Sample records for high pressure steam

  1. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  2. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  3. Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of High Quality Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, J. M.; Coffield, R. D.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase pressure drop across a straight test pipe was experimentally determined for high Reynolds (Re) number steam flow for a flow quality range of 0.995 to 1.0. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties associated with the effects of two-phase flow on pressure drop. Two-phase flow develops in steam piping because a small fraction of the steam flow condenses due to heat loss to the surroundings. There has been very limited two-phase pressure drop data in open literature for the tested flow quality range. The two-phase pressure drop data obtained in this test has enabled development of a correlation between friction factor, Reynolds number, and flow quality.

  4. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  5. Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

  6. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  7. A shortened version of this paper appeared in IEEE Computer, October 1994. 1 HighPressure Steam Engines and Computer Software \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    A shortened version of this paper appeared in IEEE Computer, October 1994. 1 High­Pressure Steam the same mistakes. In particular, parallels exist between the early develop­ ment of high­pressure steam A History of the Growth of the Steam Engine (1883) Hero of Alexandria, who lived around 60 AD, con­ ducted

  8. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  9. Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

  10. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  11. Energy Management - Using Steam Pressure Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiandani, N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated steam contains heat in two different forms. Sensible heat and latent heat. Due to the nature of this vapor, the relative proportion of latent heat is higher at lower pressures compared to higher pressures. When steam is used for heating...

  12. Energy Management - Using Steam Pressure Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiandani, N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated steam contains heat in two different forms. Sensible heat and latent heat. Due to the nature of this vapor, the relative proportion of latent heat is higher at lower pressures compared to higher pressures. When steam is used for heating...

  13. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  14. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - use, and recovery. In addition to reduced energy losses, fuel consumption can be reduced, boiler efficiency can be improved, and process energy needs can be met with a reduced steam flow rate. Changes in system parameters can vary with the design... steam trap to discharge the required flow of condensate, resulting in water- logging of steam-heated equipment (e.g., dryers, water heaters, reactors). For example, consider a makeup air unit that operates at the main system pressure...

  15. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  16. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM PRESSURE REDUCTION, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ISSUES Jan Berry, CEM U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam Coordinator Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070 berryjb@ornl.gov Phone: 865-241-1939 Bob Griffin, PE Energy... Solutions Manager Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. P.O. Box 650, Scarborough, ON Canada, M1K 5E3 robert.griffin@enbridge.com Phone: 416-495-5298 Fax: 416-495-5331 Anthony L. Wright, Ph.D. U.S. DOE BestPractices Coordinator Oak Ridge National...

  17. Steam catalysis in CaO carbonation under low steam partial pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.J.; Xiao, Y.H. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CaO was widely used to capture CO{sub 2} in direct hydrogen production process, where steam always existed simultaneously. The effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance under low steam partial pressure was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The experimental results revealed that steam improved CaO carbonation performance significantly no matter whether Ca(OH){sub 2} was produced or not. At 823 K and 0.5 MPa of steam partial pressure, effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance could not be attributed mainly to production of Ca(OH){sub 2} because the hydration rate of CaO was very slow. The main reason was steam catalysis in CaO carbonation. Enhancement of steam on CaO carbonation performance without Ca(OH){sub 2} production could not be attributed to improvement of steam on the physical property, but to catalytic effect of steam. Effects of CaO precursors, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, steam partial pressure, and temperature with steam addition on CaO carbonation performance were also investigated.

  18. Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallery, S. J.

    Steam is the most common and economical way of transferring heat from one location to another. But most steam systems use the header pressure steam to do the job. The savings are substantially more than just the latent heat differences between...

  19. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  20. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  1. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  2. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry's knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200[degrees]F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000[degrees]F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900[degrees]F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500[degrees]F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a topping'' system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500[degrees]F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  3. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry`s knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200{degrees}F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000{degrees}F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900{degrees}F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500{degrees}F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a ``topping`` system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500{degrees}F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  4. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  5. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  6. A Computer Program for Simulating Transient Behavior in Steam Turbine Stage Pressure of AHWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to couple the Advanced Heavy water reactor (AHWR), which is being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, with a desalination plant. The objective of this coupling is to produce system make-up and domestic water. The proposed desalination plant needs about 1.9 kg/sec of steam and the minimum pressure requirement is 3 bars. The desalination plant can be fed with bled steam extracted from a suitable stage in low pressure turbine. As the turbine stage pressure changes with the load, it is essential to know the availability of bled steam at aforesaid pressure for various load condition. The objective of the present study is to identify a suitable extraction point so as to ensure availability of steam at desired condition for desalination plant, even at part load conditions. In order to fulfill the above objective a steam and feed system analysis code was developed which incorporates the mathematical formulation of different components of the steam and feed system such as, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines, re-heater, feed heaters etc. The dynamic equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the stage pressure at various load conditions. Based on the results obtained, the suitable extraction stage in LP turbine was selected. This enables to determine the lowest possible part load operation up to which availability of desalination plant could be ensured. (authors)

  7. HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    1 HIGH-TEMPERATURE STEAM-TREATMENT OF PEEK, PEKK, PBI, AND THEIR BLENDS: A SOLID-STATE NMR AND IR and their pure components after treating them with liquid water and steam at elevated temperatures and pressures. The pure polymer components and the PAEK-PBI (50 : 50 wt%) blends are steam-treated at 150 °C (302 °F

  8. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

  10. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opportunities. Often flanges, control valves, steam turbines, man ways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are bare and can significantly increase the steam demand. An insulation survey should be conducted of the steam, condensate... is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines...

  12. Visbreaking-enhanced thermal recovery method utilizing high temperature steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, W.R.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement efficiency of a steam drive process is improved and steam override reduced by rapidly injecting a predetermined amount of high temperature steam via an injection well into the formation to visbreak a portion of the oil in the formation prior to a steam drive wherein steam is injected into the formation via the injection well to displace oil to a spaced-apart production well through which oil is recovered. The visbroken oil provides a more favorable transition of mobility ratio between the phases in the formation thereby reducing viscous fingering and increasing the displacement efficiency of the steam drive. In addition, after a predetermined amount of high temperature steam has been injected into the formation, the formation may be allowed to undergo a soak period prior to the steam drive. The high temperature steam injection and soaking steps may be sequentially repeated for a plurality of cycles.

  13. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  14. High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide Søren Højgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. Høgh + O2 #12;Electrolysis of steam at high temperature Interesting because · Improved thermodynamic of electrolysis of steam Picture taken from E. Erdle, J. Gross, V. Meyringer, "Solar thermal central receiver

  15. Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. High-Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, A L; Trent, J W; See, E F; Glass, R S

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen economy will require readily available and affordable hydrogen fuel. Current methods of hydrogen production do not fulfill these requirements. We are working on an electrolyzer system that can provide distributed hydrogen production while taking advantage of the nation's existing natural gas infrastructure. Electrolysis is a promising hydrogen production technology both because of its ability to produce pure hydrogen from water and because it does not require large, centralized plants. Unlike other technologies, the cost of hydrogen production scales well from larger to smaller systems. Electrolysis units could be widely distributed and scaled to meet the hydrogen requirements of different users such as individual households, local fueling stations and industrial facilities. A significant drawback to traditional electrolysis is the large electricity consumption required to convert water to hydrogen and oxygen. The electricity requirements mean such systems are expensive to operate. In addition, if the electricity is provided from coal or gas-fired power plants, electrolytic hydrogen production does not mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The concept described in this report is intended to resolve some of the problems associated with electrolytic hydrogen production. By utilizing natural gas in place of air in the anode compartment in a solid oxide electrolyzer, the electricity requirements of the system are greatly reduced. The system has the capability to produce pure hydrogen, or hydrogen humidified to levels appropriate for direct use in a PEM fuel cell. With inherent electrochemical compression, the requirement for external compression for pressurization could be reduced. This technology offers numerous advantages for distributed hydrogen production of stationary and transportation hydrogen fuel cells. Our preliminary calculations indicate that using this concept, hydrogen could be produced at a cost competitive with gasoline (on a per gallon equivalent basis) while also lowering carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam...

  18. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators...

  19. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  20. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  1. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  2. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  3. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  4. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    problemA of water hammer and high back pressure. ? Exorbitantly hi~h percentage of cold trapA. ? External steam leaks within the steam trap stations, bypasA valves and/or strainer blowdown valvefl open, blowin~ steam. ! I ? Dirt nssociated... Trapping 2 Trap Installed Backwards 1 Misapplication of Technology 1 Strainer Blowdown Connections Capped 285 (*b) Test Tee Connections Capped 11 Trap Inlet Connected to Steam Line Strainer Blowdown Connection 3 Water Logged Coils (Vacuum Present) 7...

  5. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  6. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  7. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Chikako Iwaki [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Tadashi Narabayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m{sup 2} without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  8. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  9. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  11. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  12. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  13. Response of Soviet-designed VVER-440 steam generator vessel to pressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, J.M.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactors) pressurized water reactors use horizontal steam generators to transfer energy from the primary to secondary coolant systems (DOE/NE-0084 Revision 2, 1989). Primary coolant flowing from the reactor vessel enters the steam generator through a vertical, circular, manifold header that also serves as the tubesheet distributing coolant to the horizontal tube bundle. Primary coolant exits the tube bundle and steam generator through a second similar vertical manifold header. The header design includes the provision for access by a person to inspect the mainfolds through bolted down closure heads atop each manifold. The internal diameter of each header exceeds that of the connected primary coolant system piping. The postulated failure of a manifold closure head or the manifold itself provides a pathway for primary coolant to enter the secondary system. Steam formation due to flashing of primary coolant inside the steam generator secondary side region can result in pressurization of the steam generator shell to values above the nominal secondary side operating pressure. The present work involves the investigation of the consequences of manifold failure for the case of the VVER-440 reactor system. An analysis has been performed of the loadings upon and the mechanical response of the steam generator shell for the case of a postulated large break in the manifold wall. The objectives were to calculate the maximum pressure attained inside the shell and to predict the shell failure pressure as well as the failure mechanism. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Location of Leaks in Pressure Testable Direct Burial Steam Distribution Conduits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sittel, M. G.; Messock, R. K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , resulting in increased thermal energy losses and eventual damage to the steam line. Breaches in the outer conduit are difficult to locate, and damage to the steam line may progress until the entire line requires replacement. Thermal energy losses are high...

  15. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices Steam Technical

  16. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  17. Nitrogen at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure results for nitrogen are reviewed and discussed in terms of phenomena that occur at extreme conditions.

  18. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D [ORNL; Christopher, Timothy W [ORNL; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL reduce its overall utility costs by decreasing the amount of fuel used to generate steam. Reduced fuel consumption also decreased air emissions. These improvements also helped lower the risk of burn injuries to workers and helped prevent shrapnel injuries resulting from missiles produced by pressurized component failures. In most cases, the economic benefit and cost effectiveness of the SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project is reflected in payback periods of 1 year or less.

  19. Failure Pressure Estimates of Steam Generator Tubes Containing Wear-type Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Suk Chang; Jong-Min Kim; Nam-Su Huh; Young-Jin Kim [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Seong Sik Hwang; Joung-Soo Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is commonly requested that steam generator tubes with defects exceeding 40% of wall thickness in depth should be plugged to sustain all postulated loads with appropriate margin. The critical defect dimensions have been determined based on the concept of plastic instability. This criterion, however, is known to be too conservative for some locations and types of defects. In this context, the accurate failure estimation for steam generator tubes with a defect draws increasing attention. Although several guidelines have been developed and are used for assessing the integrity of defected tubes, most of these guidelines are related to stress corrosion cracking or wall-thinning phenomena. As some of steam generator tubes are also failed due to fretting and so on, alternative failure estimation schemes for relevant defects are required. In this paper, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses are carried out under internal pressure condition to simulate the failure behavior of steam generator tubes with different defect configurations; elliptical wastage type, wear scar type and rectangular wastage type defects. Maximum pressures based on material strengths are obtained from more than a hundred FE results to predict the failure of the steam generator tube. After investigating the effect of key parameters such as wastage depth, wastage length and wrap angle, simplified failure estimation equations are proposed in relation to the equivalent stress at the deepest point in wastage region. Comparison of failure pressures predicted according to the proposed estimation scheme with some corresponding burst test data shows good agreement, which provides a confidence in the use of the proposed equations to assess the integrity of steam generator tubes with wear-type defects. (authors)

  20. Reduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirsum Institute of Power Plant Technology, Steam and Gas Turbines, RWTH Aachen Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ingo RhleReduction of Film Coolant in High Pressure Turbines Bachelor Thesis in Computational Engineering Institute of Propulsion Technology, German Aerospace Center #12;Abstract Gas turbine development has been

  1. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  2. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of Staffing Model5ThomasEnergy ofCellHydrogenStayingPressure

  4. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  5. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G. (Ballston Spa, NY); Carberg, William George (Ballston Spa, NY); Jones, Charles Michael (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  6. Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cofield, R.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

  7. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  8. Effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell running on steam reformate of kerosene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A button solid oxide fuel cell with a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode and a nickel-YSZ anode was tested over a range of temperatures from 650 to 800C and a range of pressures from 101 to 724 kPa. The fuel was simulated steam-reformed kerosene and the oxidant was air. The observed increases in open circuit voltages (OCV) were accurately predicted by the Nernst equation. Kinetics also increased, although the power boost due to kinetics was about two thirds as large as the boost due to OCV. The total power boost in going from 101 to 724 kPa at 750C and 0.8 volts was 66%. Impedance spectroscopy demonstrated a significant decrease in electrodic losses at elevated pressures. Complex impedance spectra were dominated by a combination of low frequency processes that decreased markedly with increasing pressure. A composite of high-frequency processes also decreased with pressure, but to a lesser extent. An empirical algorithm that accurately predicts the increased fuel cell performance at elevated pressures was developed for our results and was also suitable for some, but not all, data reported in the literature.

  9. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  10. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

  11. High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Cladding for Nuclear Applications: Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, Kevin M; Garnier, John E; Sergey Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff; George W. Griffith; Shannong M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability of cladding materials under off-normal conditions is an important issue for the safe operation of light water nuclear reactors. Metals, ceramics, and metal/ceramic composites are being investigated as substitutes for traditional zirconium-based cladding. To support down-selection of these advanced materials and designs, a test apparatus was constructed to study the onset and evolution of cladding oxidation, and deformation behavior of cladding materials, under loss-of-coolant accident scenarios. Preliminary oxidation tests were conducted in dry oxygen and in saturated steam/air environments at 1000OC. Tube samples of Zr-702, Zr-702 reinforced with 1 ply of a -SiC CMC overbraid, and sintered a-SiC were tested. Samples were induction heated by coupling to a molybdenum susceptor inside the tubes. The deformation behavior of He-pressurized tubes of Zr-702 and SiC CMC-reinforced Zr-702, heated to rupture, was also examined.

  12. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  13. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  14. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  15. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  16. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature,...

  17. Corrosion of ceramics in high temperature steam environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gondolfe, J.M.; Arnold, D.T. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene is one of the principal building blocks in the petrochemical industry, and world-wide production and consumption have been steadily increasing. Production of ethylene is accomplished primarily by the pyrolytic stripping of hydrogen from ethane or a higher molecular weight hydrocarbon. This cracking process, sometimes referred to as steam cracking, is currently accomplished in metallic tubes in high temperature furnaces with a conversion efficiency, for ethane of 60-65%. Operation at significantly higher temperature could increase the efficiency as much as 20%, but materials with better high temperature strength would be required. To help identify suitable materials, tests have been conducted to determine the behavior of selected ceramic materials in environments similar to those anticipated for a high-efficiency, advanced steam cracking system. The effects of exposure on weight change, mechanical strength, and microstructure have been determined in a series of 100 hour tests. In addition, 500 hour tests have been conducted to determine the effect of time on material behavior. From these tests, several strong candidates have been identified.

  18. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  19. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  20. Computer Optimization of Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, C. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total...

  1. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  2. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  3. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  4. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

  5. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  6. Steam Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    . But he uses it to drive a steam turbine which in turn drives a pump. The turbine expands the steam to a lower pressure where it is then condensed and the condensate returned to the boiler house. Let's find out what the steam is worth to this user. His... while the 15 psig condensing turbine is a good candidate to be replaced with an electric motor. But, whatever the case is, the cost of the steam has nothing to do with its value. The point of the above is that this paper is about COST...

  7. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  8. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  9. Steam quality determination using pressure and temperature measurements in a venturi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, Danny Leo

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FACTORS: A. TWO PHASE FLOW SPLITTING AT PIPE TEES. B. HEAT TRANSFER. C. LIQUID-FALL OUT IN WELLBORE. Fig. 1 ? Steam diatrihutian ~ facilities The vapor part of steam typically contains ~ 2 to 3 times as much heat enezgy as the liquid part. The amount... heat eIa21angar 10 Ns[hwB - hw))], ( BZU/HR ) (4) Tbe enerep lost by the water to the envimrmmnt ~ the pipe and insulation is given by: L? T Q ~ 1/2 Ks ln(d2/dl) + 1/2 Kins In(d2/d2), (BIU/HR) (5) 'ihe energy exiting the steam tube is given by...

  10. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

  11. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  12. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  13. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  14. Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phase transformation. Citation: Xiao HY, FX Zhang, F Gao, M Lang, RC Ewing, and WJ Weber.2010."Zirconate pyrochlores under high pressure."Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics....

  15. Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

  16. Soot particle aerosol dynamics at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA). Physics Dept.); Kennedy, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have used detailed calculations to analyze the coagulation dynamics of a soot aerosol at high pressures (20 and 50 atm). They find that the soot size distribution is altered compared to lower-pressure conditions because the mean free path at high pressures is reduced to the point that the particles are similar in size to the mean free path. At lower pressures the form of the size distribution becomes constant (self-preserving) in time, allowing optical measurements to be easily interpreted. However, the authors find that at pressures above about 5 atm the shape of the size distribution continually changes. As a result, proper and accurate interpretation of optical data at high pressures is more difficult than at lower pressures.

  17. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

  18. Portable high precision pressure transducer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

  19. Experimental investigation of pressure and blockage effects on combustion limits in H{sub 2}-air-steam mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, M.P.; Berman, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyer, R.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with hydrogen-air-steam mixtures, such as those found within a containment system following a reactor accident, were conducted in the Heated Detonation Tube (43 cm diameter and 12 m long) to determine the region of benign combustion; i.e., the region between the flammability limits and the deflagration-to-detonation transition limits. Obstacles were used to accelerate the flame; these include 30% blockage ratio annular rings, and alternate rings and disks of 60% blockage ratio. The initial conditions were 110 {degree}C and one or three atmospheres pressure. A benign burning region exists for rich mixtures, but is generally smaller than for lean mixtures. Effects of the different obstacles and of the different pressures are discussed.

  20. High-resolution method applied to premixing phase of steam explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovar, M.; Mavko, B.; Marn, J. [Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the improved version of the general two-dimensional, multiphase flow code ESE. The ESE code has been developed to model the mixing process and interaction of molten core debris with water. In case of a steam explosion, a trigger may produce locally enhanced heat transfer and pressurization and may evolve into a shock propagating through the coarse mixture. The propagation phase of the interaction is not modeled by the code; however, the ESE provides for initial condition evolution in time. The indication of the amount of well-mixed melt at the time of the trigger occurrence can be deduced based on the code`s results. The objective of this work is to present the advantages of the high-resolution method applied to a particular set of partial differential equations and to incorporate these advantages into a code that was conceived using less traveled paths, namely, ensemble averaging and use of available data in probabilistic density functions describing momentum and energy cofluctuation tensors.

  1. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  2. Longevity evaluation for optimum development in a liquid dominated geothermal field; Effects of interaction of reservoir pressure and fluid temperature on steam production at operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanano, M.; Takahashi, M. (Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., 24 Ukai, Takizawa-mura, Iwate 020-01 (JP)); Hirako, Y.; Nakamura, H. (Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., 8-4 Koami-cho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku. Tokyo 103 (JP)); Fuwa, S. (Cosco Co., Ltd., 4-9-12 Takatanobaba, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160 (JP)); Itoi, R. (Geothermal Research Center, Kyushu Univ., 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816 (JP))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam production rate of a well at fixed operating conditions in a liquid-dominated geothermal field is reduced at first by a decline in reservoir pressure and then by a decrease in fluid temperature, if reinjected water returns to the production well. In many cases, the fluid temperature decrease reduces the steam production rate more than does the reservoir pressure decline. Those effects should therefore be taken into due account in the evaluation of the longevity of an area, because sufficient longevity and recoverable electric energy are the minimum requirements for planning field development.

  3. High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Craig W.

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia and water are major components of many planetary bodies, from comets and icy moons such as Saturn's Titan to the interiors of the planets Neptune and Uranus. Under a range of high pressures and/or low temperatures known ...

  4. High-pressure synthesis of electronic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, George B. S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure techniques have become increasingly important in the synthesis of ceramic and metallic solids allowing the discovery of new materials with interesting properties. In this research dense solid oxides have ...

  5. Steam quality determination using pressure and temperature measurements in a venturi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, Danny Leo

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEM gMZIY DETEBKBlATZCN USZNQ ZBESSURE AND TEMPERATURE NEASOREMENTS ZN A VENEUR DANNY ZZD O'NEIL Submitted to ths Graduate Collage of Texas A&M Vhiversity in partial fulfillment of the raquizaaaIts for the degree of Dacaabsr 1987 Ma...)or Subject: Petroleum Er~iug STEAM ~ DETERMINATION DSING ERESSURE AND TENPERAIURE MEASDRIMENTS IN A ~ DANNy IEO O' NEIL Ap~ as to style and content by: Richard A. Startzman (Chair of Comuttee) ~ R. Hall ~) W. . Von Gonten ( of Departamnt) Decmnber...

  6. High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartment ofWorkshop

  7. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  8. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  9. High pressure ceramic heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  10. High-Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.; Brockmann, J.; Pilch, M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zion Probabilistic Safety Study (ZPSS) envisions accident sequences that could lead to failure of the reactor vessel while the primary system is pressurized. The resulting ejection of molten core material into the reactor cavity followed by the blowdown of steam and hydrogen is shown to cause the debris to enter into the containment region. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program has been developed to provide an experimental and analytical investigation of the scenario described above. One-tenth linear scale models of the Zion cavity region will be used to investigate the debris dispersal phenomena. Smaller-scale experiments (SPIT-tests) are also used to study high-velocity jets, jet-water interactions, and 1/20th scale cavity geometries. Both matrices are developed using a factorial design approach. The document describes certain aspects of the ZPSS ex-vessel phenomena, the experimental matrices, test equipment, and instrumentation, and the program's analytical efforts. Preliminary data from SPIT testing are included.

  11. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  12. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650C to 800C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650C to 760C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  13. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  14. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Abstract: A...

  15. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines...

  16. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators This tip sheet outlines the benefits of...

  17. advanced high pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interference with increased pressure. We Lee, Tonghun 87 Selection of High Strength Encapsulant for MEMS Devices Undergoing High Pressure Packaging CERN Preprints Summary:...

  18. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

    1981-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  19. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

  20. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  1. Dynamics of Low-Pressure and High-Pressure Fuel Cell Air Supply System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    comparing the low pressure system with the high- pressure system equipped with a high-speed compressor pressure of the FC that is defined as the pressure at which the reactant hydrogen and oxygen (air) are delivered to the FC stack flow fields. In the case of stored compressed hydrogen the pressure of the cathode

  2. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  3. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  4. varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggle, Peter J.

    varicose veins smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack asthma low blood pressure alzheimer's cancer diabetes kidney failure dementia smoking obesity swine flu high blood pressure parkinson's stress depression muscle stiffness heart attack

  5. Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Anup

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

  6. Systems Engineering Provides Successful High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Park; Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes two Systems Engineering Studies completed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the High Temperature Stream Electrolysis (HTSE) process. HTSE produces hydrogen from water using nuclear power and was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integration with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The first study was a reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) analysis to identify critical areas for technology development based on available information regarding expected component performance. An HTSE process baseline flowsheet at commercial scale was used as a basis. The NGNP project also established a process and capability to perform future RAM analyses. The analysis identified which components had the greatest impact on HTSE process availability and indicated that the HTSE process could achieve over 90% availability. The second study developed a series of life-cycle cost estimates for the various scale-ups required to demonstrate the HTSE process. Both studies were useful in identifying near- and long-term efforts necessary for successful HTSE process deployment. The size of demonstrations to support scale-up was refined, which is essential to estimate near- and long-term cost and schedule. The life-cycle funding profile, with high-level allocations, was identified as the program transitions from experiment scale R&D to engineering scale demonstration.

  7. Polymerization of Formic Acid under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A F; Manaa, M R; Zaug, J M; Fried, L E; Montgomery, W B

    2004-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report combined Raman, infrared (IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, along with ab initio calculations on formic acid under pressure up to 50 GPa. Contrary to the report of Allan and Clark (PRL 82, 3464 (1999)), we find an infinite chain low-temperature Pna2{sub 1} structure consisting of trans molecules to be a high-pressure phase at room temperature. Our data indicate the symmetrization and a partially covalent character of the intra-chain hydrogen bonds above approximately 20 GPa. Raman spectra and XRD patterns indicate a loss of the long-range order at pressures above 40 GPa with a large hysteresis at decompression. We attribute this behavior to a three-dimensional polymerization of formic acid.

  8. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  9. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  10. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  11. Development, construction, and use of pneumometric tubes for measurement of steam flow in the steam lines of PVG-1000 at NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunov, Yu. S.; Ageev, A. G.; Vasil'eva, R. V.; Korol'kov, B. M. [FGUP 'Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center for NPP Safety' (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the direct measurement of steam flow in steam lines after a steam generator, which utilizes a special design of pneumometric tubes and a computing unit that accounts for variation in steam pressure, has been developed to improve the quality of water-level regulation in the steam generators of VVER-1000 power-generating units in the stationary and transitional modes. The advantage of the pneumometric tubes consists in their structural simplicity, high erosion resistance, and absence of irrevocable losses during measurement of steam flow. A similar measurement system is used at foreign NPP. The measurement system in question has been placed in experimental service at the No. 3 unit of the Balakovo NPP, and has demonstrated its worthiness. This measurement system can also be used to determine steam flow in the steam lines of NPP units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors, and PBMK-1000 power-generating units.

  12. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department of Energy $18UnrevisedCool Roof InfrastructureLow-Pressure

  13. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  14. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers New Training on Energy6

  15. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  16. High temperature erosion and fatigue resistance of a detonation gun chromium carbide coating for steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quets, J.M.; Walsh, P.N. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Srinivasan, V. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Tucker, R.C. Jr. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium carbide based detonation gun coatings have been shown to be capable of protecting steam turbine components from particle erosion. To be usable, however, erosion resistant coatings must not degrade the fatigue characteristics of the coated components. Recent studies of the fatigue properties of a detonation gun coated martensitic substrate at 538 C (1,000 F) will be presented with an emphasis on its long term performance. This study will show the retention of acceptable fatigue performance of coated substrates into the high cycle regime, and will include a discussion on the mechanism of fatigue.

  17. Location of Leaks in Pressure Testable Direct Burial Steam Distribution Conduits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sittel, M. G.; Messock, R. K.

    are ~xcavated for repair. We have successfully used this system at several locations, and in a variety of soil conditions. Tracer gas leak testing provides an effective and inexpensive method to evaluate underground conduit systems. Performed on a regular... containing all equipment to accomplish the testing is also described. ~iAACERGAS Sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) has been chosen as a tracer gas because: a) it is chemically inert, non-toxic, and has negligible pollution potential; b) it is highly...

  18. Understanding the Mechanism of Highly Efficient Nanoparticle-Mediated Conversion of Light to Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conversion of Light to Steam Nathaniel J. Hogan,1 Alexander Urban,2 Alberto Pimpinelli,3 Ciceron Ayala in the application of light-harvesting nanoparticles as efficient producers of solar steam. With broad the mechanism whereby such particles convert light into usable steam is a crucial step. Much debate has centered

  19. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking the performance of extraction, back-pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part of minimising energy and maintenance costs for large process industries. A thorough understanding of key equipment performance characteristics...

  20. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  1. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  2. High pressure ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel. The discharge phase. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.M.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk-assessment studies identified potential accident sequences in which reactor vessel failure occurs while the primary system is at elevated pressure. The phenomenology of the discharge phase is reviewed here. We propose an improved model for hole ablation following vessel failure, and we compare the model with experiment data. Gas blowthrough is identified as a mechanism that allows steam to escape through the vessel breach before melt ejection is complete. Gas blowthrough leads to pneumatic atomization of the remaining melt before significant depressurization of the primary system occurs.

  3. High Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    this mounting wax, the sample will be exposed to temperature between 150 and 200 C for a period of 3-10 minutes, and steam) ___Toluene (GE varnish solvent) ___N,N-Dimethyacetamide (used to dissolve conductive epoxy

  4. High-pressure coal fuel processor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  5. accessing high pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    place, rem... Liva, Gianluigi; Chiani, Marco 2010-01-01 102 Selection of High Strength Encapsulant for MEMS Devices Undergoing High Pressure Packaging CERN Preprints Summary:...

  6. Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering, Edited by Maximillian Lackner,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard S.

    [2]. Furthermore, gas turbine combustion pres- sures have been increasing at a near linear rateFundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering of the following chapter is to present an overview of the fundamentals of combustion processes in high pressure

  7. analyzing steam generator: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator,...

  8. advanced steam generators: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator,...

  9. asco steam generators: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator,...

  10. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these structural oddities to conform to more conventional ...

  11. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  13. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  14. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  15. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  16. Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Competition between vitrification and crystallization of methanol at high pressure Marco J. P methanol at high pressure up to 33 GPa at room temperature with x-ray diffraction, optical polarization and vitrification is observed when methanol is superpressed beyond the freezing pressure of 3.5 GPa: between 5

  17. Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Structure of crystalline methanol at high pressure David R. Allan Department of Physics structure, including all atomic positions, of methanol at high pressure and room temperature pressure of methanol is 3.5 GPa. In practice however, it is very easy to superpress the liquid phase

  18. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  19. Corrosion and Creep of Candidate Alloys in High Temperature Helium and Steam Environments for the NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, Gary; Jones, J. W.

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project aims to understand the processes by which candidate materials degrade in He and supercritical water/steam environments characteristic of the current NGNP design. We will focus on understanding the roles of temperature, and carbon and oxygen potential in the 750-850 degree C range on both uniform oxidation and selective internal oxidation along grain boundaries in alloys 617 and 800H in supercritical water in the temperature range 500-600 degree C; and examining the application of static and cyclic stresses in combination with impure He environments in the temperature rang 750-850 degree C; and examining the application of static and cyclic stresses in combination with impure He environments in the temperature range 750-850 degree C over a range of oxygen and carbon potentials in helium. Combined, these studies wil elucidate the potential high damage rate processes in environments and alloys relevant to the NGNP.

  20. High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid-state NMR study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid 2014 Keywords: Steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, PEKK Solid-state NMR Water and D2O uptake polymers a b with D2O steam at temperatures of 150 and 315 C. All samples are studied by TGA, IR, 13 C CP/MAS, 1 H

  1. High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid-State NMR Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    1 High-Temperature Steam-Treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK Polymers with H2O and D2O: A Solid Supplementary Information Figure S1. TGA of melt-molded PBI after stirring in H2O at RT and steam-treatment with H2O at 150 °C and 315 °C. Figure S2. TGA of melt-molded PEEK after stirring in D2O at RT and steam

  2. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  3. Elasticity of Materials at High Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleason, Arianna Elizabeth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    implications for lower mantle mineralogy, Earth Planet. Sci.C.R. (1998), Lower mantle mineralogy and the geophysical,in Ultrahigh-Pressure Mineralogy: Physics and Chemistry of

  4. Evidence of Tetragonal Nanodomains in the high pressure polymorph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehm, L.; Borkowski, L.A.; Parise J.B.; Ghose, S.; Chen, Z.

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The pressure induced P4mm {yields} Pm{bar 3}m phase transition in BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite was investigated by x-ray total scattering. The evolution of the structure was analyzed by fitting pair distribution functions over a pressure range from ambient pressure up to 6.85(7) GPa. Evidence for the existence of tetragonal ferroelectric nanodomains at high pressure was found. The average size of the nanodomains in the high-pressure phase decreases with increasing pressure. Extrapolation of the domain size to pressures higher than studied experimentally suggests a disappearance of the ferroelectric domains at about 9.3(5) GPa and a cubic symmetry of BaTiO{sub 3} high-pressure phase.

  5. Steam Sterilization Cycles for Lab Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Steam Sterilization Cycles for Lab Applications Presented by Gary Butler STERIS Life Sciences August 2009 #12;Early Steam Sterilizers Koch Upright Sterilizer · First Pressurized Sterilizer · First OPERATING END (NO PRINTER) PRIMARY OPERATING END WITH PRINTER SAFETY VALVE CHAMBER PRESSURE GAUGE Steam

  6. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Arnold D. (Alameda, CA)

    1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1999-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  8. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #20 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy using Fues Cells Webinar, July0 Replace Pressure-Reducing

  9. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay; Kumfer, Benjamin

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressed by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for optimization. The results reveal that for the SPOC design, absorption and emission due to particles is the dominant factor for determining the wall heat flux. The mechanism of radiative trapping of energy within the high-temperature flame region and the approach to utilizing this mechanism to control wall heat flux are described. This control arises, by design, from the highly non-uniform (non-premixed) combustion characteristics within the SPOC boiler, and the resulting gradients in temperature and particle concentration. Finally, a simple method for estimating the wall heat flux in pressurized combustion systems is presented.

  10. High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles...

  11. High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: structural material at high pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structural material at high pressure ECIS-I2CNER: Hydrogen Infrastructure Research Aids Energy Independence Goal On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Livermore Valley Open Campus...

  13. Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National laboratories Contact Us If you are interested in working with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory, please contact: ESIF Manager Carolyn Elam...

  14. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  15. Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Floating ring seals for compressors: leakage and force coefficients, seal lock up and effect on rotor stability, recommendations to reduce seal cross-coupled effects. Long oil seals as pressure barriers in industrial mixers: leakage and force...

  16. Optimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the medium pressure manifold (nominally operated at 14 bar), through a steam turbine that can be usedOptimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam Plant of a Paper Mill KEYWORDS: Model Predictive Control, Improved Efficiency, Optimisation, Power and Steam Supply System

  17. Compatibility of selected ceramics with steam-methane reformer environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Howell, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, J.J.; Rosenberg, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) hasa conversion efficiency of about 85%. Replacement of metal tubes in the reformer with ceramic tubes offers the potential for operation at temperatures high enough to increase the efficiency to 98-99%. However, the two candidate ceramic materials being given strongest consideration, sintered alpha Si carbide and Si carbide particulate-strengthened alumina, have been shown to react with components of the reformer environment. Extent of degradation as a function of steam partial pressure and exposure time has been studied, and results suggest limits under which these structural ceramics can be used in advanced steam-methane reformers.

  18. Synthesis, structure and properties of high pressure and ambient pressure ternary vanadium oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markkula, Mikael

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal oxides have been extensively studied during past decades. The purpose of this research was to synthesize new or little characterised transition metal oxides using high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) ...

  19. A temperature compensated pressure transducer for high temperature, high pressure applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippka, Sandra Margaret

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and content by: 2/J David G. ansson (Chair ol' Committee) c. Y~ Christian P Burger (i&Iember) Randall Getger ( Member) 5wc Fr~. Walter F. Bradley (Head of Department) May 1991 ABSTRACT A Temperature Compensated Pressure Transducer for High... of the light beam. A compensation schenle is provided through the use of thermally arljusting reflecting surfaces These surfaces can adjust for temperatures up to 1000'F with less than a. I, c error. The final light beam movenlent across the photodiode face...

  20. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  1. High pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating in ice condenser containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Carroll, D.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A response of a typical ice condenser containment to a high pressure melt dispersal accident has been studied. While ice beds may be effective in reducing the potential loading caused by direct heating of the containment atmosphere, analyses suggest two other modes of containment failure that have not been previously identified. Calculations with the CONTAIN code indicate that ejected core debris may interact with steam from the primary system, generating sufficient hydrogen to threaten containment integrity. Further, if the debris ejected into the cavity promptly fails the seal table, the dispersed material could enter the in-core instrument room and attack the containment liner. The timing of the failure of the seal table is highly dependent on the characteristics of the debris-to-steel energy transfer.

  2. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J. [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510 (United States)] [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510 (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure Mainak Mookherjee1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stixrude, Lars

    LETTERS Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure Mainak Mookherjee1 , Lars Stixrude2 & Bijaya Karki3 The structure and physical properties of hydrous silicate melts and the solubility of water in melts over most in structure to our finding that the water­silicate system becomes increasingly ideal at high pressure: we find

  4. accompanying high-pressure phase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure cryocooling Abstract High-pressure methods for solving Gruner, Sol M. 58 High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary:...

  5. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  6. Steam Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid...

  7. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  8. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  9. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  10. Lithium, compression and high-pressure structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olinger, B.; Shaner, J.W.

    1983-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium is found to transform from a body-centered cubic (bcc) to a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure at 6.9 gigapascals (69 kilobars) and 296 kelvin. The relative volume of the bcc structured lithium at 6.9 gigapascals is 0.718, and the fcc structure is 0.25 percent denser. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative for the bcc structure are 11.57 gigapascals and 3.4, and for the fcc structure are 13.1 gigapascals and 2.8. Extrapolation of the bcc-fcc phase boundary and the melting curve indiactes a triple point around 15 gigapascals and 500 kelvin.

  11. High pressure apparatus for transport properties study in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsmadi, A. M. (Abdel M.); Nakotte, H. (Heinrich); Honda, F.; Sechovsky, V. (Vladimir); Mikulina, O. (Olga); Kamarad, J.; Lacerda, A. H. (Alex H.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed a high pressure apparatus for measuring electrical-transport properties at low temperatures, high magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar. Details of the high-pressure cell and an exemplary study on UNiAI are described and discussed briefly.

  12. Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    715 Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan Room 1D-234, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, U scattering at steady-state and pulsed sources are reviewed. The pressure cells available at most neutron 10 GPa have been made. For elastic scattering, a comparison is made between neutron scattering and X

  13. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  14. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  15. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  16. Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

  17. High-pressure computational and experimental studies of energetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    On account of the high temperatures and pressures experienced by energetic materials during deflagration and detonation, it is important to know not only the physical properties of these materials at ambient temperatures ...

  18. DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to review the progress and plans...

  19. Performance Assessment of Pressurized Stairs in High Rise Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellido, Carlos; Quiroz, Antonio; Panizo, Alfonso; Torero, Jose L

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized stair cases are an important part of the fire safety strategy of high rise buildings. Long egress times are compensated by creating safe environments within egress staircases allowing the displacement time ...

  20. High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valco, Thomas Donald

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject...: Agricultural Engineering HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Charlie G. Coble (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Edward A. Haler (Head of Department) Mr. William H. Aldred...

  1. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantums then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel systems performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of smart tanks that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of Cool Fuel technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  2. High-Pressure Flame Speed Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football FancyDepartment of

  3. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  4. Calcium peroxide from ambient to high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Joseph R.; Needs, Richard J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    of the University of Cambridge High Performance Computing Service (http://www.hpc.cam.ac.uk/), as well as the ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Ser- vice (http://www.archer.ac.uk/). Financial support was provided by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Re- search...

  5. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  6. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  7. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L. (Espanola, NM); Morris, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  8. Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei 1981-

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    contains high percentage of Nitrogen, the heating value of the gasification gas is very low. The oxygen-blow gasification produce a syngas with medium heating value and steam blow gasification lead to the production of a syngas with an acceptable HHV... schematic flow diagram of an integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plan. Coal, heavy petroleum residues, or biomass is gasified in the gasifier using air or steam media to generate syngas under high temperature and pressure. The syngas was first...

  9. Project DEEP STEAM: third meeting of the technical advisory panel, Bakersfield, CA, March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Donaldson, A. B.; Mulac, A. J.; Krueger, D. A.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The third meeting of the technical advisory panel for the Deep Steam project was held in March 1980 in Bakersfield, California. The following seven papers were presented: Materials Studies; Insulation/Packer Simulation Test; Enhanced Recovery Packer; High Pressure Downhole Steam Generator; Lower Pressure Downhole Steam Generator; Physical Simulations; and Field Testing. The panel made many recommendations, some of which are: shell calcium silicate insulation should be included in the injection string modification program; for metal packer, consider age hardening alloys, testing with thermal cycling, intentionally flawed casing, and operational temperatures effect on differential expansion, plus long term tests under temperature and corrosive environment; for minimum stress packer, consider testing environment carefully as some elastomers are especially susceptible to oil, oxygen, and combustion gases; for downhole steam generator, quality of water required with new low pressure combustion design needs to be investigated; in field testing, materials coupons, for corrosion monitoring, should be an integral part of field test operations.

  10. Reinvestigation of high pressure polymorphism in hafnium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, K. K., E-mail: kkpandey@barc.gov.in; Sharma, Surinder M. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Gyanchandani, Jyoti; Dey, G. K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Somayazulu, M. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. 20015 (United States); Sikka, S. K. [Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi-110 002 (India)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a recent controversy about the high pressure polymorphism of Hafnium (Hf). Unlike, the earlier known ??? structural transition at 38??8?GPa, at ambient temperature, Hrubiak et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 111, 112612 (2012)] did not observe it till 51?GPa. They observed this transition only at elevated temperatures. We have reinvestigated the room temperature phase diagram of Hf, employing x-ray diffraction (XRD) and DFT based first principles calculations. Experimental investigations have been carried out on several pure and impure Hf samples and also with different pressure transmitting media. Besides demonstrating the significant role of impurity levels on the high pressure phase diagram of Hf, our studies re-establish room temperature ??? transition at high pressures, even in quasi-hydrostatic environment. We observed this transition in pure Hf with equilibrium transition pressure P{sub o}?=?44.5?GPa; however, with large hysteresis. The structural sequence, transition pressures, the lattice parameters, the c/a ratio and its variation with compression for the ? and ? phases as predicted by our ab-initio scalar relativistic (SR) calculations are found to be in good agreement with our experimental results of pure Hf.

  11. Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mir Muddassir

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling. II. Flooding of coils with condensate and its subsequent freezing when outside air temperature falls below 32?F. III. Increased maintenance cost due to water hammer, corrosion of coils in the presence of non-condensable gases and leaking steam... monotonically as the steam pressure increases, a higher steam pressure may lead to overheating of the air and result in simultaneous heating and cooling. In addition to energy waste due to simultaneous heating and cooling, an improper operating strategy can...

  12. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

  13. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Bourdon Steam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator Cliff Lescenski Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley Equipment Maintenance Robert Earle Equipment

  14. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T=1 49 oc alternate T 204 oc some T= 204 oc atternote 2 4 6 6 10 12 Number of Passes o el 0 E ta el J O Sl o el I 0 0. 9 0. 8 0. 7 0. 6 0. 5 0, 4 0. 3 02 0. 1 0. 0 contac t pressure 1. 4 MPa T= 93 aC some T= 93a...C alternate ? a ? T=149 OC Same T=149 ocalternate T=204 oc same T=204 oc alternate 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Number of Passes 1. 0 0. 9 0. 8 CL I3 07 0 0. 6 le 0. 5 ln 0. 4 0 0. 3 o 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 contac t pressure 2. 1 MPa I . z' ~ T= 93 oC some...

  15. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  16. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  17. A Formulation for the Relative Permittivity of Water and Steam to High Temperatures and Pressures Evolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Don

    fellow, with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the US Army Research Institute, and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. More recently, Dr. Potter has been involved with the USDA Forest Service doing (cell membrane electrophysiology, intracellular biochemical processes) and geophysical

  18. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy

  19. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  20. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  1. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

  2. Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

  3. Carbon Neutral Production Of Syngas Via High Temperature Electrolytic Reduction Of Steam And CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Stoots; J. O'Brien; J. Hartvigsen

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the most recent results of experiments conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) studying coelectrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in solid-oxide electrolysis stacks. Two 10-cell planar stacks were tested under various gas compositions, operating voltages, and operating temperatures. The tests were heavily instrumented, and outlet gas compositions were monitored with a gas chromatograph. Measured outlet compositions, open cell potentials, and coelectrolysis thermal neutral voltages compared reasonably well with a coelectrolysis computer model developed at the INL. Stack ASRs did not change significantly when switching from electrolysis to coelectrolysis operation.

  4. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  5. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Trimmer Dist. Condenser Turbine Steam Leaks LP TurbineWaste Heat Trimmer Turbine Steam Leaks LP Turbine CondenserHR) CARRIED BY LP TURBINE STEAM. *STC OFL RH ll~ PRESSURE

  6. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  7. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Guest disorder and high pressure behavior of argon hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Tulk, C.A.; Klug, D.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Ehm, L.; Molaison, J.J.; Parise, J.B.; Simonson, J.M. (NRCC); (SBU); (ORNL)

    2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of argon hydrate was studied at ambient pressure and low temperature, and between 1.7 and 4.2 GPa at 295 K. This analysis produced a single Ar guest atom, positionally disordered off-center in the large cages of sII. Above 1.7 GPa Ar clathrate transformed to a mixture of a body-centered orthorhombic filled-ice phase, which can be viewed as a polytype of ice-Ih, and high pressure forms of pure ice. The guest disorder is further substantiated by analysis of the guest to host ratio in this high pressure filled-ice structure. The bulk modulus of Ar filled-ice found to be 11.7 {+-} 0.4 GPa.

  9. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  10. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  11. High-temperature pressure-coupled ultrasonic waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caines, M.J.

    1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure coupled ultrasonic waveguide is provided to which one end may be attached a transducer and at the other end a high temperature material for continuous ultrasonic testing of the material. The ultrasonic signal is coupled from the waveguide into the material through a thin, dry copper foil.

  12. Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other The NHLBI Information Center is a service of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI, patients, and the public about the treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of heart, lung, and blood diseases

  13. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    in sellable power output as a result of improved turbine efficiency. The Lyondell facility is a combined cycle power plant where a gas turbine: heat recovery system supplies steam to the steam turbine. Since this steam is a bypropuct of the gas turbine...steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits...

  14. ExxonMobile Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, T.

    ? Conventional boilers ? Gas turbine generators/ heat recovery steam generators ? Waste heat recovery boilers ? Steam is distributed and consumed at multiple locations and at various levels ? Evolution across the site can lead to isolated steam imbalances 4... the chemical plant boundaries ? The Refinery had a need for this valuable energy resource. ? A project was conceived to install piping and control systems to export the excess medium pressure steam to the adjacent Refinery where the steam could be more...

  15. Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davani, Ehsan

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling the performance of high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) natural gas reservoirs requires the understanding of gas behavior at such conditions. In particular, gas viscosity is an important fluid property that directly affects fluid flow...

  16. Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zheng 1983-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of cemented sections in High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells. The existing analysis shows that, in the perforation zones, casing/cement is subject to instability, particularly in the presence of cavities. This dissertation focuses on the instability...

  17. Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

  18. Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Steam Systems Training: Steam Systems April 16, 2014 - 6:31pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who...

  19. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  20. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  1. High-pressure lubricity at the meso- and nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; N. Varini; E. Tosatti

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase of sliding friction upon increasing load is a classic in the macroscopic world. Here we discuss the possibility that friction rise might sometimes turn into a drop when, at the mesoscale and nanoscale, a confined lubricant film separating crystalline sliders undergoes strong layering and solidification. Under pressure, transitions from N to N-1 layers may imply a change of lateral periodicity of the crystallized lubricant sufficient to alter the matching of crystal structures, influencing the ensuing friction jump. A pressure-induced friction drop may occur as the shear gradient maximum switches from the lubricant middle, marked by strong stick-slip with or without shear melting, to the crystalline slider-lubricant interface, characterized by smooth superlubric sliding. We present high pressure sliding simulations to display examples of frictional drops, suggesting their possible relevance to the local behavior in boundary lubrication.

  2. Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

  3. High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCampo, J A; Raft, P D

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

  4. Proposal for high pressure RF cavity test in the MTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF (HPRF) cavities for muon ionization cooling, an HPRF cavity must be tested with a high intensity charged beam. When an HPRF cavity is irradiated with an intense beam each incident particle generates about 1000 electrons and ions per cubic centimeter in a high pressure cavity via ionization. These ionization electrons are influenced by the RF field and the RF quality factor goes down. This Q factor reduction will be a problem with a multi bunch beam, e.g., a muon beam for a muon collider consists of a 12 to 20 bunch train beam with 5 ns timing gap. Thus, the RF field must recover in few nano seconds. We propose to use a 400 MeV proton beam in the MTA and measure a beam loading effect in the HPRF cavity and study the recovery mechanism of the RF field.

  5. Recovery of bitumen from oil sand by steam with chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, oil sand bitumen has become the center of attention as a possible oil energy substitute for the future. Until now, the development of oil sand has been performed by surface miing and conventional steam injection, these methods are limited in respect to resource recovery. A more effective method needs to be developed utilizing in situ recovery. In this study, a new attempt is made for the purpose of enhancing the recovery of bitumen from oil sand by adopting the method of injecting high pressure steam and chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, and others.

  6. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football FancyDepartment ofHigh-Pressure

  7. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football FancyDepartmentHigh-Pressure MOF

  8. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football FancyDepartmentHigh-Pressure

  9. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School footballHigh-Pressure MOF Research Yields

  10. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Butner, Scott S.; Zacher, Alan H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Young, James S.; McCready, David E.

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In the pressurized-water environment (20 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Biomass trace components cause processing difficulties using the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. Results are described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems.

  11. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High Pressure X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure, Composition and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions on A Model Single Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montano, M.O.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guntherodt, H. -J. , Eds. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy III;157. Chapter 7 : High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopypressure high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope and

  12. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  13. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, John M. (Dunlap, IL); Zadoks, Abraham L. (Peoria, IL)

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  14. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  15. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  16. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  17. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  18. Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

  19. Practical features of illumination with high pressure sodium lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corth, R.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of concerns raised about the health effects of high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) are discussed. The notion of a ''natural'' human photic environment based on sunlight is disputed. Humans are better adapted to the ''greenish'' spectral composition of forest light than to direct sunlight. It is ironic that the artificial light source which has received the most disapproval, cool white flourescent lamp, has a spectral composition similar to that of forest light. HPS is also available in a full range of colors. Some successful examples of HPS--from North Division High School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to museum exhibits at National Geographic in Washington--are listed.

  20. High pressure generation by hot electrons driven ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piriz, A. R. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, S. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tahir, N. A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous model [Piriz et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 122705 (2012)] for the ablation driven by the hot electrons generated in collisionless laser-plasma interactions in the framework of shock ignition is revisited. The impact of recent results indicating that for a laser wavelength ? = 0.35 ?m the hot electron temperature ?{sub H} would be independent of the laser intensity I, on the resulting ablation pressure is considered. In comparison with the case when the scaling law ?{sub H}?(I?{sup 2}){sup 1/3} is assumed, the generation of the high pressures needed for driving the ignitor shock may be more demanding. Intensities above 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} would be required for ?{sub H}=25?30 keV.

  1. High pressure behavior of otavite (CdCo3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minch, R.; Ehm, L.; Seoung, D.H.; Winkler, B.; Knorr, K.; Peters, L.; Borkowski, L.A.; Parise, J.B.; Lee, Y.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Depmeier, W.

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-pressure, room temperature behavior of otavite (CdCO{sub 3}) was investigated by angle-dispersive synchrotron radiation powder diffraction up to 40 GPa, Raman spectroscopy up to 23 GPa and quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory. The calcite-type structure of CdCO{sub 3} is stable up to at least {approx}19 GPa as shown by Raman spectroscopy. The compression mechanism was obtained from structure refinements against the diffraction data. The quantum mechanical calculations propose a calcite-aragonite phase transition to occur at about 30 GPa. The existence of a pressure-induced phase transition is supported by the Raman and diffraction experiments. Evidence for the transformation is given by broadening of X-ray reflections and external Raman bands starting from about 19 GPa in both experiments.

  2. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  3. Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for electricity). The site generates steam for its process operation from 3 gas fired boilers at 525-psig pressure. The steam is consumed at 5 process areas; Acid, Basics, Crystals, Derivatives & Hydrogen plants. All of the process areas recover condensate inside...

  4. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  5. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  6. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  7. Dislocations and Plasticity in bcc Transition Metals at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L H; Tang, M; Moriarty, J A

    2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, quantum-based atomistic simulations and atomistically informed dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, we have studied individual dislocation behavior and the multiscale modeling of single-crystal plasticity in the prototype bcc transition metals Ta, Mo and V under both ambient and high pressure conditions. The primary focus in this work is on the pressure-dependent structure, mobility and interaction of a/2<111> screw dislocations, which dominate the plastic deformation properties of these materials. At the electronic scale, first-principles calculations of elasticity, ideal strength and generalized stacking fault energy surfaces have been used to validate quantum-based multi-ion interatomic potentials. At the atomistic scale, these potentials have been used in flexible Green's function boundary condition simulations to study the core structure, Peierls stress {tau}{sub P}, thermally activated kink-pair formation and mobility below {tau}{sub P}, and phonon-drag mobility above {tau}{sub P}. These results have then been distilled into analytic velocity laws and used directly in predictive microscale DD simulations of flow stress and resolved yield stress over wide ranges of pressure, temperature and strain rate.

  8. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  9. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

  10. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  11. System Study: High-Pressure Core Spray 19982012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure core spray (HPCS) at 8 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCS results.

  12. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 19982012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  13. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggsmiddlewareHigh-Pressure MOF

  14. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High Pressure Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abigpresentedMetal HydrideHigh Pressure

  15. COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR USING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION AND LOCAL ZOOM METHODS Abstract We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator, Zoom, Domain Decomposition

  16. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS A REPORT SUBMITTED;Abstract A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous ow of steam and water in porous media with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeability for steam phase

  17. High temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id; Syarif, Dani Gustaman, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel SS 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging from 600 to 800C. The oxidation time was 60 minutes. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of stainless steel AISI 304 alloys is dominated by iron oxide, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Minor element such as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is also appeared in the diffraction pattern. Characterization by optical microscope showed that cross section microstructure of stainless steel changed after oxidized with the oxide scale on the surface stainless steels. SEM and x-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide of ZrO{sub 2} appeared on the surface of stainless steel. Kinetic rate of oxidation of austenite stainless steel AISI 304 showed that increasing oxidation temperature and time will increase oxidation rate.

  18. Integrated Operation of INL HYTEST System and High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis for Synthetic Natural Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Marcel Stoots; Lee Shunn; James O'Brien

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary feedstock for synthetic fuel production is syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Current hydrogen production technologies rely upon fossil fuels and produce significant quantities of greenhouse gases as a byproduct. This is not a sustainable means of satisfying future hydrogen demands, given the current projections for conventional world oil production and future targets for carbon emissions. For the past six years, the Idaho National Laboratory has been investigating the use of high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) to produce the hydrogen feedstock required for synthetic fuel production. High-temperature electrolysis water-splitting technology, combined with non-carbon-emitting energy sources, can provide a sustainable, environmentally-friendly means of large-scale hydrogen production. Additionally, laboratory facilities are being developed at the INL for testing hybrid energy systems composed of several tightly-coupled chemical processes (HYTEST program). The first such test involved the coupling of HTSE, CO2 separation membrane, reverse shift reaction, and methanation reaction to demonstrate synthetic natural gas production from a feedstock of water and either CO or a simulated flue gas containing CO2. This paper will introduce the initial HTSE and HYTEST testing facilities, overall coupling of the technologies, testing results, and future plans.

  19. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet.

  20. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years. The availability of this equipment in a packaged system form makes it feasible to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity...

  1. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  2. Ultra-High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Complex Silicates for Nuclear Applications: A Computational Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashkeev, Sergey N. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Advanced Modeling and Simulation; Glazoff, Michael V. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Process and Decision Systems; Tokuhiro, Akira [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability of materials under extreme conditions is an important issue for safety of nuclear reactors. Presently, silicon carbide (SiC) is being studied as a cladding material candidate for fuel rods in boiling-water and pressurized water-cooled reactors (BWRs and PWRs) that would substitute or modify traditional zircaloy materials. The rate of corrosion of the SiC ceramics in hot vapor environment (up to 2200 degrees C) simulating emergency conditions of light water reactor (LWR) depends on many environmental factors such as pressure, temperature, viscosity, and surface quality. Using the paralinear oxidation theory developed for ceramics in the combustion reactor environment, we estimated the corrosion rate of SiC ceramics under the conditions representing a significant power excursion in a LWR. It was established that a significant time at least 100 h is required for a typical SiC braiding to significantly degrade even in the most aggressive vapor environment (with temperatures up to 2200 C) which is possible in a LWR at emergency condition. This provides evidence in favor of using the SiC coatings/braidings for additional protection of nuclear reactor rods against off-normal material degradation during power excursions or LOCA incidents. Additionally, we discuss possibilities of using other silica based ceramics in order to find materials with even higher corrosion resistance than SiC. In particular, we found that zircon (ZrSiO4) is also a very promising material for nuclear applications. Thermodynamic and first-principles atomic-scale calculations provide evidence of zircon thermodynamic stability in aggressive environments at least up to 1535 degrees C.

  3. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W. T.

    in the system at regular intervals. 2) Control valves should be protected by a strainer which is free from condensate accumulation. Heat Transfer potential. 1) Use steam at the lowest possible pressure to take advantage of low pressure latent heat...) A special situation exists ahead of valves that are protected by a strainer. The strainer body is a low point and accumulates condensate naturally, reducing the effective area of the strainer screen. (See Figure 4.) KI!?: Fig. 4. Automatic...

  4. Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

  5. Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Stewart, Albert E. (Eagle Rock, CA)

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

  6. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  7. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  8. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

  9. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #12 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 MeetingEA #FebruaryFisker, Tesla,FixedFlash 2011-592

  10. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 9. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Algae Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet algae slurries can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In a pressurized-water environment (20 MPa), near-total conversion of the organic structure of the algae to gases has been achieved in the presence of a supported ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming, as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. As opposed to earlier work, biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties in the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. As a result, the algae feedstocks, even those with high ash contents, were much more reliably processed. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations. Consistent catalyst operation in these short-term tests suggested good stability and minimal poisoning effects. High methane content in the product gas was noted with significant carbon dioxide captured in the aqueous byproduct in combination with alkali constituents and the ammonia byproduct derived from proteins in the algae. High conversion of algae to gas products was found with low levels of byproduct water contamination and low to moderate loss of carbon in the mineral separation step.

  11. Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel heated to 1300 to 1600/sup 0/C in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P. Osborne, M.F.; Towns, R.L.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four tests were performed with high-burnup light water reactor (LWR) fuel to explore the amount and characteristics of fission product release at short heating times (0.4 to 10 min) in steam atmosphere in the temperature range 1300 to 1600/sup 0/C. The test fuel rod segments were cut from full-length fuel rods irradiated at low heat rating to 30,000 MWd/MT in the H.B. Robinson-2 reactor. The releases of cesium and iodine increased tenfold (approx.0.3 to >4%) with temperature from 1350 to 1400/sup 0/C from fuel with defects that simulate ruptured cladding. Krypton release rose from approx.2 to approx.11% of total inventory in this temperature range. This sudden increase in release of krypton, cesium, and iodine is believed to result from prior accumulations of these species at or very near the grain boundaries. At 1600/sup 0/C, the releases of krypton, cesium, and iodine were in the range 17 to 25% of total fuel inventory.

  12. High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

  13. Development of a high speed fluorescent particle image velocimetry technique to study steam bubble collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip, Olivier G.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECIS OF AN EDUCATIONAL ACIIVITY ON AWARENESS AND PERCEPTIONS OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AMONG CENTRAL ~ HIGH SCHOOL AGRISCIENCE STUDENTS A Thesis by THERESA ANN PESL Approved as to style and content by: Don... Among Central Texas High School Agriscience Students. (May 1993) Theresa Ann Pesl, B. S. , Texas A%M University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Don R. Herring The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a slide/audio tape presentation...

  14. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  15. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  16. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1%) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  17. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  18. Testing erosion-resistant chromium carbide plasma coatings on the TVA Paradise Unit-2 intermediate pressure turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karr, O.F.; Frank, R.L.; Gaston, D.E. Jr.; Bradford, T.L.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid particle erosion (SPE) is caused by oxide particles in steam. Hard oxide particles exfoliate from the inside surfaces of boiler tubes and steam lines and are carried by the steam to the turbine where they impact and erode stationary and moving turbine parts (nozzles, moving blades, stationary blades, seal strips, and shrouds around the blades). The first stages of the high pressure (HP) and intermediate pressure (IP) turbines experience the greatest amount of SPE. Though many owners experience erosion in the first stages of both HP (main steam) and IP (reheat steam) turbines, TVA's principal erosion experience is in the IP or reheat steam turbines. This report is limited to the first few stages of IP turbines, referred to as ''first reheat stages.'' Hard chromium carbide plasma coatings have been developed. The coating was installed in Paradise Unit-2 IP turbine, 9th and 10th stages. Pretest inspection report is given.

  19. anomalous high-pressure behavior: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than recently predicted. McMahon, Jeffrey M 2011-01-01 105 Selection of High Strength Encapsulant for MEMS Devices Undergoing High Pressure Packaging CERN Preprints Summary:...

  20. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  1. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Vitello, P.; Tishchenko, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation.

  2. 1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in- creasing the maximum-efficiency power plant. 2. Turbines, Steam, Efficiency and Power Plant A power plant has a steam generator which the operating pressure is below about 22 MPa, in which case the steam is separated and passed on to the turbine

  3. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  4. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  5. Steam Champions in Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steanl Flow ? Analyze pressure reduction options: none, use boiler controls or PRVs, Through PRVs use backpressure turbines Recover & Utilize ? Maximize volume of condensate recovered and utilized Available Condensate Use High Pressure ? Maximize...

  6. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy{reg_sign} Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly{trademark} Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE`s Office of Science and Technology.

  7. Dynamic behavior of an aggregate material at simultaneous high pressure and strain rate: SHPB triaxial tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Dynamic behavior of an aggregate material at simultaneous high pressure and strain rate: SHPB Low velocity impacts on energetic materials induce plastic deformations and sliding friction which can pressure and high strain rate). Thus, a technique based on the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars system

  8. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set...

  9. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Herv; Daniel, Isabelle [Laboratoire de Gologie de Lyon, UMR 5276 CNRS, Ecole Normale Suprieure de Lyon Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  10. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  11. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V., E-mail: k.kamenev@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom)] [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Azuma, Masaki [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)] [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Attfield, J. Paul [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  12. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  13. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  14. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recommendations to increase steam system effic iency. Steam System Opportunities ]n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a O.4-year payback. 75...

  15. An apparatus for studying scintillator properties at high isostatic pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaume, R. M. [College of Optics and Photonics (CREOL) and NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Lam, S.; Gascon, M.; Feigelson, R. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Setyawan, W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Curtarolo, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design and operation of a unique hydraulic press for the study of scintillator materials under isostatic pressure. This press, capable of developing a pressure of a gigapascal, consists of a large sample chamber pressurized by a two-stage hydraulic amplifier. The optical detection of the scintillation light emitted by the sample is performed, through a large aperture optical port, by a photodetector located outside the pressure vessel. In addition to providing essential pressure-dependent studies on the emission characteristics of radioluminescent materials, this apparatus is being developed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the recently observed dependency of light-yield nonproportionality on electronic band structure. The variation of the light output of a Tl:CsI crystal under 511-keV gamma excitation and hydrostatic pressure is given as an example.

  16. Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larkin, A.

    globe valve to enable manual throttling of the steam, a strainer, a steam trap and a pressure relief safety valve, in addition to the pressure reducing valve (pRY). Properly selected PRVs need to have seats replaced about every five years...

  17. Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

  18. High voltage ignition of high pressure microwave powered UV light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, J.D.; Cekic, M.; Wood, C.H. [Fusion U.V. Curing Systems Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial microwave powered (electrodeless) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of {approximately}300 Torr of buffer gas and metal-halide fills. The predominant reason for such restrictions has been the inability to microwave ignite the plasma due to the collisionality of higher pressure fills and/or the electronegativity of halide bulb chemistries. Commercially interesting bulb fills require electric fields for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. Many auxiliary ignition methods are evaluated for efficiency and practicality before the choice of a high-voltage system with a retractable external electrode. The scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to its operating point (T{sub e} {approx} 0.5 eV). This process is currently being used in a new generation of lamps, which are using multi-atmospheric excimer laser chemistries and pressure and constituent enhanced metal-halide systems. At the present time, production prototypes produce over 900 W of radiation in a 30 nm band, centered at 308 nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce over 1 kW of radiation in 30 nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  19. Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  20. Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stresses calculated using ASME Code Case 2286 July 17 1998. Verify that pressure relief devices have ASME "UV" certification or documentation of operability tests demonstrating...

  1. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or refractory. Improve condensate return. Add an Oxygen trim system Repair heat exchangers to permit condensate return.. Replace or re-build the boiler control system. Fix steam leaks. Repair a defective economizer. Implement a pressurized condensate...

  2. HIGH-EFFICIENCY STEAM ELECTROLYZER Ai-Quoc Pham, Ervin See, Dave Lenz, Peter Martin and Robert Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from fossil fuels, i.e., by steam reforming of natural gas and by coal gasification. However, most, electricity is not a primary energy but must be produced using fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or renewable of the first electrolyzer stack. Introduction Currently, most hydrogen demand is met by hydrogen production

  3. Technical and economic evaluation of ten high temperature, high pressure particulate cleanup systems for pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubow, L.N.; Borden, M.; Buchanan, T.L.; Cramp, J.A.C.; Fischer, W.H.; Klett, M.G.; Maruvada, S.M.; Nelson, E.T.; Weinstein, R.E.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this analysis was to provide a technical and economic evaluation of the ten high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) systems for the purpose of prioritizing them according to performance, cost, and general viability of achieving commercial status. The scope primarily included reviewing/normalizing test experience to date, normalizing commercial designs, developing normalized capital and operating costs for each system, performing trade-off studies, and performing an evaluation utilizing in-house and outside inputs. The HTHP particulate cleanup system must be capable of the same stringent operating requirements as a conventional system, except it must do so at HTHP conditions. Utilities will demand nearly the same reliability as found in conventional equipment. Regarding particulate cleanup, the system must meet NSPS requirements at the stack, and also meet turbine inlet requirements. The ten devices evaluated were: Electrostatic Precipitator - Cottrell Environmental Sciences (CES); Ceramic Felt Filter - Acurex Corporation; Ceramic Cross Flow Filter - Westinghouse; Shallow Static Granular Bed Filter - Ducon/Westinghouse; Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter - General Electric (GE); Moving Granular Bed Filter - Combustion Power Company (CPC); Dry Plate Scrubber - Air Pollution Technology (APT); Magnetic Granular Bed Filter - Exxon; Electrocyclone - General Electric; and Acoustic Agglomerator - Aerojet/Pennsylvania State University (PSU). The test data for the ten devices were normalized to standard conditions with a reference inlet particle loading and size distribution. The purpose of system design normalization is to provide, for each of the HTHP concepts, a scaled-up commercial design which reflects a consistent design approach. 104 figures, 136 tables.

  4. Pulsed laser kinetic studies of liquids under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1993-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been developed for measuring the rates of chemical reactions liquids and in supercritical Co[sub 2]. A pulsed (Q-switch) Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm was the pump beam for laser flash photolysis studies of molybdenum and tungsten hexacarbonyls undergoing ligand displacement reactions by bidentate chelating agents such as 2,2[prime]-bipyridine in toluene. Experiments were carried out at 0.1 to 150 MPa. In the case of molybdenum complexes, the reaction mechanism for thermal ring closure is found from activation volumes to change from associative interchange to dissociative interchange as substituents on the 2,2[prime]-bipyridine ligands become bulkier. In a similar study of more rigid, substituted phenanthroline bidentate ligands it was found that substituent bulkiness had little effect on the thermal ring closure mechanism. Similar high pressure flash photolysis experiments with tungsten hexacarbonyl have also been completed. The concentration dependence of the fluorescence and nonradiative decay quantum yields for cresyl violet in several solvent have been reported as well as stability constants for the complexation of lithium ion by four different crown ethers dissolved in a room temperature molten salt.

  5. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  6. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, G. [LANL; Sandberg, R. L. [LANL; Lalone, B. M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. R. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Udd, E. [Columbia Gorge Research

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  7. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  8. Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinclair, John William

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow orifice meter 4 Vapor-phase orifice meter 5 Steam quality adjustment valves 6 Critical flow test section 12 13 15 17 7 Two-phase mixture vent to atmosphere passage through test section 8 Fluke data logger 9 Condenser apparatus 18 21...-water 15 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for critical flow of steam-water . . . . . . . . , . . . . 48 16 Steam quality as a function of pressure measured upstream from critical flow orifice 17 Steam quality as a function...

  9. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  10. New downhole steam generator tested

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO) of Bakersfield, California, follows an earlier prototype operation conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the US Department of Energy. The CORCO tests were conducted on the surface with the generator's output going into Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production Co.'s overland-Riokern Well No. 80, located in the Kern River field 4 miles north of Bakersfield. The first test was concluded with just under 1000 bbl of steam injected, less than planned due to a higher-than-expected injection pressure. The unit operated at less than 25% capacity because of the air compressor limitation. Compressor output was only 285 psi, not enough to inject the desired volumes into the reservoir. Test data shows that injection amounted to 150 bpd of 90 to 95% quality steam at 225-psi wellhead pressure. After injection, the well was shut in for 3 days to allow soaking, then put on production. Initial production was 40 bopd at 175 F.

  11. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  12. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  13. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    of an array of microdischarges integrated with one of the DB-HPG electrodes, a substantial reduction of DB1000 Torr.1,2 Due to high pd pressure-distance val- ues at high pressures, relatively high breakdown of four microdischarges on the bottom electrode-dielectric assembly surface. The up- per electrode

  15. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center) [Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center; Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center) [Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  16. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  17. anultra high pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    c. Y Christian P Burger (i&Iember) Randall Getger ( Member) 5wc Fr. Walter F. Bradley (Head of Department) May 1991 ABSTRACT A Temperature Compensated Pressure Transducer for...

  18. Effect of high-pressure on molecular magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prescimone, Alessandro

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of pressure on a number of magnetically interesting compounds such as single-molecule magnets and dimeric copper and manganese molecules has been investigated to probe the validity of ambient magneto-structural ...

  19. Instrumentation development for neutron scattering at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Junwei

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron scattering at extremes of pressure is a powerful tool for studying the response of structural and magnetic properties of materials on microscopic level to applied stresses. However, experimental neutron studies ...

  20. Moessbauer studies of iron hydride at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, I.; Ingalls, R. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Brown, J.M.; Sato-Sorensen, Y. (Geophysics Program, AK-50, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Mills, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured {ital in} {ital situ} Moessbauer spectra of iron hydride made in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure and room temperature. The spectra show a sudden change at 3.5{plus minus}0.5 GPa from a single hyperfine pattern to a superposition of three. The former pattern results from normal {alpha}-iron with negligible hydrogen content, and the latter from residual {alpha}-iron plus newly formed iron hydride. Between 3.5 and 10.4 GPa, the extra hydride pattern have hyperfine fields for one ranging from 276 to 263 kOe, and the other, from 317 to 309 kOe. Both have isomer shifts of about 0.4 mm/sec, and negligible quadrupole splittings. X-ray studies on quenched samples have shown that iron hydride is of double hexagonal close-packed structure, whose two nonequivalent iron sites may account for the observation of two different patterns. Even allowing for the effect of volume expansion, the observed isomer shifts for the hydride are considerably more positive than those of other metallic phases of iron. At the same time, the hyperfine fields are slightly smaller than that of {alpha}-iron. As a possible explanation, one may expect a bonding of hydrogen with iron, which would result in a small reduction of 4{ital s} electrons, possibly accompanied by a small increase of 3{ital d} electrons compared with the neutral atom in metallic iron. The difference between the hyperfine fields in the two spectra are presumably due to the different symmetry at the two iron sites.

  1. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  2. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  3. Three dimensional effects in analysis of PWR steam line break accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chon-Kwo

    A steam line break accident is one of the possible severe abnormal transients in a pressurized water reactor. It is required to present an analysis of a steam line break accident in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) ...

  4. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  5. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between...

  6. An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, K. J., E-mail: kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov; Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  7. An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

  8. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  9. High-pressure study of isoviolanthrone by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Huang, Qiao-Wei [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Jiang [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhong, Guo-Hua [Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lin, Hai-Qing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Xiao-Jia, E-mail: xjchen@hpstar.ac.cn [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibrational properties of isoviolanthrone are investigated by Raman scattering at pressures up to 30.5 GPa and room temperature. A complete characterization of phonon spectra under pressure is given for this material. The onset of a phase transition at 11.0 GPa and the formation of a new phase above 13.8 GPa are identified from both the frequency shifts and the changes in the full width half maxima of the intra- and internal modes. The transition is proposed to result from the changes of intra- and intermolecular bonding. The tendencies of the intensity ratios with pressure are in good agreement with the pressure dependence of the resistance at room temperature, indicating that the phase transition may be an electronic origin. The absence of the changes in the lattice modes indicates that the observed phase transition is probably a result of the structural distortions or reorganizations. The reversible character of the transition upon compression and decompression is determined in the entire pressure region studied.

  10. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albenze, Erik J.; Hopkinson, David P.; Luebke, David R.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a retentate multiport valve for sampling or venting, and a stream of permeate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. Back pressure regulators and mass flow controllers act to maintain substantially equivalent gas pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves cyclically, allowing for gas sampling of different membrane cells over an extended period of time.

  11. High Pressure Neutron Powder Diffraction Study of Superhydrated Natrolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colligan,M.; Lee, Y.; Vogt, T.; Celestian, A.; Parise, J.; Marshall, W.; Hriljac, J.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron powder diffraction data were collected on a sample of natrolite and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of perdeuterated methanol and water at a pressure of 1.87(11) GPa. The natrolite sample was superhydrated, with a water content double that observed at ambient pressure. All of the water deuterium atoms were located and the nature and extent of the hydrogen bonding elucidated for the first time. This has allowed the calculation of bond valence sums for the water oxygen atoms, and from this, it can be deduced that the key energetic factor leading to loss of the additional water molecule upon pressure release is the poor coordination to sodium cations within the pores.

  12. Ultrafast high strain rate acoustic wave measurements at high static pressure in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, M; Crowhurst, J; Reed, E; Zaug, J

    2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used sub-picosecond laser pulses to launch ultra-high strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}) nonlinear acoustic waves into a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure medium which has been precompressed in a standard diamond anvil cell. Using ultrafast interferometry, we have characterized acoustic wave propagation into the pressure medium at static compression up to 24 GPa. We find that the velocity is dependent on the incident laser fluence, demonstrating a nonlinear acoustic response which may result in shock wave behavior. We compare our results with low strain, low strain-rate acoustic data. This technique provides controlled access to regions of thermodynamic phase space that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  13. Phase stability of carbon clathrates at high pressure Jian-Tao Wang,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Phase stability of carbon clathrates at high pressure Jian-Tao Wang,1,a Changfeng Chen,2 Ding, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China 2 Department of Physics and Hi an ab initio study on the structural stability of carbon clathrates at high pressure and identify fcc

  14. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  15. Properties of nanostructured diamond-silicon carbide composites sintered by high pressure infiltration technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jen

    peak profiles using Fourier coefficients of ab initio theoretical size and strain profiles Materials Research Society 2703 #12;electric power dissipated in the apparatus. Obtained power temperature and loadpressure plots were used as the calibration curves for subsequent high-pressure, high- temperature

  16. Optically accessible high-pressure combustion apparatus Stephen D. Tsea)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Stephen D.

    . DOI: 10.1063/1.1634358 I. INTRODUCTION Recognizing that combustion processes within internal combustion engines take place in elevated pressure environ- ments, that most fundamental information of atmospheres, and hence are representative of those in inter- nal combustion engines. Of particular interest

  17. Instrumentation development for magneto-transport and neutron scattering measurements at high pressure and low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weiwei

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure, high magnetic field and low temperature techniques are required to investigate magnetic transitions and quantum critical behaviour in different ferromagnetic materials to elucidate how novel forms of ...

  18. Development and application of a high speed digital data acquisition technique to study steam bubble collapse using particle image velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidl, William Daniel

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    John Poston ( Head of Department ) ABSTRACT Development anil Appl&cat&on of a. H&vh Speed D&g&tal Data A?qu&s&t&on Techn&que to Study Steam Bubble & 'ollapse us&ng Part&cle Image L'elo imetry I August 1090) K&)liam Dan&el Schr&n Jl. B S . 1&nited... vnth the practical applicatloils of the hardware used in this prelect. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION I 1 Background I 9 Background for Pulsed Laser Velocimetry I 3 tlethodnlogy for Particle Image Velocimetry 14 Background...

  19. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemi, Hadi

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated ...

  20. An Innovative High-Temperature High-Pressure Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Boling

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement while drilling (MWD) tools specified to 150 C (302 F) that provide wellbore surveys, real-time inclination, and natural gamma ray detection are a commodity item in the oilfield services industry. MWD tools specified to 175 C (347 F) that routinely demonstrate highly reliable operation are available from only a few service companies. Commercial MWD tools that reliably operate to 200 C (392 F) for extended periods of time and offer features like real-time gamma ray, retrievability, and reseatability are nonexistent. Need for these higher temperature tools will increase as wells become hotter in the search for new oil and gas resources. The goal of this project was to design a retrievable and reseatable high-pressure/high-temperature MWD tool with real-time continuous inclination, vibration detection, annular pressure, and gamma ray detection. This report describes the development of such a tool from concept, through feasibility, and into field testing and preliminary development planning. It describes the challenges encountered in the design of the tool, along with testing results and decisions about the commercial viability of the tool in the configuration in which it was developed. The decision was made not to commercialize the tool developed under this project because of a combination of battery technology problems and modulation power consumption at the required depths.

  1. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  2. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehrke, Alan C. (San Jose, CA); Knepp, John B. (San Jose, CA); Skoda, George I. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  3. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a...

  4. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  5. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  6. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  7. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trap location, service, manufacturer, model, steam pressures, pipe size, type of connect ion, associated valves, strainer, and insulation. The condition in which each trap was found in the plant was reported and summarized as in Table 1. Other... leaks and any unsafe situations were also noted. Of the 5,000 surveyed traps, approximately 20% had failed open or were in another failure mode where live steam was leaking, 5% were found plugged, and 10% were found not losing steam but needing...

  8. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  9. Speed of sound in liquids at high pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P., Kielczynski; S, Piekarski

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a new general formula for the sound speed in adiabatic conditions ( S = const ) has been established. The sound speed depends on the mass density {\\rho} (p,T ) and the internal energy per unit mass E(p,T ), both expressed as functions of the pressure p and the temperature T . This formula has been compared with experimental data on the example of triolein over the pressure range up to 450 MPa. For experimental data, phenomenological approximate formulas have been proposed. Those formulas have two versions, depending on the 2 and 3 parameters. Both versions have been developed with the help of the new expression (Eq.8) for the sound speed. The explicit form of both approximate curves can be regarded as the result of purely phenomenological modeling. However, in this paper, these new analytical expressions have been obtained by applying the heuristic procedure described in Appendix.

  10. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  11. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  12. Structural stability of methane hydrate at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Jinfu; Chen, Xiaojia; Chou, I.-Ming; Yang, Wenge; Hu, Jingzhu; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural stability of methane hydrate under pressure at room temperature was examined by both in-situ single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques on samples with structure types I, II, and H in diamond-anvil cells. The diffraction data for types II (sII) and H (sH) were refined to the known structures with space groups Fd3m and P6{sub 3}/mmc, respectively. Upon compression, sI methane hydrate transforms to the sII phase at 120 MPa, and then to the sH phase at 600 MPa. The sII methane hydrate was found to coexist locally with sI phase up to 500 MPa and with sH phase up to 600 MPa. The pure sH structure was found to be stable between 600 and 900 MPa. Methane hydrate decomposes at pressures above 3 GPa to form methane with the orientationally disordered Fm3m structure and ice VII (Pn3m). The results highlight the role of guest (CH{sub 4})-host (H{sub 2}O) interactions in the stabilization of the hydrate structures under pressure.

  13. Structure Stability of Methane Hydrate at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Shu; X Chen; I Chou; W Yang; J Hu; R Hemley; K Mao

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural stability of methane hydrate under pressure at room temperature was examined by both in-situ single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques on samples with structure types I, II, and H in diamond-anvil cells. The diffraction data for types II (sII) and H (sH) were refined to the known structures with space groups Fd3m and P6{sub 3}/mmc, respectively. Upon compression, sI methanehydrate transforms to the sII phase at 120 MPa, and then to the sH phase at 600 MPa. The sII methanehydrate was found to coexist locally with sI phase up to 500 MPa and with sH phase up to 600 MPa. The pure sH structure was found to be stable between 600 and 900 MPa. Methanehydrate decomposes at pressures above 3 GPa to form methane with the orientationally disordered Fm3mstructure and ice VII (Pn3m). The results highlight the role of guest (CH{sub 4})-host (H{sub 2}O) interactions in the stabilization of the hydratestructures under pressure.

  14. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five...

  15. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  16. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiaomeng; Gates, Ian D. [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)], E-mail: ian.gates@ucalgary.ca

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced. However, oil recovery is between 25% and 40% below that of SAGD. Design of successful hybrid steam-oxygen processes must take into account the balance between injected steam and amount of injected oxygen and combustion gas products that dilute injected and in situ-generated steam in the depletion chamber by lowering its partial pressure, and thus its saturation temperature which in turn impacts production rates and recovery.

  17. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have...

  18. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTIs pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  19. Particulate removal from high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.F.; Saxena, S.C.; Podolski, W.F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption by utilities of coal-fired pressurized fluidized-bed/combined cycle combustion systems for electric power generation depends to a large extent on the development of an efficient and economic cleanup system for the high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases. For adequate turbine protection, these gases must be sufficiently cleaned to bring particulate erosion and alkali vapor corrosion to a level acceptable to gas turbine manufacturers. At the same time, the total particulate content of the flue gas must be reduced to the limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency. To accomplish particulate removal from a dust-laden gas stream, a number of separation devices have been developed. These include conventional and augmented cyclones; porous metal, fiber, fabric, and ceramic filters, as well as fixed, moving, and fluidized-bed granular filters; and electrostatic precipitators. Several other novel separation devices have been proposed and developed to different degrees such as: contactors using molten salt, metal, or glass, dry scrubbers, acoustic agglomerators, as well as cyclones and granular-bed filters with external electrostatic or magnetic fields. Some of these separation devices in various combinations have been tested in process development units or in hot gas simulators by ANL, CPC, CURL, C-W, Exxon, GE, Westinghouse, etc. The results are discussed and evaluated for PFBC applications.

  20. The effect of condensate dropout on pressure transient analysis of a high-pressure gas condensate well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briens, Frederic Jean-Louis

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of drawdown or buildup tests, the formation permeability can be estimated. Although these conventional techniques have been successfully applied to 'dry' gas well analysis, they have not been extended to high-pressure gas condensate wells. The application... Condensate Reser voir Data. . 43 Elf Aquitaine Gas Condensate Reservoir Fluid Composition Elf Aquitaine Gas Condensate Well Production Test Data. Drawdown Test F1 of Elf Aquitaine Gas Condensate Mell 45 46 Drawdown Test F2 of Elf Aquitaine Gas...

  1. Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy F. Price

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

  2. High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picardo, Arthur Michael

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of labyrinth tooth Impedance Inches of water [UT'] [L) [L) [FT/L] [FT/L] [FT/L] [FT/L] [L] [L] [F] [F] [UT ] [L] [F/L] [L] K;; m, N NT pe PR PS R Direct stiffness Cross-coupled stiffness Stiffness Coefficient Seal Length Stator... the exit-labyrinth seals. Section A-A in Figure 4 gives the location of swirl brakes. Btmor Inlet Annulus Back Pr'asnua Anfsrlur Shaker Btmgars (2 (9 90 ) Thmmomuple Pressure Traraduccfs (2 e sf ) et Prrmnlrf Btrg Pmmum Therm ocormles Transducers...

  3. Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

  4. Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baily, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inlet isolation valve o Outlet isolation valve o Built-in strainer o Upstream blow down o Downstream blow down (or test port) o 2-bolt connection for K port steam trap ? Valves on V2 stations are bellows sealed valves ? high integrity seal...

  5. Molecular Surface Chemistry by Metal Single Crystals and Nanoparticles from Vacuum to High Pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Model systems for studying molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystal surfaces at low pressure to colloidal nanoparticles at high pressure. Low pressure surface structure studies of platinum single crystals using molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction techniques probe the unique activity of defects, steps and kinks at the surface for dissociation reactions (H-H, C-H, C-C, O{double_bond}O bonds). High-pressure investigations of platinum single crystals using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy have revealed the presence and the nature of reaction intermediates. High pressure scanning tunneling microscopy of platinum single crystal surfaces showed adsorbate mobility during a catalytic reaction. Nanoparticle systems are used to determine the role of metal-oxide interfaces, site blocking and the role of surface structures in reactive surface chemistry. The size, shape and composition of nanoparticles play important roles in determining reaction activity and selectivity.

  6. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology... Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 The easiest solution to eliminating excess steam is to shut down steam turbines that exhaust into the header and start up the motor driven spare equipment. Often times this step will be enough to eliminate...

  7. Persistent global proton aurora caused by high solar wind dynamic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    Persistent global proton aurora caused by high solar wind dynamic pressure K. M. Laundal1 and N] Global images of the proton aurora taken with the SI-12 camera onboard the IMAGE satellite reveal a very direct relationship between the solar wind dynamic pressure and the intensity of the global proton aurora

  8. Fractal characterisation of high-pressure and hydrogen-enriched CH4air turbulent premixed flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, ?mer L.

    Fractal characterisation of high-pressure and hydrogen-enriched CH4­air turbulent premixed flames measurements were performed to obtain the flame front images, which were further analyzed for fractal of the flame front curvature as a function of the pressure. Fractal dimension showed a strong dependence

  9. Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N-AlOOH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stixrude, Lars

    Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N significant amounts of hydrogen in stishovite under lower-mantle conditions. The enthalpy of solution pressure and temperature. We predict asymmetric hydrogen bonding in the stishovite^N-AlOOH solid solution

  10. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor decomposition pressures and increased control over local stoichiometry and defect formation. While we focus here

  11. Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) results from contacts with their guides due to flow induced vibration. Particular sliding impact contact

  12. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE EFFECTS ON VERY HIGH-ECCENTRIC FORMATION J. Fontdecaba Baig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE EFFECTS ON VERY HIGH-ECCENTRIC FORMATION FLYING J. Fontdecaba Baig1 , G. M this particular relative motion is the scoop of this paper. Main perturbation in HEO orbits are solar radiation. Key words: formation flying, HEO orbits, solar radiation pressure. 1. INTRODUCTION Formation flying

  13. Fermi Surface of Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Fermi Surface of Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory DMR-Award 0654118 DC Field Facility User Program The fermi surface of Uranium has been measured surface of alpha-uranium at ambient pressure, Phys. Rev. B Rapid Commun., 80, 241101 (2009). B//c-axis B

  14. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first or plasma nitriding of metal parts, in par- ticular those made of steel and cast iron, is extensively ap

  15. High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study on Icosahedral Boron Arsenide (B12As2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Wu; H Zhu; D Hou; C Ji; C Whiteley; J Edgar; Y Ma

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high pressure properties of icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2) were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements at pressures up to 25.5 GPa at room temperature. B12As2 retains its rhombohedral structure; no phase transition was observed in the pressure range. The bulk modulus was determined to be 216 GPa with the pressure derivative 2.2. Anisotropy was observed in the compressibility of B12As2-c-axis was 16.2% more compressible than a-axis. The boron icosahedron plays a dominant role in the compressibility of boron-rich compounds.

  16. High Pressure Shock Tube Studies of Fuel Combustion Engineering The high-pressure single-pulse shock tube is shown in Figure 8 (rated at 5 to 1000 atm,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    High Pressure Shock Tube Studies of Fuel Combustion Engineering The high-pressure single and oxidative degradation of various components in order to identify the products as guides to the combustion

  17. Optimization of a high-efficiency jet ejector by using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a desalination process High-Pressure Motive Steam Heat Exchanger # 1 # 2 Brine Distillate Sea Water # 3 # n-1 # n (1940) - - - 5 DT - 16 Steam-Jet Air Pumps DuPerow and Bossart (1927) - - 6 DT 1.2 DT - 7 Royds-stage ejectors (DeFrate and Hoerl, 1959). source: Perry's chemical engineering handbook; 7th edition, pg. 10

  18. APPLICATION OF CERAMICS TO HIGH PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandler, Jr., William F.

    2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel fuel systems are facing increased demands as engines with reduced emissions are developed. Injection pressures have increased to provide finer atomization of fuel for more efficient combustion, Figure 1. This increases the mechanical loads on the system and requires tighter clearances between plungers and bores to prevent leakage. At the same time, fuel lubricity has decreased as a byproduct of reducing the sulfur levels in fuel. Contamination of fuel by water and debris is an ever-present problem. For oil-lubricated fuel system components, increased soot loading in the oil results in increased wear rates. Additionally, engine manufacturers are lengthening warranty periods for engines and systems. This combination of factors requires the development of new materials to counteract the harsher tribological environment.

  19. Pulsed laser kinetic studies of liquids under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser flash photolysis kinetic study of 2,2{prime}-bipyridine bidentate chelating ligands with one claw in the first coordination sphere of a molybdenum carbonyl complex has been completed at pressures up to 150 MPa. The reaction mechanism for thermal ring closure is found from activation volumes to change from associative interchange to dissociative interchange as substituents on the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands become bulkier. In a similar study of more rigid, substituted phenanthroline bidentate ligands it was found that substituent bulkiness had little effect on the thermal ring closure mechanism. Stability constants for lithium ion complexes with crown ethers in a room temperature molten salt, fluorescence quantum yields for cresyl violet and several other dyes in solution, and the oxidation of alcohols by OsO{sub 4} have also been investigated.

  20. Integrated-fin gasket for palm cubic-anvil high pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.-G. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Matsubayashi, K.; Nagasaki, S.; Hisada, A.; Hirayama, T.; Uwatoko, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Hedo, M. [Faculty of Science, University of Ryukyus, Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Kagi, H. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We described an integrated-fin gasket technique for the palm cubic-anvil apparatus specialized for the high-pressure and low-temperature measurements. By using such a gasket made from the semi-sintered MgO ceramics and the tungsten-carbide anvils of 2.5 mm square top, we successfully generate pressures over 16 GPa at both room and cryogenic temperatures down to 0.5 K. We observed a pressure self-increment for this specific configuration and further characterized the thermally induced pressure variation by monitoring the antiferromagnetic transition temperature of chromium up to 12 GPa. In addition to enlarge the pressure capacity, such a modified gasket also improves greatly the surviving rate of electrical leads hanging the sample inside a Teflon capsule filled with the liquid pressure-transmitting medium. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced extrusion of gasket materials during the initial compression.

  1. aluminum high pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR...

  2. Development of a high energy efficient pressure calciner. Final report, June 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, J.F.

    1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During the life of this contract, the design, procurement, and construction of a pilot, self-fluidizing, pressure calciner for the production of smelting grade alumina was completed. Initial operating characteristics were determined, and the first half of the first DOX was completed. A design capacity of at least 100 kg/hr of product had been chosen to insure a 100:1 maximum scale-up ratio for the semi-commercial unit. Detailed numerical analysis was made for the heat exchanger design to set the active tube length at 8.5 m (28 ft). The instrumentation and data logging system was designed to obtain the detailed engineering parameters for design of the semi-commercial unit. The pressure feed, discharge, and burner systems were chosen from existing commercial designs to reduce the development work required. Auxiliary equipment, steam condenser, cooling tower, and product cooler, were chosen to simplify operation during the experimental program. Self-fluidizing capabilities were determined to exist both from temperature profiles and heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  3. Steam generator operating experience update, 1982-1983. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, L.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a continuation of earlier reports by the staff addressing pressurized water reactor steam generator operating experience. NUREG-0886, Steam Generator Tube Experience, published in February 1982 summarized experience in domestic and foreign plants through December 1981. This report summarizes steam generator operating experience in domestic plants for the years 1982 and 1983. Included are new problems encountered with secondary-side loose parts, sulfur-induced stress-assisted corrosion cracking, and flow-induced vibrational wear in the new preheater design steam generators. The status of Unresolved Safety Issues A3, A4, and A5 is also discussed.

  4. Microplasma Discharges in High Pressure Gases Scaling Towards the Sub-micron Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitre, Aditya Rajeev

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure microplasmas are uniquely characterized by their very high energy densities and also by their small discharge sizes. These properties allow for unique applications in plasma processing technologies. We have investigated...

  5. FLOW OF A FLUID THROUGH A POROUS SOLID DUE TO HIGH PRESSURE GRADIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonito, Andrea

    or carbon diox- ide sequestration where very high pressure differentials are involved. Another important and geotechnical engineering, for example problems such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon di-oxide sequestration

  6. Radiochemical Transformation of High Pressure Methane under Gamma, Electron, and Neutron Irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemens, Jeffrey Tyler

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical effects of irradiation on high pressure methane and noble gas mixtures were investigated using gamma, electron beam, and neutron irradiation sources. The gamma source used was the La-140 source from the Nuclear Science Center (NSC...

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Titanium-and water-rich metamorphic olivine in high-pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Haemyeong

    ORIGINAL PAPER Titanium- and water-rich metamorphic olivine in high-pressure serpentinites from 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract Titanium- and water-rich metamorphic olivine (Fo

  8. Design strategies for optimizing high burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zhiwen, 1975-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is focused on the strategy for utilizing high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR) with special emphasis on the full array of neutronic considerations. The historical increase in batch-averaged discharge ...

  9. "Hot Water" in Lassen Volcanic National Park--Fumaroles, Steaming Ground, and Boiling Mudpots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    "Hot Water" in Lassen Volcanic National Park-- Fumaroles, Steaming Ground, and Boiling Mudpots U, ydrothermal (hot water) and steaming ground. These features are re- lated to active volcanism, the largest fumarole (steam and volcanic-gas vent) in the park. The temperature of the high-velocity steam

  10. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  11. Investigation of a high pressure implosive technique for metal powder compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Donald Richard

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF A HIGH PRESSURE IMPLOSIVE TECHNIQUE FOR METAL POWDER COMPACTION A Thesis DONALD RICHARD GARRETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1970 Ma)or Subject: Mechanical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF A HIGH PRESSURE IMPLOSIVE TECHNIQUE FOR METAL POWDER COMPACTION A Thesis by DONALD RICHARD GARRETT Approved as to style and content by: J@l, (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

  12. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850C. Turnover rate at 850C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) located at PNNL. Part of the computational time was provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  13. Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

  14. A device for debridement using high pressure water jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Ashley (Ashley A.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removing devitalized tissue from chronic wounds through debridement is critical to promote wound healing. In this thesis, technology using high-speed water jets is explored toward applications for debridement. After ...

  15. Design of high pressure metering and regulating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehler, D.A. [Oklahoma Natural Gas Co., Enid, OK (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metering and regulating stations effectively serve as the cash registers of the natural gas industry. While the potential for lost revenue resulting from improper design is a serious consideration, it is not the only one. The potential exists for problems such as excessive noise levels, inaccurate reflection of lost and unaccounted-for gas, and numerous potentially hazardous situations. The best time to limit the potential for problems is during the design process. This, together with the critical nature of these stations, dictates that proper design is imperative. Proper design of metering and regulating stations is a constantly changing and extremely complicated subject. There are virtually an infinite number of situations that the designer can encounter in evaluating his design. In view of this, it is impossible to develop a cookbook method of designing these stations that covers all possible situations. The emphasis of this paper is to briefly touch on the major aspects of metering and regulating station design. Steps involved in station design are: 1. Collection of data on the proposed station. 2. Determination of piping configuration. 3. Selection of measurement equipment. 4. Selection of pressure regulating and overpressure protection equipment. 5. Communication of the final design to field personnel.

  16. area steam line: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitchell, D. R. 4 Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the focus of the solar collector, and then...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  18. Steam generator operating experience, update for 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes operational events and degradation mechanisms affecting pressurized water reactor steam generator integrity. It provides: results of 1989 and 1990 steam generator inspections; highlights prevalent problem areas; improvements that have been made in nondestructive testing methods; preventive measures; repair techniques; and replacement procedures. It describes the equipment of the three (3) major suppliers and discusses recent examinations of 76 plants. Major areas of concern are the steam generator degradation mechanisms that affect tube integrity or cause tube leakage and tube failure. These include; (1) intergranular attack (IGA); (2) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); (3) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC); (4) pitting; and (5) vibrational wear and fatigue. Also discussed are plugging, sleeving, heat treatment, peening, chemical cleaning, and steam generator replacements. The current status of regulatory instruments and inspection guidelines for ensuring the steam generator integrity, is discussed with the highlights of steam generator research. New potential safety issues such as circumferential cracking and tube plug cracking are also discussed.

  19. A REVIEW OF THE OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL ALLOYS IN STEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G [ORNL; Dooley, Barry [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this review is the state of knowledge of the oxidation behavior in steam of alloys with potential for use as pressure parts in steam boilers. Growth of steam-side oxides has implications for scale exfoliation, tube blockage and overheating, and turbine erosion. Mitigation of such problems requires mechanistic understanding of the influences of alloy composition and microstructure as well as time, temperature, and boiler operating parameters on the evolution of specific scale structures. The oxidation behavior in steam of three classes of alloys is addressed: ferritic steels (particularly the 9-12 wt% Cr alloys), austenitic steels, and high-temperature nickel-based alloys. Understanding the interplay among compositional and microstructural requirements for strengthening and oxidation resistance, and their influence on the rate and mode of scale evolution is key to the most effective application of these alloy classes. Underlying these interests is the apparently different mode of oxide growth in steam than in air, especially contributions from inward transport of oxidant species. The particular species involved and their roles in the oxidation process are expected to exert a large influence on the oxide morphologies developed, while the fate of any hydrogen released in the alloy is a further topic of particular interest.

  20. Energy Input and Quality of Pellets Made from Steam-Exploded Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground softwood Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was treated with pressurized saturated steam at 200-220 C (1.6-2.4 MPa) for 5-10 min in a sealed container. The contents of the container were released to the atmosphere for a sudden decompression. The steam-exploded wood particles were dried to 10% moisture content and pelletized in a single-piston-cylinder system. The pellets were characterized for their mechanical strength, chemical composition, and moisture sorption. The steamtreated wood required 12-81% more energy to compact into pellets than the untreated wood. Pellets made from steam-treated wood had a breaking strength 1.4-3.3 times the strength of pellets made from untreated wood. Steam-treated pellets had a reduced equilibrium moisture content of 2-4% and a reduced expansion after pelletization. There was a slight increase in the high heating value from 18.94 to 20.09 MJ/kg for the treated samples. Steam-treated pellets exhibited a higher lengthwise rigidity compared to untreated pellets.

  1. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  2. High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHighHigh Performance

  3. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football FancyDepartment

  4. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football

  5. High Pressure PEM Electrolysis: Status, Key Issues, and Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartmentHigh

  6. THE PLASMA WINDOW: A WINDOWLESS HIGH PRESSURE VACUUM INTERFACE FOR VARIOUS ACCELERATOR APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.I.; JOHNSON,E.D.; LANZA,R.C.

    1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plasma Window is a stabilized plasma arc used as an interface between accelerator vacuum and pressurized targets. There is no solid material introduced into the beam and thus it is also capable of transmitting particle beams and electromagnetic radiation with low loss and of sustaining high beam currents without damage. Measurements on a prototype system with a 3 mm diameter opening have shown that pressure differences of more than 2.5 atmospheres can be sustained with an input pressure of {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr. The system is capable of scaling to higher-pressure differences and larger apertures. Various plasma window applications for synchrotron light sources, high power lasers, internal targets, high current accelerators such as the HAWK, ATW, APT, DARHT, spallation sources, as well as for a number of commercial applications, will be discussed.

  7. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  8. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, rpd; Cormos, C?lin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  9. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC PortoInstituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fsica, da Faculdade de Cincias, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5??10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3??10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3??10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8??10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  10. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  11. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  12. Predictive modeling and high-pressure-high-temperature synthesis of perovskites containing monovalent silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.H.; Parise, J.B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Woodward, P.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program POTATO, which was developed to model distorted perovskite structures, has been used to assess the stability of hypothetical compositions and guide the synthesis of new materials at high pressures and high temperatures. The initial result of this effort is the synthesis of two new perovskites, Ca{sub 2}NdAgTi{sub 4}O{sub 12} and NdAgTi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which were synthesized at 14--14.5 GPa and 1000 C using the uniaxial split sphere anvil type press (USSA-2000). Both compounds are perovskites distorted from the ideal cubic structure by octahedral tilting distortions. Ca{sub 2}NdAgTi{sub 4}O{sub 12} contains a random distribution of Ca{sup 2+}/Nd{sup 3+}/Ag{sup +} ions on the A-site, whereas NdAgTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} has a partially ordered distribution of Nd{sup 3+}/Ag{sup +} ions. Ca{sub 2}NdAgTi{sub 4}O{sub 12} adopts the GdFeO{sub 3} structure. NdAgTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} belongs to the tetragonal space group P4/nbm. This structure can be derived from the simple cubic perovskite structure by rotations of the octahedra about the c-axis and partial ordering of Nd{sup 3+} and Ag{sup +} ions into alternating layers, perpendicular to the c-axis.

  13. Steam System Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

  14. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  15. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  16. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 C).

  17. Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

  18. High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartmentInnovationHigh FluxPerformancngPortal

  19. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |HotImpactControl - Energy Innovation

  20. High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartment

  1. Boron nitrides synthesized directly from the elements at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicol, M.; Yoo, C.S.; Akella, J.; Cynn, H.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction, laser sample heating, and diamond-anvil cells to follow in-situ chemical reactions directly between elemental boron and nitrogen. The structures of the solid reaction products vary with pressure. Below 10 GPa, hexagonal BN is the product; cubic or wurzite BN form at higher pressures. Under nitrogen-rich conditions, another hexagonal allotrope occurs which seems to be a new highly transparent, low density h`-BN. No direct reactions occur at ambient temperature even at pressures as high as 50 GPa, implying that a large activation barrier limits the kinetics of these exothermic processes. Laser heating overcomes the large kinetic activation barrier and initiates spontaneous, self-sustaining exothermic reactions even at moderate pressures.

  2. Systematic prediction of high-pressure melting curves of transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The pressure effects on melting temperatures of transition metals have been studied based on the combination of the modified Lindemann criterion with statistical moment method in quantum statistical mechanics. Numerical calculations have been performed for five transition metals including Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Mn up to pressure 100?GPa. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with available experimental data. This approach gives us a relatively simple method for qualitatively calculating high-pressure melting temperature. Moreover, it can be used to verify future experimental and theoretical works. This research proposes the potential of the combination of statistical moment method and the modified Lindemann criterion on predicting high-pressure melting of materials.

  3. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  4. Progress Report for UNLV High Pressure Science and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailhiot, C.; Pepper, D.; Lindle, D.; Nicol, M.

    1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we present results of an in-depth analysis of the SP error densities for 29 satellites. These satellites were divided into three groups--Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Near Circular Orbit (NCO) and Highly Eccentric Orbit (HEO). Included in the first group were those satellites with eccentricities of less than 0.2 and perigees below 450km. The second group included satellites in near circular orbits (eccentricities of less than 0.015) and perigees from 700km to 1500km. The third group consisted of those satellites that were in highly eccentric orbits, namely those with eccentricities greater than 0.2. These satellites have perigees far into the thermosphere. Table 1 contains a summary of the orbit characteristics for the 29 satellites. In our study we attempted to unravel and elucidate the networks of relationships above. The satellite groupings and the report are organized in a way that reflects these efforts. We begin in Section 2 with a summary of the methods used in our analysis. One objective in this study was to establish a baseline for future work in satellite orbit propagators. Section 2 contains descriptions of the SP, truth orbits, and the satellite observation data used to establish this baseline. In the report we show how satellite error densities evolve in time up to thirty-six hours. We present error profiles, error histograms, rms errors and 95/9970 confidence limits for the along-track cross-track, and radial axes of motion for satellites in each of the three groupings. We present results of a regression analysis that establishes a physical model of the error densities. We also link the errors in the various regimes to the quality and quantity of the observational data.

  5. Stability analysis and testing of a train of centrifugal compressors for high pressure gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memmott, E.A. [Dresser-Rand Co., Olean, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the rotor dynamic stability analysis and the PTC-10 Class 1 test of a three body centrifugal compressor train for high pressure natural gas injection services. This train had a full load full pressure string test on hydrocarbon gases to a final discharge pressure of 500 BAR (7250 PSIA). Each compressor is of the back to back configuration, and is equipped with tilting pad seals, damper bearings, and a honeycomb labyrinth at the division wall with shunt holes. The driver is a gas turbine.

  6. An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Brunner; Daniel Fudenberg; Victor Varentsov; Amanda Sabourov; Giorgio Gratta; Jens Dilling; Ralph DeVoe; David Sinclair; William Fairbank Jr.; Joshua B Albert; David J Auty; Phil S Barbeau; Douglas Beck; Cesar Benitez-Medina; Martin Breidenbach; Guofu F Cao; Christopher Chambers; Bruce Cleveland; Matthew Coon; Adam Craycraft; Timothy Daniels; Sean J Daugherty; Tamar Didberidze; Michelle J Dolinski; Matthew Dunford; Lorenzo Fabris; Jacques Farine; Wolfhart Feldmeier; Peter Fierlinger; Razvan Gornea; Kevin Graham; Mike Heffner; Mitchell Hughes; Michael Jewell; Xiaoshan S Jiang; Tessa N Johnson; Sereres Johnston; Alexander Karelin; Lisa J Kaufman; Ryan Killick; Thomas Koffas; Scott Kravitz; Reiner Kruecken; Alexey Kuchenkov; Krishna S Kumar; Douglas S Leonard; Francois Leonard; Caio Licciardi; Yi-Hsuan H Lin; Jiajie Ling; Ryan MacLellan; Michael G Marino; Brian Mong; David Moore; Allen Odian; Igor Ostrovskiy; Christian Ouellet; Andreas Piepke; Andrea Pocar; Fabrice Retiere; Peter C Rowson; Maria P Rozo; Alexis Schubert; Erica Smith; Victor Stekhanov; Michal Tarka; Tamer Tolba; Delia Tosi; Karl Twelker; Jean-Luc L Vuilleumier; Josiah Walton; Timothy Walton; Manuel Weber; Liangjian J Wen; Ubi Wichoski; Liang Yang; Yung-Ruey Yen

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

  7. Diffraction studies of order?disorder at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, John B.; Antao, Sytle M.; Martin, Charles D.; Crichton, Wilson (SBU); (ESRF)

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments at synchrotron X-ray beamlines now allow collection of data suitable for structure determination and Rietveld structure refinement at high pressures and temperatures on challenging materials. These include materials, such as dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) that tends to calcine at high temperatures, and Fe-containing materials, such as the spinel MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which tend to undergo changes in oxidation state. Careful consideration of encapsulation along with the use of radial collimation produced powder diffraction patterns virtually free of parasitic scattering from the cell in the case of large volume high-pressure experiments. These features have been used to study a number of phase transitions, especially those where superior signal-to-noise discrimination is required to distinguish weak ordering reflections. The structures adopted by dolomite, and CaSO4, anhydrite, were determined from 298 to 1466 K at high pressures. Using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells to achieve simultaneous high pressure and temperature conditions, we have observed CaSO{sub 4} undergo phase transitions to the monazite type and at highest pressure and temperature to crystallize in the barite-type structure. On cooling, the barite structure distorts, from an orthorhombic to a monoclinic lattice, to produce the AgMnO{sub 4}-type structure.

  8. The Streaming Potential Generated by Flow of Wet Steam in Capillary Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, S.S. Jr.; Tyran, Craig K.

    1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For a constant pressure differential, the flow of wet steam generated electric potentials which increased with time and did not reach equilibrium values. These potentials were found to increase to values greater than 100 volts. The reason for this kind of potential build-up behavior was the presence of tiny flowing water slugs which were interspersed with electrically nonconductive steam vapor slugs. The measured electric potential for wet steam increased with pressure differential, but the relationship was not linear. The increase in potential with pressure drop was attributed both to an increase in fluid flow rate and changes in the wet steam quality.

  9. Development of high temperature, high pressure rotating shaft seals: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heshmat, H.; Shapiro, W.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rotating shaft seals used in coal gasification equipment are exposed to difficult environmental conditions including temperature from 430/sup 0/C to 816/sup 0/C (800/sup 0/F to 1500/sup 0/F), high pressure (to 10 MPa or 1500 psig), and high levels of particulate contamination (50,000 to 100,000 ppM). The program reported upon was designed to develop long-life seals that would not require external flushing or cooling. The approach taken was to develop unbalanced face that would remain closed and prevent particulate entry into the interface. Wear resistant materials and coatings with low friction coefficients are required. Significant results of the program are enumerated: The selected material combination was a rotating runner of Kentanium K162B mating against a non-rotating seal ring of Kentanium K162B. Kentanium is the trade name of a series of hard carbide alloys with pure titanium carbide as the principal ingredient. Nickel and nickel molybdenum are used as binder materials. Kentanium retains most of its strength at temperatures ..mu..p to 1100/sup 0/C (2000/sup 0/F). Since hard materials are required to resist wear and withstand the temperatures, mechanical compliance must be built into the seal configuration for the opposed faces to follow runner nutations and remain closed. Environmental and frictional heating caused the formation of very small particles of titanium oxide which lodged in the face wave formations and acted as an interfacial lubricant. The results of this program provide encouragement and optimism that dry contact face seals can be developed for long unattended operation in the hostile environment of a coal gasification plant. 40 refs., 98 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Plamp

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

  11. High-pressure behavior of amorphous selenium from ultrasonic measurements and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Z.; Liu, X. R.; Hong, S. M., E-mail: hpswjtu@gmail.com, E-mail: smhong@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Z. G. [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, H. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Peng, J. P. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-pressure behavior of melt-quenched amorphous selenium (a-Se) has been investigated via ultrasonic measurements and Raman scattering at room temperature. The ultrasonic measurements were conducted on a-Se in a multi-anvil apparatus with two different sample assemblies at pressures of up to 4.5 and 4.8?GPa. We discovered that similar kinks occur in the slopes of the pressure dependence characteristics of the travel time and the sound velocity in both shear and longitudinal waves in the 2.02.5?GPa range. These kinks are independent of the sample assemblies, indicating an intrinsic transformation of the a-Se. Additionally, we deduced the pressure-volume relationship of a-Se from the sound velocity characteristics using the BirchMurnaghan equation of state, and the results agreed well with those of previous reports. In situ high-pressure Raman scattering measurements of a-Se were conducted in a diamond anvil cell with an 830?nm excitation line up to a pressure of 4.3?GPa. We found that the characteristic band of a-Se at ?250?cm{sup ?1} experienced a smooth shift to a lower frequency with pressure, but a sharp slope change in the band intensity versus pressure occurred near 2.5?GPa. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicate that the samples remain in their amorphous states after decompression. Thus, we proposed that the abnormal compression behavior of a-Se in the 2.02.5?GPa range can be attributed to pressure-induced local atomic reconfiguration, implying an amorphous-amorphous transition of the elementary selenium.

  12. Synchronized High-Speed Video, Infrared Thermometry, and Particle Image Velocimetry Data for Validation of Interface-Tracking Simulations of Nucleate Boiling Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Xiaoman

    Nucleation, growth, and detachment of steam bubbles during nucleate boiling of a water pool at atmospheric pressure is experimentally investigated using a combination of synchronized high-speed video, infrared thermography, ...

  13. Dielectric Spectroscopy and Ultrasonic Study of Propylene Carbonate under Ultra-high Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Kondrin; E. L. Gromnitskaya; A. A. Pronin; A. G. Lyapin; V. V. Brazhkin; A. A. Volkov

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the high pressure dielectric spectroscopy (up to 4.2 GPa) and ultrasonic study (up to 1.7 GPa) of liquid and glassy propylene carbonate (PC). Both of the methods provide complementary pictures of the glass transition in PC under pressure. No other relaxation processes except $\\alpha$-relaxation have been found in the studied pressure interval. The propylene carbonate liquid is a glassformer where simple relaxation and the absence of $\\beta$-relaxation are registered in the record-breaking ranges of pressures and densities. The equation of state of liquid PC was extended up to 1 GPa from ultrasonic measurements of bulk modulus and is in good accordance with the previous equations developed from volumetric data. We measured the bulk and shear moduli and Poisson's ratio of glassy PC up to 1.7 GPa. Many relaxation and elastic properties of PC can be qualitatively described by the soft-sphere or Lennard-Jones model. However, for the quantitative description of entire set of the experimental data, these models are insufficient. Moreover, the Poisson coefficient value for glassy PC indicates a significant contribution of non-central forces to the intermolecular potential. The well-known correlation between Poisson's ratio and fragility index (obtained from dielectric relaxation) is confirmed for PC at ambient pressure, but it is violated with pressure increase. This indicates that different features of the potential energy landscape are responsible for the evolution of dielectric response and elasticity with pressure increase.

  14. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt(M), SFB/TR49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  15. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.moreAlthough the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.less

  16. Revisit of the relationship between the elastic properties and sound velocities at high pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chenju; Yan, Xiaozhen [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, PO Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Xiang, Shikai, E-mail: skxiang@caep.ac.cn; Chen, Haiyan [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, PO Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Gu, Jianbing; Yu, Yin [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, PO Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Kuang, Xiaoyu [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Academia Sinica, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are defined, respectively, as the second derivatives of the total energy and the first derivative of the stress with respect to strain. Since the Lagrangian and infinitesimal strain are commonly used in the two definitions above, the second-order elastic constants and stress-strain coefficients are separated into two categories, respectively. In general, any of the four physical quantities is employed to characterize the elastic properties of materials without differentiation. Nevertheless, differences may exist among them at non-zero pressures, especially high pressures. Having explored the confusing issue systemically in the present work, we find that the four quantities are indeed different from each other at high pressures and these differences depend on the initial stress applied on materials. Moreover, the various relations between the four quantities depicting elastic properties of materials and high-pressure sound velocities are also derived from the elastic wave equations. As examples, we calculated the high-pressure sound velocities of cubic tantalum and hexagonal rhenium using these nexus. The excellent agreement of our results with available experimental data suggests the general applicability of the relations.

  17. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samarasinghe, Nalin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Fernando, Sandun [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Faulkner, William B. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  18. Numerical investigation of high-pressure combustion in rocket engines using Flamelet/Progress-variable models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coclite, A; De Palma, P; Pascazio, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper deals with the numerical study of high pressure LOx/H2 or LOx/hydrocarbon combustion for propulsion systems. The present research effort is driven by the continued interest in achieving low cost, reliable access to space and more recently, by the renewed interest in hypersonic transportation systems capable of reducing time-to-destination. Moreover, combustion at high pressure has been assumed as a key issue to achieve better propulsive performance and lower environmental impact, as long as the replacement of hydrogen with a hydrocarbon, to reduce the costs related to ground operations and increase flexibility. The current work provides a model for the numerical simulation of high- pressure turbulent combustion employing detailed chemistry description, embedded in a RANS equations solver with a Low Reynolds number k-omega turbulence model. The model used to study such a combustion phenomenon is an extension of the standard flamelet-progress-variable (FPV) turbulent combustion model combined ...

  19. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

  20. Stages of destruction and elastic compression of granular nanoporous carbon medium at high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; N. B. Bobrova; A. A. Chupikov

    2015-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The granular nanoporous carbon medium, made of the cylindrical coal granules of the adsorbent of SKT 3, at an influence by the high pressures from 1MPa to 3GPa has been researched. The eight consecutive stages of the materials specific volume change, which is characterized by a certain dependence of the volume change on the pressure change, have been registered. It is shown that there is a linear dependence on the double log log plot of the materials specific volume change on the pressure for an every stage of considered process. The two stages are clearly distinguished such as a stage of materials mechanical destruction, and a stage of elastic compression of material without the disintegration of structure at a nanscale. The hysteresis dependence of the materials specific volume change on the pressure change at the pressure decrease is observed. The small disperse coal dust particles jettisoning between the high pressure cell and the base plate was observed, resulting in the elastic stress reduction in relation to the small disperse coal dust particles volume. The obtained research data can be used to improve the designs of air filters for the radioactive chemical elements absorption at the NPP with the aims to protect the environment.

  1. A primary high-pressure air flow measurement standard in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiunn-Haur Shaw; Fong-Ruey Yang; Yao-Fu Chen [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure air-flow national measurement standard is constructed in Taiwan with a capacity of 8400 Nm{sup 3}/h and a projected measurement uncertainty of {plus_minus}0.2% in the pressure range of 1 {approximately} 84 bars. it is a blow-down type facility, and its main purpose is to serve as the primary standard of a larger-flowrate natural gas flow measurement facility to be built in the future by Chinese Petroleum Company (CPC). The system has a gyroscopic weighing platform suitable for high precision gravimetric measurements and several sonic nozzles with different throat diameters situated in a chamber to be the reference flow meters. A set of two turbine meters, 50mm and 100mm, are sued as the transfer standard. The facility has two test sections separated by the nozzle chamber and four different calibration modes could be arranged. To make calibration, the storage tank, the temperature control loop, and two sets of pressure regulating valve establish a pressurized air flow with stable temperature and pressure in the test section. The control of the air-flow diversion, connect-disconnect mechanism, sonic nozzle array is made through a hydraulic power unit operating at 200 bars. Real time measurements of temperature, pressure, flow signal, and time are collected through a Honeywell 9000-series PLC and a FIX DMAC data acquisition/control software. This paper describes the key components of the test facility and presents the preliminary results of performance assessment.

  2. Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions and are investigated simultaneously to more accurately predict cement failure. The results of this study show the relevant dependency of stress principles with temperature and pressure. These results clarify the deformation caused by any...

  3. Improved x-ray collimation system for diamond-anvil high-pressure cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiferl, D.; Olinger, B.; Livingston, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved x-ray collimation system for diamond-anvil high-pressure cells is described. The usual practice of mounting the collimator directly in the diamond-anvil cell is not followed. Instead, the collimator is mounted and aligned in a fixture which can be removed from the diamong-anvil cell. The end of the collimator furthest from the sample can be fitted with a set of removable plugs, each with a different aperture. This collimation system is easily aligned, can be removed from the high-pressure cell with no loss of alignment, and is inexpensive to construct.

  4. Structural changes in nano-crystalline mackinawite (FeS) at high - pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehm, L.; Michael, F. M.; Antao, S. M.; Martin, C. D.; Lee, P. L.; Shastri, S. D.; Chupas, P. J.; Parise, J. B.; Stony Brook Univ.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-pressure behavior of nanocrystalline mackinawite (FeS) with particle sizes of 6, 7 and 8 nm has been investigated by high-energy X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis. An irreversible first-order structural phase transition from tetragonal mackinawite to orthorhombic FeS-II was observed at about 3 GPa. The transition is induced by the closure of the van der Waals gap in the layered mackinawite structure. A grain size effect on the transition pressure and the compressibility was observed.

  5. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  7. High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction study of EuVO4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Alka B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-pressure structural behavior of europium orthovanadate has been studied using in-situ, synchrotron based, high-pressure x-ray powder diffraction technique. Angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out at room temperature up to 34.7 GPa using a diamond-anvil cell, extending the pressure range reported in previous experiments. We confirmed the occurrence of zircon-scheelite phase transition at 6.8 GPa and the coexistence of low- and high-pressure phases up to 10.1 GPa. In addition, clear evidence of a scheelite-fregusonite transition is found at 23.4 GPa. The fergusonite structure remains stable up to 34.7 GPa, the highest pressure reached in the present measurements. A partial decomposition of EuVO4 was also observed from 8.1 to 12.8 GPa, however, this fact did not preclude the identification of the different crystal structures of EuVO4. The crystal structures of the different phases have been Rietveld refined and their equations of state (EOS) have been determined. The results are...

  8. Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 deg C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

  9. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  10. Properties of molecular solids and fluids at high pressure and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etters, R.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This renewal request for DOE grant DE-FG02-86ER45238, is dedicated to providing a complete thermodynamic profile of solids fluids, and fluid mixtures, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. We are partially motivated by technological interest in detonation, combustion, superhard high pressure materials, and high temperature superconductors, which are important components of interest of various DOE laboratories. Our work on fluids and solids, composed of simple molecules, involves the determination of structures, phase transitions, pressure-volume relations, phonon, vibron, and libron modes of excitation, sound velocities, specific heats, thermal expansion, virial coefficients, sublimation energies, and orientational translational, and magnetic correlations. We hope that the study of these systems under extreme thermodynamic conditions will lead to exotic new materials of value, as well as enhanced fundamental understanding.

  11. A cryogenic high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of quantum fluids and solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present our new development of a high pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering measurements of helium at ultra-low temperatures. The cell has a large sample volume of ~140 cm3, and a working pressure of ~70 bar, with a relatively thin wall-thickness (1.1 mm) - thanks to the high yield strength aluminum used in the design. Two variants of this cell have been developed; one with permanently joined components using electron-beam welding and explosion welding, methods that have little or no impact on the global heat treatment of the cell, and another with modular and interchangeable components, which include a capacitance pressure gauge, that can be sealed using traditional indium wire technique. The performance of the cell has been tested in recent measurements on superfluid liquid helium near the solidification line.

  12. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cells infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct radiation from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system is demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO2 at 50 C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO2 at 50 C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clays sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) in water-bearing scCO2 at 50 C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO2, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 hours, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO2 and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO2 (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  13. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.thompson@pnnl.gov; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Benezeth, Pascale [Gosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Universit de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)] [Gosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Universit de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO{sub 2} at 50?C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO{sub 2} at 50?C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO{sub 2} hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO{sub 2} on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) in water-bearing scCO{sub 2} at 50?C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO{sub 2}, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 h, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO{sub 2} and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO{sub 2} (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  14. SmNd disequilibrium in high-pressure, low-temperature Himalayan and Alpine rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    disequilibrium in high-pressure, low-temperature rocks, SmNd isotopic analyses were carried out on minerals from contamination processes. In the case of a magmatic protolith, contamination can be achieved through crustal sedimentary protolith contains components from an old contaminant crust. In the Himalayan samples, the inverse

  15. High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment S. Yagoubi a,b,c,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment and theory S. Yagoubi a, USi3, as well as some non-stoichiometric phases presented in Table 1. Among the thoriumB-type) that a ferromagnetic ordering is reported, with TC = 127 K and a saturated moment of 0.1 lB [3]. Concerning the thorium

  16. Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

  17. Aragonite pseudomorphs in high-pressure marbles of Syros, Greece John B. Bradya,*, Michelle J. Markleyb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, John B.

    Aragonite pseudomorphs in high-pressure marbles of Syros, Greece John B. Bradya,*, Michelle J in the blueschist to eclogite facies marbles of Syros, Greece. The rods show a shape-preferred orientation is unusually low (Carlson and Rosenfeld, 1981). Although marbles on the island of Syros (Cyclades, Greece

  18. Journal of Applied Physics 104,093504 (2008) Picosecond laser structuration under high pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research on ultra-short laser modification of materials has been a subject of numerous studies last two. The main effect is specific to the ambient gas and laser pulse duration in the ablation regime: whenJournal of Applied Physics 104,093504 (2008) Picosecond laser structuration under high pressures

  19. High-pressure phases of CaCO3: Crystal structure prediction and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oganov, Artem R.

    High-pressure phases of CaCO3: Crystal structure prediction and experiment Artem R. Oganov a October 2005 Available online 18 November 2005 Editor: G.D. Price Abstract Post-aragonite phase of CaCO3 transformation in CaCO3 at 40 GPa, Am. Mineral. 90 (2005) 667671], is believed to be a major carbon- containing

  20. High-pressure phases of FeTiO3 from first principles N. C. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005; published 19 July 2005 The structural, elastic, and electronic properties of the high-pressure Fe and their interaction with the structural degrees of freedom. Ilmenite, the mineral form of FeTiO3, is commonly found of diamond deposits.2 In addition to ilmenite, two other polymorphs of FeTiO3 are known,3 namely, the lithium

  1. Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics Chien details the development of an integrated AC electro-osmotic (ACEO) microfluidic pump for dilute (100 mM) biological solutions in separate microfluidic devices, with potential applications in portable

  2. Studies of Charge Exchange in a High?Pressure Pulsed Electron Impact Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, D. K. Sen; Hierl, Peter M.; Franklin, J. L.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure pulsed ion source has been used in a time?of?flight mass spectrometer in order to study the charge exchangereactions in ArH2 and ArD2 systems using the ion source in the ?ermk mode of operation. As the source was used in a pulsed...

  3. Acceptance test report for high pressure water jet system feed pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes results of WHC-SD-SNF-ATP-016, Rev. 0 ``Acceptance Test Procedure High Pressure Water Jet System``, conducted on December 20, 1995 and December 22, 1995. This jet supplies water at 15,000 psi @ 15 gpm to nozzles to clean surfaces of empty fuel storage canisters.

  4. Design, modeling, fabrication and testing of a piezoelectric microvalve for high pressure, high frequency hydraulic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, David C. (David Christopher)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectrically-driven hydraulic amplification microvalve for use in high specific power hydraulic pumping applications was designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. High frequency, high force actuation ...

  5. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petto, S.

    RELIABILITY IIIPROVEfWlT PROGRAMS IN STEAM DISTRIBUTION AND POVER GENERATION SYSTEItS Steve Petto Tech/Serv Corporation Blue Bell, PA Abstract This paper will present alternatives to costly corrective maintenance of the steam trap... In the reliability and efficiency of the system. Recent studies have shownt hat more than 40% of all In stalled steam traps and 20% of certain types of valves need some form of corrective action. The majority of all high backpressure problems In condensate return...

  6. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, R.; Anand, V., E-mail: VAnand@slb.com; Ganesan, K.; Tabrizi, P.; Torres, R. [Schlumberger Technology Corp., 110 Schlumberger Drive, Sugar Land, Texas 77478 (United States)] [Schlumberger Technology Corp., 110 Schlumberger Drive, Sugar Land, Texas 77478 (United States); Grant, B. [Grant Innovation, 618 Mesquite Drive, Cedar Creek, Texas 78612 (United States)] [Grant Innovation, 618 Mesquite Drive, Cedar Creek, Texas 78612 (United States); Catina, D. [National Oilwell Varco, 10302 Mula Road, Stafford, Texas 77477 (United States)] [National Oilwell Varco, 10302 Mula Road, Stafford, Texas 77477 (United States); Ryan, D.; Borman, C.; Krueckl, C. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, 945017 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)] [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, 945017 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175?C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases (referred to as live oils) are shown. This is the first time low-field NMR measurements have been performed at such high temperatures and pressures on live crude oil samples. We discuss the details of the apparatus design, tuning, calibration, and operation. NMR data acquired at multiple temperatures and pressures on a live oil sample are discussed.

  7. Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . keymanengravables.com Steam Turbine Generator Info, Pictures And Deals For Steam turbine generator ediscountshoppingBack One Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator Need Steam Electricity Generator? See Steam Electricity Generator. greenshieldsindustrial.com Steam Generators Deals on Steam Generators Find what you

  8. Design of a continuous fiber ceramic composite heat exchanger for high-temperature, high-pressure applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Narayanan, T.V. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Shah, A.C.; Weddell, J.K. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design of a continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) heat exchanger for high-temperature, high-pressure applications is presented. The CFCC materials under consideration are SiC reinforced with SiC fibers manufactured using the continuous vapor infiltration process and alumina reinforced with SiC or alumina fibers manufactured using the directed metal oxidation process. These composite materials are highly resistant to high-temperature corrosive environment and possess a greater creep strength than metallic materials. Heat exchangers constructed of CFCC material may be utilized for high-temperature, high-pressure applications such as air/gas heaters in advanced energy systems and high-temperature energy recovery systems. This paper presents a design of a gas-to-air CFCC heat exchanger for the high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) in the high-performance power system (HIPPS). The 1.38 MPa (200 psia) air is heated from 760 C (1,400 F) to 982 C (1,800 F) using the combustion products at 1,650 C (3,000 F). The heat exchanger is of a cross-parallel/counter flow type in which the tube-side air flow makes a combined parallel and counter flow arrangement with a cross-flowing combustion gas in such a way that the maximum CFCC tube temperature will not exceed a 1,260 C (2,300 F) design limit. The main heat transfer mechanism from the external hot gas to the tube-side air is that of gaseous radiation for the first few rows of the tubes, followed by convective heat transfer across the remainder of the tube bundle. The design characteristics of this high-temperature, high-pressure CFCC heat exchanger with supporting thermal, flow, structural, and vibrational analyses are presented in detail in the paper.

  9. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  10. Steam System Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchanan, M. G.; Sneary, M. L.

    energy into the air. You might say that many of us are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 ? This cooling... are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 . This cooling is accomplished by venting the receiver to the atmosphere...

  11. Demonstration and System Analysis of High Temperature Steam Electrolysis for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production Using SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, an integrated laboratory scale (ILS), 15 kW high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) facility has been developed under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Initial operation of this facility resulted in over 400 hours of operation with an average hydrogen production rate of approximately 0.9 Nm3/hr. The integrated laboratory scale facility is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high-temperature gas handling), multiple-stack hot-zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, and other integral issues. Additionally, a reference process model of a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The reference plant design is driven by a 600 megawatt thermal high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.01106 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohmcm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.36 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. This paper documents the initial operation of the ILS, with experimental details about heat-up, initial stack performance, as well as long-term operation and stack degradation. The paper will also present the optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant which may be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  12. The deterioration in heat transfer to fluids at super-critical pressure and high heat fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiralkar, B. S.

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Several supercritical steam generators in the American Electric Power system have shown evidence of tube overheat in the lower furnance at the point where the water bulk temperature is about 670 0 F. The ...

  13. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  14. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  15. Phase transition and metallization of FeO at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Lord, Oliver T.; Shofner, Gregory A.; Dera, Przemyslaw; Prakapenka, Vitali B. (Maryland); (UC); (UCL)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Wuestite, Fe{sub 1-x}O, is an important component in the mineralogy of Earth's lower mantle and may also be a component of the core. Therefore its high pressure-temperature behavior, including its electronic structure, is essential to understanding the nature and evolution of Earth's deep interior. We performed X-ray diffraction and radiometric measurements on wuestite in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, finding an insulator-metal transition at high pressures and temperatures. Our data show a negative slope for this apparently isostructural phase boundary, which is characterized by a volume decrease and emissivity increase. The metallic phase of FeO is stable at conditions of the lower mantle and core, which has implications for the high P-T character of Fe-O bonds, magnetic field propagation, and lower mantle conductivity.

  16. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  17. High-pressure structural and elastic properties of Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomis, O., E-mail: osgohi@fis.upv.es; Vilaplana, R. [Centro de Tecnologas Fsicas, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politcnica de Valncia, 46022 Valncia (Spain); Santamara-Prez, D. [Departamento de Fsica Aplicada-ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio de Investigacin, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Earth Sciences Department, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Ruiz-Fuertes, J. [Departamento de Fsica Aplicada-ICMUV, MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio de Investigacin, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universitt, Altenhferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Sans, J. A.; Manjn, F. J.; Mollar, M. [Instituto de Diseo para la Fabricacin y Produccin Automatizada, MALTA Consolider Team, Universitat Politcnica de Valncia, 46022 Valncia (Spain); and others

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural properties of Thallium (III) oxide (Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied both experimentally and theoretically under compression at room temperature. X-ray powder diffraction measurements up to 37.7?GPa have been complemented with ab initio total-energy calculations. The equation of state of Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been determined and compared to related compounds. It has been found experimentally that Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3} remains in its initial cubic bixbyite-type structure up to 22.0?GPa. At this pressure, the onset of amorphization is observed, being the sample fully amorphous at 25.2?GPa. The sample retains the amorphous state after pressure release. To understand the pressure-induced amorphization process, we have studied theoretically the possible high-pressure phases of Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Although a phase transition is theoretically predicted at 5.8?GPa to the orthorhombic Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3}-II-type structure and at 24.2?GPa to the orthorhombic ?-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3}-type structure, neither of these phases were observed experimentally, probably due to the hindrance of the pressure-driven phase transitions at room temperature. The theoretical study of the elastic behavior of the cubic bixbyite-type structure at high-pressure shows that amorphization above 22?GPa at room temperature might be caused by the mechanical instability of the cubic bixbyite-type structure which is theoretically predicted above 23.5?GPa.

  18. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group (SP3), Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B{sub z}) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is {approx}2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed.

  19. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  20. Effects of variations in rate of temperature rise, curing temperature and size of specimen on selected physical properties of concrete made with type III cement and steam cured at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Weldon Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    made with Type III Portland cement, 2. to determine the interrelationships of the physical pro- perties of the steam cured concrete as exhibited by the variation in size of the test specimens, 3. to compare certain physical properties of steam cured... it was believed that Type III Portland cement would respond favorably, to temperatures 1n the higher ranges. Due to this same reasoning the rate of temperature rise was varied between 40 F, 60o F and 80 F per hour. These oombinations of curing temperature...