic phase is approximately 10 GPa higher than that of 12 nm CeO{sub 2} nanocrystals even though they have similar volume expansion at ambient conditions. Additionally, the phase transition to {alpha}-PbCl2 phase is very sluggish and uncompleted even up to 55 GPa. The TEM image of the sample after decompression from 55 GPa clearly shows that the nano-octahedrons preserve the starting shape. Such distinct high-pressure behaviors in CeO{sub 2} nano-octahedrons have been discussed in terms of their special exposure surface. Further analysis shows that the lower compressibility of the exposed (111) planes in the nano-octahedrons is believed to be the major factor to the elevation of the phase transition pressure and the sluggishness of the transition.

B Liu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 065109 (2011) Development of a high pressure automated lag time apparatus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be applied to the study of several parameters, such as gas pressure, cooling rate and gas composition authors.1­9 Formation of gas hydrates can also be problematic. For example, in transportation of natural time apparatus for experimental studies and statistical analyses of nucleation and growth of gas

Russell, Lynn

305

Capabilities for measuring physical and chemical properties of rocks at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

The Experimental Geophysics Group of the Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has experimental equipment that measures a variety of physical properties and phase equilibria and kinetics on rocks and minerals at extreme pressures (to 500 GPa) and temperatures (from 10 to 2800 K). These experimental capabilities are described in this report in terms of published results, photographs, and schematic diagrams.

Durham, W.B. (comp.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effect of high pressure homogenization on the physical properties of milk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Milk was homogenized at pressures ranging from 17.2 MPa to 100 MPa to determine the effect of homogenization pressure on the fat globule size distribution, viscosity, color, and temperature changes in milk. Milk containing 0, 1.5 and 3.0% milk fat was heated to 62.5 and 79.5'C and homogenized using a Rannie Model 12.51H double stage homogenizer. The difference in whiteness between unhomogenized milk and homogenized milk was significant. Homogenization appeared to have a slight effect on the viscosity of milk. Homogenization increased the temperature of milk an average of 3'C ?1.5'C per 17.2 MPa. Increasing homogenizing pressure at 62.5'C reduced fat globule size which was reflected in the reduction of the volume surface average diameter and tenth percentile parameter and increased specific surface area. Homogenization was most effective between 0 and 58.6 MPa. This was confirmed by the rate of reduction of volume to surface average diameter and in the rapid increase in specific surface area. Double stage homogenization reduced particle size compared with single stage homogenization. Homogenizing at 79.50C produced clumping and coalescence of fat globules at pressures greater than 58.6 MPa. This effect was observed as increased volume surface average diameter, changes in the tenth and ninetieth percentile parameters and as a decrease in specific surface area. An increase in particle size due to double stage homogenization was observed when milk was homogenized at pressures greater than 72.4 MPa.

Gonzalez De Cossio, Carlos

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Mechanical and transport properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Task III. Mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Final report, 1 March 1980-29 February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the research performed to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanical and transport properties of rocks under confining pressure and elevated temperature. There have been many contributions to our understanding of the mechanical behavior or rocks at high temperatures and pressures, but perhaps the three most outstanding contributions are the data which: (a) have helped to demonstrate the scientific feasibility of energy extraction from buried magma by assessing the likelihood of the rock mass to support stable boreholes at the pressures, temperatures (to partial melting), and aqueous conditions apt to occur in crystalline rocks above buried magma chambers; (b) have demonstrated that crystalline rocks deform primarily by brittle fracture when deformed at effective confining pressures to 200 MPa and temperatures to partial melting (to >1000/sup 0/C), water-saturated or room-dry, and in constant strain rate tests (e dot = 10/sup -4/-10/sup -7//sec) or in creep tests; and (c) have shown that under these same conditions the time-dependent behavior of the rocks in the quasi-steady state regime is well described by the flow law: e dot = Asigma/sup n/exp(-Q/RT) - a formulation previously thought to be applicable to rocks deforming primarily by crystal plasticity. This result suggests that fracture is also a time-dependent, thermally-activated process.

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Bauer, S.J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193, Japan and Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Process for CO.sub.2 capture using zeolites from high pressure and moderate temperature gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating CO.sub.2 from a gas stream comprised of CO.sub.2 and other gaseous constituents using a zeolite sorbent in a swing-adsorption process, producing a high temperature CO.sub.2 stream at a higher CO.sub.2 pressure than the input gas stream. The method utilizes CO.sub.2 desorption in a CO.sub.2 atmosphere and effectively integrates heat transfers for optimizes overall efficiency. H.sub.2O adsorption does not preclude effective operation of the sorbent. The cycle may be incorporated in an IGCC for efficient pre-combustion CO.sub.2 capture. A particular application operates on shifted syngas at a temperature exceeding 200.degree. C. and produces a dry CO.sub.2 stream at low temperature and high CO.sub.2 pressure, greatly reducing any compression energy requirements which may be subsequently required.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV); Stevens, Robert W. (Morgantown, WV)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

Energy-efficient H. I. D. solid-state ballast: Phase II final report. [150 watt high pressure sodium lamp  

SciTech Connect

The following report presents the results of Phase II, Development of Solid State 150 watt High Pressure Sodium Ballasts. Basically, the objectives of the development program were accomplished, i.e., greater than 90% efficiency, greater than 90% power factor, regulation equivalent to ferro-magnetic ballasts, and energy savings sufficient to warrant the further development of the solid-state HPS ballast for commercial production and marketing. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

View / Download  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dayton, Ohio. His research interests lie in high-temperature deformation, ma- terials behavior modeling, and materi- als engineering. Srinivasan received.

313

Evidence for plasma phase transition in high pressure hydrogen from ab-initio simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have performed a detailed study of molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen using both Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with Density Functional Theory and Coupled Electron-Ion Monte Carlo simulations. We observe a range of densities where (dP/d{rho}){sub T} = 0 that coincides with sharp discontinuities in the electronic conductivity, which is clear evidence of the plasma phase transition for temperatures 600K {le} T {le} 1500K. Both levels of theory exhibit the transition, although Quantum Monte Carlo predicts higher transition pressures. Based on the temperature dependence of the discontinuity in the electronic conductivity, we estimate the critical point of the transition at temperatures slightly below 2000 K. We examine the influence of proton zero point motion by using Path Integral Molecular Dynamics with Density Functional Theory; the main effect is to shift the transition to lower pressures. Furthermore, we calculate the melting curve of molecular hydrogen up to pressures of 200 GPa, finding a reentrant melting line in good agreement with previous calculations. The melting line crosses the metalization line at 700 K and 220 GPa using density functional energetics and at 550 K and 290 GPa using Quantum Monte Carlo energetics.

Morales, M; Pierleoni, C; Schwegler, E; Ceperley, D

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

In situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction study of H[subscript 2]O ice VII  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ice VII was examined over the entire range of its pressure stability by a suite of x-ray diffraction techniques in order to understand a number of unexplained characteristics of its high-pressure behavior. Axial and radial polycrystalline (diamond anvil cell) x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a splitting of diffraction lines accompanied by changes in sample texture and elastic anisotropy. In situ laser heating of polycrystalline samples resulted in the sharpening of diffraction peaks due to release of nonhydrostatic stresses but did not remove the splitting. Radial diffraction measurements indicate changes in strength of the material at this pressure. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for a transition in ice VII near 14 GPa involving changes in the character of the proton order/disorder. The results are consistent with previous reports of changes in phase boundaries and equation of state at this pressure. The transition can be interpreted as ferroelastic with the appearance of spontaneous strain that vanishes at the hydrogen bond symmetrization transition near 60 GPa.

Somayazulu, M.; Shu, J.; Zha, C.-S.; Goncharov, A.F. (CIW)

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

Stalheim, Mr. Douglas [DGS Metallurgical Solutions Inc; Boggess, Todd [Secat; San Marchi, Chris [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Jansto, Steven [Reference Metals Company; Somerday, Dr. B [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Sofronis, Prof. Petros [University of Illinois

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tan, Sugata [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The Structural Transition Behavior of CdSe/ZnS Core/shell Quantum Dots under High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural phase transition of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) has been studied by in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction under high pressure up to 53.6?GPa. The CdSe core transforms from wurtzite to rock-salt structure near 6.3?GPa and then to Cmcm or distorted Cmcm structure probably occurs at 45.1?GPa which has not been observed in CdSe nanomaterials before. The critical pressure from wurtzite to rock-salt and the bulk modulus of rock-salt phase are much higher than those for bulky and uncapped nanoparticle CdSe. The released sample can be kept in rock-salt phase for a certain time, verified by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, quite different from the reversible transition for pure CdSe. A reasonable interpretation of the experimental phenomena is given by comparing the bulk modulus of the core and shell and studying the stress sate of the core after decompression. Our study suggests that capping a hard shell is an effective approach to quench the high pressure phase of nanomaterial with a reversible phase transition.

Z Li; L Wang; B Liu; J Wang; B Liu; Q Li; B Zou; T Cui; Y Meng; H Mao

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Determination of the cathode and anode voltage drops in high power low-pressure amalgam lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, cathode and anode drops of powerful low-pressure amalgam lamps were measured. The lamp discharge current is 3.2 A, discharge current frequency is 43 kHz, linear electric power is 2.4 W/cm. The method of determination of a cathode drop is based on the change of a lamp operating voltage at variation of the electrode filament current at constant discharge current. The total (cathode plus anode) drop of voltage was measured by other, independent ways. The maximum cathode fall is 10.8 V; the anode fall corresponding to the maximal cathode fall is 2.4 V. It is shown that in powerful low pressure amalgam lamps the anode fall makes a considerable contribution (in certain cases, the basic one) to heating of electrodes. Therefore, the anode fall cannot be neglected, at design an electrode and ballast of amalgam lamps with operating discharge current frequency of tens of kHz.

Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. I., E-mail: vasiliev@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V.; Startsev, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company NPO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec, H8T 1A2 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

In Situ Hot-Stage TEM Analysis of High Pressure Cold Sprayed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CSP material was also analyzed with high resolution TEM (HRTEM), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ...

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321

Phase Diagram and Physical Properties of H[subscript 2]O at High Pressures and temperatures: Applications to Planetary Interiors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Here we discuss the phase diagram and physical properties of H{sub 2}O under pressure-temperature conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Recent studies show that the melting curve of H{sub 2}O increases rapidly above a recently discovered triple point at approximately 35 to 47 GPa and 1000 K, indicating a large increase in {Delta}V/{Delta}S (volume versus entropy change) and associated changes in the physical properties of H{sub 2}O at high pressures and temperatures. Existence of the triple point is thought to be associated with the formation of a superionic phase, dynamically-disordered ice VII, or extension of the ice VII-ice X phase boundary; although the precise pressure and temperature of the triple point, curvature of the melting line, and nature of the solid-solid transition below the triple point all remain to be further explored. The steep increase in the melting curve of H{sub 2}O at high pressures and temperatures has important implications on our understanding of planetary interiors. Depending on its curvature, the melting line of H{sub 2}O may intersect the isentropes of Neptune and Uranus as well as the geotherm of Earth's lower mantle. Furthermore, if the triple point is due to the occurrence of the theoretically predicted superionic phase, besides leading to significant ionic conductivity, fast proton diffusion would cause enhanced chemical reactivity and formation of complex compounds in these planets. For example, reaction of H{sub 2}O with iron and other metals to form metal hydrides such as FeH{sub x} could provide a mechanism for incorporation of hydrogen as a light element into Earth's core. The equation of state of water is also presented as it pertains to the properties of hydrous fluid and melt phases in the mantle.

Lin, Jung-Fu; Schwegler, Eric; Yoo, Choong-Shik (LLNL)

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

322

Anisotropic yielding of rocks at high temperatures and pressures; Annual Progress Report, 1988-1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The experimental results we have obtained on Four-Mile gneiss have demonstrated that the yield behavior of quartzo-feldspathic rocks containing only a small percentage (10%) of mica can be markedly anisotropic, provided the mica minerals exhibit a strong crystallographic preferred orientation. Samples of gneiss oriented such that resolved shear stresses on the foliation plane are large are considerably weaker than granites of similar grain size and composition, and this weakness is attributed to enhanced nucleation of microcracks in quartz and feldspar adjacent to mica grains that are suitably oriented for slip. We expect the yield behavior of rocks containing a higher proportion of phyllosilicates to be influenced by the strongly anisotropic nature of these minerals as well, although the strengths, temperature and pressure dependencies, and flow-controlling mechanisms in such rocks may be significantly different.

Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.

1989-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

High Pressure Pulse Radiolysis-Reduction Cyt c by Ru(II) Complexes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for a for a Reversible Intermolecular Electron-Transfer Reaction involving Isonicotinamide(pentaammine)ruthenium and Cytochrome c Beate Bänsch, Martin Meier, Pablo Martinez, Rudi van Eldik, Chang Su, Ji Sun, Stephan S. Isied and James F. Wishart Inorg. Chem. 33, 4744-4749 (1994) Abstract: The reversible intermolecular electron-transfer reaction between pentaammineisonicotinamideruthenium(II/III) and horse-heart cytochrome c iron(III/II) was subjected to a detailed kinetic and thermodynamic study as a function of temperature and pressure. Theoretical calculations based on the Marcus-Hush theory were employed to predict all rate and equilibrium constants as well as activation parameters. There is an excellent agreement between the kinetically and thermodynamically determined equilibrium

324

High-pressure/high-temperature gas-solubility study in hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems using static and chromatographic techniques  

SciTech Connect

The design and discovery of sources for alternative energy such as coal liquefaction has become of major importance over the past two decades. One of the major problems in such design in the lack of available data, particularly, for gas solubility in polycyclic aromatics at high temperature and pressure. Static and gas-liquid partition chromatographic methods were used for the study of hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems. The static data for these two binaries were taken along 398.2, 423.2, 448.2, and 473.2 K isotherms up to 25.23 MPa. Gas-liquid partition chromatography was used to study the infinite dilution behavior of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the hydrogen-phenanthrene system as well as hydrogen, ethane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the methane-phenanthrene binary. The principle objective was to examine the role of the elution gas. Temperatures were along the same isotherms as the static data and up to 20.77 MPa. With the exception of carbon dioxide, Henry's constants were calculated for all systems. Expressions for the heat of solution as a function of pressure were derived for both binary and chromatographic data. Estimates of delta H/sub i/sup sol/ at high pressure were presented.

Malone, P.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Thermoelastic properties of ReB[subscript 2] at high pressures and temperatures and comparison with Pt, Os, and Re  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have measured the phase stability and thermoelastic equation of state of ultrahard rhenium diboride at pressures up to 30 GPa and temperatures up to 2500 K using a laser heated diamond anvil cell in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. ReB{sub 2} is shown to be stable throughout this pressure and temperature region. The ratio of the c-axis to the a-axis provides a monitor of the annealing of plastic stresses during compression. We show that ReB{sub 2} has a small thermal anisotropy but a large mechanical anisotropy. Combining this new data set with previously existing results from a large volume press yields a thermoelastic equation of state with a Grueneisen parameter of 2.4 (0.08) and a q of 2.7. A comparison of ReB{sub 2} with other high electron density incompressible metals - Os, Re, and Pt - shows that ReB{sub 2} has the lowest thermal pressure and the highest bulk modulus.

Kavner, Abby; Armentrout, Matthew M.; Rainey, Emma S.G.; Xie, Miao; Weaver, Beth E.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B. (UCLA)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

329

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

Dennis, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

122- High Pressure Raman Spectra and X-Ray Diffraction Studies ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

144- The Role of Mn Content on Microstructure and Phases of High Alloyed White Cast Irons · 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

332

The significance of specimen end restraint in high pressure triaxial testing of cohesive soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates the mechanical behaviour of cohesive soil at relatively high stresses with a particular emphasis on the significance of specimen end restraint on the interpretation of triaxial test results. Undrained ...

Casey, Brendan (Brendan Anthony)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

334

View-Augmented Abstractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces view-augmented abstractions, which specialize an underlying numeric domain to focus on a particular expression or set of expressions. A view-augmented abstraction adds a set of materialized views to the original domain. View augmentation ... Keywords: Numeric abstract domains, abstract-interpretation precision, view maintenance

Matt Elder; Denis Gopan; Thomas Reps

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

number. The reported studies have focused on flow over smooth surfaces. In industrial applications )sin( 2 2 =++ + dx Ud U D f g dx dP Equation 2 Most friction factor correlations used in industry with an internal diameter of 150 mm were made of honed steel tubing to ensure high quality tolerance of the inner

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

336

High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cable Condition Assessment Through Electrical Impulse Testing of PSE&G 230-kV Service-Aged Cable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes electrical and mechanical testing of a service-aged 230-kV high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) cable sample that was removed from a Public Service Electric & Gas (PSE&G) underground transmission line.

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

Petrological and geochronological constraints on the metamorphic evolution of high-pressure granulites and eclogites of the Snowbird tectonic zone, Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the petrology and geochronology of high-pressure granulites and eclogites within the Snowbird tectonic zone of the western Canadian Shield. The focus of this study is the East Athabasca mylonite triangle ...

Baldwin, Julia A. (Julia Ann), 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The Results From the First High-Pressure Melt Ejection Test Completed in the Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction Facility at Chalk River Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River Laboratories. This test was planned by the CANDU Owners Group to study the potential for an energetic interaction between molten fuel and water under postulated single-channel flow-blockage events. The experiments were designed to address regulator concerns surrounding this very low probability postulated accident events in CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The objective of the experimental program is to determine whether a highly energetic 'steam explosion' and associated high-pressure pulse, is possible when molten material is finely fragmented as it is ejected from a fuel channel into the heavy-water moderator. The finely fragmented melt particles would transfer energy to the moderator as it is dispersed, creating a modest pressure pulse in the calandria vessel. The high-pressure melt ejection test consisted of heating up a {approx} 5 kg thermite mixture of U, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Zr, and CrO{sub 3} inside a 1.14-m length of insulated pressure tube. When the molten material reached the desired temperature of {approx} 2400 deg C, the pressure inside the tube was raised to 11.6 MPa, failing the pressure tube at a pre-machined flaw, and releasing the molten material into the surrounding tank of 68 deg C water. The experiment investigated the dynamic pressure history, debris size, and the effects of the material interacting with tubes representing neighbouring fuel channels. The measured mean particle size was 0.686 mm and the peak dynamic pressures were between 2.54 and 4.36 MPa, indicating that an energetic interaction between the melt and the water did not occur in the test. (authors)

Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O'Connor, R.; Sanderson, DB. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

High pressure transport characteristics of Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3], Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3], and BiSbTe[subscript 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents ambient and high pressure measurements of transport properties of the Bi2Te3-Sb2Te3 series of materials. The electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient have been measured on both end compounds and the direct solid solution of the two at pressure up to 10 GPa. An additional discussion involving the high pressure structure will be presented. From this, it was determined that these materials undergo at least two structural phase transitions between 0 and 20 GPa and a discussion is presented regarding this and the changes in the transport properties.

Jacobsen, M.K.; Sinogeikin, S.V.; Kumar, R.S.; Cornelius, A.L. (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

A finite-difference time-domain simulation of high power microwave generated plasma at atmospheric pressures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A finite-difference algorithm was developed to calculate several RF breakdown parameters, for example, the formative delay time that is observed between the initial application of a RF field to a dielectric surface and the formation of field-induced plasma interrupting the RF power flow. The analysis is focused on the surface being exposed to a background gas pressure above 50 Torr. The finite-difference algorithm provides numerical solutions to partial differential equations with high resolution in the time domain, making it suitable for simulating the time evolving interaction of microwaves with plasma; in lieu of direct particle tracking, a macroscopic electron density is used to model growth and transport. This approach is presented as an alternative to particle-in-cell methods due to its low complexity and runtime leading to more efficient analysis for a simulation of a microsecond scale pulse. The effect and development of the plasma is modeled in the simulation using scaling laws for ionization rates, momentum transfer collision rates, and diffusion coefficients, as a function of electric field, gas type and pressure. The incorporation of plasma material into the simulation involves using the Z-transform to derive a time-domain algorithm from the complex frequency-dependent permittivity of plasma. Therefore, the effect of the developing plasma on the instantaneous microwave field is calculated. Simulation results are compared with power measurements using an apparatus designed to facilitate surface flashover across a polycarbonate boundary in a controlled N{sub 2}, air, or argon environment at pressures exceeding 50 Torr.

Ford, Patrick J.; Beeson, Sterling R.; Krompholz, Hermann G.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-3102 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the final year of the grant, we have investigated (1) why the strengths of rocks decrease with increasing temperature and in the presence of water through study of the fracture process in Westerly granite and Sioux quartzite specimens deformed in extension (some in true tension), (2) frictional strengths of rocks at high temperatures, (3) the stability of boreholes in fractured rock, and (4) slip in biotite single crystals (in that biotite is probably the weakest and most ductile of the common constituents of crystalline rocks.

Friedman, M.; Bauer, S.J.; Chester, F.M.; Handin, J.; Hopkins, T.W.; Johnson, B.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Mardon, D.; Russell, J.E.

1987-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

342

Phase Behavior of H[subscript 2] + H[subscript 2]O at High Pressures and Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Whereas several clathrate-like structures are known to exist from mixtures of H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O under pressure, the combined high-pressure and low-temperature region of the phase diagram remains largely unexplored. Here we report a combined Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on the low-temperature region of the phase diagram. Below 120 K, the H{sub 2} vibron originating from the clathrate 2 (C{sub 2}) phase splits into two distinct components, yet X-ray diffraction measurements reveal no structural change between room temperature and 11 K. We suggest that the two vibrons of the C{sub 2} phase at low temperature originate from vibrational transitions of hydrogen molecules in the ground and first excited rotational energy levels. At 1 GPa we observe the clathrate 1 (C{sub 1}) phase to persist to the lowest temperature measured (80 K). Upon decompression from the C{sub 2} phase we observed the appearance of cubic ice (I{sub c}), which converted to a new phase before transforming to the C{sub 1} phase. The structure of the new phase is consistent with a water framework similar to {alpha}-quartz; the structure could also be related to the tetragonal clathrate phase reported previously for nitrogen and argon guests.

Strobel, Timothy A.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J. (CIW)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

343

Simulating Solidification in Metals at High Pressure: The Drive to Petascale Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate solidification in metal systems ranging in size from 64,000 to 524,288,000 atoms on the IBM BlueGene/L computer at LLNL. Using the newly developed ddcMD code, we achieve performance rates as high as 103 TFlops, with a performance of 101.7 TFlop sustained over a 7 hour run on 131,072 cpus. We demonstrate superb strong and weak scaling. Our calculations are significant as they represent the first atomic-scale model of metal solidification to proceed, without finite size effects, from spontaneous nucleation and growth of solid out of the liquid, through the coalescence phase, and into the onset of coarsening. Thus, our simulations represent the first step towards an atomistic model of nucleation and growth that can directly link atomistic to mesoscopic length scales.

Streitz, F; Glosli, J; Patel, M

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

344

Cage occupancies in the high pressure structure H methane hydrate: A neutron diffraction study  

SciTech Connect

A neutron diffraction study was performed on the CD{sub 4}: D{sub 2}O structure H clathrate hydrate to refine its CD{sub 4} fractional cage occupancies. Samples of ice VII and hexagonal (sH) methane hydrate were produced in a Paris-Edinburgh press and in situ neutron diffraction data collected. The data were analyzed with the Rietveld method and yielded average cage occupancies of 3.1 CD{sub 4} molecules in the large 20-hedron (5{sup 12}6{sup 8}) cages of the hydrate unit cell. Each of the pentagonal dodecahedron (5{sup 12}) and 12-hedron (4{sup 3}5{sup 6}6{sup 3}) cages in the sH unit cell are occupied with on average 0.89 and 0.90 CD{sub 4} molecules, respectively. This experiment avoided the co-formation of Ice VI and sH hydrate, this mixture is more difficult to analyze due to the proclivity of ice VI to form highly textured crystals, and overlapping Bragg peaks of the two phases. These results provide essential information for the refinement of intermolecular potential parameters for the water methane hydrophobic interaction in clathrate hydrates and related dense structures.

Tulk, Christopher A [ORNL; Klug, Dennis D [National Research Council of Canada; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL; Karotsis, Georgios [ORNL; Guthrie, Malcolm [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Molaison, Jamie J [ORNL; Pradhan, Neelam [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Long-duration thermal storage for solar-thermal high-pressure steam IPH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar-thermal central-receiver systems are cost effective for electric-power and industrial process-heat applications. Systems employing molten nitrate salt as both receiver working fluid and storage have previously been evaluated for diurnal thermal storage. This study evaluates the potential of employing a molten salt receiver for a baseload industrial process plant requiring saturated steam at 68 atm (1000 psi). Two types of thermal storage are evaluated: molten salt, and air and rock. When thermal storage of six hours or less is used, molten nitrate salt alone is the optimum storage. For more than six hours, the optimum storage is a combination of molten salt and air and rock. The air and rock system uses a molten-salt-to-air heat exchanger and a thermocline rock bed heated and cooled by the air. The economic potential of the system is determined. The results depend on the relative cost of fossil fuel and the solar thermal energy costs. The optimum quantity of storage is highly variable, and the range is from no storage to a long duration capacity - 48 hours.

Copeland, R.J.; Stern, C.; Leach, J.W.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System Risk-Based Inspection Guide for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A System Risk-Based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1, 2 and 3. The role of. the HPCI system in mitigating accidents is discussed in this S-RIG, along with insights on identified risk-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG provides a review of industry-wide operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples to augment the PRA and operational considerations in identifying a catalogue of basic PRA failure modes for the HPCI system. It is designed to be used as a reference for routine inspections, self-initiated safety system functional inspections (SSFIs), and the evaluation of risk significance of component failures at the nuclear power plant.

Wong, S.; DiBiasio, A.; Gunther, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Condition Assessment of 138-kV Iwilei-Archer High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cable System of Hawaiian Electric Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) transmission cable systems are characterized by an exceedingly long life, with well-maintained integrity of the pipe and operating pressure. However, some failures have been encountered in the past 15 years, probably due to advancing age and harder use. The cable systemswhich are composed of the cable, splices, terminations, trifurcators, pumping plants, risers, and so onshould be adequately maintained and routinely inspected.

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

348

Mechanical and transport properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Task II. Fracture permeability of crystalline rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and hydrothermal alteration. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pore-fluid chemical interactions on both short and long time scales can significantly change the permeability of a rock. Measurement of the permeability variations requires adaption and modification on standard measurement systems, with special attention given to pore-fluid flow rates and metal corrosion of system components. In this report, system requirements and capabilities are reviewed, analyzed, and recommendations made. Special attention is given to the choice of corrosion resistant metals, fluid-flow systems, back-pressure systems, jacketing materials, and flow-rate measurement. On the basis of this study, an economical, highly flexible, permeability system was designed and built. The system allows measurement of permeability over the darcy to nanodarcy range, using geologically meaningful, chemically reactive, pore fluids under constant volume flow rates as small as 0.2 ml/day at temperatures in excess of 300C, fluid pressures to 20 MPa, and confining pressures to 100 MPa. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, B.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

User_ViewRecords  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

User Records User Records © 2011 SuccessFactors, Inc. - 1 - SuccessFactors Learning Confidential. All rights reserved. Job Aid: Viewing User Records Purpose The purpose of this job aid is to guide users through the step-by-step process of viewing their records. Each task demonstrates viewing of different records. Task A. View To-Do List Enter the web address (URL) of the user application into your browser Address field and press the Enter key. Enter your user ID in the User ID textbox. Enter your password in the Password textbox. Click Sign In. View To-Do List (filter, view) 7 Steps Task A View Completed Work 8 Steps Task B View Curriculum Status and Details 11 Steps Task C 3 3 1 2 2 1 SuccessFactors Learning v 6.4 User Job Aid Viewing User Records

350

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request an extension of the project from the originally defined completion date. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project if an extension is granted. We strongly believe that the results of this study will provide the impetus for a new approach to enhanced oil recovery in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the United States.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive properties of the various phases, causing certain phases to be absent from the phase diagram. Therefore, room for improvement in the description of water at ambient and high pressures remains and we suggest that because of the stern test the high pressure ice phases pose they should be used in future benchmark studies of simulation methods for water.

Biswajit Santra; Ji?í Klimeš; Alexandre Tkatchenko; Dario Alfè; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides; Roberto Car; Matthias Scheffler

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data  

SciTech Connect

two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

High-pressure binary phase equilibria of aromatic hydrocarbons with CO/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of several binary systems containing aromatic hydrocarbons as one component and supercritical carbon dioxide or ethane as the other component measured by using a dynamic system in which both vapor and liquid phases were circulated. The aromatic hydrocarbons that were used in this study are anisole, benzaldehyde, tetralin, and 1-methylnaphthalene. The phase equilibria of binary systems containing carbon dioxide were measured at two different temperatures, 343 and 373 K, and pressures up to 22 MPa. For ethane binary systems, equilibrium measurements were made at 373 K and pressures up to 12 MPa. In addition to measuring temperature, pressure, and phase compositions, the vapor- and liquid-phase densities also were determined for both carbon dioxide and ethane binary systems.

Kim, C.H.; Clark, A.B.; Vimalchand, P.; Donohue, M.D. (The Johns Hopkins Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (US))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Transactional process views  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To enable effective interorganisational collaborations, process providers have to disclose relevant parts of their local business processes in public process views. A public process view has to be consistent with the underlying private process. Local ...

Rik Eshuis; Jochem Vonk; Paul Grefen

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evidence for the existence of a stable, highly fluidized-pressurized region of deep, jointed crystalline rock from Fenton Hill hot dry rock test data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It has been demonstrated several times at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Fenton Hill hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal test site, that large volumes of naturally jointed Precambrian crystalline rock can be stably maintained at pressures considerably above the least principal earth stress in the surrounding rock mass. In particular, for the deeper, larger, and tighter of the two HDR reservoirs tested at this site in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, testing was carried out for a cumulative period of 11 months without evidence of fracture extension at the boundaries of the pressure-stimulated region, even though a very high reservoir inlet circulating pressure of 27.3 MPa (3960 psi) above hydrostatic was maintained throughout the testing, considerably in excess of the least principal stress in the surrounding rock mass of about 10 MPa above hydrostatic at a depth of 3500 m. The author reviews and summarizes information concerning the earth stresses at depth and the test data relative to the containment of pressurized fluid, particularly the data showing the declining rate of water loss and the absence of microseismicity--the two principal indicators of a stable, pressurized reservoir region. The author then provides a coherent and concise evaluation of this and other evidence supporting his assertion that one can indeed maintain large volumes of jointed rock at pressures considerably in excess of the least principal earth stress. In addition, a discussion is presented concerning the initial state of stress at depth beneath Fenton Hill and then possible changes to the stress state resulting from the very large volumes of injected high-pressure water and the accompanying shear displacements--and shear dilation--associated with these pressurizations.

Brown, D.W.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Pulsed Electric Field and High Hydrostatic Pressure: Proceedings of EPRI/Army Sponsored Workshop, Moscow, Idaho -- April 19-21, 1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pulsed Electric Field and High Hydrostatic Pressure EPRI/Army Sponsored Workshop was held april 19-21, 1999 in Moscow, Idaho. The short course/workshop, the 4th in a series begun to disseminate and understand the latest advances in Pulsed Electric Field technologies was expanded this year to include High Hydrostatic Pressure. As a part of the Workshop, emphasis was placed on the importance of the newly formed IFT Nonthermal Processing Division. This report is comprised of an overview of the short cou...

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

358

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability of cellular polypropylene films by high pressure fluorination and post-treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellular polypropylene (PP) films were fluorinated under a high pressure of 13 bar of the F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture and were post-treated by nitrous oxide and isothermal crystallization. The fluorinated and post-treated PP films after being expanded and corona charged exhibit a significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability. After annealing at 70 deg. C for 151 h or at 90 deg. C for 224 h, the piezoelectric d{sub 33} value of the fluorinated and post-treated piezoelectric sample still retains 58% or 45% of its initial d{sub 33} value, while the corresponding value of the virgin piezoelectric sample has decreased to 29% or 15% of the initial value. Chemical composition analysis of the cross section of the fluorinated and post-treated film by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicates that the internal layers have been fluorinated, in spite of a lower degree of fluorination compared with the fluorinated surface layer. Short-circuit and open-circuit TSD current measurements reveal that the fluorinated internal layers, like the fluorinated surface layer, also have very deep charge traps, although there probably is a difference in density of the deep traps between them. The deeply trapped charge on the internal layers of the fluorinated and post-treated piezoelectric sample is responsible for its significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability.

An Zhenlian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, Department of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an 710049 (China); Mao Mingjun; Cang Jun; Zhang Yewen; Zheng Feihu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, Department of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Measurement of critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are measured and investigated to look at the effect of explosion limits on the detonation sensitivity. Results up to an initial pressure of 20 atm are obtained. Experiments are carried out in a spherical bomb and direct initiation is achieved via spark ignition from a high-voltage capacitor discharge. A detailed description of different methods to obtain a good estimate of the correct amount of energy deposited into the mixture used to initiate the detonation, including the calorimeter method and current method, is provided. It is demonstrated that at elevated initial pressure, the second explosion limit effect plays a significant role leading to slow-branching reactions and the detonation sensitivity of hydrogen mixtures is comparable to other common hydrocarbon mixtures at such condition. (author)

Kamenskihs, Vsevolods; Lee, John H.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ng, Hoi Dick [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

The Collagen Protein Viewed at Unprecedented Detail | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assembling Nanoparticles the Easy DNA-Way Assembling Nanoparticles the Easy DNA-Way Better, cleaner fuel injectors for automobiles? Poxvirus Potency Uncovered in New Atomic Map Striking Nano Gold Oldest Known Magnet's Secrets Revealed Under High Pressures Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed The Collagen Protein Viewed at Unprecedented Detail FEBRUARY 26, 2008 Bookmark and Share A view of a rat tail tendon using second-harmonic generation microscopy. The collagen fibers show up in green and red. The structure and behavior of one of the most common proteins in our bodies has been resolved at a level of detail never before seen, thanks to new research performed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S.

362

High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of the lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 6 GPa and 1050 deg. C in a multianvil press with a Walker-type module. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma (no. 62) with the lattice parameters a=829.7(2), b=759.6(2), and c=1726.8(4) pm (Z=16). The high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. Band assignments of measured IR- and Raman spectra were done via quantum-mechanical calculations. Additionally, the thermal behavior of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was investigated. - Graphical abstract: The new high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO4 tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. In this paper, the synthesis, the crystal structure, and the properties of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} are described. Highlights: > Synthesis of a new lithium borate with the composition HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} at high pressure. > In contrast to the non-centrosymmetric phase LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, this high-pressure phase is centrosymmetric. > First example of ternary alkali borates exhibiting threefold bridging oxygen atoms.

Neumair, Stephanie C.; Vanicek, Stefan [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard; Toebbens, Daniel M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wurst, Klaus [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.at [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Exploration of illumination concepts for underground coal mines. Appendix E. Electronic ballast for the Lucalox high pressure sodium lamp. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report documents the results of an investigation to develop solid-state ballasts for Lucalox high-pressure sodium lamps. The ballasts were to be used in the modified and new portable and machine-mounted lighting systems designed by the Crouse-Hinds Co., per tasks I through IV of Contract No. H022065.

1976-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

Moreno, J.B.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

Marshall, B.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure ultrahigh vacuum environment. Summary of progress report, July 1, 1989--December 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus was been developed which couples high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with molecular beam and scattering techniques. Exposure of Ni(111) to atomic H results in H embedded within the Ni lattice and a monolayer of H adsorbed on the surface. This surface-bound H was removed by an Xe atom beam. Subsequent exposure to CH{sub 4} results in dissociative adsorption, producing adsorbed CH{sub 3} and adsorbed H. Results documents a new mechanism for a surface reaction, a reaction between an adsorbed and a bulk species, and demonstrates the importance of bulk H as a reactant in a heterogeneous catalytic reaction.

Ceyer, S.T.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

Rawls, G

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Experimental results of direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The DCH-3 and DCH-4 tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two experiments, DCH-3 and DCH-4, were performed at the Surtsey test facility to investigate phenomena associated with a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) reactor accident sequence resulting in direct containment heating (DCH). These experiments were performed using the same experimental apparatus with identical initial conditions, except that the Surtsey test vessel contained air in DCH-3 and argon in DCH-4. Inerting the vessel with argon eliminated chemical reactions between metallic debris and oxygen. Thus, a comparison of the pressure response in DCH-3 and DCH-4 gave an indication of the DCH contribution due to metal/oxygen reactions. 44 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Nichols, R.T. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Sweet, D.W. (AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

08FFL-0020Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum after which it declines with higher rail pressure. The total PM was collected for the two 1400 rpm conditions downstream of the engine, diesel oxidation catalyst, and a urea-SCR catalyst. The results show that significant PM reduction occurs in the SCR catalyst even during high rates of urea dosage. Analysis of the PM indicates that residual SOF is burned up in the SCR catalyst.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Pulsed laser ablation plasmas generated in CO{sub 2} under high-pressure conditions up to supercritical fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulsed laser ablation of solids in supercritical media has a large potential for nanomaterials fabrication. We investigated plasmas generated by pulsed laser ablation of Ni targets in CO{sub 2} at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 16 MPa at 304.5 K. Plasma species were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, and the evolution of cavitation bubbles and shockwaves were observed by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging. Ni and O atomic emissions decreased with increasing gas pressure; however, near the critical point the intensities reached local maxima, probably due to the enhancement of the plasma excitation and effective quenching resulting from the large density fluctuation.

Kato, Toru; Stauss, Sven; Kato, Satoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Terashima, Kazuo [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru [Division of Advanced Spectroscopy, Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

373

REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and his thesis was reported on in the last semi-annual report. We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, we requested and received an extension of the project to September 30, 2005. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project by the end of the extension data. We strongly believe that the results of this study will provide the impetus for a new approach to enhanced oil recovery in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the United States.

Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Einstein's Gravity Under Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mysterious `dark energy' needed to explain the current observations, poses a serious confrontation between fundamental physics and cosmology. The present crisis may be an outcome of the (so far untested) prediction of the general theory of relativity that the pressure of the matter source also gravitates. In this view, a theoretical analysis reveals some surprising inconsistencies and paradoxes faced by the energy-stress tensor (in the presence of pressure) which is used to model the matter content of the universe, including dark energy.

Ram Gopal Vishwakarma

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

376

Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Hot Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same

377

Nonlinear propagation of a high-power focused femtosecond laser pulse in air under atmospheric and reduced pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the propagation of focused femtosecond gigawatt laser pulses in air under normal and reduced pressure in the case of Kerr self-focusing and photoionisation of the medium. The influence of gas density on the beam dimensions and power and the electron density in the plasma column in the nonlinear focus zone of the laser beam has been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. It has been shown that, in rarefied air, the radiation-induced reduction in the rate of plasma formation diminishes the blocking effect of the plasma on the growth of the beam intensity in the case of tight focusing. This allows higher power densities of ultrashort laser pulses to be reached in the focal waist region in comparison with beam self-focusing under atmospheric pressure.

Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Ionin, Andrei A; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid loading in producing gas wells is the inability of the produced gas to remove produced liquids from the wellbore. A review of existing flow loops worldwide revealed that specialized areas of research such as liquid loading in gas wells are still lacking dedicated test facilities. This project presents the design of a new dedicated facility to be located at the TowerLab at the Richardson building with adequate operating conditions to reproduce the flow regimes encountered prior to and after the onset of liquid loading in gas wells. The facility consists of a compressed air system, pipelines for air and water, a pressure vessel containing glass beads, an injection manifold, and flow control and monitoring devices. Our results show that three compressors working in parallel is the most technical and economic configuration for the TowerLab based on the overall costs provided by the supplier, the footprint but most importantly the flexibility. The design of the pressure vessel required a cylindrical body with top and bottom welded-flat head covers with multiple openings to minimize its weight. The pipelines connecting major equipment and injection manifold located at the pressure vessel were selected based on the superficial velocities for air and water. These values also showed the need for independent injection using two manifolds instead of commingling flow through a tee joint. The use of digital pressure gauges with an accuracy of 0.05 to 25% and coriolis or vortex meters to measure air flowrate is also suggested. For the water line, installation of turbine meters results in the most economic approach.

Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Effect of Blending on High-Pressure Laminar Flame Speed Measurements, Markstein Lengths, and Flame Stability of Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas is the primary fuel used in industrial gas turbines for power generation. Hydrocarbon blends of methane, ethane, and propane make up a large portion of natural gas and it has been shown that dimethyl ether can be used as a supplement or in its pure form for gas turbine combustion. Because of this, a fundamental understanding of the physical characteristics such as the laminar flame speed is necessary, especially at elevated pressures to have the most relevance to the gas turbine industry. This thesis discusses the equations governing premixed laminar flames, historical methods used to measure the laminar flame speed, the experimental device used in this study, the procedure for converting the measured data into the flame speed, the results of the measurements, and a discussion of the results. The results presented in this thesis include the flame speeds for binary blends of methane, ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether performed at elevated pressures, up to 10-atm initial pressure, using a spherically expanding flame in a constant-volume vessel. Also included in this thesis is a comparison between the experimental measurements and four chemical kinetic models. The C4 mechanism, developed in part through collaboration between the National University of Ireland Galway and Texas A&M, was improved using the data presented herein, showing good agreement for all cases. The effect of blending ethane, propane, and dimethyl ether with methane in binary form is emphasized in this study, with the resulting Markstein length, Lewis number (Le), and flame stability characterized and discussed. It was noticed in this study, as well as in other studies, that the critical radius of the flame typically decreased as the Le decreased, and that the critical radius of the flame increased as the Le increased. Also, a rigorous uncertainty analysis has been performed, showing a range of 0.3 cm/s to 3.5 cm/s depending on equivalence ratio and initial pressure.

Lowry, William Baugh

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Development of Simulation System for Hot Gas Filtration by Ceramic Candle Filters on High Temperature and/or High Pressure Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hot gas filtration from industrial processes offers various advantages in terms of improvement of process efficiencies, heat recovery and protection of plant installation. Especially hot gas filtration is an essential technology for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).

Park, S.J.; Lim, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Choi, H.K.; Park, H,S.; Park, Y.O.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

382

Census and viewing of organisms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Census and viewing of organisms Census and viewing of organisms Name: m hariaczyi Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many organisms exist in the world today? What is the most powerful microscope that could be used for viewing organism? Replies: The most powerful microscope is called an electron microscope, which can be used for viewing entire organisms, although few organisms are small enough to see all of them at high magnifications allowed by this microscope. So most often its used to look at fixed sections of organisms. Since the electron microscope only works in a vacuum, with no air, you cannot look at live organisms. To do that, probably the most powerful microscope is called a Nomarski, or in technical terms, a "differential interference contrast" microscope. This is a modification of a normal light microscope that allows better contrast in living tissue. It is not any more powerful than a light microscope, and is much less powerful than an electron microscope, but it allows you to see living things much better.

383

Taking the long view  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Taking the long view Taking the long view Taking the long view on environmental stewardship A newly articulated mission for environmental stewardship at the Laboratory can be summed up in a simple phrase: clean up the past, control current operations, and create a sustainable future. March 20, 2012 Los Alamos Aerial Aerial view of a canyon in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Outreach P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email "The future viability of the Lab hinges on demonstrating to public that we protect human health and the environment." Environmental stewardship strategy looks 50 years into the future As a way of integrating environmental protection activities into a comprehensive strategy, Kevin Smith, manager of the U.S. Department of

384

A View from Elsewhere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arcadia Project Review - A View From Elsewhere Tony Hirst Department of Communication and Systems, The Open University a.j.hirst@open.ac.uk Summary This report provides an overview of activities carried out during Michaelmas Term...

Hirst, Tony

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Application of a three-dimensional model for a study of the energy transfer of a high-pressure mercury horizontal lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of a discharge lamp with high intensity in a horizontal position. As an example of application, we chose the high-pressure mercury lamp. For this, we realized a three-dimensional model, a stable and powered DC. After the validation of this model, we used it to reproduce the influence of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp operating in a horizontal position. Indeed, the mass of mercury and the electric current are modified and the effect of convective transport is studied.

Ben Hamida, M. B.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Influence of High Pressure Thermal Behavior on Friction-induced material transfer During Dry Machining of Titanium  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study failure of coated carbide tools due to thermal loading. The study emphasizes the role assumed by the thermo-physical properties of the tool material in enhancing or preventing mass attrition of the cutting elements within the tool. It is shown that within a comprehensive view of the nature of conduction in the tool zone, thermal conduction is not solely affected by temperature. Rather it is a function of the so called thermodynamic forces. These are the stress, the strain, strain rate, rate of temperature rise, and the temperature gradient. Although that within such consideration description of thermal conduction is non-linear, it is beneficial to employ such a form because it facilitates a full mechanistic understanding of thermal activation of tool wear.

Abdel-Aal, H. A. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Procedes de Fabrication (LMPF), ENSAM CER Chalons-en-Champagne, Rue Saint Dominique BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); El Mansori, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers, 2, cours des Arts et Metiers-13617 Aix en Provence cedex 1 (France)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ammonia-Borane under High Pressure - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Jiuhua Chen (Primary Contact), Shah Najiba, Yongzhou Sun, Jennifer Girard, Vadym Drozd Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Florida International University 11200 SW 8 th Street Miami, FL 33199 Phone: (305) 348-3140 Email: chenj@fiu.edu DOE Program Officer: Dr. Lane Wilson Phone: (301) 903-5877 Email: Lane.Wilson@science.doe.gov Subcontractor: Wendy Mao, Stanford University Objectives Understand pressure influence on the structure, phase * stability, dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and its

388

On the Accuracy of van der Waals Inclusive Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Ice at Ambient and High Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive proper...

Santra, Biswajit; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Alfè, Dario; Slater, Ben; Michaelides, Angelos; Car, Roberto; Scheffler, Matthias

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Models for aqueous electrolyte mixtures for systems extending from dilute range to the fused salt: Evaluation of parameters to high temperatures and pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Models based on general equations for the excess Gibbs energy of the aqueous fluid provide thermodynamically consistent structures for evaluating and predicting aqueous electrolyte properties. These equations yield other quantities upon appropriate differentiation, including osmotic and activity coefficients, excess enthalpies, heat capacities, and volumes. For this reason a wide array of experimental data are available from which model parameters and their temperature or pressure dependence can be evaluated. For systems of moderate concentration, the most commonly used model at present is the ion-interaction approach and coworkers. For more concentrated solutions, including those extending to the fused salt, an alternate model based on a Margules-expansion and commonly used for nonelectrolytes was proposed. We discuss these two models and give examples of parameter evaluations for some geologically relevant systems to high temperatures and pressures; also we show applications of the models to calculations of solubility equilibria.

Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Helium under high pressure: A comparative study of all-electron and pseudopotential methods within density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have calculated the ground state electronic structure of He under pressure from 0 to 1500 GPa using both all-electron full-potential and pseudopotential methods based on the density functional theory (DFT). We find that throughout this pressure range, pseudopotentials yield essentially the same energy-volume curve for all of bcc, fcc, and hcp configurations as does the full-potential method, a strong indication that pseudopotential approximation works well for He both as the common element in some giant planets and as detrimental impurities in fusion reactor materials. The hcp lattice is always the most stable structure and bcc the least stable one. Since the energy preference of hcp over fcc and bcc is within 0.01 eV below 100 GPa and about 0.1 eV at 1500 GPa, on the same order of the error bar in local or semi-local density approximations in DFT, phase transitions can only be discussed with more precise description of electron correlation in Quantum Monte Carlo or DFT-based GW methods.

Xiao, W; Geng, W T

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design and Operation of a High Pressure Reaction Cell for in situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of catalytic reactions have been instrumental in advancing the understanding of catalytic processes. These measurements require an in situ catalysis reaction cell with unique properties. Here we describe the design and initial operation of an in situ/operando catalysis reaction cell for transmission X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. The cell is designed: to be an ideal catalytic reactor with no mass transfer effects; to give the same conversion and selectivity under similar space velocities as standard laboratory micro-reactors; to be operational temperatures up to 600 {sup o}C and pressures up to 14 bar; to be X-ray transparent allowing XAS measurement to be collected in transmission for all elements with Z {>=} 23 (vanadium K-edge at 5.5 keV); to measure the actual catalyst bed temperature; to not use o-ring seals, or water cooling; to be robust, compact, easy to assemble, and use, and relatively low cost to produce. The heart of the cell is fabricated from an X-ray transparent beryllium tube that forms a plug flow reactor. XAFS data recorded during the reduction of a Re/{gamma}-A{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a function of hydrogen pressure from 0.05 to 8 bar, and from a Pt-Sn/{gamma}-A{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst during n-heptane reforming are given as initial examples of the versatility of the reactor.

Bare,S.; Yang, N.; Kelly, S.; Mickelson, G.; Modica, F.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

High pressure separation of higher hydrocarbons from natural gas with a continuous regeneration of the adsorbent by raw gas  

SciTech Connect

In natural gas production it is common practice to remove water and frequently also higher hydrocarbons from the gas stream in order to prevent the formation and accumulation of liquids in the downstream pipeline system. Gas drying by condensation at low temperatures, which is the normal practice, becomes increasingly ineffective with rising pressures. In this case adsorption or absorption processes must be applied in order to meet the gas specifications. During trials performed in one of BEB's North German gas fields, a selected adsorption process was tested in a pilot plant in cooperation between BEB and Lurgi. In particular, regeneration with heated raw gas at adsorption pressure was investigated. The suitability of the process was confirmed using activated carbon as an adsorbent. Based -1- on the data obtained from the test, the operating plant could be optimally designed. The latest environmental legislation was taken into account as regards both the disposal of used activated carbon and the avoidance of environmental pollution.

Kaliner, J.; Schwettmann, F.; May, H.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Lagrangian Trajectory View on Transport and Mixing Processes between the Eye, Eyewall, and Environment Using a High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport and mixing characteristics of a large sample of air parcels within a mature and vertically sheared hurricane vortex are examined. Data from a high-resolution (2-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical simulation of real-case Hurricane ...

Thomas A. Cram; John Persing; Michael T. Montgomery; Scott A. Braun

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

High temperature post-irradiation performance of spent pressurized-water-reactor fuel rods under dry-storage conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-irradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well characterized PWR rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510 and 571/sup 0/C in unlimited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding which decreases the internal rod pressures. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal FCCI layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized ..cap alpha..-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress-corrosion cracking or fuel pellet degradation. Using the Larson-Miller formulization, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C is recommended to ensure a 1000-year cladding lifetime. This accounts for crack propagation and assumes annealing of the irradiation-hardened cladding.

Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Stellrecht, D.E.; Pasupathi, V.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Properly synchronized measurements of droplet sizes for high-pressure intermittent coal-water slurry fuel sprays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation with a laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. A correlation of the SMD with the injection conditions was determined which should show a satisfactory agreement with the measured SMD data. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Prarie View RDF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PRAIRIE VIEW RDF PRAIRIE VIEW RDF 2 Prairie View RDF  Located at JAAP (approx. 40 miles southwest of Chicago), 223 acres on 455 Acre Parcel  Will County Owner; Waste Management, Operator  Maximum 23-Year Life WM/Will County Methane to Energy Plant  Landfill Contract Signed w/WM in 1997 w/Gas-to- Energy Plant Clause  County Retains Gas Rights &WM Installs Gas Collection System  WM owns Methane to Energy Plant &Tax Credits 3 CONTRACT PHASE  DOE Grant Applied 6/09  County Board Approves DOE EECBG Strategy 11/09  1 Million DOE Funds to Methane to Energy Plant  Schiff Harden Hired to Negotiate Gas to Energy Contract  February 2010 County Board Authorizes Contract Execution 4 5 METHANE TO ENERGY PLANT DETAILS  Waste Management Required To

397

Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (9) System Outline and Endurance Test of Low-Pressure Steam Injectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Steam Injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. We are developing technology for 'Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plants' in order to further improve the economy and safety of nuclear power plants. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying 'High-Efficiency SI', which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feedwater heaters and Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a Severe Accident-Free Concept). The innovative-simplified nuclear power plant consists of a simplified feedwater heating system, a passive core injection system and a passive containment cooling system. This report describes the results of the endurance and performance tests of low-pressure SIs for feedwater heaters with Jet-deaerator and core injection system. A part of this report are fruits of research which is carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), Toshiba, and 7 Universities in Japan, funded from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

Shuichi Ohmori; Michitsugu Mori; Shoji Goto [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan); Tadashi Narabayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Chikako Iwaki; Yutaka Asanuma [Toshiba Corporation (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

X-ray-induced dissociation of H.sub.2O and formation of an O.sub.2-H.sub.2 alloy at high pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel molecular alloy of O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 and a method of producing such a molecular alloy are provided. When subjected to high pressure and extensive x-radiation, H.sub.2O molecules cleaved, forming O--O and H--H bonds. In the method of the present invention, the O and H framework in ice VII was converted into a molecular alloy of O.sub.2 and H.sub.2. X-ray diffraction, x-ray Raman scattering, and optical Raman spectroscopy demonstrate that this crystalline solid differs from previously known phases.

Mao, Ho-kwang (Washington, DC); Mao, Wendy L. (Washington, DC)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

399

Failure Analysis of a 345 kV High-Pressure, Fluid-Filled Cable Insulated with Laminated Paper Polypropylene at New York Power Author ity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three cable pieces of a 345-kV high-pressure, fluid-filled, laminated paper151polypropylene (LPP) cable, each nearly 3 ft in length, were received from New York Power Authority in January 2010. The Detroit Edison Company performed the dissection and analysis to address the cause(s) of the failure that occurred in late December 2009 and that was experienced by this 10.1 circuit-mile cable that had been energized in service in May 1991. One of the pieces contained the failure, and the other two were adjace...

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Thermo-Mechanical Performance of 230-345kV High Pressure Pipe Type Cable Systems: Selection of Full Size Test Rig  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a front-end project to the wider experimental study of the thermo-mechanical performance of high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) transmission class cables in pipe systems. The project first reviews published work on the mechanisms of deterioration of HPFF cables due to thermo-mechanical bending activity (TMB). The principal mechanisms are the reduction in electrical strength caused by a) damage and opening of the outer electrostatic shield layers and b) the increase in the size of the fluid filled b...

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressures view" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Pressure Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Specifications for carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)...medium-strength carbon-molybdenum alloy

402

Dynamic Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The higher pressure range will cover the important application of gas turbine engine testing. Gas turbines are used for propulsion on aircraft and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Physico-chemical fracturing and cleaning of coal. [Treatment with CO/sub 2/ in water at high pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of producing a crushable coal and reducing the metallic values in coal represented by Si, Al, Ca, Na, K, and Mg, which comprises contacting a coal/water mix in a weight ratio of from about 4:1 to 1:6 in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at pressures of about 100 to 1400 psi and a minimum temperature of about 15/sup 0/C for a period of about one or more hours to produce a treated coal/water mix. In the process the treated coal/water mix has reduced values for Ca and Mg of up to 78% over the starting mix and the advantageous CO/sub 2/ concentration is in the range of about 3 to 30 g/L. Below 5 g/L CO/sub 2/ only small effects are observed and above 30 g/L no further special advantages are achieved. The coal/water ratios in the range 1:2 to 2:1 are particularly desirable and such ratios are compatible with coal water slurry applications.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

1983-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies of adsorbates on Pt(111): Studies of CO at high pressures and temperatures, coadsorbed with olefins and its role as a poison in ethylene hydrogenation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High pressure high temperature CO adsorption and coadsorption with ethylene and propylene on Pt(111) was monitored in situ with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). At high pressures and high temperatures, CO dissociates on a Pt(111) surface to form carbon. At 400 torr CO pressure and 673K, CO modifies the Pt(111) surface through a carbonyl intermediate, and dissociates to leave carbon on the surface. SFG was used to follow the CO peak evolution from monolayer adsorption in ultra high vacuum (UHV) to 400 torr CO pressure. At this high pressure, a temperature dependence study from room temperature to 823K was carried out. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to identify carbon on the surface CO coadsorption with ethylene and CO coadsorption with propylene studies were carried out with 2-IR 1-visible SFG. With this setup, two spectral ranges covering the C-H stretch range and the CO stretch range can be monitored simultaneously. The coadsorption study with ethylene reveals that after 5L ethylene exposure on a Pt(111) surface to form ethylidyne , CO at high pressures cannot completely displace the ethylidyne from the surface. Instead, CO first adsorbs on defect sites at low pressures and then competes with ethylidyne for terrace sites at high pressures. Propylene coadsorption with CO at similar conditions shows that propylidyne undergoes conformation changes with increased CO pressure and at 1 torr, is absent from the Pt(111) surface. Experiments on CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation was carried by 2-IR 1-visible SFG. At 1 torr CO,10 torr ethylene and 100 torr hydrogen, CO was found to block active sites necessary for ethylene hydrogenation, Above 425K, CO desorbs from the surface to allow ethylene hydrogenation to occur. The gas phase species were monitored by gas chromatography.

Kung, Kyle Yi

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Miniaturized pressurization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to pressurization systems and liquid rocket propulsion systems, and particularly to those used to attitude control or maneuvering of small space vehicles or airborne vehicles where the requirement for thrust is intermittent rather than continuous, and must be available rapidly upon demand. This invention also relates to increasing performance of such propulsion systems, by way of eliminating inert mass from the propulsion system. The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

Whitehead, J.C.; Swink, D.G.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

ParaView at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ParaView ParaView ParaView Introduction ParaView is an open-source, multi-platform data analysis and visualization application. ParaView users can quickly build visualizations to analyze their data using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The data exploration can be done interactively in 3D or programmatically using ParaView's batch processing capabilities. ParaView was developed to analyze extremely large datasets using distributed memory computing resources. It can be run on supercomputers to analyze datasets of terascale as well as on laptops for smaller data. Remote Visualization with ParaView ParaView is a client-server application. The ParaView client (or simply paraview) will run on your desktop while the server will run at the remote supercomputing site. The following describes the steps you will take to

407

Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks Douglas C. Elliott,* Gary G. Neuenschwander, Todd R. Hart, R. Scott catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been achieved in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst

408

Seafloor Pressure Measurements of Nonlinear Internal Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly resolved pressure measurements on the seafloor over New Jersey’s continental shelf reveal the pressure signature of nonlinear internal waves of depression as negative pressure perturbations. The sign of the perturbation is determined by ...

J. N. Moum; J. D. Nash

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Stereoscopic optical viewing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

Tallman, C.S.

1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

411

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions Jeppson, D.W.; Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.; Chou, B.E. (1978) 123 Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous electrolyte solutions at high temperatures and high pressures Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A. (1995) 102 Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions Maimoni, A. (1980) 95 Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection Daniela Rodica Radu (2005) 84 Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Zabetakis, M.G. (1964) 80 Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. (1996)

412

Most Viewed Documents - Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Most Viewed Documents - Chemistry Most Viewed Documents - Chemistry Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors. [249 refs] Zabetakis, M.G. (1964) Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous electrolyte solutions at high temperatures and high pressures Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A. (1995) Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark} Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Simonson, J.M.; Moore, R.C.; et al. (1995) Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions Maimoni, A. (1980) Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F. () Ultrasonic Sensor and Method of use Condreva, Kenneth J. (1999)

413

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing temperature and pressure with depth. While higher temperature decreases the drilling fluid’s viscosity due to thermal expansion, increased pressure increases its viscosity by compression. Under these extreme conditions, well control issues become more complicated and can easily be masked by methane and hydrogen sulfide solubility in oil-base fluids frequently used in HP/HT operations. Also current logging tools are at best not reliable since the anticipated bottom-hole temperature is often well above their operating limit. The Literature shows limited experimental data on drilling fluid properties beyond 350°F and 20,000 psig. The practice of extrapolation of fluid properties at some moderate level to extreme-HP/HT (XHP/HT) conditions is obsolete and could result in significant inaccuracies in hydraulics models. This research is focused on developing a methodology for testing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using an automated viscometer. This state-of-the-art viscometer is capable of accurately measuring drilling fluids properties up to 600°F and 40,000 psig. A series of factorial experiments were performed on typical XHP/HT oil-based drilling fluids to investigate their change in rheology at these extreme conditions (200 to 600°F and 15,000 to 40,000 psig). Detailed statistical analyses involving: analysis of variance, hypothesis testing, evaluation of residuals and multiple linear regression are implemented using data from the laboratory experiments. I have developed the FluidStats program as an effective statistical tool for characterizing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using factorial experiments. Results from the experiments show that different drilling fluids disintegrate at different temperatures depending on their composition (i.e. weighting agent, additives, oil/water ratio etc). The combined pressure-temperature effect on viscosity is complex. At high thresholds, the temperature effect is observed to be more dominant while the pressure effect is more pronounced at low temperatures. This research is vital because statistics show that well control incident rates for non- HP/HT wells range between 4% to 5% whereas for HP/HT wells, it is as high as 100% to 200%. It is pertinent to note that over 50% of the world’s proven oil and gas reserves lie below 14,000 ft subsea according to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Thus drilling in HP/HT environment is fast becoming a common place especially in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where HP/HT resistant drilling fluids are increasingly being used to ensure safe and successful operations.

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

CARS diagnostics of the burning of H{sub 2} - O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - O{sub 2} mixtures at high temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used to determine the parameters of gaseous combustion products of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen at high temperatures and