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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engines and gas turbines where the combustion chamber is at high pressure. Despite the use of catalyticStrategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. II. A combustion systems3�13 and thus develop new schemes to mini- mize NO effluent. The high operating pressure

Lee, Tonghun

2

Extremely high-pressure generation and compression with laser implosion plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have tested a scheme for using laser implosion plasmas to generate pressures in the gigabar (100 TPa) regime. Cone-in-shell targets employed in fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion were irradiated to create a high-pressure source for compression of materials. The imploded plasmas pushed a foil embedded on the tip of a cone. The pressure was estimated from the shock velocity into the material; the shock velocity was obtained from an optical measurement. The measured shock velocity of the foil was above 100 km/s, corresponding to a pressure greater than 1 Gbar.

Shigemori, K.; Hironaka, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, A. [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kadono, T. [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan)] [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-Cho, Toyonaka 560-0831 (Japan)] [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-Cho, Toyonaka 560-0831 (Japan)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

3

Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3}) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm{sup 2} at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 506 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Laser-driven formation of a high-pressure phase in amorphous silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of electron diffraction and infrared reflectance measurements shows that synthetic silica transforms partially into stishovite under high-intensity (GW/cm2) laser irradiation, probably by the formation of a dense ionized plasma above the silica surface. During the transformation the silicon coordination changes from four-fold to six-fold and the silicon-oxygen bond changes from mostly covalent to mostly ionic, such that optical properties of the transformed material differ significantly from those of the original glass. This phase transformation offers one suitable mechanism by which laser-induced damage grows catastrophically once initiated, thereby dramatically shortening the service lifetime of optics used for high-power photonics applications such as inertial confinement fusion.

Salleo, Alberto; Taylor, Seth T.; Martin, Michael C.; Panero, Wendy R.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Genin, Francois Y.; Sands, Timothy

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Pulsed CO{sub 2} laser with an X-ray preioniser based on a high-voltage low-pressure glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An X-ray preioniser with an electron beam energy density of 0.1 J cm{sup -2} based on a high-voltage (20 - 40 kV) low-pressure glow discharge is developed for repetitively pulsed gas lasers. The electron concentration in the CO{sub 2} - N{sub 2} - He mixture as a function of the voltage across the preioniser is calculated for titanium and other foils. The preioniser can be operated both in a single-pulse regime and at pulse repetition rates ranging up to hundreds of Hertz. A specific energy yield of 51 J L{sup -1} is achieved in the X-ray preionised pulsed CO{sub 2} atmospheric-pressure laser. This preioniser was shown to be efficient for other active media (CO and excimer lasers), which opens up new opportunities for the development of repetitively pulsed gas lasers. (lasers)

Oreshkin, V F; Seregin, Aleksandr M; Sinaiskii, V V; Shchetinkina, T A ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Sorokin, A R [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Dynamics of plasma formation during quasicontinuous laser irradiation of metals in high-pressure nitrogen atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This is a study of target destruction and the dynamics of surface plasma formation during the interaction of quasicontinuous laser...q = 1–7 MW/cm2..., ? ? 1.5 msec) with D16T duraluminum and bismuth in nitrogen

V. I. Nasonov; Yu. A. Chivel

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Differential laser absorption spectroscopy of uranium in an atmospheric pressure laser-induced plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-beam differential laser absorption technique is used to measure U238 absorption spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios in an atmospheric pressure laser-induced plasma....

Taylor, N R; Phillips, M C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

High temperature pressure gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

High-pressure crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

Katrusiak, A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

12

High pressure counterflow CHF.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

Walkush, Joseph Patrick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

Kulkarny, Vijay A. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

15

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

THz Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A terahertz quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been successfully grown by low-pressure MOVPE. Very high quality semiconductor interfaces are demonstrated as well as very promising lasing...

Sirigu, Lorenzo; Rudra, Alok; Amanti, Maria I; Scalari, Giacomo; Fischer, Milan; Giovannini, Marcella; Faist, Jerome; Kapon, Eli

17

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

18

High Energy Density Sate, Material and Device with High Power Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High energy density states with photon pressures of more than Tera bar and thermal pressure of more than Mega bar, is now available with high power lasers. Here I present creation of...

Kodama, R

19

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

22

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

23

Steam Oxidation at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy...

25

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

Pressure dependence of laser oscillation and superfluorescent emission from an optically pumped CF4 laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments on pressure dependence of a CF4 laser have been carried out to elucidate dynamic characteristics of CF4 molecules pumped by CO2 lasers. The results are followed by a model calculation which characteri...

H. Tashiro; H. Souma; K. Toyoda; S. Namba; K. Nagasaka

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Ignition characteristics of laser-ablated aluminum at shock pressures up to 2?GPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ignition of aluminum particles under high pressure and temperature conditions is considered. The laser ablation method is used to generate oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to pressures ranging between 0.35 and 2.2?GPa. A continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser radiation heats the surface of the aluminum target until ignition is observed. We confirm ignition by a spectroscopic analysis of AlO vibronic band of 484?nm wavelength, and the radiant temperature is measured with respect to various pressures for estimating the heating energy for ignition. The ignition characteristics of the oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to extremely high pressures are reported.

Lee, Kyung-Cheol; Young Lee, Jae; Yoh, Jack J., E-mail: jjyoh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanakro, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Taira, Tsubasa [Division of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Mo Koo, Goon [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

High repetition rate fiber lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

High-repetition-rate CF4 laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 16-?m CF4 laser oscillator has operated at 1 kHz in a cooled static cell. Pump energies required from the low-pressure, Q-switched, cw-discharge CO2 laser were...

Telle, John

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

High power gas laser amplifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

Leland, Wallace T. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

35

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

36

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

37

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

38

High-pressure microhydraulic actuator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Sandia National Laboratories: High-Pressure and High-Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECClimateCarbon CaptureHigh-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron...

40

High precision, rapid laser hole drilling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High pressure generation by hot electrons driven ablation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous model [Piriz et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 122705 (2012)] for the ablation driven by the hot electrons generated in collisionless laser-plasma interactions in the framework of shock ignition is revisited. The impact of recent results indicating that for a laser wavelength ? = 0.35 ?m the hot electron temperature ?{sub H} would be independent of the laser intensity I, on the resulting ablation pressure is considered. In comparison with the case when the scaling law ?{sub H}?(I?{sup 2}){sup 1/3} is assumed, the generation of the high pressures needed for driving the ignitor shock may be more demanding. Intensities above 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} would be required for ?{sub H}=25?30 keV.

Piriz, A. R. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, S. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tahir, N. A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Neutron scattering at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering spectra at pressures up to 30 kilobar in the temperature range 300–4 K have been obtained with a compact clamped type apparatus. The pressure cell geometry by allowing the detection of neutronsscattered in a plane makes it compatible with operation on crystal spectrometers both for elastic and inelastic scattering. The instrument is light (4.5 kg) and easy to move. An external diameter of 68 mm makes the pressure cell adaptable to standard cryostats or furnaces.

D. Bloch; J. Paureau; J. Voiron; G. Parisot

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

Sprangle, Phillip [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Hafizi, Bahman [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

High power laser perforating tools and systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Modulation instability in high power laser amplifiers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. VanWonterghem, "National Ignition Facility laser performanceModulation instability in high power laser amplifiers Alexander M. Rubenchik,1,* Sergey K. Turitsyn in high-power laser systems. The so-called B-integral restriction is commonly used as the criteria for MI

Turitsyn, Sergei K.

46

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cycles Fuel Lines * 10,000 psi nominal working pressure * O-ring face seal connections * CNC bent to CAD data * 316 Stainless Steel (Other materials available) * Welded end form or...

47

BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water into the protein rather than the transfer of hydrophobic residues into water. To investigate water. Gil Toombes for teaching me SAXS analysis and help with the pressure pump motor control, Buz Barstow

Gruner, Sol M.

48

High-Power Laser Beam Cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports major advances in the understanding, refinement and application of high-power laser beam cladding. The most important relationships between essential laser process variables and clad characteri...

G. J. Bruck

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

High-Pressure Model Catalyst System | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of one atmosphere or below in a reactor situated just below an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber. In particular, heterogeneous catalytic reactions at realistic pressures over...

52

Recent high pressure photoluminescence studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss two studies involving the effect of pressure on luminescence properties of organic molecules in polymeric media. (1) The efficiency of energy transfer from Coumarine 138 to Rhodamine B in polyacrylic acid (PAA) is measured by both steady state and time dependent methods. The Forster efficiency'' obtained by these two methods is consistent and shows the same pressure dependence as efficiencies derived from relative peak intensities. The non-monotonic pressure dependence of the efficiency is accounted for in terms of the properties of the molecules and the media. (2) The effect of pressure on the luminescent efficiency of molecules with two or more possible excited state geometries has been measured. The efficiency is described in terms of the non-radiative dissipation of energy from a planar excited state and the rates of crossing to and from the possible twisted states as well as non-radiative decay from these states. The processes involved in these two studies are pertinent to a number of technologically and biologically important processes. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

Drickamer, H.G.; Lang, J.M.; Dreger, Z.A. (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois, 1209 W. California Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

53

Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane 10.1073/pnas.1005242107 Xilian...DC 20015 High-pressure structures of disilane (Si2H6) are investigated extensively...linear-response calculations for Pm-3m disilane at 275 GPa show a large electron-phonon...

Xilian Jin; Xing Meng; Zhi He; Yanming Ma; Bingbing Liu; Tian Cui; Guangtian Zou; Ho-kwang Mao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes’ equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

56

High Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Operated by Florida State University, University of Florida, Los Alamos National Laboratory Florida State...

57

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, In vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation (LA) with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

60

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

63

Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

64

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

65

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Researchers at...

66

A Cooled Deformable Bimorph Mirror for a High Power Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adaptive optics (AO) has been applied in various fields including astronomy, ophthalmology and high power laser systems. An adaptive optics system for a high power laser is not...

Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Young-Cheol; Kang, Eung-Cheol

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Laser-rf creation and diagnostics of seeded atmospheric pressure air and nitrogen plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-rf creation and diagnostics of seeded atmospheric pressure air and nitrogen plasmas Siqi Luo to the ambient air. The atmospheric-pressure plasma is then maintained with the 13.56 MHz rf power. Using of atmospheric-pressure air plasmas The kinetics of reactions and transitions in atmospheric- pressure air

Scharer, John E.

68

Progress toward high-gain laser fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

Storm, E.

1988-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

Messerly, M J

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

70

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and...

71

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010Beijing, P.R. China September 27, 2010 Bonfire Tests of High...

72

High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

extremely high temperatures and pressures. The controlled release of fusion, or thermonuclear energy, in the laboratory remains an alluring goal due to its potential as a...

73

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

An improved approach for hydrogen analysis in metal samples using single laser-induced gas plasma and target plasma at helium atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report in this paper the results of an experimental study on hydrogen analysis of solid samples in high pressure helium ambient gas employing the basic scheme of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)....

S.N. Abdulmadjid; M.M. Suliyanti; K.H. Kurniawan; T.J. Lie; M. Pardede…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Column Design in High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......consideration, and the high inlet pressure is the price to be paid for the short analysis time...silicious support impregnated with paraffin oil in reversed phase chromatography. As op...in the above described manner following heating of the product at 450 C. With relatively......

Csaba Horvath; S. R. Lipsky

1969-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Column Design in High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Presented at the Fit th International...high inlet pressure is the price to be paid for the short analysis...support impregnated with paraffin oil in reversed phase chromatography...described manner following heating of the product at 450 C. With......

Csaba Horvath; S. R. Lipsky

1969-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

High energy laser beam dump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

Halpin, John (Tracy, CA)

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

79

Digital Photonic Production: High Power ultrashort Lasers, Laser Additive Manufacturing and Laser Micro/ Nano Fabrication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high power optical technologies enter a new era: The age of DIGITAL PHOTONIC PRODUCTION. Very recently new lasers in new time- and wavelength domains with high average powers have...

Poprawe, Reinhart; Gillner, Arnold; Hoffmann, Dieter; Kelbassa, Ingomar; Loosen, Peter; Wissenbach, Konrad

80

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High energy density micro plasma bunch from multiple laser interaction with thin target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate radiation-pressure driven acceleration and compression of small solid-density plasma by intense laser pulses. It is found that multiple impacts by presently available short-pulse lasers on a small hemispheric shell target can create a long-living tiny quasineutral monoenergetic plasma bunch of very high energy density.

Xu, Han [National Laboratory for Parallel and Distributed Processing, College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Wei; Luan, S. X.; Xu, Z. Z. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, M. Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Physics Department, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yang, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Zhuo, H. B. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Wang, J. W. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

82

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

83

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

84

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

85

Laser-rf creation and diagnostics of seeded atmospheric pressure air and nitrogen plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A laser initiation and radio frequency (rf) sustainment technique has been developed and improved from our previous work to create and sustain large-volume high-pressure air and nitrogen plasmas. This technique utilizes a laser-initiated 15 mTorr partial pressure tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene seed plasma with a 75 Torr background gas pressure to achieve high-pressure air/nitrogen plasma breakdown and reduce the rf power requirement needed to sustain the plasma. Upon the laser plasma initiation the chamber pressure is raised to 760 Torr in 0.5 s through a pulsed gas valve and the end of the chamber is subsequently opened to the ambient air. The atmospheric-pressure plasma is then maintained with the 13.56 MHz rf power. Using this technique large-volume ( 1000 ? cm 3 ) high electron density (on the order of 10 11 – 12 ? cm ? 3 ) 760 Torr air and nitrogen plasmas have been created while rf power reflection is minimized during the entire plasma pulse utilizing a dynamic matching method. This plasma can project far away from the antenna region (30 cm) and the rf power budget is 5 ? W / cm 3 . Temporal evolution of the plasma electron density and total electron-neutral collision frequency during the pulsed plasma is diagnosed using millimeter waveinterferometry. Optical emission spectroscopy(OES) aided by SPECAIR a special OES simulation program for air-constituent plasmas is used to analyze the radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma. Rotational and vibrational temperatures of 4400 – 4600 ± 100 ? K are obtained from the emission spectra from the N 2 ( 2 + ) and N 2 + ( 1 ? ) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results. Based on the relation between the electron collision frequency and the neutral density utilizing millimeter waveinterferometry the electron temperature of the 760 Torr nitrogen plasma is found to be 8700 ± 100 ? K ( 0.75 ± 0.1 ? eV ) . Therefore the plasma deviates significantly from local thermal equilibrium.

Siqi Luo; C. Mark Denning; John E. Scharer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Laser-rf creation and diagnostics of seeded atmospheric pressure air and nitrogen plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laser initiation and radio frequency (rf) sustainment technique has been developed and improved from our previous work to create and sustain large-volume, high-pressure air and nitrogen plasmas. This technique utilizes a laser-initiated, 15 mTorr partial pressure tetrakis (dimethylamino) ethylene seed plasma with a 75 Torr background gas pressure to achieve high-pressure air/nitrogen plasma breakdown and reduce the rf power requirement needed to sustain the plasma. Upon the laser plasma initiation, the chamber pressure is raised to 760 Torr in 0.5 s through a pulsed gas valve, and the end of the chamber is subsequently opened to the ambient air. The atmospheric-pressure plasma is then maintained with the 13.56 MHz rf power. Using this technique, large-volume (1000 cm{sup 3}), high electron density (on the order of 10{sup 11-12} cm{sup -3}), 760 Torr air and nitrogen plasmas have been created while rf power reflection is minimized during the entire plasma pulse utilizing a dynamic matching method. This plasma can project far away from the antenna region (30 cm), and the rf power budget is 5 W/cm{sup 3}. Temporal evolution of the plasma electron density and total electron-neutral collision frequency during the pulsed plasma is diagnosed using millimeter wave interferometry. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) aided by SPECAIR, a special OES simulation program for air-constituent plasmas, is used to analyze the radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma. Rotational and vibrational temperatures of 4400-4600{+-}100 K are obtained from the emission spectra from the N{sub 2}(2+) and N{sub 2}{sup +}(1-) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results. Based on the relation between the electron collision frequency and the neutral density, utilizing millimeter wave interferometry, the electron temperature of the 760 Torr nitrogen plasma is found to be 8700{+-}100 K (0.75{+-}0.1 eV). Therefore, the plasma deviates significantly from local thermal equilibrium.

Luo Siqi; Denning, C. Mark; Scharer, John E. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin--Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Laser-Plasma Acceleration of Electrons and Plasma Diagnostics at High Laser Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would open the prospect of building x-ray free-electron lasers and linear colliders hundreds of timesLaser-Plasma Acceleration of Electrons and Plasma Diagnostics at High Laser Fields Mike Downer: Laser-plasma acceleration is now entering an era of petawatt lasers, tenuous plasmas and multi

Shvets, Gennady

88

Intense and Highly Energetic Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Arrays.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis documents the efforts taken to produce highly ionized and concentrated atmospheric pressure plasma using an arrayed atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system. The… (more)

Furmanski, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Thermal expansion of Mg(OH)2 brucite under high pressure and pressure dependence of entropy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An equation of state for Mg(OH)2 brucite under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions ... -ray diffraction. Pressure dependence of entropy of brucite has been calculated with thermal expansion coefficient....

H. Fukui; O. Ohtaka; T. Suzuki; K. Funakoshi

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

91

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...

93

DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting On February 8-9, 2005, the Department...

94

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

High pressure fiber optic sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

96

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

1991-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

Mansfield, Dennis K. (E. Windsor, NJ); Vocaturo, Michael (Columbus, NJ); Guttadora, Lawrence J. (Iselin, NJ)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize...

100

High energy femtosecond fiber laser at 1018 nm and high power Cherenkov radiation generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two novel laser systems for ultrafast applications have been designed and built. For the seeding of a high energy cryogenically cooled Yb:YLF laser, a novel 1018 nm fiber laser system is demonstrated. It produces >35 nJ ...

Yang, Hongyu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering, Edited by Maximillian Lackner,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering for more than 50 years and are expected to continue to do so [2]. Diesel engines obtain pressures as large as 60atm after ignition [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Figure 1 presents a schematic of diesel and gas turbine engine

Miller, Richard S.

102

High power laser workover and completion tools and systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

High-repetition-rate CF/sub 4/ laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 16 ..mu..m CF/sub 4/ laser oscillator has operated at 1 kHz in a cooled static cell. Threshold pump energies required from the low pressure, Q-switched, cw discharge CO/sub 2/ laser were as low as 60 ..mu..J. The laser cavity employed the multiple-pass off-axis path resonator in a ring configuration. CF/sub 4/ laser power at 615 cm/sup -1/ and a 1 kHz repetition rate exceeded 300 ..mu..W.

Telle, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Tank Testing High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell...

105

High pressure and multiferroics materials: a happy marriage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of high pressure on the synthesis, properties and atomic structure of multiferroic materials with perovskite or perovskite-related structures is reviewed.

Gilioli, E.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High Pressure Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The High Pressure Laboratory provides a comprehensive test facility providing the annual testing certification of various nuclear material shipping packages and leak testing...

107

High-pressure Infrared Spectra of Tal and Lawsonite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present high-pressure infrared spectra of two geologically important hydrous minerals: talc, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 and lawsonite, CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2{center_dot}H2O,{center_dot}at room temperature. For lawsonite, our data span the far infrared region from 150 to 550 cm-1 and extend to 25 GPa. We combine our new spectroscopic data with previously published high-pressure mid-infrared and Raman data to constrain the Gr{umlt u}neisen parameter and vibrational density of states under pressure. In the case of talc, we present high-pressure infrared data that span both the mid and far infrared from 150 to 3800 cm-1 covering lattice, silicate, and hydroxyl stretching vibrations to a maximum pressure of 30 GPa. Both phases show remarkable metastability well beyond their nominal maximum thermodynamic stability at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

Scott,H.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.; Williams, Q.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

High average power scaleable thin-disk laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

110

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. research has traditionally been the study of the intrinsic prop erties of isolated atoms. In the early part

Johannesson, Henrik

111

Electrical resistance of Manganin under high static pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrical resistance of manganin was measured under pressures up to 220 kbar at room temperature. The pressure was produced by means of a multianvil apparatus using semisintered magnesia for the pressure medium and was calibrated against well?known fixed points. Obtained results show a linear relationship between the resistance and pressure up to 180 kbar with good reproducibility. The pressure coefficient of resistance turns out to be (2.322±0.008) ×10?3 kbar?1 which is in close agreement with the value obtained under hydrostatic conditions. Manganin can be satisfactorily used as a pressure gauge for a high?pressure experiment using a solidpressure medium. The deviation from the linearity observed above 180 kbar is ascribed to either an intrinsic property of Manganin or the uncertainty of the fixed point adopted. If the linearity is assumed above 180 kbar the transition pressure of GaP is estimated to be 206±2 kbar.

N. Fujioka; O. Mishima; S. Endo; N. Kawai

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Geological Aspects of High-Pressure Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...garnet-pyroxene assemblage typical of eclogites by heating it for an hour at 1200 C at a pressure...eclogite at the M discontinuity. The geothermal gradient would have to have curved so...kyanite-sillimanite transition three times. The geothermal gradient probably has a slope not far...

F. R. Boyd

1964-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

113

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in...

114

Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

High power fiber delivery for laser ignition applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present contribution provides a concise review of high power fiber delivery research for laser ignition applications. The fiber delivery requirements are discussed in terms of exit...

Yalin, Azer P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

High pressure--high temperature research using high energy synchrotron radiation at the TRISTAN accumulation ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy synchrotron radiation emitted from the bending magnet of the TRISTAN accumulation ring (6.5 GeV) at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics has been used for the high pressure--high temperature diffraction experiments using a multianvil press system, MAX80. Owing to the specific features of high energy synchroton radiation, significant improvements have been brought to the high pressure research. The wide energy range of diffraction spectrum leads to an increase in the number of observable diffraction peaks in an energy-dispersive method, resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the measurements of the lattice and thermal parameters. Due to the high penetrating power of radiation, diffraction patterns can be taken in a short time from materials containing heavy elements or materials surrounded by a metal foil. Typical examples of high pressure--high temperature experiments with high energy synchrotron radiation are also described.

Kikegawa, T.; Shimomura, O.; Iwasaki, H.; Sato, S.; Mikuni, A.; Iida, A.; Kamiya, N.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Chapter 9 - Vacuum and High-Pressure Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In industrial practice, multistage distillation operations are carried out over a wide range of operating pressures, from about 0.1 to 40 bar (10,000 to 40·105 Pa). Major factors in choosing the operating pressure are the temperatures of the available cooling and heating media, with water and low-pressure steam being the most convenient ones. Volatile materials require high pressure to raise their condensation temperature to the desired level. Relative volatility tends to decrease with increasing pressure, and, thermodynamically, the upper limit is the critical temperature of the components in the feed. In such cases, a lower operating pressure is chosen and refrigeration must be employed for condensation of overhead vapor instead of cooling water or air. When dealing with high-boiling material, the upper limit for setting the operating pressure depends on the heat sensitivity of the bottom product components. This often requires distilling under an appropriate vacuum in conjunction with a low enough pressure drop to reduce the column bottom temperature accordingly. From the column design point of view, the operating pressure dictates to a great extent the choice and design of internals, and it influences significantly their functionality and overall performance. The main objective of the present chapter is to address and discuss operating pressure selection criteria as well as pressure effects on stage and reflux requirement, vapor and liquid properties, distillation process in general, and trayed and packed-column hydraulics and efficiency in particular.

Žarko Oluji?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Asymmetrical Lamb Dip in a High-Gain 3.5 µm Xenon Laser. I. Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deep and pronounced asymmetrical Lamb dips were observed in a single-mode oscillation with a 3.5 µm 136Xe laser over wide ranges of gas pressure (4.3–19.6 Pa) and dc excitation current (0.6–7 mA). The peak on the high-frequency side of the dip has a larger output power than that on the low-frequency side over wide ranges of gas pressure and discharge current. The asymmetry and depth of the dip, and the output power in the tuning curve were investigated with emphasis on their dependence on the xenon pressure and dc discharge current.

Shigeo Asami; Hideya Gamo; Toshiharu Tako

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate laser glasses with high gain coefficient and improved laser property  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses with high stimulated emission cross-section, large gain coefficient and low hydroxyl absorption coefficient were prepared by high temperature melting for fiber laser applications, and their spectral, general laser parameters were investigated accordingly by means of fluorescence emission spectrum, decay cure and infrared absorption spectra. Compared with previously reported fluorophosphate glasses, the investigated fluorophosphate glasses have highest grain coefficient and maintain a maximum laser systematical factor over other various types of laser glasses. The introduction of fluorides to fluorophosphate glasses results in the low level of hydroxyl absorption coefficient and concentration. All these advantages might mean that Yb3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses are a good candidate as an active laser media for short pulse, high power laser generation used for next generation nuclear fusion.

P.F. Wang; B. Peng; W.N. Li; Ch.Q. Hou; J.B. She; H.T. Guo; M. Lu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

High-power Er:YAG laser for coherent laser radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the development of a high-power Er:YAG laser with high pulse energy for coherent lidar wind sensing. The 1.645 um Er:YAG laser produced a Q-switched pulse energy of 16 mJ...

Stoneman, Robert C; Malm, Andrew I R

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High energy mode locked fiber oscillators for high contrast, high energy petawatt laser seed sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a high-energy petawatt laser beam line the ASE pulse contrast is directly related to the total laser gain. Thus a more energetic input pulse will result in increased pulse contrast at the target. We have developed a mode-locked fiber laser with high quality pulses and energies exceeding 25nJ. We believe this 25nJ result is scalable to higher energies. This oscillator has no intra-cavity dispersion compensation, which yields an extremely simple, and elegant laser configuration. We will discuss the design of this laser, our most recent results and characterization of all the key parameters relevant to it use as a seed laser. Our oscillator is a ring cavity mode-locked fiber laser [1]. These lasers operate in a self-similar pulse propagation regime characterized by a spectrum that is almost square. This mode was found theoretically [2] to occur only in the positive dispersion regime. Further increasing positive dispersion should lead to increasing pulse energy [2]. We established that the positive dispersion required for high-energy operation was approximately that of 2m of fiber. To this end, we constructed a laser cavity similar to [1], but with no gratings and only 2m of fiber, which we cladding pumped in order to ensure sufficient pump power was available to achieve mode-locked operation. A schematic of the laser is shown in figure 1 below. This laser produced low noise 25nJ pulses with a broad self similar spectrum (figure 2) and pulses that could be de-chirped to <100fs (figure 3). Pulse contrast is important in peta-watt laser systems. A major contributor to pulse contrast is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which is proportional to the gain in the laser chain. As the oscillator strength is increased, the required gain to reach 1PW pulses is decreased, reducing ASE and improving pulse contrast. We believe these lasers can be scaled in a stable fashion to pulse energies as high as 100nJ and have in fact seen 60nJ briefly in our lab, which is work still in progress. At this level, even if the pulses are not perfect, post-oscillator pulse cleaning can be used to create a clean high energy pulse for injection into a peta-watt laser beam line.

Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; An, J; Kim, D; Barty, C J

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14}?W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ?8?Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

123

[Laser flash photolysis, EPR and Raman studies of liquids at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research will solve a number of analytical chemical problems in solutions with measurement techniques that benefit from the use of elevated hydrostatic pressures: stopped-flow spectrophotometry (Gd[sup 3+] + L(ligand), [RuL[sub 5]H[sub 2]O][sup 2+], laser flash photolysis of Mo(CO)[sub 6] + L, flash photolysis of binuclear metalloproteins), EPR spectroscopy (Gd[sup 3+] ion-exchanged into ETS-10 and ETAS-10 molecular sieves), laser flash photolysis kinetic studies of Mo(CO)[sub 6]-2,2'-bipyridine, and electrochemical studies of metalloporphyrins using resonance Raman spectroscopy.

Eyring, E.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

[Laser flash photolysis, EPR and Raman studies of liquids at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research will solve a number of analytical chemical problems in solutions with measurement techniques that benefit from the use of elevated hydrostatic pressures: stopped-flow spectrophotometry (Gd{sup 3+} + L(ligand), [RuL{sub 5}H{sub 2}O]{sup 2+}, laser flash photolysis of Mo(CO){sub 6} + L, flash photolysis of binuclear metalloproteins), EPR spectroscopy (Gd{sup 3+} ion-exchanged into ETS-10 and ETAS-10 molecular sieves), laser flash photolysis kinetic studies of Mo(CO){sub 6}-2,2`-bipyridine, and electrochemical studies of metalloporphyrins using resonance Raman spectroscopy.

Eyring, E.M.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

Carr, K.R.

1983-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

126

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10...

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

715 Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan Room 1D-234, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, U scattering at steady-state and pulsed sources are reviewed. The pressure cells available at most neutron 10 GPa have been made. For elastic scattering, a comparison is made between neutron scattering and X

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Bonding and Electronic Properties of Ice at High Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the nearest oxygen atoms. All ice structures that we discussed so far are insulators. Militzer 1 Bonding and Electronic Properties of Ice at High Pressure B. Militzer Department of Earth of water ice at megabar pressure are characterized with ab initio computer simulations. The focus lies

Militzer, Burkhard

129

Chemistry of nitromethane at very high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition of nitromethane is reported over the range of 115- 180/degree/C and 0.6-8.5 GPa. About 5 /mu/g of nitromethane is compressed with a diamond-anvil cell, heated to the point that reaction occurs, and held typically 10-20 minutes at the reaction temperature. The cell is cooled and the volatile contents of the cell are frozen as a thin layer in vacuo and an infrared absorption spectrum is recorded. The three volatile products observed are N/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, and water, with N/sub 2/O production peaking at 1.5 GPa, 135/degree/C, and 35% of NME; CO/sub 2/ production peaking at 3.5 GPa, 135/degree/C, and 65% of NME, and water yields at 20-50% of NME at the highest pressure measured, 8.5 GPa and 175/degree/C. Water yields were difficult to quantify due to background contamination. Results indicate three different reactions for solid NME dependent primarily on the pressure of the reaction, and that fluid NME does not decompose at 0.6 GPa and 175/degree/C, although the solid decomposes readily at 1.1 GPa and 120/degree/C. The authors conclude that, while various decomposition mechanisms are possible, the initial step CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/ /yields/ /center dot/CH/sub 3/ + /center dot/NO/sub 2/ is very unlikely. 14 refs., 5 figs.

Agnew, S.F.; Swanson, B.I.; Kenney, J.; Kenney, I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system, which does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling, has great importance for implementing transportable optical lattice clocks, and is also useful for investigations on condensed matter physics or quantum information processing using cold atoms.

Toshiyuki Hosoya; Martin Miranda; Ryotaro Inoue; Mikio Kozuma

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

131

High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance was uniform before cutting. A liquid filled bourdon tube gauge was used to deter- mine the prescribed operating pressures. The gauge measured the oil pressure of the intensifier which had a 20 to 1 ratio (Figure 4 ) ~ The gauge pressure...HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject...

Valco, Thomas Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive indexn in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that the temperature profile specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core the FWHM and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 ± 0.2) mm which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 ± 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics e.g. the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organizedplasma studied here. Instead it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas.

J. Schäfer; R. Foest; S. Reuter; T. Kewitz; J. Šperka; K.-D. Weltmann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The National Ignition Facility National Ignition Campaign Short Pulse Lasers High-Average-Power Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;The National Ignition Facility National Ignition Campaign Short Pulse Lasers High hole shields SSD, Polarization smoothing Improvements in ignition point designs have reduced laser Campaign NIF-0905-11310 09EIM/dj 1997 1.7 MJ ignition point design 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 Laser

135

Heating by Optical Absorption and Cooling of High Power Laser Mirrors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In high power laser system, laser mirror is the core and the most sensitive optical component, which influences the increase of laser power and the quality of laser. Absorption of light at mirrors causes wavef...

Ci-Ming Zhou; Zu-Hai Cheng; Yu-Feng Peng

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HPCCK project was initiated with a kickoff meeting held on June 12, 2001 in Morgantown, WV, which was attended by all project participants. SRI's existing g-RCFR reactor was reconfigured to a SRT-RCFR geometry (Task 1.1). This new design is suitable for performing the NBFZ experiments of Task 1.2. It was decided that the SRT-RCFR apparatus could be modified and used for the HPBO experiments. The purchase, assembly, and testing of required instrumentation and hardware is nearly complete (Task 1.1 and 1.2). Initial samples of PBR coal have been shipped from FWC to SRI (Task 1.1). The ECT device for coal flow measurements used at FWC will not be used in the SRI apparatus and a screw type feeder has been suggested instead (Task 5.1). NEA has completed a upgrade of an existing Fluent simulator for SRI's RCFR to a version that is suitable for interpreting results from tests in the NBFZ configuration (Task 1.3) this upgrade includes finite-rate submodels for devolatilization, secondary volatiles pyrolysis, volatiles combustion, and char oxidation. Plans for an enhanced version of CBK have been discussed and development of this enhanced version has begun (Task 2.5). A developmental framework for implementing pressure and oxygen effects on ash formation in an ash formation model (Task 3.3) has begun.

Chris Guenther; Bill Rogers

2001-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

Ling, Kegang

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

138

Thermodynamics of high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report on a thermodynamic analysis for water electrolysis from normal conditions (P = 0.1 MPa, T = 298 K) up to heretofore unaddressed temperatures of 1000 K and pressures of 100 MPa. Thermoneutral and reversible potentials are determined using equations-of-state published by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The need for using accurate property models at these elevated temperatures and pressures is exemplified by contrasting results with those obtained via ideal assumptions. The utility of our results is demonstrated by their application in an analysis comparing pressurized electrolysis versus mechanical gas compression. Within the limits of our analysis, pressurized electrolysis demonstrates lower energy requirements albeit with electrical work composing a greater proportion of the total energy input.

Devin Todd; Maximilian Schwager; Walter Mérida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydro-Pac Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of supply and discharge pressures * Select a flow and standardize Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Variable speed drives * Double ended intensifiers * Water cooled cylinders * Flexible operational envelopes * Stop and start under load . Material Research / Installation Requirements

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141

Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

Rouxel, T.; Ji, H. [Applied Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Rennes 1, LARMAUR, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Hammouda, T. [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-OPG , Universite Blaise Pascal, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); Moreac, A. [IPR, CNRS-Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

142

High-Pressure Single-Crystal Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...systems such as water, methanol, formic acid, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane...cryostat or a furnace. It is still worth mentioning some older reviews covering...However, due to the high world-market prize of large diamonds and the fact...

Ronald Miletich; David R. Allan; Werner F. Kuhs

143

Time resolved optical spectroscopy to examine chemical decomposition of energetic materials under static high pressure and pulsed heating conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of the deflagration or detonation reactions of energetic materials is challenging due to the high pressure, high temperature, and time domain under which the reactions occur. Experimental measurements are presented that demonstrate the ability to continuously monitor the global reaction times and reaction sequences associated with chemical reactions under these conditions. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a high pressure gem anvil cell to probe the real-time chemical processes during pulsed-heating. Samples are initiated by a rapid thermal jump induced by absorption of a single laser pulse. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy of 3,6 trinitroethylamine tetrazine reaction is demonstrated by the real time measurement of the decrease in the {pi}-{pi}* absorption at 100 ns temporal resolution during laser heating at pressures up to 3.5 GPa.

Russell, T.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Chemistry Div.; Allen, T.M.; Gupta, Y.M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Shock Dynamics Center

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

145

High-energy conversion efficiency of transient stimulated Raman scattering in methane pumped by the fundamental of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We studied stimulated Raman scattering in pressurized methane in the highly transient regime pumped by 140-fs 0.7-mJ pulses from a Ti:sapphire (Ti:S) laser tuned at 750 nm....

Koprinkov, I G; Suda, Akira; Wang, Pengqian; Midorikawa, Katsumi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 High Pressure Vessels 3 High Pressure Vessels Applicability This hazard classification applies to working with pressure vessels and systems. Other hazard classifications and associated controls may apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving previously reviewed hazard controls are catergorized as medium risk experiments. Experiments involving new equipment, processes or materials, or modified hazard control schemes are categorized as high risk experiments. Hazard Control Plan Verification Statements Engineered Controls - The establishment of applicable controls in accordance with the (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, ASME B.31 Piping Code and applicable federal, state, and local codes. Verify vessel is stampled with ASME Code Symbol or allowable

147

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

Behavior of silver molybdate at high-pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of cubic spinel phase of Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is investigated at high pressure using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The P-V data are fitted to a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state using a value of B{sub 0}=113 GPa and B Prime {sub 0}=4. The compound is also found to exhibit a phase transition around 5 GPa to a tetragonal structure and the two phases are found to coexist over a range of pressures. Raman spectra exhibit dramatic changes across the phase transition. Increase of X-ray background scattering and broadening of the Raman peaks associated with MoO{sub 4} tetrahedral ions in the high pressure phase suggest evolution of positional disorder. However, no evidence of pressure-induced amorphization was found up to 47 GPa. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of the integrated intensity of all the diffraction peaks between 12 and 18 degree 2{theta} as a function of pressure. The rapid decrease of the intensity suggests evolution of positional disorder in the high-pressure tetragonal phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First in-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman study of cubic silver molybdate at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Commencement of a structural transition to a tetragonal phase is found at 2.3 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high-pressure phase is found to have positional disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bulk modulus of 113 GPa is obtained from the equation of state.

Arora, A.K., E-mail: akarora49@yahoo.co.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nithya, R. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Misra, Sunasira [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Yagi, Takehiko [Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo University, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)] [Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo University, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

Handren, R.T.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films by pressure control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); McCamy, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pressure and varies the motor speed is often used...12.398 is from the quantum mechanical relationship...detectors could in the future reduce data collection...kind of studies in the future. Other more fundamental...addressed in the near future. Temperature gradients...

Yingwei Fei; Yanbin Wang

153

Understanding High-Power Fiber-Optic Laser Beam Delivery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High-Power Fiber-Optic Laser Beam Delivery High-Power Fiber-Optic Laser Beam Delivery The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. W- 31-109-ENG-38. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. Boyd V. Hunter and Keng H. Leong Argonne National Laboratory Technology Development Division Laser Applications Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 207 Argonne, Illinois 60439 Carl B. Miller, James F. Golden, Robert D. Glesias and Patrick J. Laverty U. S. Laser Corporation 825 Windham Court North P. O. Box 609 Wyckoff, New Jersey 07481 March 25, 1996 Manuscript to be submitted to Journal of Laser Applications

154

Cryogenic Intracavity Laser Cooling Using High Power Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSELs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Yb:YLF crystal is laser cooled to 150 K from room temperature in an intracavity geometry using a high power InGaAs/GaAs MQW VECSEL operating at 1020 nm with <0.5 nm linewidth.

Ghasemkhani, Mohammadreza; Albrecht, Alexander R; Melgaard, Seth; Seletskiy, Denis V; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

155

Department of Energy Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Energy Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel for integrated module including in-tank regulator · Developed high efficiency H2 fuel storage systems for DOE tank efficiency, the highest weight efficiency ever demonstrated, in partnership with Lawrence

156

Laser enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound thrombolysis: An in vitro study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation, and ultrasound and laser parameters were optimized to achieve better thrombolysis efficiency. The results indicated that the thrombolysis efficiency increased when pulse length of HIFU wave, HIFU pressure, or laser fluence increases. Also...

Cui, Huizhong; Yang, Xinmai

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of laser tempering of high alloy powder metallurgical tool steels after laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of tempering after laser cladding of a high alloyed powder metallurgical tool steel was studied for die repairing purposes. In particular, a high power diode laser with scanning optics was employed for tempering. The laser tempering temperature was proven to be a critical factor in improving the mechanical properties of the coatings. In order to measure and evaluate the effect of different processing parameters (mainly laser power and linear speed) on the achieved temperature, an infrared camera and a two-color pyrometer were used. The tempering effect was mainly evaluated through cross-section microhardness profiles. The microstructure of the coatings was also studied using optical and scanning electron microscope, and the volumetric fraction of retained austenite was determined by X-ray diffraction. Experimental results demonstrated that laser tempering is a useful and appealing technique to improve the hardness of laser deposited coatings of high alloyed tool steels, which is a clear advantage when large parts have to be repaired or reinforced by laser cladding.

Josu Leunda; Virginia García Navas; Carlos Soriano; Carmen Sanz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity Laser Pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-Energy Transfer and Enhancement of Plasma Waves and Electron Beams by Interfering High-Intensity) The effects of interference due to crossed laser beams were studied experimentally in the high- intensity regime. Two ultrashort (400 fs), high-intensity (4 1017 and 1:6 1018 W=cm2) and 1 m wavelength laser

Umstadter, Donald

159

Dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in femtosecond laser-ablated aluminum plumes in argon gas at atmospheric pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plasma expansion into a background gas at atmospheric pressure is cru- cial for many engineeringDynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in femtosecond laser-ablated aluminum plumes in argon gas at atmospheric pressures Alexander Miloshevsky, Sivanandan S. Harilal, Gennady Miloshevsky

Harilal, S. S.

160

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

162

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

163

High Power Lasers... Another approach to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as an integrated system Simultaneously addressing the science and engineering Direct Drive Pellet Designs Computer and technologies together, using the end goal of a practical power source as a guide Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) KrF (NRL) Target Fabrication Target Injection Chamber/Materials Final Optics Target Design (+NRL & LLE ) #12

164

An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 50 51 REFERENCES APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL DATA 52 54 VITA 105 vail LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Schematic of test facility 13 Fig. 2 Comparison of Texas A&M drying facility operating ranges to other drying processes... of number of drying passes for drying temperatures of 93, 149, and 204 'C (200, 300, and 400 'F), a contact pressure of 1. 4 MPa (200 psi), a basis weight of 25 g/m' (0. 005 lb/ft'), and contact times between 20 to 180 msec with same side drying...

Patel, Kamal Raoji

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Iterative Boltzmann plot method for temperature and pressure determination in a xenon high pressure discharge lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Boltzmann plot method allows to calculate plasma temperatures and pressures if absolutely calibrated emission coefficients of spectral lines are available. However, xenon arcs are not very well suited to be analyzed this way, as there are only a limited number of lines with atomic data available. These lines have high excitation energies in a small interval between 9.8 and 11.5 eV. Uncertainties in the experimental method and in the atomic data further limit the accuracy of the evaluation procedure. This may result in implausible values of temperature and pressure with inadmissible uncertainty. To omit these shortcomings, an iterative scheme is proposed that is making use of additional information about the xenon fill pressure. This method is proved to be robust against noisy data and significantly reduces the uncertainties. Intentionally distorted synthetic data are used to illustrate the performance of the method, and measurements performed on a laboratory xenon high pressure discharge lamp are analyzed resulting in reasonable temperatures and pressures with significantly reduced uncertainties.

Zalach, J.; Franke, St. [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Chapter 3 - High-Pressure Processing of Meats and Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Meat and seafood products represent a high proportion of the applications of high-pressure processing (HPP) in the world. Mainly used for decontamination purposes, this innovative process has proved to be a reliable technology for ensuring food safety and extending the shelf life of these perishable and fragile foods. However, meat and seafood may experience quality alterations under pressure. This chapter focuses on the effect of HPP on meat and seafood organoleptic quality (texture, color, aroma, taste…). The physicochemical processes responsible for these changes are also reviewed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. This chapter ends with an overview of current commercial applications and other potential applications.

Frédérique Duranton; Hélène Simonin; Claire Guyon; Stéphanie Jung; Marie de Lamballerie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

remotely and autonomous deployable structures for space and our high temperature composite technology developed for downhole applications. These devices offer several...

172

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid–fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

A temperature compensated pressure transducer for high temperature, high pressure applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will work only if the cliange in deflectiou due to tenrperature ivas constant for all pressures. which is uot the case. At 0 ksi, the rliaphragni deflection is constant (zerol for all possible temperatures. At 40 ksi. however, the deflection is much... temperature. 3, 3 Basic Dimensioning After selecting the basic configuration and material for the transclucer body a diaphragm cap, it ivas next necessary to determine the actual defle& tion of the diaphragni and any thermally induced affects. Prior to a...

Lippka, Sandra Margaret

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Combined technologies enable high-pressure slickline work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operators conducting wireline operations can combine the attributes of the slickline grease head and conventional stuffing box to enable work in gas wells at wellhead pressures above 15,000 psi. Wireline/slickline work in high-pressure wells requires meeting the dual challenges of well control and freedom of movement (up and down) for the lines. In a notable application of the combined-technology technique, an operator offshore Louisiana attempted to conduct wireline operations in an 18,000-ft gas and condensate well with 15,600 psi wellhead pressure, using a standard slickline stuffing box to contain the pressure. The standard equipment could not perform the needed function, which involved several trips to depths of 5,000 ft and 18,000 ft. Using a combined-technology, flow-tube stuffing box, the operator was able to conduct the wireline operation without incident; the control arrangement resulted in use of only 3 gal of lubricating oil throughout the job. Post-job analysis of the packing showed only the minimal wear normally associated with low-pressure wireline operations. Although slickline work can be performed in low-pressure gas wells without using the flow-tube stuffing box, the device and the oil used with it isolate the stuffing-box packing from the dry gases, reducing friction swell. This isolation speeds up the operation and reduces packing wear.

Davis, G. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); West, T. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Houma, LA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High-pressure EXAFS measurements of solid and liquid Kr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray-absorption measurements of liquid and solid krypton at room temperature in the pressure range 0.1–30 GPa have been performed using the dispersive setup and diamond-anvil cells as a pressure device. The evolution of the near-edge structures as a function of pressure, including the first intense resonance, has been interpreted using multiple-scattering calculations. It is shown that the near-edge structures are reproduced taking into account two-body and three-body terms associated with the first-neighbor atoms. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra have been analyzed in the framework a multiple-scattering data-analysis approach taking proper account of the atomic background including the [1s4p], [1s3d], and [1s3p] double-electron excitation channels. Isobaric Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations based on empirical pair potentials, as proposed by Barker (K2) and Aziz (HFD-B), have been performed to make a quantitative comparison of theoretical and experimental local structural details of condensed krypton at high pressures. From the analysis of EXAFS data we were able to obtain simultaneous information on average distance, width, and asymmetry of the first-neighbor distribution, as a function of pressure. These parameters yield a unique insight on the potential function because they are affected by both minimum position and curvature of the effective pair potential. The trend of the first-neighbor distribution as a function of pressure is in quantitative agreement with the HFD-B potential at moderate pressures, deviations are found at higher pressures where EXAFS spectra are very sensitive to the hard-core repulsive part of the potential. The weak EXAFS signal of liquid krypton at room temperature and 0.75 GPa has been found in accord with the results of the MC simulations within the noise of the measurement. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

A. Di Cicco; A. Filipponi; J. P. Itié; A. Polian

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Transverse spreading of electrons in high-intensity laser fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that for collisions of electrons with a high-intensity laser, discrete photon emissions introduce a transverse beam spread which is distinct from that due to classical (or beam shape) effects. Via numerical simulations, we show that this quantum induced transverse momentum gain of the electron is manifest in collisions with a realistic laser pulse of intensity within reach of current technology, and we propose it as a measurable signature of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

D. G. Green; C. N. Harvey

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

177

Pre-Inspection Checklist for High Pressure Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Notice: This checklist reflects the most common violations our field inspectors encounter when performing an inspection on a high-pressure steam boiler installation. It’s suggested that boiler industry personnel have access to a current set of applicable codebooks/jurisdictional laws. Such as: Section I of the ASME Boiler Code:

unknown authors

178

High-Pressure Core Structures of Si Nanoparticles for Solar Energy Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present density functional and many body perturbation theory calculations of the electronic, optical, and impact ionization properties of Si nanoparticles (NPs) with core structures based on high-pressure bulk Si phases. Si particles with a BC8 core structure exhibit significantly lower optical gaps and multiple exciton generation (MEG) thresholds, and an order of magnitude higher MEG rate than diamondlike ones of the same size. Several mechanisms are discussed to further reduce the gap, including surface reconstruction and chemistry, excitonic effects, and embedding pressure. Experiments reported the formation of BC8 NPs embedded in amorphous Si and in amorphous regions of femtosecond-laser doped “black silicon.” For all these reasons, BC8 nanoparticles may be promising candidates for MEG-based solar energy conversion.

S. Wippermann; M. Vörös; D. Rocca; A. Gali; G. Zimanyi; G. Galli

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

179

High-Energy Laser Diagnostics (HELD) for the Measurement of Diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Laser Diagnostics (HELD) for the Measurement of Diesel Particulate Matter High-Energy Laser Diagnostics (HELD) for the Measurement of Diesel Particulate Matter 2004 Diesel...

180

Laser Action at High k-Space Values in Anti-Correlated Multi-Wavelength Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-wavelength Quantum Cascade laser is reported in which one wavelength lases between subband states high in the k-space. Laser action at the two wavelengths is strongly...

Menzel, Stefan; Franz, Kale J; Wasserman, Daniel; Hoffman, Anthony J; Cockburn, John W; Gmachl, Claire F

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B., E-mail: Narendra.Dahotre@unt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 1150 Union Circle, 305310 Denton, Texas 76203-5017 (United States)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

High power semiconductor laser diode arrays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cw optical power obtainable from semiconductor laser diodes has been extended to unprecedented levels in recent years through the use of multistripe arrays. By spreading out the optical power with more than 100 stripes single?facet cw output in exces of 5 Watts has been demonstrated and 500 mW cw is now commercially available. Recent improvements to array performance include: arrays up to 1 cm wide that generates quasi?cw (150 usec pulse) output in excesss of 11 Watts and a novel device structure which produces up to 215 mW cw in a single diffraction limited lobe.

Peter S. Cross

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

High power semiconductor laser diode arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cw optical power obtainable from semiconductor laser diodes has been extended to unprecedented levels in recent years through the use of multistripe arrays. By spreading out the optical power with more than 100 stripes, single-facet, cw output in exces of 5 Watts has been demonstrated, and 500 mW cw is now commercially available. Recent improvements to array performance include: arrays up to 1 cm wide that generates quasi-cw (150 usec pulse) output in excesss of 11 Watts, and a novel device structure which produces up to 215 mW cw in a single diffraction limited lobe.

Cross, P.S.

1986-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Dichroic beamsplitter for high energy laser diagnostics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wavefront control techniques are provided for the alignment and performance optimization of optical devices. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor can be used to measure the wavefront distortion and a control system generates feedback error signal to optics inside the device to correct the wavefront. The system can be calibrated with a low-average-power probe laser. An optical element is provided to couple the optical device to a diagnostic/control package in a way that optimizes both the output power of the optical device and the coupling of the probe light into the diagnostics.

LaFortune, Kai N (Livermore, CA); Hurd, Randall (Tracy, CA); Fochs, Scott N (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D (San Ramon, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and performance of a home-built high-pressure and high-temperature reactor equipped with a high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for catalytic studies. In this design, the STM body, sample, and tip are placed in a small high pressure reactor ({approx}19 cm{sup 3}) located within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. A sealable port on the wall of the reactor separates the high pressure environment in the reactor from the vacuum environment of the STM chamber and permits sample transfer and tip change in UHV. A combination of a sample transfer arm, wobble stick, and sample load-lock system allows fast transfer of samples and tips between the preparation chamber, high pressure reactor, and ambient environment. This STM reactor can work as a batch or flowing reactor at a pressure range of 10{sup -13} to several bars and a temperature range of 300-700 K. Experiments performed on two samples both in vacuum and in high pressure conditions demonstrate the capability of in situ investigations of heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry at atomic resolution at a wide pressure range from UHV to a pressure higher than 1 atm.

Tao, Feng; Tang, David C.; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

187

Bright High Average Power Table-top Soft X-Ray Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have demonstrated the generation of bright soft x-ray laser pulses with record-high average power from compact plasma amplifiers excited by ultrafast solid state lasers. These lasers have numerous applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Nichols,, Anthony [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Yong [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Alessi, David [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Martz, Dale [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Yin, Liang [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Marconi, Mario [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence of a small deviation in the value of the amplified signal on the temperature of the fiber with the fixed distribution of the Tm3+ions in the fiber cladding is investigated.

Nemova, Galina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Highly temperature insensitive quantum cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An InP based quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterostructure emitting around 5 {mu}m is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The QCL core design takes a shallow-well approach to maximize the characteristic temperatures, T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}, for operations above room temperature. A T{sub 0} value of 383 K and a T{sub 1} value of 645 K are obtained within a temperature range of 298-373 K. In room temperature continuous wave operation, this design gives a single facet output power of 3 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16% from a device with a cavity length of 5 mm and a ridge width of 8 {mu}m.

Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Tsao, S.; Selcuk, E.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Center for Quantum Devices, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Cutting and drilling studies using high power visible lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High power and radiance laser technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory such as copper-vapor and dye lasers show great promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation of models suggests significant increases in welding, cutting, and drilling capabilities, as well as applications in emerging technologies such as micromachining, surface treatment, and stereolithography. Copper lasers currently operate at 1.8 kW output at approximately three times the diffraction limit and achieve mean time between failures of more than 1,000 hours. Dye lasers have near diffraction limited beam quality at greater than 1.0 kW. Results from cutting and drilling studies in titanium and stainless steel alloys show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye and copper-vapor lasers. High radiance beams produce low distortion and small heat-affected zones. The authors have accomplished very high aspect ratios (> 60:1) and features with micron scale (5-50 {mu}m) sizes. The paper gives a description of the equipment; discusses cutting theory; and gives experimental results of cutting and drilling studies on Ti-6Al-4V and 304 stainless steel.

Kautz, D.D.; Dragon, E.P.; Werve, M.E.; Hargrove, R.S.; Warner, B.E.

1993-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

194

Characterization of High Temperature Mechanical Properties Using Laser Ultrasound  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanical properties are controlled to a large degree by defect structures such as dislocations and grain boundaries. These microstructural features involve a perturbation of the perfect crystal lattice (i.e. strain fields). Viewed in this context, high frequency strain waves (i.e. ultrasound) provide a natural choice to study microstructure mediated mechanical properties. In this presentation we use laser ultrasound to probe mechanical properties of materials. This approach utilizes lasers to excite and detect ultrasonic waves, and as a consequence has unique advantages over other methods—it is noncontacting, requires no couplant or invasive sample preparation (other than that used in metallurgical analysis), and has the demonstrated capability to probe microstructure on a micron scale. Laser techniques are highly reproducible enabling sophisticated, microstructurally informed data analysis. Since light is being used for generation and detection of the ultrasonic wave, the specimen being examined is not mechanically coupled to the transducer. As a result, laser ultrasound can be carried out remotely, an especially attractive characteristic for in situ measurements in severe environments. Several examples involving laser ultrasound to measure mechanical properties in high temperature environments will be presented. Emphasis will be place on understanding the role of grain microstructure.

David Hurley; Stephen Reese; Farhad Farzbod; Rory Kennedy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

High pressure liquid chromatographic method for CP amide analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for the analysis of the 5-carboxamidotetrazolatopentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate contaminant of the explosive CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)-pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate). The analysis utilizes a Zn/Hg reduction of the cobalt (III) complexes to allow a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of the reaction products; the product analysis is directly related to the weight percent of impurity present in the explosive. The technique is described and shortcomings pointed out.

Loyola, V. M.; Womelsduff, J. E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Inelastic neutron scattering from single crystal Zn under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have been performed for single crystals of Zn under pressures up to 8.8 GPa at 300 K. The phonon modes q/qmax=?=0.075 and ?=0.10 were measured in the transverse acoustic branch ?3, where q=0 corresponds with the elastic constant C44. The phonon energy showed a substantial hardening with increasing pressure. The experimental data below 6.8 GPa for ?=0.075 yield a constant Grüneisen mode ?i=-ln?i/lnV of 2.25 in good agreement with a previous calculation [H. Ledbetter, Phys. Status Solidi B 181, 81 (1994)]. Above 6.8 GPa, there is a very rapid increase of ?i which is indicative of the presence of a giant Kohn anomaly. This rapid divergence at high pressure indicates that a phonon softening may occur at pressures higher than 8.8 GPa caused by the collapse of the giant Kohn anomaly via an electronic topological transition (ETT). In an earlier Mössbauer Zn study at 4 K [W. Potzel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1139 (1994)], a drastic drop of the Lamb-Mössbauer factor was observed at 6.6 GPa, which was interpreted as being due to phonon softening, indicating this ETT had occurred. This paper also compares the compressibility data for single crystal Zn and Zn powder using neutron scattering. The results were found to be similar to an earlier x-ray Zn powder experiment [O. Schulte et al., High Pressure Res. 6, 169 (1991)]. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

J. G. Morgan; R. B. Von Dreele; P. Wochner; S. M. Shapiro

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

199

Toroid cavities as NMR detectors in high pressure probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cylindrical toroid cavity has been developed for application as an NMR detector for high sensitivity and high resolution spectroscopy in metal vessel probes. Those probes are used for in situ investigations at high temperature and pressure. Since the transmitted r.f. field is completely confined within the torus, the cavity can be placed inside the pressurized system without magnetic coupling to the metal vessel. Resonance frequencies up to 400 MHz make the toroid cavity detector especially suited for use in {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F spectroscopy. Typically achieved static {sup 1}H linewidths, measured on CHCl{sub 3} using cavities in Be-Cu pressure vessels, are 2.0 Hz. On the basis of theoretical considerations that include the radial dependence of the r.f. field within cylindrical or circular toroid detectors, equations were evolved to predict the signal intensity as a function of the pulse width. The equations precisely describe the deviations from the sinusoidal approximation, which is generally used for signal intensities derived from Helmholtz or solenoid coils.

Woelk, K.; Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Laser Pointer System Intuitive Interaction for Large High-Res Displays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Pointer System Intuitive Interaction for Large High-Res Displays LEDs Accelerometer Vibration Buttons Laser & LEDs Unlike conventional input devices like mouse and keyboard, laser pointers do that are displayed on large high-resolution screens. The laser pointer technology was developed in cooperation

Reiterer, Harald

202

Characterization and Optimization of a Powder Feed Nozzle for High Deposition Laser Cladding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

175 Characterization and Optimization of a Powder Feed Nozzle for High Deposition Laser Cladding Abstract Laser cladding is a process for depositing corrosion resistant and wear resistant materials. With high deposition rate laser cladding, a powder mass is pre-placed in front of a scanned laser beam using

Omiecinski, Curtis

203

Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

204

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the laser, and they presented a physical model that shows how this occurs under the proper conditions. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the instability onset and to exploit its gain for the generation of pulses of terahertz CSR of unprecedented power. Terahertz radiation with a wavelength from about 1 cm to about 100 microns between the microwave and the infrared would provide access to a large number of fundamental phenomena. To mention only some of them: excited electrons orbit, small molecules rotate, proteins vibrate, superconducting energy gaps resonate, and gaseous and solid-state plasmas oscillate at terahertz frequencies. But generating terahertz radiation is ordinarily a challenging task for any kind of source, including storage-ring-based synchrotron light sources. The new findings by the ALS group could represent a significant step toward satisfying the need for powerful terahertz sources.

205

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the laser, and they presented a physical model that shows how this occurs under the proper conditions. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the instability onset and to exploit its gain for the generation of pulses of terahertz CSR of unprecedented power. Terahertz radiation with a wavelength from about 1 cm to about 100 microns between the microwave and the infrared would provide access to a large number of fundamental phenomena. To mention only some of them: excited electrons orbit, small molecules rotate, proteins vibrate, superconducting energy gaps resonate, and gaseous and solid-state plasmas oscillate at terahertz frequencies. But generating terahertz radiation is ordinarily a challenging task for any kind of source, including storage-ring-based synchrotron light sources. The new findings by the ALS group could represent a significant step toward satisfying the need for powerful terahertz sources.

206

High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

Freitas, B.L.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

207

High-current-density, high brightness cathodes for free electron laser applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following topics: brightness and emittance of electron beams and cathodes; general requirements for cathodes in high brightness electron guns; candidate cathode types; plasma and field emission cathodes; true field emission cathodes; oxide cathodes; lanthanum hexaborides cathodes; laser driven thermionic cathodes; laser driven photocathodes; impregnated porous tungsten dispenser cathodes; and choice of best performing cathode types.

Green, M.C. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Palo Alto Microwave Tube Div.)

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

High energy heavy ion jets emerging from laser plasma generated by long pulse laser beams from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Albuquerque, New Mexico. ~Received 21 February 2005; Accepted 20 April 2005! Abstract High energy heavy ions to the fast ion emission process. The interest in laser plasmas and interaction phenomena of heavy ion beams!. Thus there is a tradition to investigate accelerator related issues like beam transport phenomena

209

Laser heating of solid matter by light pressure-driven shocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating by irradiation of a solid surface in vacuum with 5 x 10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}, 0.8 ps, 1.05 {micro}m wavelength laser light is studied by x-ray spectroscopy of the K-shell emission from thin layers of Ni, Mo and V. A surface layer is heated to {approx} 5 keV with an axial temperature gradient of 0.6 {micro}m scale length. Images of Ni Ly{sub {alpha}} show the hot region has a {approx} 25 {micro}m diameter, much smaller than {approx} 70 {micro}m region of K{sub {alpha}} emission. 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations suggest that the surface heating is due to a light pressure driven shock.

Akli, K; Hansen, S B; Kemp, A J; Freeman, R R; Beg, F N; Clark, D; Chen, S; Hey, D; Highbarger, K; Giraldez, E; Green, J; Gregori, G; Lancaster, K; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Norreys, P A; Patel, N; Patel, P; Shearer, C; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Theobald, W; Van Woerkom, L; Weber, R; Key, M H

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

210

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

Design and development of a high resolution differential pressure transducer for use at high temperature and high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are multiple diaphragms attached at the edges. Flat and corrugated diaphragms are discussed at length by Giovanni (1982). The three most common detection systems are strain gauges, capacitance gauges, and linear variable differential transformers (LVDT... be necessary to connect the resistor and ratio transformer to. the same secondary coil to balance the voltage of the . two secondary coils. Samplers Inlet Inert Fluid Inlet Pressure Housing Electrical Feedthrough LVDT Coils Magnetic Core Pressure...

Childers, Laren Paul

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to structures with symmetries $Pmc2_1$ (800 - 950 GPa) and $P2_1$ (1.17 TPa), but they are eventually regained at 5.62 TPa in a layered structure $C2/m$. The $P2_1 \\rightarrow C2/m$ transformation also marks the insulator-to-metal transition in ice, which occurs at a significantly higher pressure than recently predicted.

McMahon, Jeffrey M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Application of High Powered Lasers to Perforated Completions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Congress on Applications of Laser & Electro-Optics Congress on Applications of Laser & Electro-Optics October 13 - 16, 2003, Jacksonville, Florida Application of High Powered Lasers to Perforated Completions Zhiyue Xu, Claude B. Reed and Keng H. Leong Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 R. A. Parker Parker Geoscience Consulting, LLC, 6346 Secrest Street, Arvada, CO 80403 R. M. Graves, Petroleum Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 ABSTRACT As part of the process of drilling an oil or gas well, a steel production casing is often inserted to the bottom of the well and sealed with cement against the productive formation. Openings must be made through the steel casing wall and cement and into the rock formation to allow formation fluid to enter the well. Conventionally, a perforator is

214

Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

Britten, J

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

215

Specific features of the behaviour of targets under negative pressures created by a picosecond laser pulse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New experimental data are obtained concerning the character of spallation and the mechanical strength of targets made of aluminium, aluminium - magnesium alloy (AMg6M), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, plexiglass), tantalum, copper, tungsten, palladium, silicon, and lead under the impact of laser radiation with the duration 70 ps. The specific features of the spallation phenomenon, in which the separation of a part of the target substance occurs at the back surface as a result of the effect of negative pressures (tensile stresses) in the substance, are experimentally studied. To determine the time moment of spallation, the electrocontact method of measuring the velocity of the spalled layer is developed and implemented. The obtained results show that the values of spall strength of the studied materials at moderate amplitudes of the shock-wave effect agree with the known literature data, while at higher pressures the growth of spall strength is observed, which is an evidence of the material hardening. The results of the studies demonstrate that the dynamic strength of a substance depends on both the duration and the amplitude of the shock-wave impact on the target. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Abrosimov, S A; Bazhulin, A P; Voronov, Valerii V; Geras'kin, A A; Krasyuk, Igor K; Pashinin, Pavel P; Semenov, Andrei Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I A; Khishchenko, K V; Fortov, Vladimir E

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Realization of a high energy, high beam quality CO2 laser using a SFUR cavity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have obtained a source with a high beam qualty and output energy, which could be useful for laser-surface interaction studies. A very promising injection method has been tested in a very critical configurat...

P. L. Belli; G. Bitelli; F. D'Amato…

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

219

High power KrF laser development at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the high power laser development program at Los Alamos is to appraise the potential of the KrF laser as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), ultimately at energy levels that will produce high target gain (gain of order 100). A KrF laser system prototype, the 10-kJ Aurora laser, which is nearing initial system operation, will serve as a feasibility demonstration of KrF technology and system design concepts appropriate to large scale ICF driver systems. The issues of affordable cost, which is a major concern for all ICF drivers now under development, and technology scaling are also being examined. It is found that, through technology advances and component cost reductions, the potential exists for a KrF driver to achieve a cost goal in the neighborhood of $100 per joule. The authors suggest that the next step toward a multimegajoule laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is an ''Intermediate Driver'' facility in the few hundred kilojoule to one megajoule range, which will help verify the scaling of driver technology and cost to an LMF size. An Intermediate Driver facility would also increase the confidence in the estimates of energy needed for an LMF and would reduce the risk in target performance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

McDonald, T.; Cartwright, D.; Fenstermacher, C.; Figueira, J.; Goldstone, P.; Harris, D.; Mead, W.; Rosocha, L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

High pressure studies on nanometer sized clusters: Structural, optical, and cooperative properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure Se EXAFS is used to study pressure-induced structural transformations in CdSe nanocrystals. The transformation is wurtzite to rock salt, at a pressure much higher than in bulk. High-pressure XRD is used to confirm the EXAFS results. Diffraction peak widths indicate that nanocrystals do not fragment upon transformation. Optical absorption correlates with structural transformations and is used to measure transition pressures; transformation pressure increases smoothly as nanocrystal size decreases. Thermodynamics of transformation is modeled using an elevated surface energy in the high-pressure phase. High-pressure study of Si nanocrystals show large increases in transformation pressure in crystallites to 500{angstrom} diameter, and an overall change in crystallite shape upon transformation is seen from XRD line widths. C{sub 60} single crystals were studied using Raman scattering; results provide information about the clusters` rotational state. Optical properties of high-pressure phase CdSe clusters were studied.

Tolbert, S.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. HIGH-ACCURACY LASER POWER AND ENERGY METER CALIBRATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. HIGH-ACCURACY LASER POWER AND ENERGY METER CALIBRATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . 2 2.1 Calibration

222

Application of wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy H2O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A real-time, in situ water vapor (H2O) sensor using a tunable diode laser near 1,352 nm was developed to continuously monitor water vapor in the synthesis gas of an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier....

Kai Sun; Ritobrata Sur; Jay B. Jeffries; Ronald K. Hanson; Tommy Clark…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Smart Onboard Inspection of High Pressure Gas Fuel Cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in automotive applications is not widespread primarily because of the high cost and durability of the composite storage tanks. Tanks manufactured using carbon fiber are desirable in weight critical passenger vehicles because of the low density of carbon fiber. The high strength of carbon fiber also translates to a weight reduction because thinner wall designs are possible to withstand the internal pressure loads. However, carbon fiber composites are prone to impact damage that over the life of the storage tank may lead to an unsafe condition for the vehicle operator. A technique that potentially may be a reliable indication of developing hazardous conditions in composite fuel tanks is imbedded fiber optics. The applicability of this technique to onboard inspection is discussed and results from preliminary lab testing indicate that fiber optic sensors can reliably detect impact damage.

Beshears, D.L.; Starbuck, J.M.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Micro Mirrors for High-speed Laser Deflection and Patterning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper focuses on high-speed optical MEMS Scanners and Micro Mirror Arrays. Devices supporting spot/pixel rateshigher than 10 Mpixel/s are considered and discussed regarding limits and possibilities to further improve speed and optical properties. Several variants of both types, developed by our group, are presented. Scanning Micro Mirrors with frequencies up to 100 kHz enable spot rates of up to 130 Mpixels / s at 650 nm. Bragg-coatings enable high power applications up to 20 W (beam ø2 mm). Challenges like static and dynamic mirror planariy are discussed. A 29-kHz-scanner for laser projection serves as application example. Highly parallel operated Micro Mirror Arrays extend pattern speed to 10 Gpixel / s including analog grey scaling. Irradiation tests prove stable operation of the mirrors at DUV. Prospects regarding optical planarity and high reflective coatings are discussed. By means of two examples, laser patterning of semiconductor masks and laser patterning of Printed Circuit Boards, properties of the spatial light modulators are presented. The two device classes are compared regarding spot/pixel rate and frequency. The comparison includes representative MEMS device examples from literature.

Harald Schenk; Jan Grahmann; Thilo Sandner; Michael Wagner; Ulrike Dauderstädt; Jan-Uwe Schmidt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Laves phase hydrogen storage alloys for super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ti-Cr- and Ti-Mn-based alloys were prepared to be low- and high-pressure stage metals for a double-stage super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Their crystallographic characteristics and hydrogen

Xiumei Guo; Shumao Wang; Xiaopeng Liu; Zhinian Li; Fang Lü; Jing Mi; Lei Hao…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b , Shun 2009 Editor: L. Stixrude Keywords: electrical conductivity wadsleyite oxygen fugacity frequency water The electrical conductivity of wadsleyite aggregates has been determined under the broad range of thermodynamic

227

Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the event that high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions are encountered, we must attempt to achieve permeability in the set cement to prevent gas migration and to prevent any other fluid passing through to collapse the entire structure. Therefore...

Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

228

Development of a frequency doubled high powered laser diode end-pumped Nd:YVO?/LBO laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of stable laser cavities. Plane- parallel cavities use two perfectly flat mirrors. This cavity is marginally stable and very difficult to align and keep stable. Thus they are not implemented in high-end lasers. However, plane-parallel cavities find ample... of stable laser cavities. Plane- parallel cavities use two perfectly flat mirrors. This cavity is marginally stable and very difficult to align and keep stable. Thus they are not implemented in high-end lasers. However, plane-parallel cavities find ample...

Barr, Aaron Maxwell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high hydrostatic pressure cell for X-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid/liquid interface is presented.

Wirkert, F.J.

2013-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

230

High power continuous-wave titanium:sapphire laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-power continuous-wave laser resonator is provided, wherein first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth mirrors form a double-Z optical cavity. A first Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the second and third mirrors and at the mid-point of the length of the optical cavity, and a second Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the fourth and fifth mirrors at a quarter-length point in the optical cavity. Each Ti:sapphire rod is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a pair of argon-ion lasers. For narrow band operation, a 3-plate birefringent filter and an etalon are disposed in the optical cavity so that the spectral output of the laser consists of 5 adjacent cavity modes. For increased power, seventy and eighth mirrors are disposed between the first and second mirrors to form a triple-Z optical cavity. A third Ti:sapphire rod is disposed between the seventh and eighth mirrors at the other quarter-length point in the optical cavity, and is pumped by two counter-propagating pump beams from a third pair of argon-ion lasers. 5 figures.

Erbert, G.V.; Bass, I.L.; Hackel, R.P.; Jenkins, S.L.; Kanz, V.K.; Paisner, J.A.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

A multi-purpose modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure. The system consists of a pressurised cell of volume ~100 microlitres, a temperature controlled holder, a ram and a piston. We have made each of these components in several versions which can be interchanged to allow a wide range of applications. Here, we report two pressure cells with pressure ranges 0.1-700MPa and 0.1-100MPa, which can be combined with hollow or solid rams and pistons. Our system is designed to work with fluorescent samples (using a confocal or epifluorescence microscope), but also allows for transmitted light microscopy via the hollow ram and piston. The system allows precise control of pressure and temperature [-20-70C], as well as rapid pressure quenching. We demonstrate its performance and versatility with two applications: time-resolved imaging of colloidal phase transitions caused by pressure changes between 0.1MPa and 101MPa, and imaging the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria at 50MPa. We ...

Vass, Hugh; Herzig, Eva M; Ward, F Bruce; Clegg, Paul S; Allen, Rosalind J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the “complex error function.” In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Suijker, J. L. G. [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

236

High pressure studies on nanocrystalline aurivillius oxides lead and mercury chalcogenides;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The high pressure and high temperature play a vital role in newlineunderstanding the physical properties of the solids including such classes of newlinematerials like semiconductors… (more)

Freny joy K M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Three precision differential pressure indicators for operation at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the design did have a 7 Pa sensitivity which is especially imoortant as the sensing transformer was located outside the pressure containment. This feature eliminates the need for electrical feedthroughs which usually limit the operating conditions... was constructed and the sensitivity increased to ? 5 -1 2x10 Pa using the same transformer. Based on the designs tested, a new differential pressure indicator was proposed. Using a diaphragm with a linear variable differential transformer outside the pressure...

Osburn, Douglas Clayton

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The viscosity of liquids (a) Normal octanol at atmospheric pressure (b) An equipment for high pressures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Theories of Liquid Viscosity lead to equations giving the variation of the viscosity with temperature and pressure, but give poor agreement with experimental values, particularly… (more)

De Verteuil, Georges Francois

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High-Energy, High-Efficiency Second-Harmonic Generation from a Nd-Doped Laser with High-Quality CsB3O5Crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frequency doubling of high-energy Nd-doped laser emission yields harmonically converted laser energy (532-nm) of 1.2-J with 60 % conversion efficiency using a high optical quality...

Suzuki, Masayuki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Nakai, Yoshiki; Okada, Hajime; Daito, Izuru; Bolton, Paul R; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kiminori; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Kagebayashi, Yoshio; Yokota, Toshio

240

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

High-Energy, Pulsed-Laser Diagnostics for Real-Time Measurements...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy, Pulsed-Laser Diagnostics for Real-Time Measurements of Reciprocating Engine PM Emissions High-Energy, Pulsed-Laser Diagnostics for Real-Time Measurements of Reciprocating...

242

Effect of Beam Quality on the Scaling of High-Energy Flow Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The maximum output power from high-energy flow lasers is primarily determined by the ... field intensity, however, depends on the beam quality that can be achieved with the laser ... of gas flow inhomogeneities o...

W. L. Bohn; Th. Hall

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Statistical analysis and optimization of processing parameters in high-power direct diode laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-power direct diode laser (HPDDL) offers a wide laser beam with a top-hat intensity distribution, ... making it an ideal tool for large-area cladding. In this study, a systemic study on the HPDDL cladding pro...

Shuang Liu; Radovan Kovacevic

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Stark-tuned, far-infrared laser for high-frequency plasma diagnostics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned optically pumped far-infrared CH3OH laser operating at 119 ?m has been built. The laser is designed to operate at high power while exhibiting a well-separated...

Mansfield, D K; Krug, Peter A; Vocaturo, M; Guttadora, L; Rockmore, M; Micai, K

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

BNL | CO2 Laser  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO2 Laser CO2 Laser The ATF is one of the only two facilities worldwide operating picosecond, terawatt-class CO2 lasers. Our laser system consists of a picoseconds pulse-injector based on fast optical switching from the output of a conventional CO2 laser oscillator, and a chain of high-pressure laser amplifiers. It starts with a wavelength converter wherein a near-IR picosecond solid-state laser with l»1 μm produces a mid-IR 10-μm pulse. This process employs two methods; semiconductor optical switching, and the Kerr effect. First, we combine the outputs from a multi-nanosecond CO2 laser oscillator with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser on a germanium Brewster-plate to produce an ~200 ps, 10μm pulse by semiconductor optical switching. Co-propagating this pulse with a Nd:YAG's 2nd harmonic in a

246

High pressure humidification columns: Design equations, algorithm, and computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the detailed development of a computer model to simulate the humidification of an air stream in contact with a water stream in a countercurrent, packed tower, humidification column. The computer model has been developed as a user model for the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. This was done to utilize the powerful ASPEN flash algorithms as well as to provide ease of use when using ASPEN to model systems containing humidification columns. The model can easily be modified for stand-alone use by incorporating any standard algorithm for performing flash calculations. The model was primarily developed to analyze Humid Air Turbine (HAT) power cycles; however, it can be used for any application that involves a humidifier or saturator. The solution is based on a multiple stage model of a packed column which incorporates mass and energy, balances, mass transfer and heat transfer rate expressions, the Lewis relation and a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the air-water system. The inlet air properties, inlet water properties and a measure of the mass transfer and heat transfer which occur in the column are the only required input parameters to the model. Several example problems are provided to illustrate the algorithm`s ability to generate the temperature of the water, flow rate of the water, temperature of the air, flow rate of the air and humidity of the air as a function of height in the column. The algorithm can be used to model any high-pressure air humidification column operating at pressures up to 50 atm. This discussion includes descriptions of various humidification processes, detailed derivations of the relevant expressions, and methods of incorporating these equations into a computer model for a humidification column.

Enick, R.M. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Klara, S.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V., E-mail: k.kamenev@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom)] [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Azuma, Masaki [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)] [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Attfield, J. Paul [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Applications of toroids in high-pressure NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toroid detectors have distinct NMR sensitivity and imaging advantages. The magnetic field lines are nearly completely contained within the active volume element of a toroid. This results in high NMR signal sensitivity. In addition, the toroid detector may be placed next to the metallic walls of a containment vessel with minimal signal loss due to magnetic coupling with the metal container. Thus, the toroid detector is ideal for static high pressure or continuous flow monitoring systems. Toroid NMR detectors have been used to follow the hydroformylation of olefins in supercritical fluids under industrial process conditions. Supercritical fluids are potentially ideal media for conducting catalytic reactions that involve gaseous reactants, including H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The presence of a single homogeneous reaction phase eliminates the gas-liquid mixing problem of alternative two-phase systems, which can limit process rates and adversely affect hydroformylation product selectivities. A second advantage of toroid NMR detectors is that they exhibit a well-defined gradient in the rf field. This magnetic field gradient can be used for NMR imaging applications. Distance resolutions of 20 {mu} have been obtained.

Klingler, R.J.; Rathke, J.W.; Woelk, K. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Low-temperature atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown and heavy flint glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on atmospheric pressure argon plasma-based surface treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown glass N-BaK4 and heavy flint glass SF5. By pure plasma...

Gerhard, Christoph; Roux, Sophie; Brückner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ignition of high-pressure arc lamps8 and volume dc discharges.6 Here, we employ a hybrid discharge source of uniform, nonequilibrium glow plasmas for a variety of applications at pressures of 100

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

253

Instrumentation development for neutron scattering at high pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Neutron scattering at extremes of pressure is a powerful tool for studying the response of structural and magnetic properties of materials on microscopic level to… (more)

Fang, Junwei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

High pressure water pyrolysis of coal to evaluate the role of pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities under geological conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the effect of water pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities for a perhydrous Tertiary Arctic coal, Svalbard. Using a 25 ml Hastalloy vessel, the coal was pyrolysed under low water pressure (230–300 bar) and high water pressure (500, 700 and 900 bar) conditions between 380 °C and 420 °C for 24 h. At 380 °C and 420 °C, gas yields were not affected by pressure up to 700 bar, but were reduced slightly at 900 bar. At 380 °C, the expelled oil yield was highest at 230 bar, but reduced significantly at 900 bar. At 420 °C cracking of expelled oil to gas was retarded at 700 and 900 bar. As well as direct cracking of the coal, the main source of gas generation at high pressure at both 380 °C and 420 °C is from bitumen trapped in the coal, indicating that this is a key mechanism in high pressure geological basins. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) was reduced by 0.16 %Ro at 380 °C and by 0.27 %Ro at 420 °C at 900 bar compared to the low pressure runs, indicating that source rock maturation will be more retarded at higher maturities in high pressure geological basins.

Clement N. Uguna; Andrew D. Carr; Colin E. Snape; Will Meredith

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

High-precision CO2 isotopologue spectrometer with a difference-frequency-generation laser source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-precision CO2 isotopologue spectrometer with a difference-frequency-generation laser source A precision laser spectrometer for the detection of CO2 isotopes is reported. The spectrometer measures the fundamental absorption signatures of 13 C and 12 C isotopes in CO2 at 4.32 m using a tunable mid-IR laser

257

CONSTRAINTS ON LASER-DRIVEN ACCELERATORS FOR A HIGH-ENERGY LINEAR COLLIDER*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONSTRAINTS ON LASER-DRIVEN ACCELERATORS FOR A HIGH-ENERGY LINEAR COLLIDER* J.S. Wurtele and AV on 1 TeV) are applied to free-space laser and laser/plasma accelerators. It is shown that the requirements impose very severe constraints upon the new accelerators-- so severe, that it seems unlikely

Wurtele, Jonathan

258

Current spread and overheating of high power laser bars B. Laikhtmana)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-power lasers, the width of the stripe is much larger than the cladding thick- ness, and the substrate thicknessCurrent spread and overheating of high power laser bars B. Laikhtmana) Power Photonic, 214 Old 11794 Received 27 May 2003; accepted 12 January 2004 The heating of a semiconductor laser bar imbedded

259

High power, continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber laser tunable from 976 to 1120 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

narrow linewidth double-clad fiber ring laser," Opt. Express 10(2), 139­144 (2002). 6. A. Silva, K. J. Paschotta, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ring-doped cladding-pumped single- mode three-level fiber laser, and T. Thomas, "Efficient high power Yb3þ-silica fibre laser cladding-pumped at 1064 nm," Opt. Commun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

High-index-contrast ridge waveguide laser with thermally oxidised etched facet and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Laser ridges are then deeply etched, through the active region and into the lower cladding, usingHigh-index-contrast ridge waveguide laser with thermally oxidised etched facet and metal reflector heterostructure laser is demonstrated, which features an etched and wet thermally oxidised rear facet

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Monte Carlo calculations of pair production in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gamma-ray and electron-positron pair production will figure prominently in laser-plasma experiments with next generation lasers. Using a Monte Carlo approach we show that straggling effects arising from the finite recoil an electron experiences when it emits a high energy photon, increase the number of pairs produced on further interaction with the laser fields.

Roland Duclous; John Kirk; Anthony Bell

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Third harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensity inter- actions, i.e., fast ignition fusion, laser based ion acceleration etc., where fluctuationsThird harmonic order imaging as a focal spot diagnostic for high intensity laser-solid interactions, Glasgow, UK 4 Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Chilton, Didcot, Didcot, UK 5

Strathclyde, University of

263

A Flow-Through High-Pressure Electrical Conductance Cell for Determining of Ion Association of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flow-through high-pressure electrical conductance cell was designed and constructed to measure limiting molar conductances and ion association constants of dilute aqueous solutions with high precision at high temperatures and pressures. The basic concept of the cell employs the principle developed at the University of Delaware in 1995, but overall targets higher temperatures (to 600 C) and pressures (to 300 MPa). At present the cell has been tested by measuring aqueous NaCl and LiOH solutions (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} mol.kg{sup {minus}1}) to 405 C and 33 MPa with good results.

Bianchi, H.; Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.; Wood, R.H.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

264

Broadly tunable high-power operation of an all-solid-state titanium-doped sapphire laser system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Broadly tunable and high-power operation of a titanium-doped sapphire laser is obtained with a diode-laser-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. A maximum broadband...

Steele, T R; Gerstenberger, D C; Drobshoff, A; Wallace, R W

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Structure and elasticity of serpentine at high-pressure Mainak Mookherjee a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volcanoes, high electrical conductivities, magnetic and seismic anomalies. Using theoretical methods, we. Evidence of pressure- induced hydrogen bonding is absent in serpentine, as evident from reduction of O K is the bulk modulus, prime indicates pressure derivatives, and O refers to zero pressure. Our best

Stixrude, Lars

266

Mathematical modeling of high-pressure PEM water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the modeling and numerical optimization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers for operation at elevated pressures (up ... evolution reactions, the electro-osmotic drag of

S. A. Grigoriev; A. A. Kalinnikov; P. Millet…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Instrumentation development for neutron scattering at high pressure   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron scattering at extremes of pressure is a powerful tool for studying the response of structural and magnetic properties of materials on microscopic level to applied stresses. However, experimental neutron studies ...

Fang, Junwei

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

268

HIGH-PRESSURE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METHANE FROM GEOPRESSURED...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

to be about 100 based on CH4 solubility in brine at 50-125C from O'Sullivan and Smith (11), tnd low pressure CH solubility in hexadecane at 25-2002 from Cukor and Prausni...

269

Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

270

DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda, held February 8-9, 2005 by Argonne National Laboratory

271

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the benefits of high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems.

272

Modeling and simulation of a high pressure hydrogen storage tank with Dynamic Wall.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrogen storage is one of the divisions of hydrogen powered vehicles technology. To increase performances of high pressure hydrogen storage tanks, a multilayered design is… (more)

Cumalioglu, Ilgaz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Modeling and simulation of a high pressure hydrogen storage tank with dynamic wall.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrogen storage is one of the divisions of hydrogen powered vehicles technology. To increase performances of high pressure hydrogen storage tanks, a multilayered design is… (more)

Cumalioglu, Ilgaz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Device for testing closure disks at high rates of change of pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is described for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A means is also disclosed for transmitting a tensile load from a piston to a hollow notched plug and for sealing the means for transmitting load within a hole in a piston. 5 figures.

Merten, C.W. Jr.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

275

Velocity of Sound Measurements in High?Pressure, High?Temperature Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental information concerning the acoustic velocity in steam as a function of pressure and temperature is quite limited. Yet it is of particular interest to steam turbine designers who are now planning units as large as 400 000 kw operating at 4500 lb/sq in. and 1200°F so as to increase thermal efficiencies of such units. Apparatus is now in operation for measuring the acoustic velocity up to 2000 lb/sq in. and 750°F using a variable path acoustic interferometer.Measurements are taken at 200?lb/sq in. intervals along a given isotherm using a sound frequency of 750 kc. A special experimental high?pressure boiler is used to generate the steam at the desired pressure and the stem is then increased in temperature by means of a stainless steel superheater before entering the interferometer. The interferometer also of stainless steel is enclosed by an insulated steel vessel maintained at a given constant temperature by another separate steam system. Future work is now being considered up to 6000?lb/sq in. steam pressure based upon results of present experiments.

James Woodburn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Simulation of a high-gain tapered-wiggler free-electron laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results from a numerical model of a high-gain (electron-beam power > input laser beam power) FEL amplifier.

Fawley, W.M.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Prosnitz, D.

1983-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

277

High-frequency intensity noise of lead-salt diode lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high-frequency intensity noise spectra of mid-infrared diode lasers have been investigated. Theoretical estimates are compared with experimental results of spectral noise...

Fischer, H; Tacke, M

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Limiting Factors for High Temperature Operation of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate the temperature dependence of the carrier transport in GaAs-based THz quantum cascade lasers and identify the factors restricting high-temperature...

Jirauschek, Christian; Lugli, Paolo

279

Design of ultrahigh energy laser amplifier system with high storage energy extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A design concept of realizing high storage energy extraction efficiency is presented for an ultrahigh energy laser system, stressing the advantage of variable-diameter aperture...

Gong, Mali; Sui, Zhan; Liu, Qiang; Fu, Xing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

Augustoni, Arnold L.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

High-pressure phase transition and behavior of protons in brucite Mg(OH)2: a high-pressure–temperature study using IR synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Infrared absorption spectra of brucite Mg (OH)2...were measured under high pressure and high temperature from 0.1?MPa 25?°C to 16?GPa 360?°C using infrared synchrotron radiation at BL43IR of Spring-8 and a high-...

K. Shinoda; M. Yamakata; T. Nanba; H. Kimura…

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

Alvine, K. J., E-mail: kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov; Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a retentate multiport valve for sampling or venting, and a stream of permeate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. Back pressure regulators and mass flow controllers act to maintain substantially equivalent gas pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves cyclically, allowing for gas sampling of different membrane cells over an extended period of time.

Albenze, Erik J.; Hopkinson, David P.; Luebke, David R.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

Apparatus for the detection and removal of vapor phase alkali species from coal-derived gases at high temperature and pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-pressure high-temperature apparatus has been developed for the analysis of sorbents capable of removing alkali compounds to the concentration levels required by advanced coal-fired power generating systems. The reactor is capable of operating at temperatures up to 1200?° C and pressures up to 2.0 MPa. A laser-based technique—photofragment fluorescence—enables in situ analysis of the sodium content in a gas stream before and after a sorbent bed thereby determining the efficiency of the alkali removal by the various sorbents studied (typically alumino-silicate clays). The design and development of both the reactor and the laser-based analytical technique is described.

P. G. Griffin; R. J. S. Morrison; A. Campisi; B. L. Chadwick

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Ionization and equation of state of dense xenon at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ionization degree and equation of state of dense xenon plasma were calculated by using self-consistent fluid variational theory for temperature of 4–30kK and density of 0.01–8.5g?cm3. The dense fluid xenon will be ionized at high pressures and temperatures. The ionization energy of xenon will be lowered due to the interactions among all particles of Xe, Xe+, Xe2+, and e. The ionization degree is obtained from nonideal ionization equilibrium, taking into account the correlative contributions to the chemical potential which is determined self-consistently by the free energy function. The composition of xenon has been calculated with given densities and temperatures in the region of partial ionization. The calculated results show a pressure softening regime at the onset of ionization. Comparison is performed with available shock-wave experiments and other theoretical calculations.

Q. F. Chen, L. C. Cai, Y. J. Gu, and Y. Gu

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

288

High-temperature fiber optic cubic-zirconia pressure sensor - article no. 124402  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a critical need for pressure sensors that can operate reliably at high temperatures in many industrial segments such as in the combustion section of gas turbine engines for both transportation and power generation, coal gasifiers, coal fired boilers, etc. Optical-based sensors are particularly attractive for the measurement of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters in high-temperature and high-pressure industrial environments due to their small size and immunity to electromagnetic interference. A fiber optic pressure sensor utilizing single-crystal cubic zirconia as the sensing element is reported. The pressure response of this sensor has been measured at temperatures up to 1000{sup o}C. Additional experimental results show that cubic zirconia could be used for pressure sensing at temperatures over 1000{sup o}C. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel cubic-zirconia sensor for pressure measurement at high temperatures.

Peng, W.; Pickrell, G.R.; Wang, A.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

290

Laser barometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an invention of a pressure measuring instrument which uses laser radiation to sense the pressure in an enclosed environment by means of measuring the change in refractive index of a gas - which is pressure dependent.

Abercrombie, K.R.; Shiels, D.; Rash, T.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges using a substantially high index bonding elastomer or epoxy to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

292

Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Carbon Nanotubes as High-Pressure Cylinders and Nanoextruders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nanotubes and demonstrated that even hard materials such as iron carbide or cobalt can be extruded under the pressures prevailing...dissolving 3 weight percent of a metallocene (ferrocene or cobalt acetylacetonate) in ethanol (for Fe) or toluene (for Co); the solution...

L. Sun; F. Banhart; A. V. Krasheninnikov; J. A. Rodríguez-Manzo; M. Terrones; P. M. Ajayan

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

294

High-Current Gas Discharge at Low Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Probe measurements in a mercury-vapour arc tube (diameter 54 mm.) at pressures less than 10-3 mm. show that ... than 10-3 mm. show that at currents greater than 50 amp. the radial_electric field Es is negligible compared to the term w1H except close to the tube walls ...

P. C. THONEMANN; W. T. COWHIG

1950-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

295

Testing the physics of heat conduction using high pressure: crystals, glasses, and interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, simplest case of thermal conductivity where resistive scattering dominates C() v() l() d C() = heatTesting the physics of heat conduction using high pressure: crystals, glasses, and interfaces David supported by CDAC and AFOSR #12;The story... · Use high pressure (gem anvil cells) to modify vibrational

Braun, Paul

296

Analysis and simplification of a mathematical model for high-pressure food processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, consumers look for minimally processed, additive-free food products that maintain their organoleptic properties. This has led to the development of new technologies for food processing. One emerging technology is high hydrostatic pressure, ... Keywords: Boundary layer solution, Food technology, Heat transfer, High pressure, Modelling, Separation of variables solution

N. A. S. Smith, S. L. Mitchell, A. M. Ramos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Ettringite Strengthening at High Pressures Induced by the Densification of the Hydrogen Bond Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ettringite Strengthening at High Pressures Induced by the Densification of the Hydrogen Bond Network ... Ettringite is a rare mineral with high-water content, more than half of its weight, and a relevant secondary product in Portland cement. ... Using density functional theory, we simulate the crystal structure and properties of ettringite under pressure. ...

H. Manzano; A. Ayuela; A. Telesca; P. J. M. Monteiro; J. S. Dolado

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

298

Combining Laser Ablation/Liquid Phase Collection Surface Sampling and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection method for surface sampling and ionization with subsequent mass spectral analysis. A commercially available autosampler was adapted to produce a liquid droplet at the end of the syringe injection needle while in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collection was followed by either flow injection or a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extracted components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the analytical utility of this coupling, thin films of a commercial ink sample containing rhodamine 6G and of mixed isobaric rhodamine B and 6G dyes on glass microscope slides were analyzed. The flow injection and HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed successful laser ablation, capture and, with HPLC, the separation of the two compounds. The ablated circular area was about 70 m in diameter for these experiments. The spatial sampling resolution afforded by the laser ablation, as well as the ability to use sample processing methods like HPLC between the sample collection and ionization steps, makes this combined surface sampling/ionization technique a highly versatile analytical tool.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Generalized enthalpy model of a high-pressure shift freezing process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...non-homogeneous temperature distribution induces a non-homogeneous...computational model for temperature and sterility distributions in a pilot-scale...high-pressure high-temperature process. A.I...and Da-Wen. Sun 2009 Simulation...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

High-throughput metal nanoparticle catalysis by pulsed laser ablation Selim Senkan a,*, Michael Kahn a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput metal nanoparticle catalysis by pulsed laser ablation Selim Senkan a,*, Michael online 18 July 2006 Abstract A high-throughput pulsed laser ablation (HT-PLA) system was developed-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. The supported nanoparticles created by HT

Senkan, Selim M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Electron Matter Wave Interferences at High Vacuum Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to trap and guide coherent electrons is gaining importance in fundamental as well as in applied physics. In this regard novel quantum devices are currently developed that may operate under low vacuum conditions. Here we study the loss of electron coherence with increasing background gas pressure. Thereby optionally helium, hydrogen or nitrogen is introduced in a biprism interferometer where the interference contrast is a measure for the coherence of the electrons. The results indicate a constant contrast that is not decreasing in the examined pressure range between $10^{-9}$ mbar and $10^{-4}$ mbar. Therefore no decoherence was observed even under poor vacuum conditions. Due to scattering of the electron beam with background H$_2$-molecules a signal loss of 94 % was determined. The results may lower the vacuum requirements for novel quantum devices with free coherent electrons.

Schütz, Georg; Pooch, Andreas; Stibor, Alexander

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Possibility of Prolific Pair Production with High-Power Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prolific electron-positron pair production is possible at laser intensities approaching 10{sup 24} W cm{sup -2} at a wavelength of 1 {mu}m. An analysis of electron trajectories and interactions at the nodes (B=0) of two counterpropagating, circularly polarized laser beams shows that a cascade of {gamma} rays and pairs develops. The geometry is generalized qualitatively to linear polarization and laser beams incident on a solid target.

Bell, A. R.; Kirk, John G. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom) and STFC Central Laser Facility, RAL, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg, 1, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

Ortho-para conversion of hydrogen at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ortho-para conversion rates in solid H2 measured as a function of pressure up to 58 GPa are examined theoretically. Analyses of the data provide information on the relative role of diffusion versus intrinsic dependences of the conversion rate on ortho concentration. A theory of the conversion has been developed using a closed-form representation of the conversion promoting nuclear magnetic interaction Hss expanded in spherical harmonics. The mechanisms considered include double conversion, excitations in the J=1 and J=2 manifolds as conversion energy sinks, and a possibility of intermediate states from which the conversion energy is dissipated via the strong electrical quadrupole-quadrupole (EQQ) interaction. Conversion rates were evaluated for a total of 12 new channels; the two other channels considered previously for moderate pressures have been reconsidered to account for factors that influence phonon-assisted energy dissipation, the most important being the compression-related decrease of the conversion energy (gap closing). Contributions from the standard one-phonon channels with single and double conversion yield fairly good agreement with low-pressure data. The proposed new channel identified as responsible for the observed conversion acceleration is the one in which the conversion Hamiltonian Hss only initiates conversion driving the system to a temporarily nonequilibrium state from which the conversion energy is dissipated via EQQ coupling into excitations within the J=1 manifold. Our mechanism predicts a strong and abrupt conversion slowdown at still higher compressions. The abrupt decrease in rate observed at a given pressure at longer times (decreasing ortho fractions) can be explained as due to the inability of slow diffusion to restore the random distribution of ortho species and due to the intrinsic inefficiency of the new channel at low c.

Mikhail A. Strzhemechny; Russell J. Hemley; Ho-kwang Mao; Alexander F. Goncharov; Jon H. Eggert

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

High repetition rate fiber and integrated waveguide femtosecond lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtosecond lasers and the development of frequency combs have revolutionized multiple fields like metrology, spectroscopy, medical diagnostics and optical communications. However, to enable wider adoption of the technology ...

Sander, Michelle Y. (Michelle Yen-Ling)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

309

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of Potassium Azide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystal structure and compressibility of potassium azide was investigated by in-situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature up to 37.7 GPa. In the body-centered tetragonal (bct) phase, an anisotropic compressibility was observed with greater compressibility in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing N{sub 3}{sup -} ions than directions within that plane. The bulk modulus of the bct phase was determined to be 18.6(7) GPa. A pressure-induced phase transition may occur at 15.5 GPa.

C Ji; F Zhang; D Hong; H Zhu; J Wu; M Chyu; V Levitas; Y Ma

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Investigation of the Syngas Flame Characteristics at Elevated Pressures Using Optical and Laser Diagnostic Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of pressure on the characteristics of syngas flames is investigated under gas turbine relevant...*...chemiluminescence imaging. An optically accessible combustor fitted with a swirl burner was operated...

Rajesh Sadanandan; Peter Kutne; Adam Steinberg…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

High Power 938nm Cladding Pumped Fiber Laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a Nd:doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier, which operates at 938nm with greater than 2W of output power. The core co-dopants were specifically chosen to enhance emission at 938nm. The fiber was liquid nitrogen cooled in order to achieve four-level laser operation on a laser transition that is normally three level at room temperature, thus permitting efficient cladding pumping of the amplifier. Wavelength selective attenuation was induced by bending the fiber around a mandrel, which permitted near complete suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm. We are presently seeking to scale the output of this laser to 10W. We will discuss the fiber and laser design issues involved in scaling the laser to the 10W power level and present our most recent results.

Dawson, J; Beach, R; Brobshoff, A; Liao, Z; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Taylor, L; Hackenberg, W; Bonaccini, D

2002-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

313

A proposal for testing subcritical vacuum pair production with high power lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a proposal for testing the prediction of non-equilibrium quantum field theory below the Schwinger limit. The proposed experiments should be able to detect a measurable number of gamma rays resulting from the annihilation of pairs in the focal spot of two opposing high intensity laser beams. We discuss the dependence of the expected number of gamma rays with the laser parameters and compare with the estimated background level of gamma hits for realistic laser conditions.

G. Gregori; D. B. Blaschke; P. P. Rajeev; H. Chen; R. J. Clarke; T. Huffman; C. D. Murphy; A. V. Prozorkevich; C. D. Roberts; G. Röpke; S. M. Schmidt; S. A. Smolyansky; S. Wilks; R. Bingham

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

314

Prediction and Correlation of High-Pressure Gas Solubility in Polymers with Simplified PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction and Correlation of High-Pressure Gas Solubility in Polymers with Simplified PC-SAFT ... Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). ... Equations of Simplified PC-SAFT ...

Nicolas von Solms; Michael L. Michelsen; Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

2005-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

315

Phase Transitions in Solids Stimulated by Simultaneous Exposure to High Pressure and Relativistic Heavy Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many solids, heavy ions of high kinetic energy (MeV-GeV) produce long cylindrical damage trails with diameters of order 10 nm. Up to now, no information was available how solids cope with the simultaneous exposure to these energetic projectiles and to high pressure. We report the first experiments where relativistic uranium and gold ions from the SIS heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI were injected through several mm of diamond into solid samples pressurized up to 14 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. In synthetic graphite and natural zircon, the combination of pressure and ion beams triggered drastic structural changes not caused by the applied pressure or the ions alone. The modifications comprise long-range amorphization of graphite rather than individual track formation, and in the case of zircon the decomposition into nanocrystals and nucleation of the high-pressure phase reidite.

Ulrich A. Glasmacher; Maik Lang; Hans Keppler; Falko Langenhorst; Reinhard Neumann; Dieter Schardt; Christina Trautmann; Günther A. Wagner

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

316

Segmented lasing tube for high temperature laser assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature laser assembly capable of withstanding operating temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. is described comprising a segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube having a plurality of cylindrical ceramic lasing tube segments of the same inner and outer diameters non-rigidly joined together in axial alignment; insulation of uniform thickness surround the walls of the ceramic lasing tube; a ceramic casing, preferably of quartz, surrounding the insulation; and a fluid cooled metal jacket surrounds the ceramic casing. In a preferred embodiment, the inner surface of each of the ceramic lasing tube segments are provided with a pair of oppositely spaced grooves in the wall thereof parallel to the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube, and both of the grooves and the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube lie in a common plane, with the grooves in each ceramic lasing tube segment in circumferential alignment with the grooves in the adjoining ceramic lasing tube segments; and one or more ceramic plates, all lying in a common plane to one another and with the central axis of the segmented ceramic lasing tube, are received in the grooves to provide additional wall area in the segmented ceramic lasing tube for collision and return to ground state of metastable metal atoms within the segmented ceramic lasing tube.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Finucane, Raymond G. (Pleasanton, CA); Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water and Cecile Langlade2,3 1 FRAMATOME-ANP Technical Center, Avenue B. Marcet, Porte Magenta, 71200 Le Creusot.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

Takasumi, D.S.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) model that we developed for an argon microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma at atmospheric pressure. This model-1- Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure A. Sáinz1 , J. Margot2 , M. C. García1 , M. D. Calzada1 1 Grupo de Espectroscopía de

Boyer, Edmond

320

Kinetic Analysis of CO2 Gasification of Petroleum Coke at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two petcoke samples were gasified by CO2 at total pressures of 10 and 15 atm in a high-pressure flat-flame burner reactor at conditions where the bulk phase consisted of either 40 or 90 mol % CO2 with gas temperatures up to 1909 K. Particle diameters of ... ...

Maryam Malekshahian; Josephine M. Hill

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N-AlOOH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N significant amounts of hydrogen in stishovite under lower-mantle conditions. The enthalpy of solution pressure and temperature. We predict asymmetric hydrogen bonding in the stishovite^N-AlOOH solid solution

Stixrude, Lars

322

High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

323

High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Driving high-gain shock-ignited inertial confinement fusion targets by green laser light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Standard direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires UV light irradiation in order to achieve ignition at total laser energy of the order of 1 MJ. The shock-ignition approach opens up the possibility of igniting fusion targets using green light by reducing the implosion velocity and laser-driven ablation pressure. An analytical model is derived, allowing to rescale UV-driven targets to green light. Gain in the range 100-200 is obtained for total laser energy in the range 1.5-3 MJ. With respect to the original UV design, the rescaled targets are less sensitive to irradiation asymmetries and hydrodynamic instabilities, while operating in the same laser-plasma interaction regime.

Atzeni, Stefano; Marocchino, Alberto; Schiavi, Angelo [Dipartimento SBAI, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and CNISM, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, I-00161 Roma (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

High rate deposition of microcrystalline silicon films by high-pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) thin films were prepared by high-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) with a screened plasma. The deposition ra...

BingQing Zhou; MeiFang Zhu; FengZhen Liu…

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

High power single-crystal fiber CW 946 nm laser and blue generation based on Rubidium-doped PPKTP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for high power, continuous wave and polarized laser at 946 nm (fig1.c). We demonstrate a polarized laser. Laurell, "High-power, continous-wave, second harmonic generation at 532 nm in periodically poled KTiOPO4(b)(a) (c) High power single-crystal fiber CW 946 nm laser and blue generation based on Rubidium

Boyer, Edmond

327

High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

328

Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

329

Characterization and analysis of highly diagonal Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The as yet unattained milestone of room-temperature operation is essential for establishing Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers (THz QCLs) as practical sources of THz radiation. Temperature performance is hypothesized to be ...

Chan, Chun Wang Ivan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

High Power Cooled Mini-DIL Pump Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The miniature dual-inline (mini-DIL) pump laser becomes more attractive for compact optical amplifiers designs due to the advantage of smaller footprint, lower power consumption and...

Liang, Bo; Zayer, Nadhum; Chen, Bob; He, Dylan; Pliska, Tomas

331

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

High efficiency resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis by external laser cavity enhancement techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand to measure high dynamic range isotope ratios on small samples with resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) continues to increase. This paper discusses high ionization efficiency methods which can be applied to continuous wave (cw) RIMS to potentially achieve several tens of percent ionization efficiencies for certain elements. The primary technique under development to achieve this is an external laser cavity which can generate very high circulating laser powers. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Johnson, S.G.; Rios, E.L.; Miller, C.M.; Fearey, B.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Limitations on the Attainable Intensity of High Power Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that even a single e{sup -}e{sup +} pair created by a superstrong laser field in vacuum would cause development of an avalanchelike QED cascade which rapidly depletes the incoming laser pulse. This confirms Bohr's old conjecture that the electric field of the critical QED strength E{sub S}=m{sup 2}c{sup 3}/e({h_bar}/2{pi}) could never be created.

Fedotov, A. M.; Narozhny, N. B.; Mourou, G.; Korn, G. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Institut de la Lumiere Extreme, UMS 3205 ENSTA, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Max Plank Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching 85748 (Germany)

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

A device for debridement using high pressure water jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Removing devitalized tissue from chronic wounds through debridement is critical to promote wound healing. In this thesis, technology using high-speed water jets is explored toward applications for debridement. After ...

Brown, Ashley (Ashley A.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed ... Press Release Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget

336

DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was...

337

Microplasma Discharges in High Pressure Gases Scaling Towards the Sub-micron Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric pressure microplasmas are uniquely characterized by their very high energy densities and also by their small discharge sizes. These properties allow for unique applications in plasma processing technologies. We have investigated...

Chitre, Aditya Rajeev

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

338

Vibrational Spectroscopy at High Pressure in CF4: Implications to the Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular analogue of methane, CF{sub 4} is the most fundamental saturated perfluorocarbon, exhibiting complex optical behavior that is highly unusual for such a simple molecular system. We present Raman measurements in solid CF{sub 4} over a wide range in pressure from 1.6 to over 30 GPa at room temperature. The Raman spectra exhibit polarization-dependent intensity variations and history-dependent absence or presence of high pressure modes. Our results compellingly demonstrate that previously identified phase transitions in CF{sub 4} based on Raman signatures need to be reconsidered. Though our data suggest possible new high-pressure transitions, we do not identify new phases because of spectral complexity. Finally, we used the measured longitudinal and transverse optical mode splitting to estimate the dipole moment derivative at high pressures and find it close to that of gaseous CF{sub 4}.

Lorenzana, H E; Magnus, J L; Evans, W J; Hemmi, N

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Refractory products and ramming bodies for high pressure burners of steam boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon carbide rammed bodies are suitable for lining the combustion zones of high-pressure cyclone burners of steam boilers. The life of the silicon carbide body depends on the heat resistance of the supporti...

N. I. Voronin; N. I. Krasotkina; A. I. kulik; T. S. Karmanova; G. E. Levin…

340

Evaluation of energy efficiency in cutting aerospace materials with high-pressure cooling lubricant supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the field of machining difficult-to-cut materials like titanium or nickel-based alloys, the use of high-pressure cooling lubricant supply (HPCLS) offers ... , tool wear can be decreased which allows higher app...

Fritz Klocke; Dieter Lung; Tolga Cayli…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Methane-to-hydrogen conversion in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at a high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncatalytic process of partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at high pressures has been considered. ... conversion process — the maximum temperature in the...

Yu. M. Dmitrenko; P. A. Klyovan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

343

A Laser System for the Spectroscopy of Highly-Charged Bismuth Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present and characterize a laser system for the spectroscopy on highly-charged ^209Bi^82+ ions at a wavelength of 243.87 nm. For absolute frequency stabilization, the laser system is locked to a near-infra-red laser stabilized to a rubidium transition line using a transfer cavity based locking scheme. Tuning of the output frequency with high precision is achieved via a tunable rf offset lock. A sample-and-hold technique gives an extended tuning range of several THz in the UV. This scheme is universally applicable to the stabilization of laser systems at wavelengths not directly accessible to atomic or molecular resonances. We determine the frequency accuracy of the laser system using Doppler-free absorption spectroscopy of Te_2 vapour at 488 nm. Scaled to the target wavelength of 244 nm, we achieve a frequency uncertainty of \\sigma_{244nm} = 6.14 MHz (one standard deviation) over six days of operation.

S. Albrecht; S. Altenburg; C. Siegel; N. Herschbach; G. Birkl

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

344

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

345

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Thermodynamic properties of carbonates at high pressures from vibrational modelling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mineral. , 84 , 856-860. Frech, R., Wang, E.C., Bates, J.B. (1980...Physica B , 262 , 67-73. Guyot, F., Wang, P., Gillet, P., Ricard, Y...high-temperature volumes of olivines by synchroton X-ray diffraction. Comparison with...

Jan MATAS; Philippe GILLET; Yanick RICARD; Isabelle MARTINEZ

347

High Temperature and Pressure reactive flows through porous media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC), used as high temperature material for combustion chamber or stagnation and chemical composition (Gas Chromatograph, Mass Spectrometer, Infra-Red spectrometer) in stationary and transient conditions. The tests on metallic and composite samples have been conducted with N2, CH4, H2+CH4

Boyer, Edmond

348

Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

Ming, L. C. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Zinin, P. V. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Sharma, S. K. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism.

Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

High-efficiency, dielectric multilayer gratings optimized for manufacturability and laser damage threshold  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrashort pulse, high-intensity lasers offer new opportunities for the study of light-matter interaction and for inertial confinement fusion. A 100 Terawatt laser operating 400 fs and 1.053 {mu}m is operational at LLNL, and a 1000 Terawatt (Petawatt) laser will come online in early 1996. These lasers use large-aperture (40 cm and 94 cm diameter, respectively) diffraction gratings to compress the amplified laser pulse. At present, hologrphically produced, gold overcoated photoresist gratings are used: these gratings represent the fuse in the laser chain. Higher laser damage thresholds and higher diffraction efficiencies are theoretically possible with multilayer dielectric gratings (MDG`s). A number of design parameters regarding both the multilayer stack and the etched grating structure can be optimized to maximize the laser damage threshold and also improve the processing latitude for the interference lithography and reactive ion etching steps used during manufacture of these gratings. This paper presents model predictions for the behavior of hafnia/silica MDG`s both during processing and in operation, and presents experimental data on the diffraction efficiency and short- pulse laser damage threshold for optimized witness gratings.

Britten, J.A.; Perry, M.D.; Shore, B.W.; Boyd, R.D.; Loomis, G.E.; Chow, R.

1995-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

351

High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

22013_earth 22013_earth 12/20/2013 A Lawrence Livermore researcher prepares a sample at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer (SNAP). High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper magnets Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Sometimes you have to apply a little pressure to get magnetic materials to reveal their secrets. By placing a permanent magnet under high pressures, Lawrence Livermore researchers are exploring how atomic structure enhances magnetic strength and resistance to demagnetization. This fundamental research into magnetic behavior has important implications for engineering stronger, cheaper magnets. Permanent magnets based on rare earth elements are in high demand for

352

High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalization in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)

Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K. [Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), 310 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1170 (United States); Hope, Kevin M. [Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Harman Hall, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL, 35115 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Ultrafast ignition with relativistic shock waves induced by high power lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we consider laser intensities larger than $10^{16} W/cm^2$ where the ablation pressure is negligible in comparison with the radiation pressure. The radiation pressure is caused by the ponderomotive force acting mainly on the electrons that are separated from the ions to create a double layer (DL). This DL is accelerated into the target, like a piston that pushes the matter in such a way that a shock wave is created. Here we discuss two novel ideas. First is the transition domain between the relativistic and non-relativistic laser induced shock waves. Our solution is based on relativistic hydrodynamics also for the above transition domain. The relativistic shock wave parameters, such as compression, pressure, shock wave and particle flow velocities, sound velocity and rarefaction wave velocity in the compressed target, and the temperature are calculated. Secondly, we would like to use this transition domain for shock wave induced ultrafast ignition of a pre-compressed target. The laser parameters...

Eliezer, Shalom; Pinhasi, Shirly Vinikman; Raicher, Erez; Val, José Maria Martinez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter or access the facility. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization More Documents & Publications D&D Toolbox Project - Technology Demonstration of Fixatives Applied to Hot Cell Facilities via Remote Sprayer Platforms Above on the left is K-25, at Oak Ridge before and after the 844,000 sq-ft demolition. In addition, on the right: K Cooling Tower at Savannah River Site demolition.

355

D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter or access the facility. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization More Documents & Publications Above on the left is K-25, at Oak Ridge before and after the 844,000 sq-ft demolition. In addition, on the right: K Cooling Tower at Savannah River Site demolition. Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D) Program Map DOE EM Project Experience & Lessons Learned for In Situ Decommissioning

356

Cryogenic, high power, near diffraction limited, Yb:YAG slab laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cryogenic slab laser that is suitable for scaling to high power, while taking full advantage of the improved thermo-optical and thermo-mechanical properties of Yb:YAG at cryogenic...

Ganija, Miftar; Ottaway, David; Veitch, Peter; Munch, Jesper

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

High-frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the first reported time, high-frequency optical heterodyne spectroscopy has been performed with tunable lead-salt diode lasers. N2O transitions at 1259.2 cm?1...

Gehrtz, Manfred; Young, Anthony T; Johnston, Harold S; Lenth, Wilfried

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electron-beam–deposited distributed polarization rotator for high-power laser applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron-beam deposition of silica and alumina is used to fabricate distributed polarization rotators suitable for smoothing the intensity of large-aperture, high-peak-power lasers....

Oliver, J B; Kessler, T J; Smith, C; Taylor, B; Gruschow, V; Hettrick, J; Charles, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Pulsed High Duty-Cycle Operation of ? ~ 8µm Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on high duty-cycle pulsed and burst-mode operation of ?~8µm quantum cascade lasers under ambient conditions for photo-acoustic spectroscopy. An optimum in average optical...

Ko, Tiffany; Liu, Zhijun; Gmachl, Claire

360

Recent progress in high precision atmospheric trace gas instruments using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report results from high precision spectroscopic instruments for atmospheric trace gases using with mid-IR quantum cascade lasers. Numerous gases can be measured with 1s absorption...

McManus, John B; Zahniser, Mark; Nelson, David; McGovern, Ryan; Agnese, Mike

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High-energy Laser Amplifiers using Ultra-broad Emitting Yb-doped Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-energy laser amplifiers using Yb-doped gain media often show reduced efficiencies especially when operating at ultra-short pulses. We summarize techniques to improve storage and...

Siebold, Mathias; Loeser, Markus; Roeser, Fabian; Uecker, Reinhard; Koerner, Joerg; Hein, Joachim; Hornung, Marco; Kaluza, Malte; Schramm, Ulrich

362

3-Dimensional thermal analysis and active cooling of short-length high-power fiber lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fully 3-dimensional finite element model has been developed that simulates the internal temperature distribution of short-length high-power fiber lasers. We have validated the...

Li, L; Li, H; Qiu, T; Temyanko, V L; Morrell, M M; Schülzgen, A; Mafi, A; Moloney, J V; Peyghambarian, N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Design and Analysis on Face-Cooled Disk Faraday Rotator under High Average Power Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel, scalable Faraday rotator has been designed for high-average-power lasers in a gas-cooled multi-disk scheme. The concept with a negligible thermal distortion and birefringence...

Yasuhara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Masanobu; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Izawa, Yasukazu; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Ikegawa, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Osamu; Sekine, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Kan, Hirofumi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

364

Design and Analysis on Face-Cooled Disk Faraday Rotator for High Average Power Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel, scalable Faraday rotator has been designed for high-average-power lasers in a gas-cooled multi-disk scheme. The concept with a negligible thermal distortion and birefringence...

Yasuhara, R; Yamanaka, M; Norimatsu, T; Izawa, Y; Kawashima, T; Ikegawa, T; Matsumoto, O; Sekine, T; Kurita, T; Kan, H; Furukawa, H

365

Sapphire-conductive end-cooling of high power cryogenic Yb:YAG laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have demonstrated a high-power laser oscillator with end-cooling using a sapphire-sandwiched Yb:YAG disk at near liquid nitrogen temperature. An output power of 74 W with...

Tokita, Shigeki; Kawanaka, Junji; Izawa, Yasukazu; Fujita, Masayuki; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

366

All-solid-state high-power conduction-cooled Nd:YLF rod laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-average-power conduction-cooled diode-pumped Nd:YLF rod laser has been developed. A new conduction-cooled side-pumping scheme with a solid prismatic pump-light confinement...

Hirano, Y; Yanagisawa, T; Ueno, S; Tajime, T; Uchino, O; Nagai, T; Nagasawa, C

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High-Power Thermoelectrically-Cooled and Uncooled Mid-Wave Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present high performance thermoelectrically-cooled and uncooled mid-wave infrared (?=4.6 ?m) quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave output power of 2.9 W and 1 W at room...

Maulini, Richard; Lyakh, Arkadiy; Tsekoun, Alexei; Pflugl, Christian; Diehl, Laurent; Capasso, Federico; Patel, Kumar

368

Sapphire-Conductive End-Cooling of High Power Cryogenic Yb:YAG Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have demonstrated a high-power laser oscillator with end-cooling using a sapphire-sandwiched Yb:YAG disk at liquid nitrogen temperature. An output power of 74 W with...

Tokita, Shigeki; Fujita, Masayuki; Kawanaka, Junji; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Izawa, Yasukazu

369

Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is ... of the fusion target mixing prior to thermonuclear ignition have been investigated using the 1D Lagrangian...Z ion species may inhibit...

J. Pasley

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Laser beam mastering of high-density d=1 RLL code ROM disc  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper describes technologies of direct focus servo, high contrast resist material, recording compensation for a system with 266nm laser with NA0.9 objective lens, and readout...

Kondo, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Eiji; Tsurukubo, Takashi; Ohgo, Takashi; Saito, Toshiya

371

High-repetition Rate Wakefield Electron Source Driven by Few-millijoule Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

10 mJ ultrafast laser pulses acting on gas flow from capillary nozzles generate stable 100 keV electron beams at 500 Hz. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that slow high amplitude...

He, Zhaohan; Hou, Bixue; Easter, James; Krushelnick, Karl; Nees, John A; Thomas, Alexander

372

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

373

Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5?×?10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3?×?10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC Porto—Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física, da Faculdade de Ciências, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

374

Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition system for high-rate deposition of functional materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure plasmachemical vapor deposition(CVD) system has been developed to fabricate functional thin films at very high deposition rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma in which high-density radicals are created has been effectively used to depositthin films. Combination of the newly designed rotary electrode and the 150 MHz very high frequency power supply makes it possible not only to generate the high-density atmospheric pressure plasma but also to avoid ion bombardment against the film. By virtue of these noble characteristics of the system high quality films can be fabricated at an unprecedented high deposition rate. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric pressure plasmaCVD system hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H ) films were prepared in gas mixtures containing He H 2 and SiH 4 . The results showed that homogeneous a- Si:H films grew when substrates were heated at 200?°C. Extremely high deposition rate which was more than 100 times faster than that of the conventional low-pressure plasma CVD technique was realized.

Y. Mori; K. Yoshii; H. Kakiuchi; K. Yasutake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

High-order harmonic generation and multi-photon ionization of ethylene in laser fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applying time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA), we study the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of ethylene subjected to the one-color ($\\omega=2.72$ eV) and the two-color ($\\omega_1=2.72$ eV and $\\omega_2=5.44$ eV) ultrashort intense laser pulses. The HHG spectrum of ethylene in the one-color laser field shows the obvious plateaus and odd order harmonics are produced while the two-color laser field can result in the breaking of the symmetry and generation of the even order harmonic. The ionization probabilities are obtained showing the increase of the ionization probability of higher charge state by the two-color laser field. The temporal structures of HHG spectrum of ethylene is explored by means of the time-frequency analysis showing new insights of the HHG mechanisms in the one-color and the two-color laser fields.

Wang, Z P; Reinhard, P -G; Suraud, E; Zhang, F S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Laser-driven hole boring and gamma-ray emission in high-density plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ion acceleration in laser-produced dense plasmas is a key topic of many recent investigations thanks to its potential applications. Besides, at forthcoming laser intensities ($I \\gtrsim 10^{23} \\text{W}\\,\\text{cm}^{-2}$) interaction of laser pulses with plasmas can be accompanied by copious gamma-ray emission. Here we demonstrate the mutual influence of gamma-ray emission and ion acceleration during relativistic hole boring in high-density plasmas with ultra-intense laser pulses. If gamma-ray emission is abundant, laser pulse reflection and hole-boring velocity are lower and gamma-ray radiation pattern is narrower than in the case of low emission. Conservation of energy and momentum allows one to elucidate the effects of gamma-ray emission which are more pronounced at higher hole-boring velocities.

Nerush, Evgeny

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Narrowband inverse Compton scattering x-ray sources at high laser intensities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Narrowband x- and gamma-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering of laser pulses suffer from a limitation of the allowed laser intensity due to the onset of nonlinear effects that increase their bandwidth. It has been suggested that laser pulses with a suitable frequency modulation could compensate this ponderomotive broadening and reduce the bandwidth of the spectral lines, which would allow to operate narrowband Compton sources in the high-intensity regime. In this paper we, therefore, present the theory of nonlinear Compton scattering in a frequency modulated intense laser pulse. We systematically derive the optimal frequency modulation of the laser pulse from the scattering matrix element of nonlinear Compton scattering, taking into account the electron spin and recoil. We show that, for some particular scattering angle, an optimized frequency modulation completely cancels the ponderomotive broadening for all harmonics of the backscattered light. We also explore how sensitive this compensation ...

Seipt, D; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS 1 High-Power 2.3-m GaSb-Based Linear Laser Array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.3-m laser. Al Ga As Sb cladding layers. Details of the lasers' heterostructure design can be foundIEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS 1 High-Power 2.3-m GaSb-Based Linear Laser Array L. Shterengas, G--High-power 2.3- m In(Al)GaAsSb­GaSb type-I double quantum-well diode laser arrays were fabricated

380

High-pressure xenon detector development at Constellation Technology Corporation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xenon-filled ionization detectors, due to their high atomic number fill gas (Z=54), moderate densities (?0.3–0.5 g/cm3) and good energy resolution (2–4% at 662 keV), fill an important niche between more familiar technologies such as NaI(Tl) scintillators and germanium detectors. Until recently, difficulties with obtaining sufficient xenon purity, reducing microphonic sensitivity, and developing low-noise electronics compatible with small ionization signals have hampered the development of this nuclear detection field. Constellation Technology Corporation, whose experience with xenon detectors goes back to the mid 1990s, has made significant progress in these areas and has developed a commercial line of detectors with active volumes ranging from small (35 g Xe) to large (1400 g Xe). Current applications for Constellation's detectors are principally in the area of defense (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Advanced Spectroscopic Portals), but as awareness of this technology grows, it will surely find applications in a much expanded range of fields.

Robert A. Austin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Explosive laser light initiation of propellants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

Piltch, M.S.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

382

Structural phase transition in induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high-pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposing pressurized crystals to GeV heavy ions reveals unexpected structural changes. Irradiated at ambient conditions, natural zirconia ( ZrO 2 ) transforms from the monoclinic structure to its tetragonal (high-temperature) phase. For this process the required fluence must exceed 5 × 10 12 ions / cm 2 for Pb and U and becomes even significantly higher for lighter ions. If samples are pressurized during irradiation using diamond anvil cells, the required fluence drops at least by one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition becomes larger with increasing pressure.

B. Schuster; M. Lang; R. Klein; C. Trautmann; R. Neumann; A. Benyagoub

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Homogeneous carbon doping of magnesium diboride by high-temperature, high-pressure synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis at 1500–1700?°C and 10?MPa to create homogeneously C-substituted MgB{sub 2} from a B{sub 4}C + Mg mixture. X-ray diffraction analysis showed large peak-shifts consistent with a decrease in the a lattice parameter for the B{sub 4}C-derived MgB{sub 2} as compared to an undoped sample (0.033–0.037?Å, depending on the sample). Microstructural investigation showed a three-phase mixture in the B{sub 4}C-derived ingots: MgB{sub 2?x}C{sub x} (with 0.178?

Susner, M. A., E-mail: susner.1@osu.edu; Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Dregia, S. A.; Sumption, M. D.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E. W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Donovan, J. J. [Center for Advanced Materials Characterization in Oregon (CAMCOR), University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

385

Valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids has inner and outer spaced shells and a valve actuator support of inner and outer spaced members which are connected at their end portions to the inner and outer shells, respectively, to extend substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the inner shell. A layer of resilient heat insulating material covers the outer surfaces of the inner shell and the inner actuator support member and is of a thickness to only occupy part of the spaces between the inner and outer shells and inner and outer actuator support members. The remaining portion of the space between the inner and outer shells and the space between the inner and outer members is substantially filled with a body of castable, rigid refractory material. A movable valve member is disposed in the inner shell. A valve actuator assembly is supported in the valve actuator support to extend into the inner shell for connection with the movable valve member for movement of the movable valve member to positions from a fully open to a fully closed position to control flow of fluid through the inner shell. An anchor mneans is disposed adjacent opposite sides of the axis of the valve actuator support and attached to the inner shell so that relative radial movement between the inner and outer shell is permitted by the layer of resilient heat insulating material and relative longitudinal movement of the inner shell to the outer shell is permitted in opposite directions from the anchor means to thereby maintain the functional integrity of the movable valve member by providing an area of the inner shell surrounding the movable valve member longitdinally stationary, but at the same time allowing radial movement.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

Thomas Brunner; Daniel Fudenberg; Victor Varentsov; Amanda Sabourov; Giorgio Gratta; Jens Dilling; Ralph DeVoe; David Sinclair; William Fairbank Jr.; Joshua B Albert; David J Auty; Phil S Barbeau; Douglas Beck; Cesar Benitez-Medina; Martin Breidenbach; Guofu F Cao; Christopher Chambers; Bruce Cleveland; Matthew Coon; Adam Craycraft; Timothy Daniels; Sean J Daugherty; Tamar Didberidze; Michelle J Dolinski; Matthew Dunford; Lorenzo Fabris; Jacques Farine; Wolfhart Feldmeier; Peter Fierlinger; Razvan Gornea; Kevin Graham; Mike Heffner; Mitchell Hughes; Michael Jewell; Xiaoshan S Jiang; Tessa N Johnson; Sereres Johnston; Alexander Karelin; Lisa J Kaufman; Ryan Killick; Thomas Koffas; Scott Kravitz; Reiner Kruecken; Alexey Kuchenkov; Krishna S Kumar; Douglas S Leonard; Francois Leonard; Caio Licciardi; Yi-Hsuan H Lin; Jiajie Ling; Ryan MacLellan; Michael G Marino; Brian Mong; David Moore; Allen Odian; Igor Ostrovskiy; Christian Ouellet; Andreas Piepke; Andrea Pocar; Fabrice Retiere; Peter C Rowson; Maria P Rozo; Alexis Schubert; Erica Smith; Victor Stekhanov; Michal Tarka; Tamer Tolba; Delia Tosi; Karl Twelker; Jean-Luc L Vuilleumier; Josiah Walton; Timothy Walton; Manuel Weber; Liangjian J Wen; Ubi Wichoski; Liang Yang; Yung-Ruey Yen

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

387

Raman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence of the high-energy Raman modes in single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes was measuredRaman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure C. Thomsen, S. Reich, H properties of carbon nanotubes have become of scienti c interest since it was recognized that the low atomic

Nabben, Reinhard

388

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure B transition becomes larger with increasing pressure. Keywords: Zirconia, phase transition, high pressure-temperature poly- morphs (tetragonal and cubic) (see Fig 1). At about 1200 C, a martensitic-type phase transition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Laser spectroscopy of hyperfine structure in highly-charged ions: a test of QED at high fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview is presented of laser spectroscopy experiments with cold, trapped, highly-charged ions, which will be performed at the HITRAP facility at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany). These high-resolution measurements of ground state hyperfine splittings will be three orders of magnitude more precise than previous measurements. Moreover, from a comparison of measurements of the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen- and lithium-like ions of the same isotope, QED effects at high electromagnetic fields can be determined within a few percent. Several candidate ions suited for these laser spectroscopy studies are presented.

D. F. A. Winters; M. Vogel; D. M. Segal; R. C. Thompson; W. Noertershaeuser

2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

390

High-order harmonic generation from plasma plume pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present their study on high-order harmonic generation pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser from plasma plumes produced on the surfaces of various solid-state targets. The maximum harmonic cutoff was observed for Be plasma (31st harmonic, {lambda}=12.9 nm). They compared these results with harmonic generation pumped by 800 nm wavelength laser. The authors demonstrated single harmonic enhancement for Cr, Sn, Sb, and Mn plasmas. They also studied the use of varying the chirp of the pump laser to control the enhancement of single harmonics within the plateau.

Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada) and Scientific Association Akadempribor, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

391

Generation of high-energy-density ion bunches by ultraintense laser-cone-target interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A scheme in which carbon ion bunches are accelerated to a high energy and density by a laser pulse (?10{sup 21}?W/cm{sup 2}) irradiating cone targets is proposed and investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulse is focused by the cone and drives forward an ultrathin foil located at the cone's tip. In the course of the work, best results were obtained employing target configurations combining a low-Z cone with a multispecies foil transversely shaped to match the laser intensity profile.

Yang, X. H.; Zhuo, H. B., E-mail: hongbin.zhuo@gmail.com; Ma, Y. Y.; Zou, D. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ge, Z. Y.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yu, W. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, H., E-mail: xuhanemail@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Borghesi, M., E-mail: m.borghesi@qub.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

High-resolution emission spectra of pulsed terahertz quantum-cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectra of pulsed terahertz quantum-cascade lasers were measured with high spectral resolution. The characteristic line width at half maximum was 0.01 cm{sup -1}; it is controlled by laser temperature variations during the supply voltage pulse. It was shown that an increase in the laser temperature leads to a decrease in the emission frequency, which is caused by an increase in the effective refractive index of the active region. It was also found that a decrease in the supply voltage results in a decrease in the emission frequency, which is caused by a change in the energy of diagonal transitions between lasing levels.

Ikonnikov, A. V., E-mail: antikon@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Antonov, A. V.; Lastovkin, A. A.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Sadof'ev, Yu. G.; Samal, N. [Trion Technology (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fracture Behavior of a Laser Beam Welded High-strength Al-Zn Alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser beam welding of butt joints made of the newly developed high-strength Al-Zn alloy PA734 is conducted. A new approach of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht is used to solve the problems of weldability and softening. The results of the fatigue, fatigue crack propagation and fracture toughness tests are discussed relating to the microstructural characteristics and the mechanical properties of the laser welded joints and compared to the base material. The obtained data can be used for the assessment of the damage tolerance behaviour of the laser welded integral aircraft structures made of Al-Zn alloys.

J. Enz; H. Iwan; S. Riekehr; V. Ventzke; N. Kashaev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Laser synchronized high-speed shutter for spectroscopic application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast mechanical shutter, based on rotating chopper wheels, has been designed and implemented to shutter the entrance slit of a spectrograph. This device enables an exposure time of 9 .mu.s to be achieved for a 0.8 mm wide spectrograph entrance slit, achieves 100% transmission in the open state, and an essentially infinite extinction ratio. The device further incorporates chopper wheel position sensing electronics to permit the synchronous triggering of a laser source.

Miles, Paul C. (Tracy, CA); Porter, Eldon L. (Tracy, CA); Prast, Thomas L. (Livermore, CA); Sunnarborg, Duane A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

397

Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional flow in high pressure catalytic combustor for gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is modeling the mechanism of high pressure and high temperature catalytic oxidation of natural gas, or methane. The model is two-dimensional steady-state, and includes axial and radial convection and diffusion of mass, momentum and energy, as well as homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (gas surface) single step irreversible chemical reactions within a catalyst channel. Experimental investigations were also made of natural gas, or methane combustion in the presence of Mn-substituted hexaaluminate catalysts. Axial profiles of catalyst wall temperature, and gas temperature and gas composition for a range of gas turbine combustor operating conditions have been obtained for comparison with and development of a computer model of catalytic combustion. Numerical calculation results for atmospheric pressure agree well with experimental data. The calculations have been extended for high pressure (10 atm) operating conditions of gas turbine.

Y. Tsujikawa; S. Fujii; H. Sadamori; S. Ito; S. Katsura

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy utilizing high-pressure cryopreservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present cryo x-ray diffraction microscopy of high-pressure-cryofixed bacteria and report high-convergence imaging with multiple image reconstructions. Hydrated D. radiodurans cells were cryofixed at 200 MPa pressure into ?10??m-thick water layers and their unstained, hydrated cellular environments were imaged by phasing diffraction patterns, reaching sub-30-nm resolutions with hard x-rays. Comparisons were made with conventional ambient-pressure-cryofixed samples, with respect to both coherent small-angle x-ray scattering and the image reconstruction. The results show a correlation between the level of background ice signal and phasing convergence, suggesting that phasing difficulties with frozen-hydrated specimens may be caused by high-background ice scattering.

Enju Lima; Yuriy Chushkin; Peter van der Linden; Chae Un Kim; Federico Zontone; Philippe Carpentier; Sol M. Gruner; Petra Pernot

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Crystal structure prediction and hydrogen-bond symmetrization of solid hydrazine under high pressure: a first-principles study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three crystal structures of hydrazine under high pressure have been found, including the reported experimental phase. Pressure-induced hydrogen-bond symmetrization occurs at 235 GPa during the CcC2/c transition.

Zhang, H.-D.

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Parametric Study and Multi-Criteria Optimization in Laser Cladding by a High Power Direct Diode Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In laser cladding, the performance of the deposited layers subjected ... layer are influenced greatly by the type of laser used as a heat source and process ... Nowadays, the quality of fabricated coating by laser

Parisa Farahmand; Radovan Kovacevic

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for Laser Direct Imaging and other patterning applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-speed one-dimensional spatial light modulator for Laser Direct Imaging and other patterning developed a one-dimensional high-speed spatial light modulator in cooperation with Micronic Mydata AB of ultraviolet light needs to be combined with high throughput and high precision. Keywords: Laser Direct Imaging

Jonsson, Fredrik

402

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

Limpouch, Jiri

403

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

Limpouch, Jiri

404

Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams M. S. Wei,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be necessary for actual ignition experiments, the required laser needs to have energies of tens of kObservations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams M. S. Wei,1 F. N Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 OQX, United Kingdom 5

Strathclyde, University of

405

Dynamical Schwinger effect and high-intensity lasers. Realising nonperturbative QED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility of experimental verification of vacuum e^+e^- pair creation at the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with intensities 10^{20}-10^{22} W/cm^2, achievable with present-day petawatt lasers, and approaching the Schwinger limit: 10^{29} W/cm^2 to be reached at ELI. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the evolution of the e^+ and e^- distribution functions governed by a non-Markovian source term for pair production. As possible experimental signals of vacuum pair production we consider e^+e^- annihilation into gamma-pairs and the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e^+e^- plasma. We discuss the dependence of the dynamical pair production process on laser wavelength, with special emphasis on applications in the X-ray domain (X-FEL), as well as the prospects for \\mu^+\\mu^- and \\pi^+\\pi^- pair creation at high-intensity lasers. We investigate perspectives for using high-intensity lasers as ``boosters'' of ion beams in the few-GeV per nucleon range, which is relevant, e.g., to the exploration of the QCD phase transition in laboratory experiments.

D. B. Blaschke; A. V. Prozorkevich; G. Roepke; C. D. Roberts; S. M. Schmidt; D. S. Shkirmanov; S. A. Smolyansky

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

KrF laser path to high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion) laboratory microfusion facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The krypton-fluoride laser has many desirable features for inertial confinement fusion. Because it is a gas laser capable of operation with high efficiency, it is the only known laser candidate capable of meeting the driver requirements for inertial fusion energy (IFE) production. Los Alamos National Laboratory has defined a program plan to develop KrF lasers for IFE production. This plan develops the KrF laser and demonstrates the target performance in single-pulse facilities. A 100-kJ Laser Target Test Facility (LTTF) is proposed as the next step, to be followed by a 3 to 10-MJ Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The LTTF will resolve many target physics issues and accurately define the driver energy required for the LMF. It is also proposed that the technology development for IFE, such as the high-efficiency, high-reliability, repetitively pulsed driver, the reactor, mass production of targets, and the mechanism of injecting targets be developed in parallel with the single-pulse facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Harris, D.B.; Sullivan, J.A.; Figueiro, J.F.; Cartwright, D.C.; McDonald, T.E.; Hauer, A.A.; Coggeshall, S.V.; Younger, S.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Laser Controlled Area Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

79 79 01 Effective: Page 1 of 17 05/13/11 Subject: X17B3 Laser Safety Program Documentation 1 AUTHORIZATION | Princeton University BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines the safety management program for the laser system listed below. All American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Hazard Class 3B and 4 laser systems must be documented, reviewed, and approved through use of this form. Each system must be reviewed annually. System description: A laser heating system for diamond anvil cell experiments has been installed at X17B3. A class 4 ytterbium fiber laser (IPG model YLR-100-SM-CS) is used to perform high-pressure laser heating of samples contained in diamond anvil cells. Included within this laser is a guide laser

408

Design of Microsecond Level and High Current Pulse Driver Systems for Quantum Cascade Lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a microsecond, high current pulse generator to drive quantum cascade lasesrs. The driver systems consist of pulse generator; power amplifier; fast switches and constant current supply circuits. The pulse width and pulse repetition ... Keywords: microsecond level, high current, pulesd driver systems, quantum cascade laser

Lei Li; Chen Chen; Hai Yu; Chengjun Dong; Yiding Wang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Spot Size Limited Carbon Propellant Characterization for Efficient High Isp Laser Propulsion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser propulsion has very unique advantage of producing exhausting gas (ions) of very high velocity. Specific impulse from laser plasma could easily exceed 10,000 seconds that reduce the current propellant consumption rate on space born thrusters significantly. For efficient propellant usage, it is desirable that the exhaust plasma has rather narrow velocity distribution of fast ions. In order to accomplish the requirements, thermal conduction and neutral particle losses at and vicinity of the laser heated region have to be eliminated. A concept of spot size limited propellant shape has been proposed and tested in terms of the effects of the loss reduction. Ion and neutral particle measurements from laser plasmas produced on the above mentioned carbon targets are used to characterize the performance of the propellant.

Uchida, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Kazuhisa; Yamaura, Michiteru [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka (Japan); Birou, Tomoya; Yoshida, Minoru [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)

2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

Dynamic compression of materials: metallization of fluid hydrogen at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic high pressure is 1?GPa (10?kbar) or greater with a rise time and a duration ranging from 1?ps (10?12?s) to 1?µs (10?6?s). Today it is possible in a laboratory to achieve pressures dynamically up to ~500?GPa (5?Mbar) and greater, compressions as much as ~15-fold greater than initial density in the case of hydrogen and temperatures from ~0.1 up to several electronvolts (11?600?K). At these conditions materials are extremely condensed semiconductors or degenerate metals. Temperature can be tuned independently of pressure by a combination of shock and isentropic compression. As a result, new opportunities are now available in condensed matter physics at extreme conditions. The basic physics of the dynamic process, experimental methods of generating and diagnosing matter at these extreme conditions and a technique to recover metastable materials intact from ~100?GPa shock pressures are discussed.Results include (i) generation of pressure standards at static pressures up to ~200?GPa (2?Mbar) at 300?K, (ii) single-shock compression of small-molecular fluids, including resolution of the recent controversy over the correct shock-compression curve of liquid D2 at 100?GPa pressures, (iii) the first observations of metallization of fluid hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen compressed quasi-isentropically at 100?GPa pressures, (iv) implications for the interiors of giant planets within our solar system, extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs discovered recently and the equation of state of deuterium–tritium in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and (v) prospects of recovering novel materials from extreme conditions, such as metastable solid metallic hydrogen. Future research is suggested.

W J Nellis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Array detector for high energy laser based on diffuse transmission sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to improve the ability and accuracy of measuring the temporal–spatial distribution of the intensity of a large-size, high-energy laser beam, a novel array detecting method based on diffuse transmission sampling is proposed. The measurement principle and the design of the sampling and attenuating unit are presented. High-temperature-resistant diffuse transmission material is used to sample and attenuate a high energy laser beam. Pure copper, whose surface is first sand-blasted and then gold-plated, is applied to scatter the incident high-energy laser beam. The formula for the attenuation ratio was derived in detail. We developed two large-aperture array detectors with spatial resolution of 5 mm, spatial duty ratio of 20%, and useable angle range of ±30° without varying the responsivity, the non-uniformity in the laser profile measurement is below 1%, and the repeatability error in the laser power measurement is approximately 1%. The maximal energy density that the array detector can endure is more than 10 kJ/cm{sup 2}.

Pang, Miao [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China) [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 China (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Rong, Jian [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)] [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhou, Shan; Wu, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Xiaoyang [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 China (China)] [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 China (China); Fan, Guobin [Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Materials Science Under Extreme Conditions of Pressure and Strain Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. I. INTRODUCTION HIGH-STRAIN-RATE materials dynamics and solid-state experiments to much higher pressures, P 103 GPa (10 Mbar), on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

414

Thermal conductance of metal-diamond interfaces at high pressure Gregory T. Hohensee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are concerned with the exchange of thermal energy across an interface between two materials. This topic-nonmetal interface, a two-temperature model predicts a thermal resistance of Rep = 1/ gL in series with the phononThermal conductance of metal-diamond interfaces at high pressure Gregory T. Hohensee Department

Cahill, David G.

415

Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts.

Burkhardt, A.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Anomalous elastic behavior and high-pressure structural evolution of zeolite levyne  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gatta@unimi.it Manuscript handled by Alison Pawley Elastic behavior and high-pressure...several authors (Sheppard et al. 1974; Wise and Tschernich 1976; Galli et al. 1981...Edition). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. Wise, W.S. and Tschernich, R.W. (1976...

Giacomo Diego Gatta; Paola Comodi; Pier Francesco Zanazzi; Tiziana Boffa Ballaran

417

Anticrack-associated faulting at very high pressure in natural olivine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Publishing Group 10.1038/349264a0 Anticrack-associated faulting at very high pressure in natural olivineHarry W.GreenH. W.IIThomas E.YoungT. E.DavidWalkerD.Christopher H.ScholzC. H. Nature ...

Harry W. Green; Thomas E. Young; David Walker; Christopher H. Scholz

1991-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

418

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANALYSIS OF HIGH PRESSURE TESTS ON WET GAS FLOW METERING WITH A VENTURI METER P. Gajan , Q, 64018 Pau cedex, France pierre.gajan@onera.fr Abstract This work deals with the flow metering of wet gas on the CEESI facilities are presented. They are performed at 75 bars with 0.6 beta ratio Venturi meter

419

Raman spectroscopy of Co,,OH...2 at high pressures: Implications for amorphization and hydrogen repulsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.50. p, 63.20. e, 33.20.Fb, 33.20.Tp INTRODUCTION The high-pressure behavior of brucite-type hydroxides- itially much more compressible than the a axis. This is a general feature of the compression of brucite

Duffy, Thomas S.

420

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

422

Investigations on the Failure of Economizer Tubes in a High-Pressure Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article describes the results of an investigation concerning the failure of economizer tubes of a high-pressure boiler in ... . The cause of the failure of the economizer tube appears to be H2SO4 dew-point c...

M. Mobin; A. U. Malik; M. Al-Hajri

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafast high-pressure AC electro-osmotic pumps for portable biomedical microfluidics Chien details the development of an integrated AC electro-osmotic (ACEO) microfluidic pump for dilute (100 mM) biological solutions in separate microfluidic devices, with potential applications in portable

Bazant, Martin Z.

424

Metastable high-pressure transformations of orthoferrosilite Fs82 Przemyslaw Dera a,e,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metastable high-pressure transformations of orthoferrosilite Fs82 Przemyslaw Dera a,e, , Gregory J Institution of Washington, USA e Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received

Duffy, Thomas S.

425

Stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

426

Modeling and optimization of single-pass laser amplifiers for high-repetition-rate laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a model for a continuously pumped single-pass amplifier for continuous and pulsed laser beams. The model takes into account Gaussian shape and focusing geometry of pump and seed beam. As the full-wave simulation is complex we have developed a largely simplified numerical method that can be applied to rotationally symmetric geometries. With the tapered-shell model we treat (focused) propagation and amplification of an initially Gaussian beam in a gain crystal. The implementation can be done with a few lines of code that are given in this paper. With this code, a numerical parameter optimization is straightforward and example results are shown. We compare the results of our simple model with those of a full-wave simulation and show that they agree well. A comparison of model and experimental data also shows good agreement. We investigate in detail different regimes of amplification, namely the unsaturated, the fully saturated, and the intermediate regime. Because the amplification process is affected by spatially varying saturation and exhibits a nonlinear response against pump and seed power, no analytical expression for the expected output is available. For modeling of the amplification we employ a four-level system and show that if the fluorescence lifetime of the gain medium is larger than the inverse repetition rate of the seed beam, continuous-wave amplification can be employed to describe the amplification process of ultrashort pulse trains. We limit ourselves to this regime, which implies that if titanium:sapphire is chosen as gain medium the laser repetition rate has to be larger than a few megahertz. We show detailed simulation results for titanium:sapphire for a large parameter set.

Ozawa, Akira; Udem, Thomas; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Haensch, Theodor W.; Hommelhoff, Peter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik IOF, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

High-pressure structural studies of dysprosium using angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present structural results under pressure for elemental dysprosium (Dy) up to 87 GPa using in situ angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron x rays and a diamond-anvil cell. Dy exhibits the structural transition sequence, hP2{yields}hR9{yields}hP4{yields}distorted cF4, from Rietveld full-profile refinements. Clear evidence is documented for the high-pressure distorted cF4 phase observed above 45 GPa to be an orthorhombic oS8 (Cmmm) structure for Dy in the lanthanide phase diagram.

Shen Yongrong; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Nicol, Malcolm F. [Department of Physics and High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4002 (United States)

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Raman Spectroscopy of SiO2 Glass at High Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for optical studies of amorphous solids to very high pressures. Raman spectra of SiO2 glass measured at 8 GPa indicate a significant reduction in the width of the Si-O-Si angle distribution, which has been associated with a number of anomalous properties of silica glass under ambient conditions. Between 8 and ? 30 GPa irreversible changes in the Raman spectrum occur that are consistent with a shift in ring statistics in densified glass. The spectra suggest a breakdown in intermediate-range order at higher pressure.

R. J. Hemley; H. K. Mao; P. M. Bell; B. O. Mysen

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

429

Unexpectedly high pressure for molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen by a reliable electronic simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of the high pressure phase diagram of hydrogen has continued with renewed effort for about one century as it remains a fundamental challenge for experimental and theoretical techniques. Here we employ an efficient molecular dynamics based on the quantum Monte Carlo method, which can describe accurately the electronic correlation and treat a large number of hydrogen atoms, allowing a realistic and reliable prediction of thermodynamic roperties. We find that the molecular liquid phase is unexpectedly stable and the transition towards a fully atomic liquid phase occurs at much higher pressure than previously believed. The old standing problem of low temperature atomization is, therefore, still far from experimental reach.

Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Manufacturing and properties of newly developed 9%CrMoVNiNbN high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to obtain the improved strength and toughness for high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging, fundamental studies using laboratory heats were performed on the 9CrMoV base materials, and effects of chemistry on toughness and creep rupture strength were investigated. From the investigation, it is showed that the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition provides a superior strength versus toughness balance. Based on these fundamental studies, a trial high-pressure low-pressure rotor shaft forging with diameter of low-pressure section of 1,750 mm and diameter of high-pressure section of 1,200 mm was successfully manufactured from the diameter of 1,800 mm, and the weight of 65 ton ESR ingot. From the evaluation test results of this trial rotor forging, homogeneous distribution of chemistry was confirmed and low impurity contents was observed in the whole forging. The superior strength and toughness were confirmed with good creep rupture strength. The FATT at the center of low-pressure section was {minus}3 C with the tensile strength level of 870 MPa. From the results of fracture toughness test, low cycle fatigue test, and isothermal aging test, superior mechanical properties were demonstrated. Thus, the superclean 9CrMoVNiNbN steel with reduced Si and Mn contents and Ni addition, is particularly suitable for the high-pressure low-pressure rotor material for advanced combined cycle power plants.

Azuma, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Tohru; Yoshida, Hajime; Ikeda, Yasumi [Japan Steel Works, Muroran (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Studies on the effects of heat and high pressure treatmeants on fat globule surface layers in recombined milk.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present study examined the effects of heat treatment, high pressure (HP) treatment or combined heat and HP treatments, either before or after homogenization, on… (more)

Anantawat, Visaka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang [Choongnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Description of the Gas-Metal-Laser Interaction Phenomena. The Importance of the Shielding Gases in High Power (Multikilowatt) CO2 Laser Welding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2 LASER welding is not yet a commonly used process. However, it has some advantages among which the most important seem to be: small distortion and heat affected zone, high productivity and flexibility (it is e...

Marchand Didier

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Use of high hydrostatic pressure to produce high quality and safe fresh pork sausage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Functionality Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Processing . Response Surface Methodology 22 22 22 23 23 24 26 26 27 30 32 111 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 33 31 3. 2 3. 3 Theory of Linear Viscoelasticity 3. 1. 1... with yeast extract (TSA) and Modified oxford agar (MOX) with supplements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5. 2 Survival of three individual strains of L. monocytogenes in fresh pork sausage exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 414 MPa at 25'C for various...

Huang, Mei

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

436

Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area A a layer in fluid flow between two plates bar pressure unit, 1 bar = 0.987 atms cm centimeter cp centipoise CO2 carbon dioxide oC Celsius temperature db ball diameter dt tube diameter D tube diameter ft foot or feet F... Subscripts Symbol Description 1atm 1 atmosphere Avg average CO2 carbon dioxide g gas H2S hydrogen sulfide i initial N2 nitrogen xiii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Davani, Ehsan

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

437

NETL: Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Project No.: DE-FE0009702 Washington University in St. Louis is developing a unique pressurized system to capture carbon from coal-fired power plants that incorporates a fuel-staged combustion approach. By staging the combustion, the temperature and heat transfer can be controlled. The potential benefits of the process are: higher efficiency, reduced process gas volume, increased radiative heat transfer, reduced oxygen demands, reduced capital equipment costs, increased CO2 purity entering the carbon compression and purification unit, and reduced auxiliary power demands. These benefits are expected to yield a lower cost of electricity than alternative approaches to pressurized oxy-combustion.

438

The High-Pressure Characterization of Energetic Materials: 2-Methyl-5-Nitramino-2H-Tetrazole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal structural properties, equation of state, and vibrational dynamics of 2MNT were studied under high-pressure using synchrotron XRD and optical Raman and IR microspectroscopy. Analysis of the XRD patterns revealed no indication of a phase transition to near 15 GPa and the pressure-volume isotherm remained smooth to 15 GPa. Near 15 GPa, significant sample damage was observed from the X-ray beam which precluded the acquisition of patterns above this pressure. XRD and Raman spectroscopic measurements showed the monoclinic ambient condition phase of 2MNT remains the dominant phase to near 20 GPa, although a shift of the NO{sub 2} IR active vibrational modes to lower frequencies suggested a subtle geometry modification not reflected in the XRD data.

J Ciezak

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Autoignition of gasoline surrogates mixtures at intermediate temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition times were determined in high-pressure shock-tube experiments for various stoichiometric mixtures of two multicomponent model fuels in air for the validation of ignition delay simulations based on chemical kinetic models. The fuel blends were n-heptane (18%)/isooctane (62%)/ethanol (20%) by liquid volume (14.5%/44.5%/41% by mole fraction) and n-heptane (20%)/toluene (45%)/isooctane (25%)/diisobutylene (10%) by liquid volume (17.5%/55%/19.5%/8.0% by mole fraction). These fuels have octane numbers comparable to a standard European gasoline of 95 RON and 85 MON. The experimental conditions cover temperatures from 690 to 1200 K and pressures at 10, 30, and 50 bar. The obtained ignition time data are scaled with respect to pressure and compared to previous results reported in the literature. (author)

Fikri, M.; Herzler, J.; Starke, R.; Schulz, C.; Roth, P. [IVG, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions U.K., P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

X-ray Diffraction of Cubic Gd2)3/Er under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the in situ high pressure X-ray diffraction studies on Er{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a diamond anvil cell up to 39.8 GPa at room temperature. Several phase transitions have been identified in our studies. The structural transformation from a starting cubic phase to a hexagonal phase occurred during the sample compression process, at 8.57 GPa. And the hexagonal phase was stable from 12.5 GPa up to the highest pressure in this study but was not quenchable and transformed to a monoclinic phase after pressure release. An anomalous high pressure behavior in the hexagonal type Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was observed, which might be caused by an electron transition influenced by Er{sup 3+} ions doping. By fitting the compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the bulk moduli of the cubic and two hexagonal (at p < 19.9 GPa and p > 27.0 GPa) Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were determined to be 164 {+-} 3, 185 {+-} 7, and 150 {+-} 10 GPa with B'{sub 0} = 4, respectively.

X Zou; C Gong; B Liu; Q Li; Z Li; B Liu; R Liu; J Liu; Z Chen; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10/sup 12/ protons per cm/sup 3/ and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F/sup +/ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, R.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

445

Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10.sup.12 protons per cm.sup.3 and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Gonzalez, Roberto (Madrid, ES)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Optical distortions and birefringence in high power laser windows: model and computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general optical model is given which predicts optical wave front distortions and birefringence due to stress and temperature variations in laser heated and pressure loaded windows for cubic lattice window materials. A computer code is described that integrates stress and thermal computations with an optical model to predict the wave front distortions. Restrictive approximations, which have been used previously to predict window temperatures and stress distributions, are avoided by using stress and thermal codes to predict these distributions within the windows. Comparisons between code predictions and experimental results are given.

Greninger, C.E.; Needham, G.A.; Rebar J. Jr.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% {at} 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency.

TROYER, G.L.

2000-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

448

Experimental Observation of Electrons Accelerated in Vacuum to Relativistic Energies by a High-Intensity Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Free electrons have been accelerated in vacuum to MeV energies by a high-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse ( 1019 W/cm2, 300 fs). The experimental data are in good agreement with the relativistic motion of electrons in a spatially and temporally finite electromagnetic field, both in terms of maximum energy and scattering angle.

G. Malka; E. Lefebvre; J. L. Miquel

1997-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

449

A Diode Laser Chemical Sensor Utilizing an Oxidized Lower Cladding Layer for High Sensitivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Diode Laser Chemical Sensor Utilizing an Oxidized Lower Cladding Layer for High Sensitivity Chad@engineering.ucsb.edu Tel: 805.893.7065 Abstract: We demonstrate a novel chemical sensor incorporating a symmetrically-clad clad, and have tight optical confinement [4]. Symmetrically clad dielectric waveguides have been

Coldren, Larry A.

450

High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

Hantke, Max, F.

451

Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser18, deliver an intense uranium beam that deposit about 1 kJ0g specific energy in solid matter. Using 2004! Abstract Intense heavy ion beams from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung ~GSI, Darmstadt

452

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 043101 (2012) High passive-stability diode-laser design for use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-laser system optimized for high stability, low passive spectral linewidth, low cost, and ease of in-house assemREVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 043101 (2012) High passive-stability diode-laser design-frequency mechanical resonances. The cavity is vacuum sealed, and a custom-molded silicone external housing further

Steck, Daniel A.

453

High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6/2010 6/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop April 29, 2010 Douglas Horne, PE The Facts  High pressure Type 4 gaseous fuel tanks are now designed under standards that specify finite lifetimes of 15, 20 and 25 years based on specific design and testing (the HGV2 standard under development had a life as short as 10 years as an option)  It is unique within the transportation industry to have a critical device (the fuel tank) with a designated life that may be shorter than the vehicle itself  Although vehicle owners are told up front of the limited life fuel storage cylinders some tend to forget after 15 years  A parallel concern is the requirement for these fuel tanks

454

Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon oxide ( Si O 2 ) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2 – 14.1 nm ? min in the temperature range of 150 – 400 ° C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He ? O 2 plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of Si O 2 and Si O 2 ? Si interface. The oxidation at 400 ° C showed an interface trap density of 6.2 × 10 10 eV ? 1 cm ? 2 which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He ? O 2 plasma at the same temperature.

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Makoto Harada; Heiji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Yasutake

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2-14.1 nm/min in the temperature range of 150-400 deg. C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He/O{sub 2} plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Si interface. The oxidation at 400 deg. C showed an interface trap density of 6.2x10{sup 10} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He/O{sub 2} plasma at the same temperature.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Harada, Makoto; Watanabe, Heiji; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

456

Engineering properties of miniature cement - fly ash compacts prepared by high pressure compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY HDOBPvvIi va vGI ge(iD(vI oannItI au NId(R E)L xrP1IeRPvT 9(evP(n uDnuPnnBIrv au vGI eI0DPeIBIrvR uae vGI i...IteII au LEHNFA -M Ho2FYoF EDtDRv 3456 L(7ae HDO7I8v? oP1Pn FrtPrIIePrt ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY E99ea1Ii (R va RvTnI (ri 8arvIrv OT? LP...

Bormann, Jeffrey Ray

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented.

FARWICK, C.C.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

458

Ground state properties and high pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Systematic density functional calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure induced structural transition of PuO$_{2}$. To properly describe the strong correlation in the Pu $5f$ electrons, the local density approximation$+U$ and the generalized gradient approximation$+U$ theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize the $U$ parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at the nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground state fluorite structure and high pressure cotunnite structure. The best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter $U$ at around 4 eV within the LDA$+U$ approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground state, we further in...

Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

D. Lorca; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Computations of high-pressure steam flow in the turbine bypass valve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present study is to investigate the steam flow behavior through the high-pressure turbine bypass valve. Efforts have mainly been directed at investigating the process of steam flow and property variations aforementioned bypass valve as well as to obtain correlations between the flow rate and the valve opening ratio. Modeling of the high-pressure turbulent steam flow was performed on a three-dimensional non-staggered grid system by employing the finite volume method and by solving the three-dimensional, turbulent, compressible Navier-Stokes, and energy equations. Through this research, numerous data have been acquired and analyzed. These efforts enable one to obtain a correlation data set for the valve opening versus flow rate coefficient of the valve. One of the significant accomplishments is to use the model presented here to further improve a design of a turbine bypass flow valve.

Amano, R.S.; Draxler, G.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Filamented electron beams have been observed to be emitted from the rear of thin solid targets irradiated by a high-intensity short-pulse laser when there is low-density plasma present at the back of the target. These observations are consistent with a laser-generated beam of relativistic electrons propagating through the target, which is subsequently fragmented by a Weibel-like instability in the low-density plasma at the rear. These measurements are in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations and theory, since the filamentation instability is predicted to be dramatically enhanced when the electron beam density approaches that of the background plasma.

Wei, M.S.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Gopal, A.; Tatarakis, M.; Krushelnick, K. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clark, E.L.; Evans, R.G. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ledingham, K.W.D. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Norreys, P.A. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Department of Physics, The Queen's University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us.

Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

464

Development of high gradient laser wakefield accelerators towards nuclear detection applications at LBNL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

laser wakefield accelerators towards nuclear detectionRecent laser wakefield accelerator experiments at LBNLscaling of laser driven accelerators to GeV energies. Stable

Geddes, Cameron GR

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

High-brightness electron beam evolution following laser-based cleaning of a photocathode  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Laser-based techniques have been widely used for cleaning metal photocathodes to increase quantum efficiency (QE). However, the impact of laser cleaning on cathode uniformity and thereby on electron beam quality are less understood. We are evaluating whether this technique can be applied to revive photocathodes used for high-brightness electron sources in advanced x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facilities, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The laser-based cleaning was applied to two separate areas of the current LCLS photocathode on July 4 and July 26, 2011, respectively. The QE was increased by 8–10 times upon the laser cleaning. Since the cleaning, routine operation has exhibited a slow evolution of the QE improvement and comparatively rapid improvement of transverse emittance, with a factor of 3 QE enhancement over five months, and a significant emittance improvement over the initial 2–3 weeks following the cleaning. Currently, the QE of the LCLS photocathode is holding constant at about 1.2×10?4 , with a normalized injector emittance of about 0.3???m for a 150-pC bunch charge. With the proper procedures, the laser-cleaning technique appears to be a viable tool to revive the LCLS photocathode. We present observations and analyses for the QE and emittance evolution in time following the laser-based cleaning of the LCLS photocathode, and comparison to the previous studies, the measured thermal emittance versus the QE and comparison to the theoretical model.

Zhou, F.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F-J.; Emma, P.; Gilevich, S.; Iverson, R.; Stefan, P.; Turner, J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

467

Investigation of a high pressure implosive technique for metal powder compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permanent Address ? 314 Brookside Dr. , Bryan, Texas 77801 Donald R. Garrett received his Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Military Academy in 1958. Mr. Garrett was a military training instructor in the U. S. A. F. and a jet aircraft in...INVESTIGATION OF A HIGH PRESSURE IMPLOSIVE TECHNIQUE FOR METAL POWDER COMPACTION A Thesis DONALD RICHARD GARRETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

Garrett, Donald Richard

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Turbulence sets the initial conditions for star formation in high-pressure environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k 10^7 K cm^-3) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) and in the early Universe. Here we present ALMA 3mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density PDF is strikingly similar to those of solar neighbourhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is 1--2 orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighbourhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its...

Rathborne, J M; Jackson, J M; Kruijssen, J M D; Alves, J F; Bally, J; Bastian, N; Contreras, Y; Foster, J B; Garay, G; Testi, L; Walsh, A J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Postacceleration Of Laser-Generated High Energy Protons Through Conventional Accelerator Linacs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The post-acceleration of laser-generated protons through conventional drift tube linear accelerators has been simulated with the particle code Parmela. The proton source is generated on the rear surface of a target irradiated by an high-intensity (10{sup 19} W{center_dot}cm{sup -2}) short-pulse (350 fs) laser and focused by a microlens that allows selecting collimated protons at 7{+-}0.1 MeV with rms unnormalized emittance of 0.180 mm.mrad. The simulations show that protons can be accelerated by one drift tube linac tank to more than 14 MeV with unnormalized emittance growth of 8 in x and 22.6 in y directions when considering a total proton charge of 0.112 mA. This result shows for the first time that coupling between laser-plasma accelerators with traditional accelerators is possible, allowing a luminosity gain for the final beam.

Fuchs, Julien; Audebert, Patrick [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Antici, Patrizio [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Via Scarpa 14-16, 00165 Roma (Italy); Fazi, Mauro; Migliorati, Mauro; Palumbo, Luigi [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Via Scarpa 14-16, 00165 Roma (Italy); Lombardi, Augusto [ATreP via Perini 181, 38100, Trento (Italy)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

470

Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.

Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L; Mackinnon, A; Mariscal, D; Nakamura, H; Nakanii, N; Beg, F N

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

471

Fusion Curve of Europium, Fusion, and fcc-bcc Transformation in Ytterbium at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The melting behavior of Eu to 70 kbar and melting and fcc-bcc transformation in Yb to 40 kbar have been studied. Europium has a maximum in the fusion curve at about 35 kbar and 995°C and retains the bcc structure in the pressure and temperature range investigated. The fusion curve of Yb has an initial slope of 19°/kbar and rapidly flattens in the 35-kbar region. There appears to be only one fcc-bcc phase boundary and not two as proposed in an earlier study. This boundary intersects the temperature axis close to the known fcc-bcc transformation temperature at atmospheric pressure, and an initial slope of -16°/kbar is suggested. This transformation in Yb behaves exactly like the analogous transformation in Sr, exhibiting pressure and temperature hysteresis and also reversing the sign of the resistance discontinuity above 24 kbar. The striking parallelism in high-pressure behavior between Eu and Ba and Yb and Sr is discussed. The greater density of the bcc phase compared to fcc or hcp noted in several instances is rationalized. The melting behavior of Eu is discussed from the standpoint of coordination in the liquid state.

A. Jayaraman

1964-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

472

Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

Byer, Robert L.

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

473

Effects of high pressure-dependent leakoff and high process-zone stress in coal-stimulation treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing in coals has been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, there are factors that were often ignored or incorrectly diagnosed, resulting in screenouts. Assuming that a majority of the perforations are open and there are no problems with the stimulation fluids, screenouts during coal hydraulic-fracture treatments can be attributed to either high pressure-dependent leakoff (PDL), high process-zone stress (PZS) or in some cases both. The objective of this work is to discuss, help identify, and present solutions to address these reservoir-related issues such that screenouts can be avoided in optimized refracture treatments and new well stimulations. The tools for identifying these reservoir-related parameters include a diagnostic fracture-injection test (DFIT) and a grid-oriented fully functional 3D fracture simulator with shear decoupling. An example for each respective case is presented in this paper. In the first example, in which high PZS was considered to be the dominant reason for screenout or pressure out, the well was restimulated successfully by implementing the solutions presented in this paper. In the second example, in which high PDL was considered to be the main reason for screenout, there were several wells in the same project area that exhibited the same behavior resulting in screenouts. After implementing the solutions presented in this paper to address high PDL, all new wells were stimulated successfully without any issues.

Ramurthy, M.; Lyons, B.; Hendrickson, R.B.; Barree, R.D.; Magill, D.R. [Halliburton, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

A diamond-window XAFS cell for studies of high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method to collect x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of ions in a supercritical water solvent. Supercritical water (SCW), at temperatures above water{close_quote}s critical point of 374{degree}C, is an interesting solvent for chemical reactions and hazardous waste destruction due to the high solubility of organics and the aggressive oxidizing environment. XAFS may provide a better understanding of the solvent environment in SCW. The XAFS cell used in these studies was composed of a block of high-nickel alloy, Hastelloy C-22, containing two windows for transmission of the x-ray beam and a single optical view window. All internal wetted surfaces were platinum plated. The maximum operating conditions for this design were 500{degree}C and 700 bar. The x-ray transmission windows consisted of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond windows (3 mm diameter {times}0.5 mm thick) that were brazed to the tip of a standard 1/4-in. high-pressure, coned-shape fitting. Spectra are reported for strontium and rubidium ions in a supercritical water solvent. This cell design could be used for a variety of other solvent systems at high temperatures and high pressures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fulton, J.L.; Pfund, D.M. [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ma, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Spectroscopic study of a long high-electron-density argon plasma column generated at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A stable plasma column is generated in a quartz tube using a pair of hollow electrodes driven by a sinusoidal power supply of 45 kHz at atmospheric pressure in argon. Two distinct operating modes (low-current and high-current modes) are identified through observing its discharge phenomena, measuring its electrical characteristics, and determining the gas temperatures by spectroscopic diagnosis of Q branch of UV OH spectrum. The electron density in the high-current mode is diagnosed by Stark broadening and is found to be two orders higher than that in low-current mode.

Li Shouzhe; Huang Wentong; Wang Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, and School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

High spin polarization at room temperature in Ge-substituted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin film grown under high oxygen pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial thin films of room-temperature ferrimagnetic (Fe,Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4} were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Films with a single-phase spinel structure were grown under high oxygen pressures (0.01–0.6?Pa). The carrier transport across (Fe,Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} interface was studied to estimate the spin polarization of (Fe, Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4}. Current–voltage curves of Fe{sub 2.8}Ge{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junction showed rectifying behavior even at 300?K whereas Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junction showed ohmic behavior. Calculations based on a model for a Schottky contact with a ferromagnetic component yielded a spin polarization of 0.50 at 300?K for Fe{sub 2.8}Ge{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}, indicating its potential as a promising spin injector.

Seki, Munetoshi, E-mail: m-seki@ee.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takahashi, Masanao; Ohshima, Toshiyuki; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Tabata, Hitoshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

477

High-order diffraction gratings for high-power semiconductor lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A deep diffraction grating with a large period ({approx}2 {mu}m) within one of the cladding layers is proposed for the implementation of selective feedback in a semiconductor laser. Frequency dependences of reflectance in the 12th diffraction order for rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal diffraction gratings are calculated. It is shown that the maximum reflectance of the waveguide mode is attained using a rectangular or trapezoidal grating {approx}2 {mu}m deep in the laser structure. Deep trapezoidal diffraction gratings with large periods are fabricated in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As cladding layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure using photolithography and reactive ion etching.

Vasil'eva, V. V.; Vinokurov, D. A.; Zolotarev, V. V.; Leshko, A. Yu.; Petrunov, A. N.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Rastegaeva, M. G.; Sokolova, Z. N., E-mail: Zina.Sokolova@mail.ioffe.ru; Shashkin, I. S.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

High-power SRS lasers - coherent summators (the way it was)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of the research works performed under the guidance of H.G. Basov and aimed at developing high-energy lasers - coherent summators (CSs) - based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen is reported. The work was performed jointly by researchers of FIAN [the Laboratory of Quantum Radiophysics (LQRP)] and VNIIEF. Many problems were solved as a result of these studies. Liquid nitrogen and oxygen were found to be optimal active media for high-power SRS lasers with high energy per pulse. A method for purifying these cryogenic liquids from micro- and nanoimpurities was developed, which made it possible to eliminate nonlinear loss of pump radiation and converted radiation in the active medium and ensure effective operation of SRS lasers - coherent summators (SRSL CSs) with high output energy. Cryogenic cells providing high optical homogeneity of liquid nitrogen and oxygen were developed, which ensured low (at a level of 0.1 mrad) divergence of converted radiation with high energy density. Raster focusing systems providing optimal concentration of pump radiation in the active medium were designed. These studies resulted in the development of high-power highenergy SRSL CSs with a low beam divergence, based on liquid nitrogen ({lambda}{sub S} = 1.89 {mu}m) and liquid oxygen ({lambda}{sub S} = 1.65 {mu}m), with pumping by explosively pumped iodine lasers (EPILs) ({lambda}{sub p} = 1.315 {mu}m). The characteristics of the SRSL CSs developed were record for that time (the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s): energy up to 2.5 kJ per 10-{mu}s pulse, beam divergence {approx}10{sup -4} rad, and beam energy density of several hundreds of J cm{sup -2}. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

Grasiuk, Arkadii Z; Zubarev, I G; Efimkov, V F; Smirnov, V G [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

High Sensitivity Combined with Extended Structural Coverage of Labile Compounds via Nanoelectrospray Ionization at Subambient Pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) has proven to be effective in producing ions with high efficiency and transmitting them to low pressures for high sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Here we present evidence that not only does the SPIN source improve MS sensitivity but also allows for gentler ionization conditions. The gentleness of a conventional heated capillary electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the SPIN source was compared by the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of colominic acid. Colominic acid is a mixture of sialic acid polymers of different lengths containing labile glycosidic linkages between monomer units necessitating a gentle ion source. By coupling the SPIN source with high resolution mass spectrometry and using advanced data processing tools, we demonstrate much extended coverage of sialic acid polymer chains as compared to using the conventional ESI source. Additionally we show that SPIN-LC-MS is effective in elucidating polymer features with high efficiency and high sensitivity previously unattainable by the conventional ESI-LC-MS methods. ?

Cox, Jonathan T.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

480

High pressure/high temperature hydrogen permeability in candidate stirling engine alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen permeation tests of eight high-temperature engineering alloys were conducted in 20.7 MPa hydrogen at 923 to 1088 K for assessing suitability in Stirling engine application for heater head and heater head...

S. Bhattacharyya; E. J. Vesely; V. L. Hill

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Laser microphone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2000-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

482

Highly-charged heavy-ion production with short pulse lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This MathCAD document describes a possible approach using a PW -class short pulse laser to form a useful number (10{sup 12}) of high and uniform charge state ions with low ion temperature (<< 100 eV) and low momentum spread ({delta}p{sub z}/p, < 10{sup -4} ) for injection into heavy-ion fusion accelerators. As a specific example, we consider here Xenon{sup +26}, which has an ionization energy E{sub i} {approximately} 860 eV for the 26th electron, and a significantly higher ionization potential of 1500 eV for the 27th electron because of the M-shell jump. The approach considered here may be used for other ion species as well. The challenge is not simply to produce high charge states with a laser (the ITEP group [Sharkov] have used long pulse CO{sub 2} lasers to create many charge states of chromium up to helium-like Cr{sup +25} by collisional ionization at high Te), nor just to create such high charge states more selectively by field (tunneling) ionization at higher intensities and shorter pulses. Rather, the challenge is to create a selected uniform high charge state, in useful numbers, while keeping the ion temperature and momentum spread small, and avoiding subsequent loss of ion charge state due to recombination and charge-exchange with background gas atoms during extraction into a useful low emittance beam.

Logan, G.; Bitmire, T.; Perry, M.; Anderson, O.; Kuehl, T.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Ground-state properties and high-pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Density functional theory calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure-induced structural transition of PuO2. To properly describe the strong correlation in Pu?5f electrons, the local-density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U theoretical formalisms have been emp