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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Picosecond laser structuration under high pressures: Observation of boron nitride nanorods  

SciTech Connect

We report on picosecond UV-laser processing of hexagonal boron nitride (BN) at moderately high pressures above 500 bar. The main effect is specific to the ambient gas and laser pulse duration in the ablation regime: when samples are irradiated by 5 or 0.45 ps laser pulses in nitrogen gas environment, multiple nucleation of a new crystalline product-BN nanorods-takes place. This process is triggered on structural defects, which number density strongly decreases upon recrystallization. Nonlinear photon absorption by adsorbed nitrogen molecules is suggested to mediate the nucleation growth. High pressure is responsible for the confinement and strong backscattering of ablation products. A strong surface structuring also appears at longer 150 ps laser irradiation in similar experimental conditions. However, the transformed product in this case is amorphous strongly contaminated by boron suboxides B{sub x}O{sub y}.

Museur, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers-LPL CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Petitet, Jean-Pierre; Kanaev, Andrei V. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions-LIMHP CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Michel, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions-LIMHP CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Laboratoire des Proprietes Mecaniques et Thermodynamiques des Materiaux-LPMTM CNRS, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Marine, Wladimir [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille-CINaM, UPR CNRS 3118, Faculte des Science de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Anglos, Demetrios [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Fotakis, Costas [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (IESL-FORTH), 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Promising high-pressure DF - CO{sub 2} laser for amplifying picosecond radiation pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme of the experiment is described and the results of measuring the small-signal gain in the active medium of a pulsed chemical DF - CO{sub 2} laser at a medium pressure in the range from 1 to 2.5 atm are reported. The values obtained (above 5 m{sup -1} at a pressure of 2.5 atm) make this laser a promising final amplifier of a multiterawatt laser system in the 10-{mu}m wavelength region. (lasers)

Agroskin, V Ya; Bravy, B G; Vasil'ev, G K; Kashtanov, S A; Makarov, E F; Sotnichenko, S A; Chernyshev, Yu A [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Analysis of a laser induced plasma in high pressure SF6 gas for high-voltage, high-current switching.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Laser Triggered Switch Program at Sandia National Laboratories is an intensive development study to understand and optimize the laser triggered gas switch (LTGS) for… (more)

Clark, Waylon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (2006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Soot particle sizing during high-pressure Diesel spray combustion via time-resolved laser-induced incandescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-pulse time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII) signal transients from soot particulates were acquired during unsteady high pressure Diesel combustion in a constant volume cell for typical top dead center conditions during a Diesel engine cycle. Measurements were performed for initial gas pressures between 1 and 3 MPa, injection pressures between 50 and 130 MPa and laser probe timings between 5 and 16 ms after start of fuel injection. In separate experiments and for the same cell operating conditions gas temperatures were deduced from spectrally resolved soot pyrometry measurements. Implementing the LII model of Kock et al. [Combust. Flame 147 (20006) 79-92] ensemble mean soot particle diameters were evaluated from least-squares fitting of theoretical cooling curves to experimental TiRe-LII signal transients. Since in the experiments the environmental gas temperature and the width of an assumed particle size distribution were not known, the effects of the initial choice of these parameters on retrieved particle diameters were investigated. It is shown that evaluated mean particle diameters are only slightly biased by the choice of typical size distribution widths and gas temperatures. For a fixed combustion phase mean particle diameters are not much affected by gas pressure, however they become smaller at high fuel injection pressure. At a mean chamber pressure of 1.39 MPa evaluated mean particle diameters increased by a factor of two for probe delays between 5 and 16 ms after start of injection irrespective of the choices of first-guess fitting variables, indicating a certain robustness of data analysis procedure. (author)

Ryser, R.; Gerber, T.; Dreier, T. [Reaction Analysis Group, Department of General Energy, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Pulsed laser ablation plasmas generated in CO{sub 2} under high-pressure conditions up to supercritical fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulsed laser ablation of solids in supercritical media has a large potential for nanomaterials fabrication. We investigated plasmas generated by pulsed laser ablation of Ni targets in CO{sub 2} at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 16 MPa at 304.5 K. Plasma species were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, and the evolution of cavitation bubbles and shockwaves were observed by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging. Ni and O atomic emissions decreased with increasing gas pressure; however, near the critical point the intensities reached local maxima, probably due to the enhancement of the plasma excitation and effective quenching resulting from the large density fluctuation.

Kato, Toru; Stauss, Sven; Kato, Satoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Terashima, Kazuo [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru [Division of Advanced Spectroscopy, Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nonlinear propagation of a high-power focused femtosecond laser pulse in air under atmospheric and reduced pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the propagation of focused femtosecond gigawatt laser pulses in air under normal and reduced pressure in the case of Kerr self-focusing and photoionisation of the medium. The influence of gas density on the beam dimensions and power and the electron density in the plasma column in the nonlinear focus zone of the laser beam has been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. It has been shown that, in rarefied air, the radiation-induced reduction in the rate of plasma formation diminishes the blocking effect of the plasma on the growth of the beam intensity in the case of tight focusing. This allows higher power densities of ultrashort laser pulses to be reached in the focal waist region in comparison with beam self-focusing under atmospheric pressure.

Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Ionin, Andrei A; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Regenerative amplification of picosecond 10-{mu}m pulses in a high-pressure optically pumped CO{sub 2} laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is developed and numerical calculations are performed for the regenerative amplification of seed picosecond 10-{mu}m radiation pulses in a high-pressure optically pumped CO{sub 2} laser. It is established that by varying the cavity parameters, the conditions of efficient regenerative amplification may be optimised for the case of a relatively short-duration (50 ns) solid-state Cr:Er:YSGG laser and 'long-duration' (250 ns) electrodischarge chemical HF laser. It is shown that the schemes of a CO{sub 2} amplifier with optical pumping presented allow obtaining the pulses with the duration of 3ps, output energy of 1-5 mJ, and peak power of {approx}1 GW at the pump energy of 150-200 mJ. (lasers and amplifiers)

Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Platonenko, Viktor T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

9

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

11

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Optimized laser pulse profile for efficient radiation pressure acceleration of ions  

SciTech Connect

The radiation pressure acceleration regime of laser ion acceleration requires high intensity laser pulses to function efficiently. Moreover the foil should be opaque for incident radiation during the interaction to ensure maximum momentum transfer from the pulse to the foil, which requires proper matching of the target to the laser pulse. However, in the ultrarela-tivistic regime, this leads to large acceleration distances, over which the high laser intensity for a Gaussian laser pulse must be maintained. It is shown that proper tailoring of the laser pulse profile can significantly reduce the acceleration distance, leading to a compact laser ion accelerator, requiring less energy to operate.

Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

14

Optimized laser pulse profile for efficient radiation pressure acceleration of ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation pressure acceleration regime of laser ion acceleration requires high intensity laser pulses to function efficiently. Moreover, the foil should be opaque for incident radiation during the interaction to ensure maximum momentum transfer from the pulse to the foil, which requires proper matching of the target to the laser pulse. However, in the ultrarelativistic regime, this leads to large acceleration distances, over which the high laser intensity for a Gaussian laser pulse must be maintained. It is shown that proper tailoring of the laser pulse profile can significantly reduce the acceleration distance, leading to a compact laser ion accelerator, requiring less energy to operate.

Bulanov, S. S. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

Nellis, W J

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

High Pressure Studies of Superconductivity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Superconductivity has been studied extensively since it was first discovered over 100 years ago. High pressure studies, in particular, have been vital in furthering our… (more)

Hillier, Narelle Jayne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

22

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

30

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

31

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

33

Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 - 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

Bliss, David Emery; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

High-pressure microhydraulic actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure UHV environment  

SciTech Connect

The major thrust of our research is to carry out for the first time a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that normally is observed only at high pressures (>1 atm) of reactant gas at low pressures (<10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The reaction we have chosen is the steam reforming of methane on a Ni(111) crystal.

Ceyer, S.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David [AEgis Technologies Group, 10501 Research Rd SE, Suite D, Albuquerque, NM 87123, 505-938-9221 (United States); Lewis, Jay [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

Torres, D. J. (David J.); O'Rourke, P. J. (Peter J.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity  

SciTech Connect

A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

Chang, Jim J. (Dublin, CA); Bass, Isaac L. (Castro Valley, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity  

SciTech Connect

A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

Chang, J.J.; Bass, I.L.; Zapata, L.E.

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

SciTech Connect

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Gap Analysis for Bulk...

45

Gratings for High-Energy Petawatt Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To enable high-energy petawatt laser operation we have developed the processing methods and tooling that produced both the world's largest multilayer dielectric reflection grating and the world's highest laser damage resistant gratings. We have successfully delivered the first ever 80 cm aperture multilayer dielectric grating to LLNL's Titan Intense Short Pulse Laser Facility. We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings.

Nguyen, H T; Britten, J A; Carlson, T C; Nissen, J D; Summers, L J; Hoaglan, C R; Aasen, M D; Peterson, J E; Jovanovic, I

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

46

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

High power regenerative laser amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High power regenerative laser amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

51

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, in vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

53

Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) for atmospheric pressure, In vivo, and imaging mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation (LA) with electrospray ionization (ESI).

Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

54

High-performance laser processing using manipulated ultrafast laser pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We employ manipulated ultrafast laser pulses to realize microprocessing with high-performance. Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by irradiation by a double-pulse train of ultrafast laser pulses is demonstrated. The bonding strength of two photostructurable glass substrates welded by double-pulse irradiation was evaluated to be 22.9 MPa, which is approximately 22% greater than that of a sample prepared by conventional irradiation by a single pulse train. Additionally, the fabrication of hollow microfluidic channels with a circular cross-sectional shape embedded in fused silica is realized by spatiotemporally focusing the ultrafast laser beam. We show both theoretically and experimentally that the spatiotemporal focusing of ultrafast laser beam allows for the creation of a three-dimensionally symmetric spherical peak intensity distribution at the focal spot.

Sugioka, Koji; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan; Hanada, Yasutaka; Midorikawa, Katsumi [RIKEN - Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); RIKEN - Advanced Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

Scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convergence of numerous factors makes the time ripe for the development of a community of researchers to use the high-energy laser for scientific investigations. This document attempts to outline the steps necessary to access high-energy laser systems and create a realistic plan to implement usage. Since an academic/scientific user community does not exist in the USA to any viable extent, we include information on present capabilities at the Nova laser. This will briefly cover laser performance and diagnostics and a sampling of some current experimental projects. Further, to make the future possibilities clearer, we will describe the proposed next- generation high-energy laser, named for its inertial fusion confinement (ICF) goal, the multi-megaJoule, 500-teraWatt National Facility, or NIF.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

57

Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously present increases. The reduction of LIDT does not occur when the 2 pulses are temporally separated. This paper will also present dual wavelength LIDT results of commercial dichroic beam-combining optics simultaneously exposed with laser light at 1054nm/2.5ns and 532nm/7ns.

Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

Oeschger, Joseph E. (Palo Alto, CA); Berkeland, James E. (San Jose, CA)

1979-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

59

Compact, high energy gas laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stapleton, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

60

High pressure water jet mining machine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

1981-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project Number: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt &...

62

NETL: Gasification Systems - Development of High-Pressure Dry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Project No.: DE-FC26-04NT42237 High-Pressure Solids Pump High-Pressure Solids Pump Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is...

63

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

The direct measurement of ablation pressure driven by 351-nm laser radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instantaneous scaling of ablation pressure to laser intensity is directly inferred for ramp compression of diamond targets irradiated by 351-nm light. Continuously increasing pressure profiles from 100 to 970 GPa are produced by direct-drive laser ablation at intensities up to 7 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. The free-surface velocity on the rear of the target is used to directly infer the instantaneous ablation-pressure profile at the front of the target. The laser intensity on target is determined by laser power measurements and fully characterized laser spots. The ablation pressure is found to depend on the laser intensity as P(GPa)=42({+-}3)[I(TW/cm{sup 2})]{sup 0.71({+-}0.01)}.

Fratanduono, D. E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Smith, R. F.; Hicks, D. G.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Barrios, M. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and spectrally tailored pulse designed for high transmission through the atmosphere, as well as efficient ablative coupling to the target. The main amplifier would use either diode-pumped or flashlamp-pumped solid state gain media, depending on budget constraints of the project. A continuously operating system would use the gas-cooled amplifier technology developed for Mercury, while a burst-mode option would use the heat capacity laser technology. The ground-based system that we propose is capable of rapid engagement of targets whose orbits cross over the site, with potential for kill on a single pass. Very little target mass is ablated per pulse so the potential to create additional hazardous orbiting debris is minimal. Our cost estimates range from $2500 to $5000 per J depending on choices for laser gain medium, amplifier pump source, and thermal management method. A flashlamp-pumped, Nd:glass heat-capacity laser operating in the burst mode would have costs at the lower end of this spectrum and would suffice to demonstrate the efficacy of this approach as a prototype system. A diode-pumped, gas-cooled laser would have higher costs but could be operated continuously, and might be desirable for more demanding mission needs. Maneuverability can be incorporated in the system design if the additional cost is deemed acceptable. The laser system would need to be coupled with a target pointing and tracking telescope with guide-star-like wavefront correction capability.

Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Laser Drilling with Gated High Power Fiber Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Laser Applications in Materials Processing. Presentation Title, Laser Drilling ...

69

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

70

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

71

High power gas transport laser  

SciTech Connect

Continuous wave output power from a gas transport laser is substantially increased by disposing a plurality of parallel cylindrically tubular cathodes in the main stream transversely of the direction of gas flow and spaced above a coextensive segmented anode in the opposite wall of the channel. Ballast resistors are connected between the cathodes, respectively, and the power supply to optimize the uniform arcless distribution of current passing between each cathode and the anode. Continuous output power greater than 3 kW is achieved with this electrode configuration.

Fahlen, T.S.; Kirk, R.F.

1978-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

72

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

73

High density laser-driven target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

Lindl, John D. (San Ramon, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

High pressure-high temperature effect on the HTSC ceramics structure and properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: high pressures-high temperatures, high temperature superconductors, mechanical properties, structure, superconductive

T. A. Prikhna

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE JIYONG ZHAOa,Ã? , WOLFGANG, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA We introduce the combination of nuclear resonant inelastic X the thermal radiation spectra fitted to the Planck radiation function up to 1700 K. Nuclear resonant

Shen, Guoyin

77

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at high pressures yields more methane, less hydrogen at thermodynamic equilibrium Coke formation tendency increases with increasing pressures Coking tendency can be...

78

Quasi-monoenergetic protons accelerated by laser radiation pressure and shocks in thin gaseous targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent experiments and simulations have demonstrated effective CO{sub 2} laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from thick gaseous hydrogen target (of thickness tens of laser wavelengths) via hole boring and shock accelerations. We present here an alternative novel acceleration scheme by combining laser radiation pressure acceleration with shock acceleration of protons in a thin gaseous target of thickness several laser wavelengths. The laser pushes the thin gaseous plasma forward while compressing it with protons trapped in it. We demonstrated the combined acceleration with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and obtained quasi-monoenergetic protons {approx}44 MeV in a gas target of thickness twice of the laser wavelength irradiated by circularly polarized CO{sub 2} laser with normalized laser amplitude a{sub 0}=10.

He Minqing; Shao Xi; Liu Chuansheng; Liu Tungchang; Su Jaojang; Dudnikova, Galina; Sagdeev, Roald Z. [East-West Space Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Sheng Zhengming [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

High-Energy Petawatt Capability for the Omega Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 60-beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) has been a workhorse on the frontier of laser fusion and high-energy-density physics for more than a decade. LLE scientists are currently extending the performance of this unique, direct-drive laser system by adding high-energy petawatt capabilities.

Waxer, L.J.; Maywar, D.N.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J.D.

2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

80

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. A successful conclusion of the program will enable further component development work and full-scale system demonstrations of this potentially important technology. This paper covers the work on fuel processor rig testing completed in FY92.

Greenhalgh, M.L.; Wen, C.S.; Smith, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

EXAMINATION OF HIGH PRESSURE RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Speciments of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, Zr-15Nb, iodide titanium, TMCA-45 titanium, A-110AT titanium, and 430 stainless steel were corroded in a highpressure recombiner loop. Analyses were performed to determine the amount of hydrogen pickup. The titanium materials and iodide zirconium showed very high hydrogen pickups, while the zirconium alloys and the 430 stainless steel absorbed smaller amounts of hydrogen Metallographic examination of the specimens showed that recrystallization occurred in all but the Ar-15Nb specimens. There seems to be little difference in the extent of recrystallization and grain growth whether the in the recombiner section at 430 to 500 deg C. Recrystalliplained or correlated in any way with the amount of f hydrogen sion that occured. Since hydrogen is known to seriously embrittle zirconium and titanium, it is recommended that crystal-bar zirconium and titanium alloys not be used as materials of construction in environ ments sinmilar to that of the High Pressure Recombiner Loop. (auth)

Picklesimer, M.L.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

1958-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

85

4-Diamond Formation from Amorphouse Carbon and Graphite in the Presence of COH Fluids : An InSitu High-Pressure and -Temperature Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell Experimental Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microdiamonds from orogenic belts contain nanometer-size fluid inclusions suggesting diamond formation from supercritical carbon - oxygen - hydrogen (COH) fluids. Here we report experimental results of diamond nucleation from amorphous carbon and polycrystalline graphite in the presence of COH fluids in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Our results show that: (i) diamonds can nucleate from graphite or amorphous carbon at pressures of 9-11 GPa and temperatures of 1200-1400 K in the presence of COH fluids; (ii) it is easier to nucleate diamond from amorphous carbon than from graphite with or without the COH fluids; and (iii) the fluid from decomposition of glucose is more efficient in promoting the graphite-to-diamond transformation than the fluid from decomposition of oxalic acid dihydrate. Carbon crystallinity has strong effects on the kinetics of diamond nucleation and growth. The experimental results demonstrated the critical role of presence and composition of supercritical COH fluids for promoting the graphite-to-diamond transformation.

Zhang, J.; Prakapenka, V.; Kubo, A.; Kavner, A.; Green, H.W.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. (China University of Geosciences)

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

86

Improved Spatial Filter for high power Lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new pinhole architecture incorporates features intended to reduce the rate of plasma generation in a spatial filter for high-energy laser pulse beams. An elongated pinhole aperture is provided in an apertured body for rejecting off-axis rays of the laser pulse beam. The internal surface of the elongated aperture has a diameter which progressively tapers from a larger entrance cross-sectional area at an inlet to a smaller output cross-sectional area at an outlet. The tapered internal surface causes off-axis rays to be refracted in a low density plasma layer that forms on the internal surface or specularly reflected at grazing incidence from the internal surface. Off-axis rays of the high-energy pulse beam are rejected by this design. The external surface of the apertured body adjacent to the larger entrance cross-sectional area at the inlet to the elongated aperture is angled obliquely with respect to the to direction of the path of the high-energy laser pulse beam to backscatter off-axis rays away from the high-energy pulse beam. The aperture is formed as a truncated cone or alternatively with a tapered square cross-section. The internal surface of the aperture is coated with an ablative material, preferably high-density material which can be deposited with an exploding wire.

Estabrook, Kent G.; Celliers, Peter M.; Murray, James E.; DaSilva, Luiz; MacGowan, Brian J.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Manes, Kenneth R.; Drake, Robert P.; Afeyan, Bedros

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

89

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

90

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

1991-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

91

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

Mansfield, Dennis K. (E. Windsor, NJ); Vocaturo, Michael (Columbus, NJ); Guttadora, Lawrence J. (Iselin, NJ)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH{sub 3}OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion device. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) Pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

Mansfield, D.K.; Vocatura, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

93

Laboratory high-energy astrophysics on lasers  

SciTech Connect

The tremendous range of temperatures and densities spanned by astrophysical plasmas has significant overlap with conditions attainable using high-power laser facilities. These facilities provide an opportunity to create, control, and characterize plasmas in the laboratory that mirror conditions in some of the most important cosmological systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments can enhance astrophysical understanding by focusing on and isolating important physical processes, without necessarily reproducing the exact conditions of the integral system. Basic study of radiative properties, transport phenomena, thermodynamic response and hydrodynamic evolution in plasmas under properly scaled conditions leads both directly and indirectly to improved models of complex astrophysical systems. In this paper, we will discuss opportunities for current and planned highpower lasers to contribute to the study of high-energy astrophysics.

Goldstein, W.H.; Liedahl, D.A.; Walling, R.S.; Foord, M.E.; Osterheld, A.L.; Wilson, B.G.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

95

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

96

High-power semiconductor separate-confinement double heterostructure lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The review is devoted to high-power semiconductor lasers. Historical reference is presented, physical and technological foundations are considered, and the concept of high-power semiconductor lasers is formulated. Fundamental and technological reasons limiting the optical power of a semiconductor laser are determined. The results of investigations of cw and pulsed high-power semiconductor lasers are presented. Main attention is paid to inspection of the results of experimental studies of single high-power semiconductor lasers. The review is mainly based on the data obtained in the laboratory of semiconductor luminescence and injection emitters at the A.F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute. (review)

Tarasov, I S [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas viscosity is one of the gas properties that is vital to petroleum engineering. Its role in the oil and gas production and transportation is indicated by its contribution in the resistance to the flow of a fluid both in porous media and pipes. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly, very few investigations were performed on viscosity of naturally occurring gases, especially gas condensates at low-intermediate pressure and temperature, even fewer lab data were published. No gas viscosity data at high pressures and high temperatures (HPHT) is available. Therefore this gap in the oil industry still needs to be filled. Gas viscosity at HPHT becomes crucial to modern oil industry as exploration and production move to deep formation or deep water where HPHT is not uncommon. Therefore, any hydrocarbon encountered there is more gas than oil due to the chemical reaction causing oil to transfer to gas as temperature increases. We need gas viscosity to optimize production rate for production system, estimate reserves, model gas injection, design drilling fluid, and monitor gas movement in well control. Current gas viscosity correlations are derived using measured data at low-moderate pressures and temperatures, and then extrapolated to HPHT. No measured gas viscosities at HPHT are available so far. The validities of these correlations for gas viscosity at HPHT are doubted due to lack of experimental data. In this study, four types of viscometers are evaluated and their advantages and disadvantages are listed. The falling body viscometer is used to measure gas viscosity at a pressure range of 3000 to 25000 psi and a temperature range of 100 to 415 oF. Nitrogen viscosity is measured to take into account of the fact that the concentration of nonhydrocarbons increase drastically in HPHT reservoir. More nitrogen is found as we move to HPHT reservoirs. High concentration nitrogen in natural gas affects not only the heat value of natural gas, but also gas viscosity which is critical to petroleum engineering. Nitrogen is also one of common inject gases in gas injection projects, thus an accurate estimation of its viscosity is vital to analyze reservoir performance. Then methane viscosity is measured to honor that hydrocarbon in HPHT which is almost pure methane. From our experiments, we found that while the Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin correlation estimates gas viscosity at a low-moderate pressure and temperature accurately, it cannot give good match of gas viscosity at HPHT. Apparently, current correlations need to be modified to predict gas viscosity at HPHT. New correlations constructed for HPHT conditions based on our experiment data give more confidence on gas viscosity.

Ling, Kegang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method and apparatus for tuning high power lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to high power gas lasers that are adapted to be tuned to a desired lasing wavelength through the use of a gas cell to lower the gain at a natural lasing wavelength and "seeding" the laser with a beam from a low power laser which is lasing at the desired wavelength. This tuning is accomplished with no loss of power and produces a pulse with an altered pulse shape. It is potentially applicable to all gas lasers.

Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN); Vandersluis, Kenneth L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1977-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

100

High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR capability, consisting of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor, a high-pressure loading/reaction chamber for in situ sealing and re-opening of the high-pressure MAS rotor, and a MAS probe with a localized RF coil for background signal suppression, is reported. The unusual technical challenges associated with development of a reusable high-pressure MAS rotor are addressed in part by modifying standard ceramics for the rotor sleeve to include micro-groves at the internal surface at both ends of the cylinder. In this way, not only is the advantage of ceramic cylinders for withstanding very high-pressure utilized, but also plastic bushings can be glued tightly in place so that other plastic sealing mechanisms/components and O-rings can be mounted to create the desired high-pressure seal. Using this strategy, sealed internal pressures exceeding 150 bars have been achieved and sustained under ambient external pressure with minimal penetration loss of pressure for 72 hours. As an application example, in situ 13C MAS NMR studies of mineral carbonation reaction intermediates and final products of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacted with supercritical CO2 and H2O at 150 bar and 50?C are reported, with relevance to geological sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of a Transonic High Pressure Compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to develop a systematic approach for multidisciplinary high pressure transonic axial compressor conceptual design. Several aspects have to be… (more)

Ersavas, Funda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Single Crystal PWA 1472 in High Pressure Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SINGLE CRYSTAL PWA 1472. IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN. D. P. DeLUCA, R. W. HATALA. UNITED TECHNOLOGIES. PRATT & WHITNEY. P. 0.

103

High-Pressure Protein Digestion System - PNNL: Available ...  

Summary. Researchers at PNNL have developed a system that utilizes high pressure to reduce the time of protein fractionation and improve peptide ...

104

Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Using High Pressure to Reveal Quantum Criticality in an Elemental Antiferromagnet MAY 21, 2009 Bookmark and Share...

105

Underwater pressure amplification of laser-induced plasma shock waves for particle removal applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Underwater amplification of laser-induced plasma (LIP)-generated transient pressure waves using shock tubes is introduced and demonstrated. Previously, it has been shown that LIP for noncontact particle removal is possible on the sub-100-nm level. This is now enhanced through shock tube utilization in a medium such as water by substantially increasing shock wave pressure for the same pulse energy. A shock tube constrains the volume and changes the propagation direction of the expanding plasma core by focusing a pulsed-laser beam inside a tube with a blind end, thus increasing the wave front pressure generated. Current amplification approach can reduce radiation exposure of the substrate from the shock wave because of the increased distance from the LIP core to the substrate provided by the increased pressure per unit pulse energy. For the same pulsed laser, with the aid of a shock tube, substantial levels of pressure amplitude amplification (8.95) and maximum pressure (6.48 MPa) are observed and reported.

Dunbar, Thomas J.; Cetinkaya, Cetin [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5725 (United States) and Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5725 (United States)

2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

107

Notes 11. High pressure floating ring seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Floating ring seals for compressors: leakage and force coefficients, seal lock up and effect on rotor stability, recommendations to reduce seal cross-coupled effects. Long oil seals as pressure barriers in industrial mixers: leakage and force coefficients, effect on rotor stability, recommendations for grooved seals with reduced leakage and lesser cross-stiffnesses.

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Super-high density laser fusion CTR  

SciTech Connect

From sixth European conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics; Moscow, USSR (30 Jul 1973). A basic discussion of laser-induced fusion is presented. Implosion development and applications are described. Implosion and thermonuclear physics are discussed in some detail along with laser technology, laser fusion reactors, and fusion energy conversion. (MOW)

Thiessen, A.; Zimmerman, G.; Weaver, T.; Emmett, J.; Nuckolls, J.; Wood, L.

1973-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

Lee, R.W. [comp.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

High Temperature Fatigue Behavior of Laser Shock Peened ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, High Temperature Fatigue Behavior of Laser Shock Peened IN718Plus Superalloy. Author(s), Vibhor Chaswal, S R Mannava, Dong Qian, ...

111

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in...

112

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring...

113

Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Time-resolved shadowgraphic study of femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum under different ambient air pressures  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond pulse laser ablation of aluminum under different ambient air pressures between 1 atm and 4 x 10{sup -4} Pa is investigated using a femtosecond time-resolved shadowgraphic method. It is observed that as the ambient air pressure decreases, the contact front becomes more and more distinct for a certain pressure range, demonstrating that the confinement effect of the ambient air to the ablated target material can play a critically important role in the laser ablation process. It is also found that the concentric and semicircular stripe pattern, which results from the diffraction of the probe beam by the expanding plume of a specific material state and is typically observed in the shadowgraphs for 1-2 ns delay time, gradually blurs and disappears while the ambient air pressure decreases from 1 atm to 7000 Pa. If a prepulse or a relatively large pulse pedestal exists before the main pulse, however, the stripe pattern can still be observed even though the ambient air pressure is 5 x 10{sup -4} Pa. It is thus inferred that what contributes to the formation of the unique stripe pattern is a mixture of the ejected target material and ionized background gas induced by the femtosecond laser ablation.

Wu Zehua; Zhu Xiaonong; Zhang Nan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Carbon dioxide laser with an e-beam-initiated discharge produced in the working gas mixture at a pressure up to 5 atm  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure CO{sub 2} laser with a discharge initiated by an electron beam of sub-nanosecond duration in the laser gas mixture at a pressure up to 5 atm is fabricated. For the 20-ns pulses the energy from the active volume {approx} 4 cm{sup 3} amounted to 40 mJ. The laser operation at a pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz is demonstrated. In the gas mixture CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2}:He = 1:1:6 at a pressure 5 atm, the specific energy deposition of {approx} 0.07 J cm{sup -3} atm{sup -1} is obtained in the process of a non-self-sustained discharge with ionisation amplification.

Orlovskii, Viktor M; Alekseev, S B; Tarasenko, Viktor F [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Unsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The widespread use of the gas turbine as a means of aircraft propulsion has provided a considerable impetusUnsteady Loss in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis in a High Pressure Turbine Stage Stephen John Payne Trinity College A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment

Payne, Stephen J.

117

High energy mode locked fiber oscillators for high contrast, high energy petawatt laser seed sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a high-energy petawatt laser beam line the ASE pulse contrast is directly related to the total laser gain. Thus a more energetic input pulse will result in increased pulse contrast at the target. We have developed a mode-locked fiber laser with high quality pulses and energies exceeding 25nJ. We believe this 25nJ result is scalable to higher energies. This oscillator has no intra-cavity dispersion compensation, which yields an extremely simple, and elegant laser configuration. We will discuss the design of this laser, our most recent results and characterization of all the key parameters relevant to it use as a seed laser. Our oscillator is a ring cavity mode-locked fiber laser [1]. These lasers operate in a self-similar pulse propagation regime characterized by a spectrum that is almost square. This mode was found theoretically [2] to occur only in the positive dispersion regime. Further increasing positive dispersion should lead to increasing pulse energy [2]. We established that the positive dispersion required for high-energy operation was approximately that of 2m of fiber. To this end, we constructed a laser cavity similar to [1], but with no gratings and only 2m of fiber, which we cladding pumped in order to ensure sufficient pump power was available to achieve mode-locked operation. A schematic of the laser is shown in figure 1 below. This laser produced low noise 25nJ pulses with a broad self similar spectrum (figure 2) and pulses that could be de-chirped to <100fs (figure 3). Pulse contrast is important in peta-watt laser systems. A major contributor to pulse contrast is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which is proportional to the gain in the laser chain. As the oscillator strength is increased, the required gain to reach 1PW pulses is decreased, reducing ASE and improving pulse contrast. We believe these lasers can be scaled in a stable fashion to pulse energies as high as 100nJ and have in fact seen 60nJ briefly in our lab, which is work still in progress. At this level, even if the pulses are not perfect, post-oscillator pulse cleaning can be used to create a clean high energy pulse for injection into a peta-watt laser beam line.

Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; An, J; Kim, D; Barty, C J

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

High-Energy Laser Ponderomotive Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

A new concept of TeV-range laser ponderomotive acceleration in a plasma is proposed. Particles are accelerated in the point-like scattering by the leading front of the laser pulse, propagating at the group velocity less than the vacuum speed of light. In this scheme, the gain in particle energy is determined by the group velocity and does not depend on laser intensity, which determines the quantum probability of acceleration. The quantum and classical analysis of the scheme proposed is presented. Estimates show that the concept proposed is a promising technique for compact laser acceleration of TeV energy range.

Smetanin, I.V.; /Lebedev Inst.; Barnes, C.; /SLAC; Nakajima, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

119

Snubbing yields high-pressure savings  

SciTech Connect

Producing wells become deficient because of mechanical problems within the well or depletion of the oil or gas reservoir. Workover is an operation within the well's bore to repair equipment malfunction or well situation, or to enhance the well's performance. Workover performed through existing tubing by means of smaller diameter tubing is called thru-tubing workover. Snubbing utilizes jointed tubing or drill pipe and a hydraulic snubbing unit to run tubing or pipe under pressure conditions without killing the well. Tubing is run either through the blowout preventers and bore of an uncompleted well or through the well-head and tubing of a completed well. Hydraulic snubbing units offer many advantages to well productivity. Some of these are discussed in this article.

Parkhill, T.; Loring, G.; Lirette, R.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Using Laser-driven Shocks to Study the Phase Diagrams Of Low-Z Materials at Mbar Pressures and eV Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate phase diagrams for simple molecular fluids and solids (H2, He, H2O, SiO2, and C) and their constituent elements at eV temperatures and pressures up to tens of Mbar are integral to planetary models of the gas giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), and the rocky planets. Laboratory experiments at high pressure have, until recently, been limited to around 1 Mbar. These pressures are usually achieved dynamically with explosives and two-stage light-gas guns, or statically with diamond anvil cells. Current and future high energy laser and pulsed power facilities will be able to produce tens of Mbar pressures in these light element materials. This presentation will describe the capabilities available at current high energy laser facilities to achieve these extreme conditions, and focus on several examples including water, silica, diamond-phase-carbon, helium and hydrogen. Under strong shock compression all of these materials become electronic conductors, and are transformed eventually to dense plasmas. The experiments reveal some details of the nature of this transition. To obtain high pressure data closer to planetary isentropes advanced compression techniques are required. We are developing a promising technique to achieve higher density states: precompression of samples in a static diamond anvil cell followed by laser driven shock compression. This technique and results from the first experiments with it will be described. Details about this topic can be found in some of our previous publications.

Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W. [Larence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Boehly, T. R.; Miller, J. E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Brygoo, S. [Larence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Departement de Physique Theorique et Applications, CEA, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Loubeyre, P. [Departement de Physique Theorique et Applications, CEA, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); McWilliams, R. S.; Jeanloz, R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High energy XeBr electric discharge laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Modeling of high energy laser ignition of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a model for simulating high energy laser heating and ignition of confined energetic materials. The model considers the effect of irradiating a steel plate with long laser pulses and continuous lasers of several kilowatts and the thermal response of well-characterized high explosives for ignition. Since there is enough time for the thermal wave to propagate into the target and to create a region of hot spot in the high explosives, electron thermal diffusion of ultrashort (femto- and picosecond) lasing is ignored; instead, heat diffusion of absorbed laser energy in the solid target is modeled with thermal decomposition kinetic models of high explosives. Numerically simulated pulsed-laser heating of solid target and thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, triaminotrinitrobenzene, and octahydrotetranitrotetrazine are compared to experimental results. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement.

Lee, Kyung-cheol; Kim, Ki-hong; Yoh, Jack J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

High differential pressure, radial flow characteristics of gun perforations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tubing conveyed completion techniques are being utilized more frequently than in the past, because of the apparent advantages derived from underbalanced perforating. These advantages include cleaner perforations, reductions of additional stimulation treatments and reduced completion times. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study of gun perforations made under high differential pressure, radial flow conditions. In this study, Berea sandstone cores, modified to permit radial flow, are used to determine the relationship between perforation characteristics and the time-dependent pressure differential between pore pressure (i.e. formation pressure) and ''well bore'' pressure during the completion process. The primary perforation characteristic investigated (Radial Flow Ratio) is defined as the ratio of the perforated flow rate to the flow rate of the unperforated core under identical conditions. The perforated flow rate is measured in radial flow after the perforation has been made under various time-dependent pressure differentials.

Regalbuto, J.A.; Riggs, R.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Energetics and energy scaling of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser radiation pressure acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical and computational studies of the ion energy scaling of the radiation pressure acceleration of an ultra-thin foil by short pulse intense laser irradiation are presented. To obtain a quasi-monoenergetic ion beam with an energy spread of less than 20%, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the maximum energy of the quasi-monoenergetic ion beam is limited by self-induced transparency at the density minima caused by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. For foils of optimal thickness, the time over which Rayleigh-Taylor instability fully develops and transparency occurs is almost independent of the laser amplitude. With a laser power of about one petawatt, quasi-monogenetic protons with 200 MeV and carbon ions with 100 MeV per nucleon can be obtained, suitable for particle therapy applications.

Liu Tungchang; Shao Xi; Liu Chuansheng; Su Jaojang; Dudnikova, Galina; Sagdeev, Roald Z. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Eliasson, Bengt [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Tripathi, Vipin [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Interferometric and Chirped Optical Probe Techniques for High-Pressure Equation-of-State Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present experimental work exploring displacement and velocity interferometry as high spatial and temporal resolution diagnostics for measuring target preheat and the speed, planarity, and steadiness of a shock wave. A chirped pulse reflectometry experiment is also proposed as a frequency domain alternative for shock speed measurements. These techniques fill a need for high-precision diagnostics to derive accurate laboratory-based equation-of-state data at shock wave-driven pressures directly relevant to astrophysical systems. The performance of these optical laser probe techniques may exceed conventional passive techniques such as temporally streaked recording of optical emission upon shock breakout or side-on streaked X-ray radiography. Results from Nova laser and high-intensity ultrashort pulse experiments are presented. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

Gold, D. M.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Budil, K. S.; Cauble, R.; Silva, L. B. da; Foord, M. E.; Stewart, R. E.; Wallace, R. J.; Young, D.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydro-Pac Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of supply and discharge pressures * Select a flow and standardize Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Variable speed drives * Double ended intensifiers * Water cooled cylinders * Flexible operational envelopes * Stop and start under load . Material Research / Installation Requirements

129

High pressure drilling system triples ROPS, stymies bit wear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent West Texas field tests of an experiental high-pressure drilling system have nearly tripled typical penetration rates in hard dolomite while putting virtually no visible wear on the bits, even those designed for much softer formations. With this drilling system, developed by FlowDril Corp. of Kent, Wash., and their joint-venture partner Grace Drilling Co., clarified drilling fluids (minimum solids) are pressurized to nearly 30,000 psi and directed to the bottom of the hole through a special nozzle attached to the drill bit. The action of this high pressure stream augments the bit's job, resulting in higher ROPs and decreased bit wear.

Killalea, M.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Influence of nitrogen background pressure on structure of niobium nitride films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect

Depositions of niobium nitride thin films on Nb using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with different nitrogen background pressures (10.7 to 66.7 Pa) have been performed. The effect of nitrogen pressure on NbN formation in this process was examined. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Hexagonal {beta}-Nb{sub 2}N and cubic {delta}-NbN phases resulted when growth was performed in low nitrogen background pressures. With an increase in nitrogen pressure, NbN films grew in single hexagonal {beta}-Nb{sub 2}N phase. The formation of the hexagonal texture during the film growth was studied. The c/a ratio of the hexagonal {beta}-Nb{sub 2}N unit cell parameter increases with increasing nitrogen pressure. Furthermore, the N:Nb ratio has a strong influence on the lattice parameter of the {delta}-NbN, where the highest value was achieved for this ratio was 1.19. It was found that increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to change in the phase structure of the NbN film. With increasing nitrogen pressure, the film structure changes from hexagonal to a mixed phase and then back to a hexagonal phase.

Ashraf H. Farha, Ali O. Er, Yüksel Ufuktepe, Ganapati Myneni, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Towards radiation pressure acceleration of protons using linearly polarized ultrashort petawatt laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle acceleration using ultraintense, ultrashort laser pulses is one of the most attractive topics in relativistic laser-plasma research. We report proton/ion acceleration in the intensity range of 5x1019 W/cm2 to 3.3x1020 W/cm2 by irradiating linearly polarized, 30-fs, 1-PW laser pulses on 10- to 100-nm-thick polymer targets. The proton energy scaling with respect to the intensity and target thickness was examined. The experiments demonstrated, for the first time with linearly polarized light, a transition from the target normal sheath acceleration to radiation pressure acceleration and showed a maximum proton energy of 45 MeV when a 10-nm-thick target was irradiated by a laser intensity of 3.3x1020 W/cm2. The experimental results were further supported by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Based on the deduced proton energy scaling, proton beams having an energy of ~ 200 MeV should be feasible at a laser intensity of 1.5x1021 W/cm2.

Kim, I Jong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Yu, Tae Jun; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Nam, Kee Hwan; Nickles, Peter V; Jeong, Tae Moon; Lee, Jongmin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

High Rate Plasticity under Pressure using a Windowed Pressure-Shear Impact Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique has been developed to study the strength of materials under conditions of moderate pressures and high shear strain rates. The technique is similar to the traditional pressure-shear plate-impact experiments except that window interferometry is used to measure both the normal and transverse particle velocities at a sample-window interface. Experimental and simulation results on vanadium samples backed with a sapphire window show the utility of the technique to measure the flow strength under dynamic loading conditions. The results show that the strength of the vanadium is 600 MPa at a pressure of 4.5 GPa and a plastic strain of 1.7%.

Florando, J N; Jiao, T; Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Ferranti, L; Becker, R C; Minich, R W; Bazan, G

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 High Pressure Vessels 3 High Pressure Vessels Applicability This hazard classification applies to working with pressure vessels and systems. Other hazard classifications and associated controls may apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving previously reviewed hazard controls are catergorized as medium risk experiments. Experiments involving new equipment, processes or materials, or modified hazard control schemes are categorized as high risk experiments. Hazard Control Plan Verification Statements Engineered Controls - The establishment of applicable controls in accordance with the (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, ASME B.31 Piping Code and applicable federal, state, and local codes. Verify vessel is stampled with ASME Code Symbol or allowable

135

High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

Gencsoy, Hasan T. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

136

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

Understanding High-Power Fiber-Optic Laser Beam Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Power Fiber-Optic Laser Beam Delivery High-Power Fiber-Optic Laser Beam Delivery The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. W- 31-109-ENG-38. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. Boyd V. Hunter and Keng H. Leong Argonne National Laboratory Technology Development Division Laser Applications Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 207 Argonne, Illinois 60439 Carl B. Miller, James F. Golden, Robert D. Glesias and Patrick J. Laverty U. S. Laser Corporation 825 Windham Court North P. O. Box 609 Wyckoff, New Jersey 07481 March 25, 1996 Manuscript to be submitted to Journal of Laser Applications

138

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

High Pressure Materials Research: Novel Extended Phases of Molecular Triatomics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and thus the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid [1]. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies [2], it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration [3]. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune exotic properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Simple molecular solids like H{sub 2}, C, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4} are bounded by strong covalent intramolecular bonds, yet relatively weak intermolecular bonds of van der Waals and/or hydrogen bonds. The weak intermolecular bonds make these solids highly compressible (i.e., low bulk moduli typically less than 10 GPa), while the strong covalent bonds make them chemically inert at least initially at low pressures. Carbon-carbon single bonds, carbon-oxygen double bonds and nitrogen-nitrogen triple bonds, for example, are among the strongest. These molecular forms are, thus, often considered to remain stable in an extended region of high pressures and high temperatures. High stabilities of these covalent molecules are also the basis of which their mixtures are often presumed to be the major detonation products of energetic materials as well as the major constituents of giant planets. However, their physical/chemical stabilities are not truly understood at those extreme pressure-temperature conditions. In fact, an increasing amount of experimental evidences contradict the assumed stability of these materials at high pressures and temperatures.

Yoo, C

2004-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

140

In situ multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for monitoring nanoparticle generation in a high-pressure fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a multipurpose time-resolved spectrometer for studying the dynamics of nanoparticles generated by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in a high-pressure fluid. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure optical cell and three spectrometers for in situ measurements. The optical cell was designed for experiments at temperatures up to 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa with fluctuations within {+-}0.1% h{sup -1}. The three spectrometers were used for the following in situ measurements at high pressures: (i) transient absorption spectrum measurements from 350 to 850 nm to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle generation from nanoseconds to milliseconds after laser irradiation, (ii) absorption spectrum measurements from 220 to 900 nm to observe the time evolution of nanoparticles from seconds to hours after laser ablation, and (iii) dynamic light scattering measurements to track nanoparticles with sizes from 10 nm to 10 {mu}m in the time range from seconds to hours after laser ablation. By combining these three spectrometers, we demonstrate in situ measurements of gold nanoparticles generated by PLA in supercritical fluids. This is the first report of in situ time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of nanoparticles generated in a supercritical fluid.

Wei, Shaoyu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Saitow, Ken-ichi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development (N-BARD), 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, 739-8526 Higashi-hiroshima (Japan)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Synthesis of super-dense phase of aluminum under extreme pressure and temperature conditions created by femtosecond laser pulses in sapphire  

SciTech Connect

We describe synthesis of a new super-dense phase of aluminum under extreme pressure and temperature conditions created by laser-induced microexplosions in sapphire. Micro explosions in sub-micrometer sized regions of sapphire were induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses with a temporal length of {approx} 100 fs and an energy of {approx} 100 nJ. Fast, explosive expansion of photogenerated high-density plasma created strong heating and pressure transients with peak temperature and pressure of {approx} 105 K and 10 TPa, respectively. Partial decomposition of sapphire in the shock-compressed sapphire led to formation of nanocrystalline bcc-Al phase, which is different from ambient fcc-Al phase, and was permanently preserved by fast quenching. The existence of super-dense bcc-Al phase was confirmed using X-ray diffraction technique. This is the first observation of bcc-Al phase, which so far has been only predicted theoretically, and a demonstration that laser-induced micro explosions technique enables simple, safe and cost-efficient access to extreme pressures and temperatures without the tediousness typical to traditional techniques that use diamond anvil cells, gas guns, explosives, or megajoule-class lasers.

Mizeikis, Vygantas; Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius (Swinburne); (Shizuoka); (Stanford); (CIW); (ANU)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

142

Design of high efficiency Mid IR QCL lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proposed research is a study of designing high-efficiency Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers (QCL). This thesis explores "injector-less" designs for achieving lower voltage defects and improving wall plug efficiencies through ...

Hsu, Allen Long

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Simulations Identify Requirements for LANL's High Intensity Laser...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Identify Requirements for LANL's High Intensity Laser Lab cielo equip Fig. 1. Cielo is a 1.37 petaflops capability-class supercomputer installed at LANL, funded by the US DOE NNSA...

144

High Power Lasers... Another approach to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Laboratory Washington, DC #12;2 Main points of the talk Fusion Energy based on lasers and direct employees, (900 PhDs + 400 MSc) · $800 M /year budget ·Field sites: · Washington DC (Main site) · Stennis (Hibachi) Amplifier Window Electron Beam Cathode Pulsed Power System Energy + ( Kr+ F2) ( KrF)* + F Kr

145

High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Scaling of Pressure with Intensity in Laser-Driven Shocks and Effects of Hot X-ray Preheat  

SciTech Connect

To drive shocks into solids with a laser we either illuminate the material directly, or to get higher pressures, illuminate a plastic ablator that overlays the material of interest. In both cases the illumination intensity is low, <<10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, compared to that for traditional laser fusion targets. In this regime, the laser beam creates and interacts with a collisional, rather than a collisionless, plasma. We present scaling relationships for shock pressure with intensity derived from simulations for this low-intensity collisional plasma regime. In addition, sometimes the plastic-ablator targets have a thin flashcoating of Al on the plastic surface as a shine-through barrier; this Al layer can be a source of hot x-ray preheat. We discuss how the preheat affects the shock pressure, with application to simulating VISAR measurements from experiments conducted on various lasers on shock compression of Fe.

Colvin, J D; Kalantar, D H

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

148

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)

Edeskuty, F.J.; Mills, R.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

151

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

152

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

153

High-Intensity Laser Diagnostics for OMEGA EP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OMEGA EP is a new high-energy petawatt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP’s mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP’s off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from petawatt laser at full energy.

Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Junquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

154

High-Voltage Power Supply System for Laser Isotope Separation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents several concepts for Laser High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Systems for a Laser Isotope Separation facility. Selection of equipments and their arrangement into operational systems is based on proven designs and on application concepts now being developed. This report has identified a number of alternative system arrangements and has provided preliminary cost estimates for each. The report includes a recommendation for follow-on studies that will further define the optimum Laser HVPS Systems. Brief descriptions are given of Modulator/Regulator circuit trade-offs, system control interfaces, and their impact on costs.

Ketaily, E.C.; Buckner, R.P.; Uhrik, R.L.

1979-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect

The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

Michael, Sherif [Naval Postgraduate School ECE Dep./Space Systems Academic Group, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States)

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

Equation of State and Material Property Measurements of Hydrogen Isotopes at the High-Pressure, High-Temperature, Insulator-Metal Transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-intensity laser was used to shock compress liquid deuterium to pressures between 0.22 and 3.4 megabars (Mbar). Shock density, pressure, and temperature were determined using a variety of experimental techniques and diagnostics. This pressure regime spans the transformation of deuterium from an insulating molecular fluid to an atomic metallic fluid. Data reveal a significant increase in compressibility and a temperature inflection near 1 Mbar, both indicative of such a transition. Single-wavelength reflectivity measurements of the shock front demonstrated that deuterium shocked above {approx}0.5 Mbar is indeed metallic. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

Cauble, R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Silva, L. B. da; Gold, D. M.; Foord, M. E.; Budil, K. S.; Wallace, R. J.; Ng, A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

High energy KrCl electric discharge laser  

SciTech Connect

A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Guest disorder and high pressure behavior of argon hydrates  

SciTech Connect

The structure of argon hydrate was studied at ambient pressure and low temperature, and between 1.7 and 4.2 GPa at 295 K. This analysis produced a single Ar guest atom, positionally disordered off-center in the large cages of sII. Above 1.7 GPa Ar clathrate transformed to a mixture of a body-centered orthorhombic filled-ice phase, which can be viewed as a polytype of ice-Ih, and high pressure forms of pure ice. The guest disorder is further substantiated by analysis of the guest to host ratio in this high pressure filled-ice structure. The bulk modulus of Ar filled-ice found to be 11.7 {+-} 0.4 GPa.

Yang, L.; Tulk, C.A.; Klug, D.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Ehm, L.; Molaison, J.J.; Parise, J.B.; Simonson, J.M. (NRCC); (SBU); (ORNL)

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

159

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is propsed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. Our assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubilities of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, and a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, were measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. Preliminary results of initial extraction tests at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi in sub-pilot scale equipment are also presented.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.; Netherton, R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Experimental Investigation of the Reflection Mode Micro Laser Propulsion under Highly Frequent and Multi Pulse Laser  

SciTech Connect

Micro laser propulsion used for some space tasks of micro-satellites are preferred to providing small thrust and high specific impulse while keeping power consumption low. Most previous work on micro laser propulsion are about transmission mode (T-mode) using a CW laser. In this article, a pulsed fiber laser is used to study the micro laser propulsion performance under reflection mode. Multi pulse (ranged from 100 to 2000) tests are conducted on a double base propellant with the vacuum less than 10 Pa. The laser frequency is 20 kHz and two kinds of instantaneous power density 4.77x10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2} and 2.39x10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2} are used. It is found that the momentum coupling coefficient C{sub m} and the mean thrust F increases with the increasing pulse numbers, which is different to the previous work. By adjusting the irradiation time T, it is easy to get a large mean thrust, up to mN. When the energy density is the same, C{sub m}, I{sub sp}, F and {eta} increase with the increasing power density. Also I{sub sp} and {eta} are very low, laser ablation is insufficiently under the current condition. 3D Morphology of the ablation hole is obtained by confocal microscope for the first time.

Zhang Xinghua; Cai Jian [Microelectronic Equipment Technology Department, Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); Li Long [Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027 (China)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Plume splitting and rebounding in a high-intensity CO{sub 2} laser induced air plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of plasma plume formed by high-intensity CO{sub 2} laser induced breakdown of air at atmospheric pressure is investigated. The laser wavelength is 10.6 {mu}m. Measurements were made using 3 ns gated fast photography as well as space and time resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The behavior of the plasma plume was studied with a laser energy of 3 J and 10 J. The results show that the evolution of the plasma plume is very complicated. The splitting and rebounding of the plasma plume is observed to occur early in the plumes history.

Chen Anmin; Jiang Yuanfei; Liu Hang; Jin Mingxing; Ding Dajun [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Dichroic beamsplitter for high energy laser diagnostics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wavefront control techniques are provided for the alignment and performance optimization of optical devices. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor can be used to measure the wavefront distortion and a control system generates feedback error signal to optics inside the device to correct the wavefront. The system can be calibrated with a low-average-power probe laser. An optical element is provided to couple the optical device to a diagnostic/control package in a way that optimizes both the output power of the optical device and the coupling of the probe light into the diagnostics.

LaFortune, Kai N (Livermore, CA); Hurd, Randall (Tracy, CA); Fochs, Scott N (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D (San Ramon, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

High power semiconductor laser diode arrays  

SciTech Connect

The cw optical power obtainable from semiconductor laser diodes has been extended to unprecedented levels in recent years through the use of multistripe arrays. By spreading out the optical power with more than 100 stripes, single-facet, cw output in exces of 5 Watts has been demonstrated, and 500 mW cw is now commercially available. Recent improvements to array performance include: arrays up to 1 cm wide that generates quasi-cw (150 usec pulse) output in excesss of 11 Watts, and a novel device structure which produces up to 215 mW cw in a single diffraction limited lobe.

Cross, P.S.

1986-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid–fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in-situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ~ 350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO2, precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in-situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO3) mineral surface in scCO2; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10¯14) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in-situ access to interfacial phenomena at solid-fluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, Alan S.; Higgins, Steven R.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

166

Magnetism In 3d Transition Metals at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

This research project examined the changes in electronic and magnetic properties of transition metals and oxides under applied pressures, focusing on complex relationship between magnetism and phase stability in these correlated electron systems. As part of this LDRD project, we developed new measurement techniques and adapted synchrotron-based electronic and magnetic measurements for use in the diamond anvil cell. We have performed state-of-the-art X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the dedicated high-pressure beamline HP-CAT (Sector 16 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory), maintained in collaboration with of University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Geophysical Laboratory of The Carnegie Institution of Washington. Using these advanced measurements, we determined the evolution of the magnetic order in the ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co and Ni) under pressure, and found that at high densities, 3d band broadening results in diminished long range magnetic coupling. Our experiments have allowed us to paint a unified picture of the effects of pressure on the evolution of magnetic spin in 3d electron systems. The technical and scientific advances made during this LDRD project have been reported at a number of scientific meetings and conferences, and have been submitted for publication in technical journals. Both the technical advances and the physical understanding of correlated systems derived from this LDRD are being applied to research on the 4f and 5f electron systems under pressure.

Iota, V

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

167

INSTRUMENT TRANSMITTERS FOR HIGH-PRESSURE, AQUEOUS, NUCLEAR REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

A review of the criteria involved in the selection of primary sensing elements for the measurement of process variables in high-pressure, aqueous, nuclear reactors is presented. Some acceptable types of sensing elements now in use at ORNL are described. (auth)

Moore, R.L.

1958-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

An Electrical Cathode Model of a High Pressure Sodium Lamp  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrical cathode model (ECM) of a high pressure sodium lamp (HPS) based on physical laws has been developed. The proposed ECM calculates the instantaneous voltage drop in a cathode sheath and the temperature distribution inside the cathode using ... Keywords: cathode model, HPS lamp ballast designs

Jose Luis Tapia; Joel O. Pacheco Sotelo; Eduardo Diaz Rodriguez; Yulia Nikolaevna Ledeneva; Rene Arnulfo Garcia Hernandez

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Slow Electrons Generated by Intense High-Frequency Laser Pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A very slow electron is shown to emerge when an intense high-frequency laser pulse is applied to a hydrogen negative ion. This counterintuitive effect cannot be accounted for by multiphoton or tunneling ionization mechanisms. We explore the effect and show that in the high-frequency regime the atomic electron is promoted to the continuum via a nonadiabatic transition caused by slow deformation of the dressed potential that follows a variation of the envelope of the laser pulse. This is a general mechanism, and a slow electron peak should always appear in the photoelectron spectrum when an atom is irradiated by a high-frequency pulse of finite length.

Toyota, Koudai; Watanabe, Shinichi [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofu-ga-oka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Tolstikhin, Oleg I. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Morishita, Toru [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofu-ga-oka, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2009-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Effects of Pressure on the Laser Initiation of TiHx/KC104 and Other Pyrotechnics  

SciTech Connect

The ignition thresholds of TiHx/KC104, Mg/Teflon, and an A1-torch mix are measured as a function of gas pressure for ignition by 514.5 nm pulses from an argon ion laser. The TiHx/KC104 system in argon gas has three distinct pressure regimes. The thresholds are very high below about 0.3 MPa, decrease rapidly between 0.3 and 1.5 MPa, and decrease gradually and become constant between 1.5 and 7 MPa. Mg/Teflon and the A1-torch mix also have decreasing thresholds with increasing gas pressures and decreasing pellet densities. Ignition pulse lengths between 0.25 and 20 milliseconds at a spot diameter of 65 microns in the TiHx/KC104 system indicate that the thresholds are predominantly power, not energy, thresholds for pulses longer than one millisecond. The increase in threshold power below one millisecond is consistent with a calculated time to reach thermal equilibrium of 0.96 milliseconds. The effect of beam diameters between 40 and 175 microns on the TiHx/KC104 thresholds is consistent with ignitions occurring at approximately the same temperature at the center of the beam. TiHx/KC104 and Zr/KC104/Viton/Graphite pyrotechnics are also ignitied in sealed devices through sapphire windows. Ignition thresholds are comparable to those on open surfaces in pressures of 0.1 to 0.5 MPa which suggests that samples first decompose and ignite under a pocket of pressure. Ignition failures in TiHx/KC104 and in low density Zr/KC104/Viton/Graphite samples are attributed to increased porosity and/or gaps near the windows which allow reaction products to escape from the ignition zone.

Holy, John A.; Girmann, Thomas C.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Crater effects on H and D emission from laser induced low-pressure helium plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study has been performed on the effects of crater depth on the hydrogen and deuterium emission intensities measured from laser plasmas generated in low-pressure helium ambient gas from zircaloy-4 samples doped with different H and D impurity concentrations as well as a standard brass sample for comparison. The results show that aside from emission of the host atom, the emission intensities of other ablated atoms of significantly smaller masses as well as that of the He atom generally exhibit relatively rapid initial decline with increasing crater depth. This trend was found to have its origin in the decreasing laser power density arriving at the crater bottom and thereby weakened the shock wave generated in the crater. As the crater deepened, the declining trend of the intensity appeared to level off as a result of compensation of the decreasing laser power density by the enhanced plasma confinement at increasing crater depth. Meanwhile, the result also reveals the significant contribution of the He-assisted excitation process to the doped hydrogen and deuterium emission intensities, leading to similar crater-depth dependent variation patterns in contrast to that associated with the surface water, with growing dominance of this common feature at the later stage of the plasma expansion. Therefore, a carefully chosen set of gate delay and gate width which are properly adapted to the crater-depth dependent behavior of the emission intensity may produce the desired intrinsic emission data for quantitative depth profiling of H impurity trapped inside the zircaloy wall.

Pardede, Marincan; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Niki, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Kenichi [Program of Nuclear Power and Energy Safety Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Maruyama, Tadashi [Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Deuterium analysis in zircaloy using ps laser-induced low pressure plasma  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study on picosecond laser induced plasma spectroscopy of a zircaloy sample with low-pressure surrounding helium gas has been carried out to demonstrate its potential applicability to three-dimensional quantitative micro-analysis of deuterium impurities in zircaloy. This was achieved by adopting the optimal experimental condition ascertained in this study, which is specified as 7 mJ laser energy, 1.3 kPa helium pressure, and 50 {mu}s measurement window, and which was found to result in consistent D emission enhancement. Employing these operational parameters, a linear calibration line exhibiting a zero intercept was obtained from zircaloy-4 samples doped with various concentrations of D impurity, regarded as surrogates for H impurity. An additional measurement also yielded a detection limit of about 10 {mu}g/g for D impurity, well below the acceptable threshold of damaging H concentration in zircaloy. Each of these measurements was found to produce a crater size of only 25 {mu}m in diameter, promising its application for performing less-destructive measurements. The result of this study has thus paved the way for conducting a further experiment with hydrogen-doped zircaloy samples and the further technical development of a three-dimensional quantitative micro-analysis of detrimental hydrogen impurity in zircaloy vessels used in nuclear power plants.

Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, 10 Rawamangun, Jakarta (Indonesia); Lie, Zener Sukra; Niki, Hideaki [Department of Nuclear Power and Energy Safety Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kagawa, Kiichiro; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K. H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M. H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Vilage, Tangerang, 15811 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong Tangerang Selatan 15314, Banten (Indonesia); Jobiliong, Eric [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M. H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Vilage, Tangerang, 15811 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Technical challenges for the future of high energy lasers  

SciTech Connect

The Solid-State, Heat-Capacity Laser (SSHCL) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a multi-generation laser development effort scalable to the megawatt power levels with current performance approaching 100 kilowatts. This program is one of many designed to harness the power of lasers for use as directed energy weapons. There are many hurdles common to all of these programs that must be overcome to make the technology viable. There will be a in-depth discussion of the general issues facing state-of-the-art high energy lasers and paths to their resolution. Despite the relative simplicity of the SSHCL design, many challenges have been uncovered in the implementation of this particular system. An overview of these and their resolution are discussed. The overall system design of the SSHCL, technological strengths and weaknesses, and most recent experimental results will be presented.

LaFortune, K N; Hurd, R L; Fochs, S N; Rotter, M D; Pax, P H; Combs, R L; Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Yamamoto, R M

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Bright High Average Power Table-top Soft X-Ray Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have demonstrated the generation of bright soft x-ray laser pulses with record-high average power from compact plasma amplifiers excited by ultrafast solid state lasers. These lasers have numerous applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Nichols,, Anthony [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Yong [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Alessi, David [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Martz, Dale [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Yin, Liang [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Marconi, Mario [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Blade-Vortex Interactions in High Pressure Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation of the transport of streamwise (passage) vortices in high-pressure axial turbines and their interaction with the downstream blade rows was performed. The results indicate large variations in the downstream flow field, notably the development of the secondary flows. The mechanism of passage vortex transport was studied in two differently configured high-pressure turbine stages. In the first configuration, the blades are radially stacked while the second configuration features three-dimensionally stacked high-pressure steam turbine blading. The stator hub passage vortex is chopped by the downstream blade row in a similar way to the wake. The bowed vortex tube near the inlet to the rotor appeared to develop two counter-rotating legs extending back to the leading edges of the adjacent blades. These were termed the suction side leg and the pressure side leg. The two legs of the incoming passage vortex then convect with the respective velocities on the blade surfaces. The results are discussed for the radially stacked turbine and the 3-D turbine separately.

Venkata Siva Prasad Chaluvadi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Pressure testing of a high temperature naturally fractured reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 l/s) and surface pressures up to 7000 psi (48 MPa) into the HDR formation at depths from 10,000 to 13,180 feet (3050 to 4000 m). The formation is a naturally fractured granite at temperatures of about 250/sup 0/C. The matrix porosity is <1% and permeability is on the order of 1 nD. Hence most of the injected fluid is believed to move through fractures. There has been no evidence of fracture breakdown phenomena, and hence it is believed that preexisting joints in the formation are opened by fluid injection. Water losses during pumping are significant, most likely resulting from flow into secondary fractures intersecting the main fluid conducting paths. The pressure-time response observed in these tests can be interpreted in terms of non-isothermal, fracture-dominated flow. As the fluid pressure increases from small values to those comparable to fracturing pressures, the formation response changes from linear fracture flow to the highly nonlinear situation where fracture lift-off occurs. A numerical heat and mass flow model was used to match the observed pressure response. Good matches were obtained for pressure buildup and shut-in data by assigning pressure dependent fracture and leak-off permeabilities. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kelkar, S.M.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Dash, Z.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Proposal for high pressure RF cavity test in the MTA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to demonstrate the feasibility of high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF (HPRF) cavities for muon ionization cooling, an HPRF cavity must be tested with a high intensity charged beam. When an HPRF cavity is irradiated with an intense beam each incident particle generates about 1000 electrons and ions per cubic centimeter in a high pressure cavity via ionization. These ionization electrons are influenced by the RF field and the RF quality factor goes down. This Q factor reduction will be a problem with a multi bunch beam, e.g., a muon beam for a muon collider consists of a 12 to 20 bunch train beam with 5 ns timing gap. Thus, the RF field must recover in few nano seconds. We propose to use a 400 MeV proton beam in the MTA and measure a beam loading effect in the HPRF cavity and study the recovery mechanism of the RF field.

Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Estimating the pressure of laser-induced plasma shockwave by stimulated Raman shift of lattice translational modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current paper investigates stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) when laser-induced plasma is formed in heavy water by focusing an intense pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser beam at room temperature. An unexpected low-frequency SRS line attributed to the lattice translational modes of ice-VII (D{sub 2}O) is observed. The pressure of the plasma shockwave is estimated using low-frequency SRS line shift.

Li Zhanlong [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Shan Xiaoning; Li Zuowei; Zhou Mi; Men Zhiwei [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Cao Junsheng [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang Yiding [College of Electronic Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun Chenglin [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

180

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High Velocity Laser Accelerated Deposition (HVLAD)  

... thus producing a very broad range of advanced high-temperature and corrosion ... from stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen ...

182

High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing  

SciTech Connect

High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

183

High-pressure shock behavior of WC and Ta2O5 powders.  

SciTech Connect

Planar shock experiments were conducted on granular tungsten carbide (WC) and tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) using the Z machine and a 2-stage gas gun. Additional shock experiments were also conducted on a nearly fully dense form of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The experiments on WC yield some of the highest pressure results for granular materials obtained to date. Because of the high distention of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the pressures obtained were significantly lower, but the very high temperatures generated led to large contributions of thermal energy to the material response. These experiments demonstrate that the Z machine can be used to obtain accurate shock data on granular materials. The data on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were utilized in making improvements to the P-{lambda} model for high pressures; the model is found to capture the results not only of the Z and gas gun experiments but also those from laser experiments on low density aerogels. The results are also used to illustrate an approach for generating an equation of state using only the limited data coming from nanoindentation. Although the EOS generated in this manner is rather simplistic, for this material it gives reasonably good results.

Knudson, Marcus D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Root, Seth (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

Bailey, John M. (Dunlap, IL); Zadoks, Abraham L. (Peoria, IL)

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

In Situ High-Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of H2O Ice VII  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ice VII was examined over the entire range of its pressure stability by a suite of x-ray diffraction techniques in order to understand a number of unexplained characteristics of its high-pressure behavior. Axial and radial polycrystalline (diamond anvil cell) x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a splitting of diffraction lines accompanied by changes in sample texture and elastic anisotropy. In situ laser heating of polycrystalline samples resulted in the sharpening of diffraction peaks due to release of nonhydrostatic stresses but did not remove the splitting. Radial diffraction measurements indicate changes in strength of the material at this pressure. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for a transition in ice VII near 14 GPa involving changes in the character of the proton order/disorder. The results are consistent with previous reports of changes in phase boundaries and equation of state at this pressure. The transition can be interpreted as ferroelastic with the appearance of spontaneous strain that vanishes at the hydrogen bond symmetrization transition near 60 GPa.

Somayazulu,M.; Shu, J.; Zha, C.; Goncharov, A.; Tschauner, O.; Mao, H.; Hemley, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Integrated manufacturing system of high-pressure FRP pipes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to realise industrialised manufacturing of epoxy FRP pipes, the manufacturing system which can accomplish winding, internal heating curing and extraction processes by only one machine tool was developed. The winding motion control is undertaken ... Keywords: FEM, FRP pipes, blowing control, cooling control, curing control, embedded controllers, fibreglass reinforced plastics, finite element method, high-pressure pipes, integrated manufacturing, internal heating curing, motion control, simulation, thermochemical modelling, winding

Bo You; Jiazhong Xu; Xiongjian Wang

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the laser, and they presented a physical model that shows how this occurs under the proper conditions. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the instability onset and to exploit its gain for the generation of pulses of terahertz CSR of unprecedented power. Terahertz radiation with a wavelength from about 1 cm to about 100 microns between the microwave and the infrared would provide access to a large number of fundamental phenomena. To mention only some of them: excited electrons orbit, small molecules rotate, proteins vibrate, superconducting energy gaps resonate, and gaseous and solid-state plasmas oscillate at terahertz frequencies. But generating terahertz radiation is ordinarily a challenging task for any kind of source, including storage-ring-based synchrotron light sources. The new findings by the ALS group could represent a significant step toward satisfying the need for powerful terahertz sources.

190

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley Lab have been exploring the ways coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). In their most recent work, the researchers reported the first observation of seeding an instability of the electron beam by the laser, and they presented a physical model that shows how this occurs under the proper conditions. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the instability onset and to exploit its gain for the generation of pulses of terahertz CSR of unprecedented power. Terahertz radiation with a wavelength from about 1 cm to about 100 microns between the microwave and the infrared would provide access to a large number of fundamental phenomena. To mention only some of them: excited electrons orbit, small molecules rotate, proteins vibrate, superconducting energy gaps resonate, and gaseous and solid-state plasmas oscillate at terahertz frequencies. But generating terahertz radiation is ordinarily a challenging task for any kind of source, including storage-ring-based synchrotron light sources. The new findings by the ALS group could represent a significant step toward satisfying the need for powerful terahertz sources.

191

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

192

High Voltage Laboratory Testing of Femtosecond Laser Lightning Diversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning strikes cost the electric power industry an estimated 1 billion dollars annually in damage and lost revenue. One possible way of protecting critical and susceptible facilities from lightning strikes is to use lasers to trigger and divert lightning along a predetermined path. This report describes laboratory research on the use of ultrashort UV pulses and near IR pulses to trigger high voltage discharge.

1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

193

High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh. [Advanced Beam Technology Division, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); and others

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

194

Synthesis of Non-molecular Nitrogen Phases at Mbar Pressures by Direct Laser-heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Direct laser heating of molecular N2 to above 1400 K at 120-130 GPa results in the formation of a reddish amorphous phase and a transparent crystalline solid above 2000 K. Raman and x-ray data confirm that the transparent phase is cubic-gauche nitrogen (cg-N), while the reddish color of the amorphous phase might indicate the presence of N=N dish bonds. The quenched amorphous phase is stable down to at least 70GPa, analogous to cg-N, and could be a new non-molecular phase or an extension of the already known {eta}-phase. A chemo-physical phase diagram is presented which emphasizes the difference between pressure- and temperature-induced transitions from molecular to non-molecular solids, as found in other low Z systems.

Lipp, M J; Klepeis, J P; Baer, B J; Cynn, H; Evans, W J; Iota, V; Yoo, C

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

Laser-Doppler acoustic probing of granular media with in-depth property gradient and varying pore pressures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-contacting ultrasonic techniques recently proved to be efficient in the physical modeling of seismic-wave propagation at various application scales, as for instance in the context of geological analogue and seismic modeling. An innovative experimental set-up is proposed here to perform laser-Doppler acoustic probing of unconsolidated granular media with varying pore pressures. The preliminary experiments presented here provide reproducible results and exploitable data, thus validating both the proposed medium preparation and pressure gradient generation procedure.

Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.; Rejiba, F. [LPG, UMR CNRS 6112, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); UMR CNRS 7619 Sisyphe, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 (France); LPG, UMR CNRS 6112, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); LAUM, CNRS, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); UMR CNRS 7619 Sisyphe, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 (France)

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

196

Application of High Powered Lasers to Perforated Completions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Congress on Applications of Laser & Electro-Optics Congress on Applications of Laser & Electro-Optics October 13 - 16, 2003, Jacksonville, Florida Application of High Powered Lasers to Perforated Completions Zhiyue Xu, Claude B. Reed and Keng H. Leong Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 R. A. Parker Parker Geoscience Consulting, LLC, 6346 Secrest Street, Arvada, CO 80403 R. M. Graves, Petroleum Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 ABSTRACT As part of the process of drilling an oil or gas well, a steel production casing is often inserted to the bottom of the well and sealed with cement against the productive formation. Openings must be made through the steel casing wall and cement and into the rock formation to allow formation fluid to enter the well. Conventionally, a perforator is

197

Pulsed laser processing of high temperature superconducting thin films  

SciTech Connect

Systematic studies of the effects of pulsed laser deposition processing parameters on plume dynamics and resultant film properties have been performed. Plume angular distributions, cos{sup m}({theta}), were observed to be variable between 1 > m > 10 depending on laser energy density and spot size. Under optimized conditions, epitaxial, superconducting thin films could be grown in-situ on a variety of single-crystal substrates. High quality, 200 nm thick films were obtained at deposition rates approaching 15 nm/sec. Additionally, the patterning of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin films has been achieved by a process which combines thermal oxygen diffusion and laser annealing. This process is performed under relatively mild conditions which allows the structural integrity of the films to be preserved. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Muenchausen, R.E.; Dye, R.C.; Estler, R.C.; Foltyn, S.; Garcia, A.R.; Hubbard, K.M.; Nogar, N.S.; Wu, X.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carim, A.; Mukherjee, A.; Brueck, S.R.J. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Equation of state measurements at extreme pressures using laser-driven shocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The regime of high density and extreme pressure in hydrogen is very difficult to approach theoretically since it is a strongly correlated, partially degenerate composite of molecules, atoms, and electrons. For this reason, a number of theoretical models of the EOS of hydrogen have been proposed. This makes reliable experimental data essential as a guide to theory. We have accessed this regime by shocking liquid D2 to pressures at and above the metallic transition where we measured the thermodynamic properties of the shocked state.

Cauble, R C; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; DaSilva, L B; Gold, D M

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

203

Laser device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

Scott, Jill R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tremblay, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

204

X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays High-pressure, high-speed fuel sprays are a critical technology for many applications including fuel injection...

205

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10,200, 15,200 and 20,200 rpm and clearances of 0.1 and 0.2 mm. The effects of changes in radial clearance and pressure differential across the seal are studied for various inlet tangential velocities. The results confirm the existence of negative direct stiffness, positive cross-coupled stiffness as shown by Benckert and Wachter and low direct damping (when compared to hole-pattern seals). Experimental results are compared with predictions from the one-control-volume model (Childs and Scharrer) and two-control-volume model (Scharrer). Results show that both models under-predict the rotordynamic coefficients significantly. Leakage is also under predicted by both the codes. However, the effective damping and whirl frequency ratio (wfr) predicted by the one-control volume theory is comparable with the test results.

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

207

High-Temperature Experiments using a Resistively-Heated High-Pressure Membrane Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect

A reliable high-performance heating method using resistive heaters and a membrane driven diamond anvil cell (mDAC) is presented. Two micro-heaters are mounted in a mDAC and use electrical power of less than 150 W to achieve sample temperatures up to 1200 K. For temperature measurement we use two K-type thermocouples mounted near the sample. The approach can be used for in-situ Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures. A W-Re alloy gasket material permits stable operation of mDAC at high temperature. Using this method, we made an isothermal compression at 900 K to pressures in excess of 100 GPa and isobaric heating at 95 GPa to temperatures in excess of 1000 K. As an example, we present high temperature Raman spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen at high pressures.

Jenei, Z; Visbeck, K; Cynn, H; Yoo, C; Evans, W

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

208

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

210

High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

214

Pressurization Tests on High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Underground Transmission Cables of Public Service Electric & Gas Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes pressurization tests performed on 138-kV and 230-kV high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) transmission cable samples. The samples were removed from two Public Service Electric & Gas Company (PSE&G) underground transmission lines.

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

215

Study of structural change in Wyodak coal in high-pressure CO2 by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

scattering intensities on the exposure of the coal to high- pressure CO2 showed ... ture of coal caused by high-pressure CO2 also confirms that. CO2 at elevated ...

216

Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

218

MECHANICAL TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The methods and interim results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. The scope is carbon steels commonly used for natural gas pipelines in the United States that are candidates for hydrogen service in the hydrogen economy. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in 1500 psig hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test program will continue with tests to quantify the fracture behavior in terms of J-R curves for these materials at air and hydrogen pressure conditions.

Duncan, A

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side temperature of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side temperature of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The LLNL/UCLA high gradient inverse free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We describe the Inverse Free Electron Accelerator currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Upon completion of this accelerator, high brightness electrons generated in the photoinjector blowout regime and accelerated to 50 MeV by S-band accelerating sections will interact with > 4 TW peak power Ti:Sapphire laser in a highly tapered 50 cm undulator and experience an acceleration gradient of > 200 MeV/m. We present the final design of the accelerator as well as the results of start-to-end simulations investigating preservation of beam quality and tolerances involved with this accelerator.

Moody, J. T.; Musumeci, P.; Anderson, G.; Anderson, S.; Betts, S.; Fisher, S.; Gibson, D.; Tremaine, A.; Wu, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles California, 90095 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

The dissociation of liquid silica at high pressure and temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid silica at high pressure and temperature is shown to undergo significant structural modifications and profound changes in its electronic properties. Temperature measurements on shock waves in silica at 70-1000 GPa indicate that the specific heat of liquid SiO{sub 2} rises well above the Dulong-Petit limit, exhibiting a broad peak with temperature that is attributable to the growing structural disorder caused by bond-breaking in the melt. The simultaneous sharp rise in optical reflectivity of liquid SiO{sub 2} indicates that dissociation causes the electrical and therefore thermal conductivities of silica to attain metallic-like values of 1-5 x 10{sup 5} S/m and 24-600 W/m.K respectively.

Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Eggert, J; Miller, J; Celliers, P; Collins, G

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

223

GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

224

Angular distribution of atoms emitted from a SrZrO{sub 3} target by laser ablation under different laser fluences and oxygen pressures  

SciTech Connect

Angular distributions of atoms emitted by laser ablation of perovskite-type oxide SrZrO{sub 3} have been investigated using electron probe microanalysis with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy and charge-coupled device photography with an interference filter. Each constituent element has been analyzed as a two-modal distribution composed of a broad cos{sup m} {theta} distribution and a narrow cos{sup n} {theta} distribution. The exponent n characterizes the component of laser ablation while the exponent m characterizes that of thermal evaporation, where a larger n or m means a narrower angular distribution. In vacuum, O (n=6) showed a broader distribution than those of Sr (n=16) and Zr (n=17), and Sr{sup +} exhibited a spatial distribution similar to that of Sr. As the laser fluence was increased from 1.1 to 4.4 J/cm{sup 2}, the angular distribution of Sr became narrower. In the laser fluence range of 1.1-4.4 J/cm{sup 2}, broadening of the angular distribution of Sr was observed only at the fluence of 1.1 J/cm{sup 2} under the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate approximately the energy of emitted atoms, focusing on the broadening of the angular distribution under the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa. The energies of emitted atoms were estimated to be 1-20 eV for the laser fluence of 1.1 J/cm{sup 2}, and more than 100 eV for 2.2 and 4.4 J/cm{sup 2}.

Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Azuma, H.; Asaoka, T.; Nakazato, T.; Sato, E.; Shimizu, T.; Fujioka, S.; Sarukura, N.; Nishimura, H. [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511, Japan and Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

High temperature vapor pressure and the critical point of potassium  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure of potassium was experimentally determined from 2100 deg F up to-its critical temperature. An empirical equation of the form ln P = A + B/T + C ln T + DT/sup 1.5/ was found to best fit the data. A critical pressure of 2378.2 plus or minus 4.0 psia (161.79 plus or minus 0.27 ata) was measured. The corresponding critical temperature, extrapolated from the pressure-- temperature curve, is 4105.4 plus or minus 5 deg R (2280.8 plus or minus 3 deg K). The technique employed was tae pressure tube method developed earlier in this laboratory and used for determining the vapor pressure of rubidium and cesium. This method measures tae critical pressure directly, as well as the vapor pressure st lower temperatures. (4 tables, 6 figures, 26 references) (auth)

Jerez, W.R.; Bhise, V.S.; Das Gupta, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

227

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated that conversion efficiencies of 30-40% are possible at intensities of 600-800 GW/cm2, which is the operating level of the Petawatt laser at LLNL. The main limiting factors are phase modulation and material damage.

Banks, P S

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

BNL | CO2 Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Laser CO2 Laser The ATF is one of the only two facilities worldwide operating picosecond, terawatt-class CO2 lasers. Our laser system consists of a picoseconds pulse-injector based on fast optical switching from the output of a conventional CO2 laser oscillator, and a chain of high-pressure laser amplifiers. It starts with a wavelength converter wherein a near-IR picosecond solid-state laser with l»1 μm produces a mid-IR 10-μm pulse. This process employs two methods; semiconductor optical switching, and the Kerr effect. First, we combine the outputs from a multi-nanosecond CO2 laser oscillator with a picosecond Nd:YAG laser on a germanium Brewster-plate to produce an ~200 ps, 10μm pulse by semiconductor optical switching. Co-propagating this pulse with a Nd:YAG's 2nd harmonic in a

231

Development of fluorides for high power laser optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The laser-assisted thermonuclear fusion program has significant needs for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride (LiF) possesses a combination of optical properties which are of potential use. Single-crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. In this program, we investigated the technique of press-forging to increase the mechanical strength. LiF single crystals were press-forged over the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C to produce fine-grained polycrystalline material.

Ready, J.F.; Vora, H.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

OH time-histories during oxidation of n-heptane and methylcyclohexane at high pressures and temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OH concentration time-histories during n-heptane and methylcyclohexane (MCH) oxidation were measured behind reflected shock waves in a heated, high-pressure shock tube. Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1121 to 1332 K, pressures near 15 atm, and initial fuel concentrations of 750 and 1000 ppm (by volume), and an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with O{sub 2} as the oxidizer and argon as the bath gas. OH concentrations were measured using narrow-linewidth ring-dye laser absorption near the R-branchhead of the OH A-X(0,0) system at 306.47 nm. These current measurements together with our recent results for n-dodecane oxidation [S.S. Vasu, D.F. Davidson, Z. Hong, V. Vasudevan, R.K. Hanson, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.05.006] provide critically needed validation targets for jet fuel surrogate kinetic mechanisms and further improve understanding of high-pressure, high-temperature oxidation chemistry. Detailed comparisons of these OH time-histories with the predictions of various kinetic mechanisms were made. Sensitivity and pathway analyses for these reference fuel components were performed, leading to reaction rate recommendations with improved model performance. Current results are the first quantitative measurements of OH time-histories during high-pressure oxidation of these fuels, and hence are a critical step toward development of accurate reaction models for jet fuel surrogates. (author)

Vasu, Subith S.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Nonlinear reflection of high intensity picosecond laser pulse from overdense plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of 1.5 ps FWHM laser pulses with solid targets at intensity 10{sup 15}-10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} and contrast ratio 10{sup 6} is studied. Red shift of a 'mirror' reflected fundamental wave and its second harmonic depending on the incident laser pulse energy and angle of incidence are observed. They are associated with Doppler shift corresponding to inward movement of the critical density surface from laser pondermotive pressure. Back scattered light has nonlinear dependence from laser intensity connected with SBS and changing of plasma surface.

Andreev, A. A.; Bayanov, V. I.; Vankov, A. B.; Kozlov, A. A.; Kurnin, I. V.; Platonov, K. Y.; Solovyev, N. A.; Chizhov, S. A.; Yashin, V. E. [Research Institute for Laser Physics, SC 'Vavilov State Optical Institute', 12, Birzhevaya line, St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation)

1998-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nonlinear reflection of high intensity picosecond laser pulse from overdense plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of 1.5 ps FWHM laser pulses with solid targets at intensity 10 15 –10 17 ? W/cm 2 and contrast ratio 10 6 is studied. Red shift of a “mirror” reflected fundamental wave and its second harmonic depending on the incident laser pulse energy and angle of incidence are observed. They are associated with Doppler shift corresponding to inward movement of the critical density surface from laser pondermotive pressure. Back scattered light has nonlinear dependence from laser intensity connected with SBS and changing of plasma surface.

A. A. Andreev; V. I. Bayanov; A. B. Vankov; A. A. Kozlov; I. V. Kurnin; K. Y. Platonov; N. A. Solovyev; S. A. Chizhov; V. E. Yashin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

High-precision measurements of the equation of state of hydrocarbons at 1-10 Mbar using laser-driven shock waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene and polypropylene were measured using laser-driven shock waves with pressures from 1 to 10 Mbar. Precision data resulting from the use of alpha-quartz as an impedance-matching (IM) standard tightly constrains the EOS of these hydrocarbons, even with the inclusion of systematic errors inherent to IM. The temperature at these high pressures was measured, which, combined with kinematic measurements, provide a complete shock EOS. Both hydrocarbons were observed to reach similar compressions and temperatures as a function of pressure. The materials were observed to transition from transparent insulators to reflecting conductors at pressures of 1 to 2 Mbar.

Barrios, M. A.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Hicks, D. G.; Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boehly, T. R.; Fratanduono, D. E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Shock compression of quartz in the high-pressure fluid regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hugoniot of quartz has been measured using laser-driven shock waves with pressures from 2 to 15 Mbars. Within this pressure range silica transforms from a liquid near melt into a dense plasma. Results are in good agreement with previous studies in part of this range performed using explosive- and nuclear-driven shocks indicating the absence of time-dependent effects for time scales between several hundred picoseconds and several hundred microseconds. These data combined with earlier data at lower pressures clearly show the increasing compressibility of silica as it transitions from solid to liquid to dense plasma regimes.

Hicks, D.G.; Boehly, T.R.; Celliers, P.M.; Eggert, J.H.; Vianello, E.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High fidelity field simulations using density and pressure based approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Density-based and pressure-based approaches in solving the Navier-Stokes equations for computational field simulations for compressible and incompressible flows have been presented. For the density-based flow solver, a generalized grid based framework ... Keywords: CFD, Density-based method, Pressure-based method

Gary C. Cheng; Roy P. Koomullil; Bharat K. Soni

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is confined between two walls at large normal pressures. The atomic scale motion that occurs when the two, atomic- scale details of the plastic flow mechanism are investigated by means of molecular dynamics- city v over a broad velocity range. Under non-extreme condi- tions (intermediate pressures

Müser, Martin H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Pressure Media on High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Natrolite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Structural phase transitions in natrolite have been investigated as a function of pressure and different hydrostatic media using micro-Raman scattering and synchrotron infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Natrolite undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 0.86 and 1.53 GPa under pure water pressure medium. These phase transitions are characterized by the changes in the vibrational frequencies of four- and eight-membered rings related to the variations in the bridging T-O-T angles and the geometry of the elliptical eight-ring channels under pressure. Concomitant to the changes in the framework vibrational modes, the number of the O-H stretching vibrational modes of natrolite changes as a result of the rearrangements of the hydrogen bonds in the channels caused by a successive increase in the hydration level under hydrostatic pressure. Similar phase transitions were also observed at relatively higher pressures (1.13 and 1.59 GPa) under alcohol-water pressure medium. Furthermore, no phase transition was found up to 2.52 GPa if a lower volume ratio of the alcohol-water to natrolite was employed. This indicates that the water content in the pressure media plays a crucial role in triggering the pressure-induced phase transitions in natrolite. In addition, the average of the mode Grueneisen parameters is calculated to be about 0.6, while the thermodynamic Grueneisen parameter is found to be 1.33. This might be attributed to the contrast in the rigidity between the TO{sub 4} tetrahedral primary building units and other flexible secondary building units in the natrolite framework upon compression and subsequent water insertion.

D Liu; W Lei; Z Liu; Y Lee

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

High pressure HC1 conversion of cellulose to glucose  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of ethanol from glucose by means of fermentation represents a potential long-range alternative to oil for use as a transportation fuel. Today's rising oil prices and the dwindling world supply of oil have made other fuels, such as ethanol, attractive alternatives. It has been shown that automobiles can operate, with minor alterations, on a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture popularly known as gasohol. Wood has long been known as a potential source of glucose. Glucose may be obtained from wood following acid hydrolysis. In this research, it was found that saturating wood particles with HCl gas under pressure was an effective pretreatment before subjecting the wood to dilute acid hydrolysis. The pretreatment is necessary because of the tight lattice structure of cellulose, which inhibits dilute acid hydrolysis. HCl gas makes the cellulose more susceptible to hydrolysis and the glucose yield is doubled when dilute acid hydrolysis is preceded by HCl saturation at high pressure. The saturation was most effectively performed in a fluidized bed reactor, with pure HCl gas fluidizing equal volumes of ground wood and inert particles. The fluidized bed effectively dissipated the large amount of heat released upon HCl absorption into the wood. Batch reaction times of one hour at 314.7 p.s.i.a. gave glucose yields of 80% and xylose yields of 95% after dilute acid hydrolysis. A non-catalytic gas-solid reaction model, with gas diffusing through the solid limiting the reaction rate, was found to describe the HCl-wood reaction in the fluidized bed. HCl was found to form a stable adduct with the lignin residue in the wood, in a ratio of 3.33 moles per mole of lignin monomer. This resulted in a loss of 0.1453 lb. of HCl per pound of wood. The adduct was broken upon the addition of water. A process design and economic evaluation for a plant to produce 214 tons per day of glucose from air-dried ground Populus tristi gave an estimated glucose cost of 15.14 cents per pound. This would correspond to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol if the glucose were fermented. Key factors contributing to the cost of glucose production were unrecovered HCl, which contributed 5.70 cents per pound of glucose, and the cost of wood, which at $25 per ton contribute 4.17 cents per pound.

Antonoplis, Robert Alexander; Blanch, Harvey W.; Wilke, Charles R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Development of High Average Power Lasers for the Photon Collider  

SciTech Connect

The laser and optics system for the photon collider seeks to minimize the required laser power by using an optical stacking cavity to recirculate the laser light. An enhancement of between 300 to 400 is desired. In order to achieve this the laser pulses which drive the cavity must precisely match the phase of the pulse circulating within the cavity. We report on simulations of the performance of a stacking cavity to various variations of the drive laser in order to specify the required tolerances of the laser system.

Gronberg, Jeff; /LLNL, Livermore; Stuart, Brent; /LLNL, Livermore; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

244

Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure  

SciTech Connect

Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

Koski, Kristie Jo

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center); Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated...

247

High-efficiency free-electron laser results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency and show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7%, and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator.

Boyer, K.; Baru, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

High-power copper vapour lasers and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expanded applications of copper vapor lasers has prompted increased demand for higher power and better beam quality. This paper reports recent progress in laser power scaling, MOPA operation, beam quality improvement, and applications in precision laser machining. Issues such as gas heating, radial delay, discharge instability, and window heating will also be discussed.

Chang, J.J.; Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Dragon, E.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Low-Cost, High-Power Laser for Analytical and Other ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Low-Cost, High-Power Laser for Analytical and Other Applications. ...

250

Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.

Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Laser Spark Plug Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To meet the ignition system needs of large bore high pressure lean burn natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was designed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn high brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) engine. The experimentation explored a variety of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced a robust spark in air. The results show peak power levels exceeding 2 MW and peak focal intensities above 400 GW/cm2. Future research avenues and current progress with the initial prototype are presented and discussed.

McIntyre, D.L.; Richardson, S.W.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Guutam, M. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Process for CO2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Process for CO 2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and Moderate Temperature Gas...

254

High-pressure science gets super-sized | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

leap forward with the discovery of a way to generate super high pressures without using shock waves whose accompanying heat turns solids to liquid. This discovery will allow...

255

On the stability of sp-valent materials at high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The behavior of sp-valent solids and liquids under compression is a field of intense re- search. At high pressure, they often undergo phase transitions to… (more)

Boates, Brian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles  

SciTech Connect

Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges using a substantially high index bonding elastomer or epoxy to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA); Rotter, Mark D. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

258

Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

Cross, Jon B. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species is described. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

Cross, J.B.; Cremers, D.A.

1986-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

260

Heat Treatment of High Pressure Die Castings; Challenges and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat Exchangers · High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Production of Sparks Via High Quality Laser Pulses Transmitted ...  

Fiber optic technology allows the laser to be located away from the extreme conditions inside the ... Fiber optic system allows diagnostic light to return for analysis.

263

High repetition rate fiber and integrated waveguide femtosecond lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Femtosecond lasers and the development of frequency combs have revolutionized multiple fields like metrology, spectroscopy, medical diagnostics and optical communications. However, to enable wider adoption of the technology ...

Sander, Michelle Y. (Michelle Yen-Ling)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

265

Laser barometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes an invention of a pressure measuring instrument which uses laser radiation to sense the pressure in an enclosed environment by means of measuring the change in refractive index of a gas - which is pressure dependent.

Abercrombie, K.R.; Shiels, D.; Rash, T.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

In situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction study of H[subscript 2]O ice VII  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ice VII was examined over the entire range of its pressure stability by a suite of x-ray diffraction techniques in order to understand a number of unexplained characteristics of its high-pressure behavior. Axial and radial polycrystalline (diamond anvil cell) x-ray diffraction measurements reveal a splitting of diffraction lines accompanied by changes in sample texture and elastic anisotropy. In situ laser heating of polycrystalline samples resulted in the sharpening of diffraction peaks due to release of nonhydrostatic stresses but did not remove the splitting. Radial diffraction measurements indicate changes in strength of the material at this pressure. Taken together, these observations provide evidence for a transition in ice VII near 14 GPa involving changes in the character of the proton order/disorder. The results are consistent with previous reports of changes in phase boundaries and equation of state at this pressure. The transition can be interpreted as ferroelastic with the appearance of spontaneous strain that vanishes at the hydrogen bond symmetrization transition near 60 GPa.

Somayazulu, M.; Shu, J.; Zha, C.-S.; Goncharov, A.F. (CIW)

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, Rui

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

268

Structure Stability of Methane Hydrate at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

The structural stability of methane hydrate under pressure at room temperature was examined by both in-situ single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques on samples with structure types I, II, and H in diamond-anvil cells. The diffraction data for types II (sII) and H (sH) were refined to the known structures with space groups Fd3m and P6{sub 3}/mmc, respectively. Upon compression, sI methanehydrate transforms to the sII phase at 120 MPa, and then to the sH phase at 600 MPa. The sII methanehydrate was found to coexist locally with sI phase up to 500 MPa and with sH phase up to 600 MPa. The pure sH structure was found to be stable between 600 and 900 MPa. Methanehydrate decomposes at pressures above 3 GPa to form methane with the orientationally disordered Fm3mstructure and ice VII (Pn3m). The results highlight the role of guest (CH{sub 4})-host (H{sub 2}O) interactions in the stabilization of the hydratestructures under pressure.

J Shu; X Chen; I Chou; W Yang; J Hu; R Hemley; K Mao

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media. [CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse smoother  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode and cathode to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source. An array of resistors or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

McLellan, E.J.

1980-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

273

Structural Behaviors of Cubic Gd2O3 at High Pressures  

SciTech Connect

An irreversible structural transformation from the cubic phase to a hexagonal high-pressure phase was verified in Gd2O3 between 7.0 and 15 GPa. The compressibility and bond distances of both phases were determined by the refinement of the x-ray diffraction data. The high-pressure phase of Gd2O3 is 9.2% denser than the cubic phase at 7 GPa. After release of pressure, the high-pressure phase transformed to a monoclinic structure. The pressure-induced phase transition from the monoclinic to the hexagonal phase is reversible. Unlike the case at atmospheric pressure, the hexagonal phase was found to transform to the monoclinic phase by increase of temperature at high pressures. The lattice potential energies and electronic density of states of the cubic, monoclinic, and hexagonal high-pressure phases of Gd2O3 were calculated from the known structural models with density-functional method. The observed phase stability, transition pressure, and volume change are well explained by theoretical calculations.

Zhang,F.; Lang, M.; Wang, J.; Becker, U.; Ewing, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Feasibility study of underground energy storage using high-pressure, high-temperature water. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical, operational and economic feasibility study on the storage of energy as heated high pressure water in underground cavities that utilize the rock overburden for containment is presented. Handling peak load requirements of electric utility power networks is examined in some detail. The cavity is charged by heating water with surplus steaming capacity during periods of low power requirement. Later this hot water supplies steam to peaking turbines when high load demands must be met. This system can be applied to either new or existing power plants of nuclear or fossil fuel type. The round trip efficiency (into storage and back) is higher than any other system - over 90%. Capital costs are competitive and the environmental impact is quite benign. Detailed installation and design problems are studied and costs are estimated. The continental United States is examined for the most applicable geology. Formations favorable for these large cavities exist in widespread areas.

Dooley, J.L.; Frost, G.P.; Gore, L.A.; Hammond, R.P.; Rawson, D.L.; Ridgway, S.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

Böse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Retained Nanostructures in Monoliths by Multi-anvil High Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hybrid Aerogel/Nanorod Functional Materials for Energy and Sensing ... Processing and Characterization of Inorganic, High Temperature Nanomaterial Filter.

278

A Possible Pressure-Induced High-Temperature-Superconducting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Materials Forensics, Three-dimensional Modeling and Fractal Characterization · Vortex Physics in Oxide and Pnictide High Temperature Superconductors.

279

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

280

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to render the safest, fastest, and most cost efficient drilling program for a high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) well the maximization of drilling operational efficiencies is key. Designing an adequate, HT/HP well specific, drilling fluid is of most importance and a technological challenge that can greatly affect the outcome of the overall operational efficiency. It is necessary to have a sound fundamental understanding of the behavior that water-based muds (WBM) exhibit when exposed to HT/HP conditions. Therefore, in order to adequately design and treat a WBM for a HT/HP well specific drilling program, it is essential that the mud be evaluated at HT/HP conditions. Currently, industry standard techniques used to evaluate WBM characteristics involve aging the fluid sample to a predetermined temperature, based on the anticipated bottom hole temperature (BHT), either statically or dynamically, for a predetermined length, then cooling and mixing the fluid and measuring its rheological properties at a significantly lower temperature. This, along with the fact that the fluid is not subjected to the anticipated bottom hole pressure (BHP) during or after the aging process, brings to question if the properties recorded are those that are truly experienced down-hole. Furthermore, these testing methods do not allow the user to effectively monitor the changes during the aging process. The research in this thesis is focused on evaluating a high performance WBM and the current test procedures used to evaluate their validity. Experimental static and dynamic aging tests were developed for comparative analysis as well to offer a more accurate and precise method to evaluate the effects experienced by WBM when subjected to HT/HP conditions. The experimental tests developed enable the user to monitor and evaluate, in real-time, the rheological changes that occur during the aging of a WBM while being subjected to true BHT and BHP. Detailed standard and experimental aging tests were conducted and suggest that the standard industry tests offer false rheological results with respect to true BHT and BHP. Furthermore, the experimental aging tests show that high pressure has a significant effect on the rheological properties of the WBM at elevated temperatures.

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Segmented lasing tube for high temperature laser assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature laser assembly capable of withstanding operating temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. is described comprising a segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube having a plurality of cylindrical ceramic lasing tube segments of the same inner and outer diameters non-rigidly joined together in axial alignment; insulation of uniform thickness surround the walls of the ceramic lasing tube; a ceramic casing, preferably of quartz, surrounding the insulation; and a fluid cooled metal jacket surrounds the ceramic casing. In a preferred embodiment, the inner surface of each of the ceramic lasing tube segments are provided with a pair of oppositely spaced grooves in the wall thereof parallel to the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube, and both of the grooves and the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube lie in a common plane, with the grooves in each ceramic lasing tube segment in circumferential alignment with the grooves in the adjoining ceramic lasing tube segments; and one or more ceramic plates, all lying in a common plane to one another and with the central axis of the segmented ceramic lasing tube, are received in the grooves to provide additional wall area in the segmented ceramic lasing tube for collision and return to ground state of metastable metal atoms within the segmented ceramic lasing tube.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Finucane, Raymond G. (Pleasanton, CA); Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

APPLICATION OF CERAMICS TO HIGH PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel fuel systems are facing increased demands as engines with reduced emissions are developed. Injection pressures have increased to provide finer atomization of fuel for more efficient combustion, Figure 1. This increases the mechanical loads on the system and requires tighter clearances between plungers and bores to prevent leakage. At the same time, fuel lubricity has decreased as a byproduct of reducing the sulfur levels in fuel. Contamination of fuel by water and debris is an ever-present problem. For oil-lubricated fuel system components, increased soot loading in the oil results in increased wear rates. Additionally, engine manufacturers are lengthening warranty periods for engines and systems. This combination of factors requires the development of new materials to counteract the harsher tribological environment.

Mandler, Jr., William F.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

283

CNT Reinforced Copper Composite for High Contact Pressure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1~10Vol% CNT is dispersed in Copper powder by high energy milling process. ... with FRP Facesheets and Nanoclay-wood Flour Modified Polyurethane Foam.

284

The National Ignition Facility National Ignition Campaign Short Pulse Lasers High-Average-Power Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Average-Power Laser NIF-1005-11471 07BEW/dj P9765 Agenda #12;P9516NIF-0805-11197 01EIM/dj Stockpile Stewardship #12;P9504NIF-0404-08345r2 27EIM/ld Basic Science and Cosmology #12;NIF-0702-05346rIFSA Fusion Energy Campaign and point design NIF-0305-10564 23MLS/cld P8719 The NIF Laser User Optics Physics Operations

285

Production of Sparks via High-Quality Laser Pulses Through ...  

Fiber optic technology allows the laser to be located away from the ... The system allows light produced by the combus-tion to return from the cylinder for analysis.

286

Characterization and analysis of highly diagonal Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The as yet unattained milestone of room-temperature operation is essential for establishing Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers (THz QCLs) as practical sources of THz radiation. Temperature performance is hypothesized to be ...

Chan, Chun Wang Ivan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

288

Driving high-gain shock-ignited inertial confinement fusion targets by green laser light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires UV light irradiation in order to achieve ignition at total laser energy of the order of 1 MJ. The shock-ignition approach opens up the possibility of igniting fusion targets using green light by reducing the implosion velocity and laser-driven ablation pressure. An analytical model is derived, allowing to rescale UV-driven targets to green light. Gain in the range 100-200 is obtained for total laser energy in the range 1.5-3 MJ. With respect to the original UV design, the rescaled targets are less sensitive to irradiation asymmetries and hydrodynamic instabilities, while operating in the same laser-plasma interaction regime.

Atzeni, Stefano; Marocchino, Alberto; Schiavi, Angelo [Dipartimento SBAI, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and CNISM, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, I-00161 Roma (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Application of high powered lasers to drilling and completing deep walls.  

SciTech Connect

High powered laser rock drilling was studied as a revolutionary method for drilling and completing deep gas and oil wells. The objectives of this 2002 to 2003 fiscal year research were to study the concept that large diameter holes can be created by multiple overlapping small beam spots, to determine the ability of lasers to drill rock submerged to some depth in water, to demonstrate the possibilities of lasers for perforating application, and to determine the wavelength effects on rock removal. Laser technology applied to well drilling and completion operations is attractive because it has the potential to reduce drilling time, create a ceramic lining that may eliminate the need for steel casing, provide additional monitor-on-drilling laser sensors and improve well performance through improved perforation. The results from this research will help engineering design on a laser-based well drilling system.

Reed, C. B.; Xu, Z.; Parker, R. A.; Gahan, B. C.; Batarseh, S.; Graves, R. M.; Figueroa, H.; Deeg, W.

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Edward teller medal lecture: High intensity lasers and the road to ignition  

SciTech Connect

There has been much progress in the development of high intensity lasers and in the science of laser driven inertially confined fusion such that ignition is now a near term prospect. This lecture reviews the field with particular emphasis on areas of my own involvement. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Key, M.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California94551 (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Edward Teller medal lecture: High intensity lasers and the road to ignition  

SciTech Connect

There has been much progress in the development of high intensity lasers and in the science of laser driven inertially confined fusion such that ignition is now a near term prospect. This lecture reviews the field with particular emphasis on areas of my own involvement.

Key, M. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Edward Teller medal lecture: high intensity lasers and the road to ignition  

SciTech Connect

There has been much progress in the development of high intensity lasers and in the science of laser driven inertially confined fusion such that ignition is now a near term prospect. This lecture reviews the field with particular emphasis on areas of my own involvement.

Key, M.H.

1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fermi Surface of Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fermi Surface of ­Uranium at Ambient Pressure Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory DMR-Award 0654118 DC Field Facility User Program The fermi surface of ­Uranium has been measured surface of alpha-uranium at ambient pressure, Phys. Rev. B Rapid Commun., 80, 241101 (2009). B//c-axis B

Weston, Ken

295

Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Neutron scattering workshop promotes high-pressure research ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

long-term goals in these areas closer to reality, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), home of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor, is hosting...

297

Advanced Laser Diagnostics Development for the Characterization of Gaseous High Speed Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of high-speed flows represents a challenging problem in the fluid dynamics field due to the presence of chemical reactions and non-equilibrium effects. Hypersonic flights, where speeds reach Mach 5 and above, are particularly influenced by these effects, resulting in a direct impact on the flow and consequently on the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle traveling at these speeds. The study of hypersonic flow conditions requires the experimental capability of determining local temperatures, pressures and velocities using non-intrusive techniques. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurement of two or more variables in a complex flow boosts the amount of information that is obtained since valuable correlations can be established. This research includes the design, construction and characterization of a hypersonic flow apparatus explicitly intended as a tool for advanced laser diagnostics development. This apparatus is characterized by its pulsed operation mode that translates into a significant reduction in mass flow rates and can be operated for long periods at Mach numbers ranging from 2.8 to 6.2. The flow conditions during the uniform flow time interval of each pulse vary by less than 1%, generating a flow of sufficient quality for quantitative measurements. The development of a laser diagnostic technique, the VENOM technique, which is a non-intrusive method to provide simultaneous 2-D measurements of the mean and instantaneous fluctuations in two-component velocity and temperature is also presented. This technique represents the first single diagnostic capable of instantaneous two-component velocimetry and thermometry in a gaseous flow field by combining two Nitric Oxide Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence methods: two-component Molecular Tagging Velocimetry and two-line thermometry, employing the nascent NO(v"=1) arising from the NO2 photodissociation as a molecular tracer. The VENOM technique is expected to be not only applicable to cold high-speed flows, which is the focus of the present work, but also to combustion and other reactive or high-enthalpy flow fields.

Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Guiding of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses in plasma channels produced with the dual laser pulse ignitor-heater technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors present results of experimental investigations of laser guiding in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor-Heater scheme is proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (< 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used subsequently to heat the existing spark via inverse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. The channel density was diagnosed with time resolved longitudinal interferometry. From these measurements the plasma temperature was inferred. The guiding properties of the channels were tested by injecting a > 5 {times} 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, 75 fs laser pulse.

Volfbeyn, P.; Leemans, W.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Thermoelastic properties of ReB[subscript 2] at high pressures and temperatures and comparison with Pt, Os, and Re  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have measured the phase stability and thermoelastic equation of state of ultrahard rhenium diboride at pressures up to 30 GPa and temperatures up to 2500 K using a laser heated diamond anvil cell in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. ReB{sub 2} is shown to be stable throughout this pressure and temperature region. The ratio of the c-axis to the a-axis provides a monitor of the annealing of plastic stresses during compression. We show that ReB{sub 2} has a small thermal anisotropy but a large mechanical anisotropy. Combining this new data set with previously existing results from a large volume press yields a thermoelastic equation of state with a Grueneisen parameter of 2.4 (0.08) and a q of 2.7. A comparison of ReB{sub 2} with other high electron density incompressible metals - Os, Re, and Pt - shows that ReB{sub 2} has the lowest thermal pressure and the highest bulk modulus.

Kavner, Abby; Armentrout, Matthew M.; Rainey, Emma S.G.; Xie, Miao; Weaver, Beth E.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B. (UCLA)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

300

High pressure heterogeneous catalysis in a low pressure ultrahigh vacuum environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus was been developed which couples high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with molecular beam and scattering techniques. Exposure of Ni(111) to atomic H results in H embedded within the Ni lattice and a monolayer of H adsorbed on the surface. This surface-bound H was removed by an Xe atom beam. Subsequent exposure to CH[sub 4] results in dissociative adsorption, producing adsorbed CH[sub 3] and adsorbed H. Results documents a new mechanism for a surface reaction, a reaction between an adsorbed and a bulk species, and demonstrates the importance of bulk H as a reactant in a heterogeneous catalytic reaction.

Ceyer, S.T.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

Hydrogen-bond Dynamics and Fermi Resonance in High-pressure Methane Filled Ice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-pressure, variable temperature infrared spectroscopy and first-principles calculations on the methane filled ice structure (MH-III) at high pressures are used to investigate the vibrational dynamics related to pressure induced modifications in hydrogen bonding. Infrared spectroscopy of isotopically dilute solutions of H{sub 2}O in D{sub 2}O is employed together with first-principles calculations to characterize proton dynamics with the pressure induced shortening of hydrogen bonds. A Fermi resonance is identified and shown to dominate the infrared spectrum in the pressure region between 10 and 30 GPa. Significant differences in the effects of the Fermi resonance observed between 10 and 300 K arise from the double-well potential energy surface of the hydrogen bond and quantum effects associated with the proton dynamics.

Klug,D.; Tse, J.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed ... Press Release Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget

307

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injection ISX G Natural Gas Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet details work by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Not Available

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Design strategies for optimizing high burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is focused on the strategy for utilizing high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR) with special emphasis on the full array of neutronic considerations. The historical increase in batch-averaged discharge ...

Xu, Zhiwen, 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Optimal design of a high pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A team composed of material scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians have used computer simulations as a fundamental design tool in developing a new prototype High Pressure Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use ...

K. J. Bachmann; H. T. Banks; C. Höpfner; G. M. Kepler; S. Lesure; S. D. Mccall; J. S. Scroggs

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

“Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation. [Quarterly status] report, October 15, 1991--January 14, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+} and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wing pumping a Tm{sup 3+} doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 {micro}m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm{sup 3+} absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm{sup 3+} because high Tm{sup 3+} concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation. 7 figs.

Beach, R.J.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

314

High efficiency 2 micrometer laser utilizing wing-pumped Tm.sup.3+ and a laser diode array end-pumping architecture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wing pumping a Tm.sup.3+ doped, end pumped solid state laser generates 2 .mu.m laser radiation at high average powers with high efficiency. Using laser diode arrays to end-pump the laser rod or slab in the wing of the Tm.sup.3+ absorption band near 785 nm results in 2-for-1 quantum efficiency in Tm.sup.3+ because high Tm.sup.3+ concentrations can be used. Wing pumping allows the thermal power generated in the rod or slab to be distributed over a large enough volume to make thermal management practical in the laser gain medium even at high average power operation. The approach is applicable to CW, Q-switched, and rep-pulsed free-laser operation.

Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

316

Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Down-hole damages such as borehole collapse, circulation loss and rock tensile/compressive cracking in the open-hole system are well understood at drilling and well completion stages. However, less effort has been made to understand the instability of cemented sections in High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells. The existing analysis shows that, in the perforation zones, casing/cement is subject to instability, particularly in the presence of cavities. This dissertation focuses on the instability mechanism of casing/cement in the non-perforated zones. We investigate the transient thermal behavior in the casing-cement-formation system resulting from the movement of wellbore fluid using finite element method. The critical value of down-hole stresses is identified in both wellbore heating and cooling effects. Differently with the heating effect, the strong cooling effect in a cased hole can produce significant tension inside casing/cement. The confining formation has an obvious influence on the stability of casing/cement. The proposed results reveal that the casing/cement system in the non-homogeneous formation behaves differently from that in homogeneous formation. With this in mind, a three-dimensional layered finite element model is developed to illustrate the casing/cement mechanical behavior in the non-homogeneous formation. The radial stress of cement sheath is found to be highly variable and affected by the contrast in Young’s moduli in the different formation layers. The maximum stress is predicted to concentrate in the casing-cement system confined by the sandstone. Casing wear in the cased-hole system causes significant casing strength reduction, possibly resulting in the casing-cement tangential collapse. In this study, an approach for calculating the stress concentration in the worn casing with considering temperature change is developed, based on boundary superposition. The numerical results indicate that the casing-cement system after casing wear will suffer from severe tangential instability due to the elevated compressive hoop stress. Gas migration during the cementing process results from the fluid cement’s inability to balance formation pore pressure. Past experience emphasized the application of chemical additives to reduce or control gas migration during the cementing process. This report presents the thermal and mechanical behaviors in a cased hole caused by created gas channels after gas migration. In conclusion, the size and the number of gas channels are two important factors in determining mechanical instability in a casing-cement system.

Shen, Zheng 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Survey of processes for high temperature-high pressure gas purification. [52 references  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the optimum operating efficiency of a combined-cycle electric power generating system, it is necessary to provide gas treatment processes capable of operating at high temperatures (> 1000/sup 0/F) and high pressures (> 10 atm (absolute)). These systems will be required to condition the inlet stream to the gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) to be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. A survey of the available and developmental processes for the removal of these various contaminant materials has been conducted. Based on the data obtained from a variety of sources, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of potential cleanup processes in view of the overall system needs. The results indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup systems (for the removal of H/sub 2/S, particulate matter, alkali, and nitrogen compounds) capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for turbine use will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J.P.; Edwards, M.S.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter or access the facility. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization More Documents & Publications D&D Toolbox Project - Technology Demonstration of Fixatives Applied to Hot Cell Facilities via Remote Sprayer Platforms Above on the left is K-25, at Oak Ridge before and after the 844,000 sq-ft demolition. In addition, on the right: K Cooling Tower at Savannah River Site demolition.

319

D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization The characterization of complex and/or hazardous facilities for the purposes of planning D&D projects can be excessively time consuming and present unacceptable hazards for personnel who enter or access the facility. D&D Toolbox Robotic Deployment of High Resolution Laser Imaging for Characterization More Documents & Publications Above on the left is K-25, at Oak Ridge before and after the 844,000 sq-ft demolition. In addition, on the right: K Cooling Tower at Savannah River Site demolition. Deactivation & Decommissioning (D&D) Program Map DOE EM Project Experience & Lessons Learned for In Situ Decommissioning

320

High repetition rate mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with complete electric field control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in fully-stabilized mode-locked laser systems are enabling many applications, including optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG). In this thesis work, we describe the development of high repetition-rate ...

Sickler, Jason William, 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

High-Energy Petawatt Project at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-energy petawatt laser, OMEGA EP, is currently under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Integrated into the existing OMEGA laser, it will support three major areas of research: (a) backlighting of high-energy-density plasmas, (b) integrated fast ignition experiments, and (c) high-intensity physics. The laser will provide two beams combined collinearly and coaxially with short pulses (~1 to 100 ps) and high energy (2.6 kJ at 10 ps). Cone-in-shell fuel-assembly experiments and simulations of short-pulse heated cryogenic targets are being performed in preparation for cryogenic integrated fast ignitor experiments on OMEGA EP.

Stoeckl, C.; Delettrez, J.A.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Loucks, S.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Maywar, D.N.; Morse, S.F.B.; Myatt, J.; Rigatti, A.L.; Waxer, L.J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Stephens, R.B.

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

Climate Change: Anticipated Effects on High-Energy Laser Weapon Systems in Maritime Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study quantifies the potential impacts on ship-defense high-energy-laser (HEL) performance due to atmospheric effects in the marine boundary layer driven by recent observations and analysis of worldwide sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The ...

Steven T. Fiorino; Robb M. Randall; Richard J. Bartell; Adam D. Downs; Peter C. Chu; C. W. Fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22013_earth 22013_earth 12/20/2013 A Lawrence Livermore researcher prepares a sample at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer (SNAP). High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper magnets Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Sometimes you have to apply a little pressure to get magnetic materials to reveal their secrets. By placing a permanent magnet under high pressures, Lawrence Livermore researchers are exploring how atomic structure enhances magnetic strength and resistance to demagnetization. This fundamental research into magnetic behavior has important implications for engineering stronger, cheaper magnets. Permanent magnets based on rare earth elements are in high demand for

325

Suppressing longitudinal double-layer oscillations by using elliptically polarized laser pulses in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that well collimated mono-energetic ion beams with a large particle number can be generated in the hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime by using an elliptically polarized laser pulse with appropriate theoretically determined laser polarization ratio. Due to the J Multiplication-Sign B effect, the double-layer charge separation region is imbued with hot electrons that prevent ion pileup, thus suppressing the double-layer oscillations. The proposed mechanism is well confirmed by Particle-in-Cell simulations, and after suppressing the longitudinal double-layer oscillations, the ion beams driven by the elliptically polarized lasers own much better energy spectrum than those by circularly polarized lasers.

Wu Dong; Yan, X. Q. [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, C. Y.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T. [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute of Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

327

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

328

Zettawatt-Exawatt Lasers and Their Applications in Ultrastrong-Field Physics High Energy Front  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since its birth, the laser has been extraordinarily effective in the study and applications of laser-matter interaction at the atomic and molecular level and in the nonlinear optics of the bound electron. In its early life, the laser was associated with the physics of electron volts and of the chemical bond. Over the past fifteen years, however, we have seen a surge in our ability to produce high intensities, five to six orders of magnitude higher than was possible before. At these intensities, particles, electrons and protons, acquire kinetic energy in the mega-electron-volt range through interaction with intense laser fields. This opens a new age for the laser, the age of nonlinear relativistic optics coupling even with nuclear physics. We suggest a path to reach an extremely high-intensity level $10^{26-28} $W/cm$^2$ in the coming decade, much beyond the current and near future intensity regime $10^{23} $W/cm$^2$, taking advantage of the megajoule laser facilities. Such a laser at extreme high intensity co...

Tajima, T

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Research on Active Power Factor Correction of the Electronic Ballast for High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Based on L6563  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the design of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballast. Two measures are proposed to improve the power factor of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballasts from the definition of harmonic ... Keywords: high-pressure sodium lamps, electronic ballast, active power factor correction, L6563

Sun Jing

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

REED BESLER BOILER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEM AND THERMAL CYCLING FACILITY. Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure boiler has been installed at ORNL. This Besler boiler is capabie of producing from 150 to 2000 psi saturated steam at steaming rates up to 5000 lbs/hr. The boiler is part of a water-steam circuit whteh also includes two spray water pumps, a steam pressure control valve, a high pressure trapping station, and a low pressure deaerated feedwater system. The new boiler system is piped and instrumented to serve as a thermal cycling facility. Shakedown test thermal cycles to requirements set forth in HRT Specification 1113a have been conducted using the existing Dump Test Autoclave as a test piece. Fourty-four cycles have been run through mid February, 1958. The boiler has been operated a total of 142 hours. Cycles are run completely automatically. Better than three- fourths of the cycles as run fall within the specification prescribed limits. (auth)

Holz, P.P.

1958-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

High temperature thermographic measurements of laser heated silica  

SciTech Connect

In situ spatial and temporal surface temperature profiles of CO{sub 2} laser-heated silica were obtained using a long wave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe camera. Solutions to the linear diffusion equation with volumetric and surface heating are shown to describe the temperature evolution for a range of beam powers, over which the peak surface temperature scales linearly with power. These solutions were used with on-axis steady state and transient experimental temperatures to extract thermal diffusivity and conductivity for a variety of materials, including silica, spinel, sapphire, and lithium fluoride. Experimentally-derived thermal properties agreed well with reported values and, for silica, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be approximately independent of temperature between 300 and 2800K. While for silica our analysis based on a temperature independent thermal conductivity is shown to be accurate, for other materials studied this treatment yields effective thermal properties that represent reasonable approximations for laser heating. Implementation of a single-wavelength radiation measurement in the semi-transparent regime is generally discussed, and estimates of the apparent temperature deviation from the actual outer surface temperature are also presented. The experimental approach and the simple analysis presented yield surface temperature measurements that can be used to validate more complex physical models, help discriminate dominant heat transport mechanisms, and to predict temperature distribution and evolution during laser-based material processing.

Elhadj, S; Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Cooke, D J; Bude, J D; Johnson, M; Feit, M; Draggoo, V; Bisson, S E

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

Time Integrated Soft X-ray Imaging in High Intensity Laser Experiments (thesis)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

2009 marks a significant achievement and the dawn of a new era in high intensity laser research with the final commissioning of all 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a department of energy (DOE) funded project more than 10 years in the making located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The following research was done as one of many preliminary experiments done to prepare for these historic events. The primary focus of the experimental campaign this paper addresses is to test and develop a thermal x-radiation source using a short pulse laser. This data is hoped to provide information about the thermal transport mechanisms important in the development of prediction models in High Energy Density (HED) science. One of several diagnostics fielded was a soft x-ray imager (SXRI) which is detailed in this paper. The SXRI will be used to measure the relative size of the heated region and also the relative level of specific x-ray emissions among several shot and target configurations. The laser system used was the Titan laser located in the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Titan uses the JLF Janus Nd:glass laser west frontend system with a Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) in place of the nanosecond oscillator. The system is capable of producing laser intensities of over a petawatt with several tens of joules delivered in the beam.

Stafford, D

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Laser Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... over a wide range of powers, energies, and wavelengths. ... the SI units for laser power and energy. ... Novel power meter for high-efficiency laser diode ...

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

336

Generation and use of high power 213 nm and 266 nm laser radiation and tunable 210-400 nm laser radiation with BBO crystal matrix array  

SciTech Connect

A 213 nm laser beam is capable of single photon ablative photodecomposition for the removal of a polymer or biological material substrate. Breaking the molecular bonds and displacing the molecules away from the substrate in a very short time period results in most of the laser photon energy being carried away by the displaced molecules, thus minimizing thermal damage to the substrate. The incident laser beam may be unfocussed and is preferably produced by quintupling the 1064 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG solid state laser, i.e., at 213 nm. In one application, the 213 nm laser beam is expanded in cross section and directed through a plurality of small beta barium borate (BBO) crystals for increasing the energy per photon of the laser radiation directed onto the substrate. The BBO crystals are arranged in a crystal matrix array to provide a large laser beam transmission area capable of accommodating high energy laser radiation without damaging the BBO crystals. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used with 266 nm laser radiation for carrying out single or multi photon ablative photodecomposition. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used in an optical parametric oscillator mode to generate high power tunable laser radiation in the range of 210-400 nm.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Safety Valve Performance Considerations During High-Pressure Station Black-Out Severe Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment of the operating history and test performance of pressurizer safety valves (PSVs) and main steam safety valves (MSSVs) has led to new conclusions on their expected performance during high-pressure station blackout (SBO) severe accident conditions. This report updates conclusions documented in Volume I, focusing on thermal-hydraulic considerations surrounding the reactor coolant system response to an SBO and valve lifts during an SBO event. The report also reconsiders PSV and MSSV tests and ...

1998-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

338

Vapor-Phase-Deposited Organosilane Coatings as "Hardening" Agents for High-Peak-Power Laser Optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayer-dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings are used in high-power laser systems to compress laser-energy pulses. The peak power deliverable on target for these short-pulse petawatt class systems is limited by the laser-damage resistance of the optical components in the system, especially the MLD gratings. Recent experiments in our laboratory have shown that vapor treatment of MLD gratings at room temperature with organosilanes such as hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) produces an increase in their damage threshold as compared to uncoated MLD grating control samples.

Marshall, K.L.; Culakova, Z.; Ashe, B.; Giacofei, C.; Rigatti, A.L.; Kessler, T.J.; Schmid, A.W.; Oliver, J.B.; Kozlov, A.

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

339

High-charge energetic electron bunch generated by intersecting laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of two energetic electron bunches generated in the wakefields of two intense intersecting laser pulses in rarefied plasmas is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that, with suitable intersection angle between the two laser pulses, the initially independent wakefield accelerated electron bunches can merged into a single one with high charge, energy, and narrow energy spread. The dynamics of the laser-pulse intersection and wake-bubble merging process is also investigated, and the crucial roles of the intersection angle are pointed out and analyzed.

Yang Lei; Deng Zhigang [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhou, C. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Xingang [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062 (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Oxidation of Fuel Cladding Candidate Materials in Steam Environments at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect

Under certain severe accident conditions, the fuel rods of nuclear power plants are exposed to high temperature/pressure steam environments in which the Zr alloy cladding is rapidly oxidized. As alternative claddings, the oxidation resistances of SiC-based materials and stainless steels with high Cr and/or Al additions have been examined from 800-1200 C in high-pressure steam environments. Very low reaction kinetics were observed with alumina-forming FeCrAl alloys at 1200 C while Fe-Cr alloys with only 15-20% Cr were rapidly attacked.

Cheng, Ting [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

High gain x-ray lasers pumped by transient collisional excitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present recent results of x-ray laser amplification of spontaneous emission in Ne-like and Ni-like transient collisional excitation schemes. The plasma formation, ionization and collisional excitation can be optimized using two laser pulses of 1 ns and 1 ps duration at table-top energies of 5 J in each beam. High gain of 35 cm{sup -1} has been measured on the 147 {Angstrom} 4d{r_arrow}4p J=0{r_arrow}1 transition of Ni-like Pd and is a direct consequence of the nonstationary population inversion produced by the high intensity picosecond pulse. We report the dependence of the x-ray laser line intensity on the laser plasma conditions and compare the experimental measurements with hydrodynamic and atomic kinetics simulations for Ne-like and Ni-like lasing.

Dunn, J., LLNL

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

HPS replacement project drives garage costs down. [High-pressure sodium luminaires  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of energy had forced a four-story New York airport parking garage to turn off almost half its low bay lights, leaving it gloomy and vandal-prone. By replacing the original lamps with high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires, the garage brightened its image with 2400 fewer fixtures and netted an annual energy savings of $60,000.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1976-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

KrF laser path to high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion) laboratory microfusion facility  

SciTech Connect

The krypton-fluoride laser has many desirable features for inertial confinement fusion. Because it is a gas laser capable of operation with high efficiency, it is the only known laser candidate capable of meeting the driver requirements for inertial fusion energy (IFE) production. Los Alamos National Laboratory has defined a program plan to develop KrF lasers for IFE production. This plan develops the KrF laser and demonstrates the target performance in single-pulse facilities. A 100-kJ Laser Target Test Facility (LTTF) is proposed as the next step, to be followed by a 3 to 10-MJ Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The LTTF will resolve many target physics issues and accurately define the driver energy required for the LMF. It is also proposed that the technology development for IFE, such as the high-efficiency, high-reliability, repetitively pulsed driver, the reactor, mass production of targets, and the mechanism of injecting targets be developed in parallel with the single-pulse facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Harris, D.B.; Sullivan, J.A.; Figueiro, J.F.; Cartwright, D.C.; McDonald, T.E.; Hauer, A.A.; Coggeshall, S.V.; Younger, S.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Dynamical Schwinger effect and high-intensity lasers. Realising nonperturbative QED.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of experimental verification of vacuum e{sup +}e{sup -} pair creation at the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with intensities 10{sup 20}-10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}, achievable with present-day petawatt lasers, and approaching the Schwinger limit: 10{sup 29} W/cm{sup 2} to be reached at ELI. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the evolution of the e{sup +} and e{sup -} distribution functions governed by a non-Markovian source term for pair production. As possible experimental signals of vacuum pair production we consider e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into {gamma}-pairs and the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma. We discuss the dependence of the dynamical pair production process on laser wavelength, with special emphasis on applications in the X-ray domain (X-FEL), as well as the prospects for {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pair creation at high-intensity lasers. We investigate perspectives for using high-intensity lasers as 'boosters' of ion beams in the few-GeV per nucleon range, which is relevant, e.g., to the exploration of the QCD phase transition in laboratory experiments.

Blaschke, D. B.; Prozorkevich, A. V.; Roepke, G.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.; Shkirmanov, D. S.; Smolyansky, S. A.; Physics; Univ. of Wroclaw; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research; Univ. Rostock; Saratov State Univ.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Dynamical Schwinger effect and high-intensity lasers. Realising nonperturbative QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of experimental verification of vacuum e^+e^- pair creation at the focus of two counter-propagating optical laser beams with intensities 10^{20}-10^{22} W/cm^2, achievable with present-day petawatt lasers, and approaching the Schwinger limit: 10^{29} W/cm^2 to be reached at ELI. Our approach is based on the collisionless kinetic equation for the evolution of the e^+ and e^- distribution functions governed by a non-Markovian source term for pair production. As possible experimental signals of vacuum pair production we consider e^+e^- annihilation into gamma-pairs and the refraction of a high-frequency probe laser beam by the produced e^+e^- plasma. We discuss the dependence of the dynamical pair production process on laser wavelength, with special emphasis on applications in the X-ray domain (X-FEL), as well as the prospects for \\mu^+\\mu^- and \\pi^+\\pi^- pair creation at high-intensity lasers. We investigate perspectives for using high-intensity lasers as ``boosters'' of ion beams in the few-GeV per nucleon range, which is relevant, e.g., to the exploration of the QCD phase transition in laboratory experiments.

D. B. Blaschke; A. V. Prozorkevich; G. Roepke; C. D. Roberts; S. M. Schmidt; D. S. Shkirmanov; S. A. Smolyansky

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

Marker, A.J.; Campbell, J.H.

1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

Marker, Alexander J. (Moscow, PA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt(M), SFB/TR49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

High-pressure x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of ice VIII Yukihiro Yoshimura,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the phase diagram of ice is incomplete, especially at low temperature and high pressure. Above 2 GPa, dense-pressure ice structures, and at very high-pressures 60 GPa symmetric ice X phase forms. Much recent work VII . Later, Klotz et al.6 re- ported that a phase closely related to ice VI and possibly ice VII can

Stewart, Sarah T.

351

High-pressure structural phase transitions in chromium-doped BaFe2As2  

SciTech Connect

We report on the results from high pressure x-ray powder diffraction and electrical resistance measurements for hole doped BaFe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}As{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.4, 0.61) up to 81 GPa and down to 10 K using a synchrotron source and diamond anvil cell (DAC). At ambient temperature, an isostructural phase transition from a tetragonal (T) phase (I4/mmm) to a collapsed tetragonal (CT) phase is observed at 17 GPa. This transition is found to be dependent on ambient pressure unit cell volume and is slightly shifted to higher pressure upon increase in the Cr-doping. Unlike BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} which superconduct under high pressure, we have not detected any evidence of pressure induced superconductivity in chromium doped samples in the pressure and temperature range of this study. The measured equation of state parameters are presented for both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases for x = 0.05, 0.15, 0.40 and 0.61.

Uhoya, Walter [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Brill, Joseph W. [University of Kentucky; Montgomery, Jeffrey M [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Samudrala, G K [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Tsoi, Georgiy [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Vohra, Y. K. [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Weir, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test.

Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Nichols, R.T. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

On-Line Dissolved Gas Analysis in High-Pressure Fluid-Filled Cables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly reliable underground transmission lines are essential to deliver power consistently. Reliability may be affected as underground laminar dielectric cable circuits age and their condition degenerates. High-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) pipe-type cable systems have been the preferred high-voltage transmission cable type in North America from the earliest transmission cable installations in the 1930s through the late 1990s and still account for the largest percentage (80%) of installed length. Although...

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

Evaluation of ceramic filters for high-temperature/high-pressure fine particulate control. Final report Dec 75-Jun 76  

SciTech Connect

High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable particulate removal. In order to maintain high thermal efficiency the particulate clean-up must be done at the high temperatures of the process. Many new concepts for fine particulate control at elevated temperatures are presently being proposed. One such concept utilizes ceramic membrane filters. The report gives results of a study to analyze and evaluate ceramic membrane filters as a new, fine particulate (<3 um) control concept for high-temperature (approx. 900/sup 0/C), high-pressure processes. Several ceramic filters were identified as potential candidates for fine particulate removal. There does not seem to be any inherent material limitation to high-temperature operation; however, no evidence of high-temperature filter application was found. The filters typically are 2-6 mm thick, cylindrical, and available with various pore sizes, increasing upward from 0.5 um. These elements may be suitable for fine particulate control in hot gas streams. The most promising, although undeveloped, idea for a ceramic filter is to use ceramic honeycomb monoliths similar to those available for catalyst supports and heat exchangers. The walls of the monoliths are about 0.2-0.4 mm thick and of varying pore size and porosity. Geometric configurations are available which would force the gas to flow through the membrane walls. Pressure losses would be very small relative to those of standard ceramic filter elements. The application of ceramic monoliths to high-temperature fine particulate control appears very promising. It is strongly recommended that this concept be investigated further.

Poe, G.G.; Evans, R.M.; Bonnett, W.S.; Waterland, L.R.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Rotor Design for High Pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a sample spinning rate exceeding 2.1 kHz and pressure greater than 165 bar has never been realized. In this work, a new sample cell design is reported, suitable for constructing cells of different sizes. Using a 7.5 mm high pressure MAS rotor as an example, internal pressure as high as 200 bar at a sample spinning rate of 6 kHz is achieved. The new high pressure MAS rotor is re-usable and compatible with most commercial NMR set-ups, exhibiting low 1H and 13C NMR background and offering maximal NMR sensitivity. As an example of its many possible applications, this new capability is applied to determine reaction products associated with the carbonation reaction of a natural mineral, antigorite ((Mg,Fe2+)3Si2O5(OH)4), in contact with liquid water in water-saturated supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at 150 bar and 50 ?C. This mineral is relevant to the deep geologic disposal of CO2, but its iron content results in too many sample spinning sidebands at low spinning rate. Hence, this chemical system is a good case study to demonstrate the utility of the higher sample spinning rates that can be achieved by our new rotor design. We expect this new capability will be useful for exploring solid-state, including interfacial, chemistry at new levels of high-pressure in a wide variety of fields.

Turcu, Romulus VF; Hoyt, David W.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sears, Jesse A.; Loring, John S.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

357

Laser Controlled Area Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

79 79 01 Effective: Page 1 of 17 05/13/11 Subject: X17B3 Laser Safety Program Documentation 1 AUTHORIZATION | Princeton University BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines the safety management program for the laser system listed below. All American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Hazard Class 3B and 4 laser systems must be documented, reviewed, and approved through use of this form. Each system must be reviewed annually. System description: A laser heating system for diamond anvil cell experiments has been installed at X17B3. A class 4 ytterbium fiber laser (IPG model YLR-100-SM-CS) is used to perform high-pressure laser heating of samples contained in diamond anvil cells. Included within this laser is a guide laser

358

Laser barometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

Abercrombie, Kevin R. (Westminster, CO); Shiels, David (Thornton, CO); Rash, Tim (Aurora, CO)

2001-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

359

A diamond anvil cell with resistive heating for high pressure and high temperature x-ray diffraction and absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a prototype of a diamond anvil cell (DAC) for high pressure/high temperature studies. This DAC combines the use of a resistive oven of 250 W power in a very small volume, associated with special conical seats for Boehler-type diamond anvils in order to have a large angular acceptance. To protect the diamond anvils from burning and to avoid the oven oxidation, the heated DAC is enclosed in a vacuum chamber. The assemblage was used to study the melting curve of germanium at high pressure (up to 20 GPa) and high temperature (up to 1200 K) using x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Pasternak, Sebastien; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Pascarelli, Sakura; Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Poloni, Roberta [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain (Spain); Canny, Bernard [IMPMC-CNRS UMR, 7590 Universite Paris VI, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Coulet, Marie-Vanessa [IM2NP-UMR CNRS, 6242 Universite Paul Cezanne Campus de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

A parametric study of double-shell tank response to internal high-frequency pressure loading  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The double-shell waste tank 241SY101 (SY101) is a 3,785,400-liter tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The tank waste has formed two layers of sludge in the tank; a convective and a nonconvective layer. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer of the waste. Various means of preventing the buildup of hydrogen molecules in the nonconvective layer have been investigated, including the use of a sonic probe that would transmit high-frequency acoustic pressure waves into the nonconvective layer of the waste. During the operation of the sonic probe, the pressure waves transmitted from the probe induce pressure time history loading on the inside surface of the primary tank. For low-frequency fluid-structure interaction loads, such as those associated with seismic events, the convective and impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank are well documented. However, for high-frequency loading, such as that associated with acoustic pressure waves, interactions between the waste and the primary tank are not understood. The pressure time history is represented by a harmonic function with a frequency range between 30 and 100 Hz. Structural analyses of the double-shell tank have been performed that address the tank`s response to the sonic probe acoustic pressure loads. This paper addresses the variations in the tank response as a function of percent waste mass considered to be effective in the dynamic excitation of the tank. It also compares results predicted by analyses that discretely model the liquid waste and presents recommendations for the simplified effective mass approach. Also considered in the parametric study is the effect of damping on the tank response for the same pressure loading.

Baliga, R.; Choi, K.; Shulman, J.S. [ADVENT Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States); Strehlow, J.P.; Abatt, G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Preliminary analysis for adopting high pressure treatment: a simulation-based approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present in this paper a preliminary analysis of the simulation results in introducing high pressure treatment (HPT) into a meat production line. In particular, we first give a brief introduction to HPT and its applications. Next, we present a thorough ... Keywords: business process simulation, perishable products, production management, simulation analysis

Vassiliou Vassos; Menicou Michalis; Chartosia Niki; Christofi Stavros; Charalambides Marios

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

1997-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the Extreme Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480°F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High pressure study of changes in energy and intensity of excitations in crystalline metal glyoximes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of high pressure has been measured on the energy and integrated intensity of electronic excitations of several layered crystals of glyoximes containing Ni, Pd, or Pt. Large changes in both energy and intensity were observed, both of which were completely reversible. The shifts in energy with pressure, are explained in terms of the relative spatial extent of the outer d and p orbitals of Ni, Pd, and Pt. The effects of back donation from the ligands and intensity borrowing from the higher energy charge transfer excitations are considered as possible causes of the observed intensity changes. It was concluded that intensity borrowing was the major cause of the observed changes.

Tkacz, M.; Drickamer, H.G.

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured brines: technical evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is proposed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. The assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed, and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into the producing formation, it is concluded that methane extraction processes are not applicable, insofar as maintenance of high surface pressures provides no clear-cut energy benefits. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubility of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, was measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. The solubility of a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, was also measured.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

High-power laser and arc welding of thorium-doped iridium alloys  

SciTech Connect

The arc and laser weldabilities of two Ir-0.3% W alloys containing 60 and 200 wt ppM Th have been investigated. The Ir-.03% W alloy containing 200 wt ppM Th is severely prone to hot cracking during gas tungsten-arc welding. Weld metal cracking results from the combined effects of heat-affected zone liquation cracking and solidification cracking. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fractured surface revealed patches of low-melting eutectic. The cracking is influenced to a great extent by the fusion zone microstructure and thorium content. The alloy has been welded with a continuous-wave high-power CO/sub 2/ laser system with beam power ranging from 5 to 10 kW and welding speeds of 8 to 25 mm/s. Successful laser welds without hot cracking have been obtained in this particular alloy. This is attributable to the highly concentrated heat source available in the laser beam and the refinement in fusion zone microstructure obtained during laser welding. Efforts to refine the fusion zone structure during gas tungsten-arc welding of Ir-0.3 % W alloy containing 60 wt ppM Th were partially successful. Here transverse arc oscillation during gas tungsten-arc welding refines the fusion zone structure to a certain extent. However, microstructural analysis of this alloy's laser welds indicates further refinement in the fusion zone microstructure than in that from the gas tungsten-arc process using arc oscillations. The fusion zone structure of the laser weld is a strong function of welding speed.

David, S.A.; Liu, C.T.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

High-power laser and arc welding of thorium-doped iridium alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The arc and laser weldabilities of two Ir-0.3% W alloys containing 60 and 200 wt ppM Th have been investigated. The Ir-.03% W alloy containing 200 wt ppM Th is severely prone to hot cracking during gas tungsten-arc welding. Weld metal cracking results from the combined effects of heat-affected zone liquation cracking and solidification cracking. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fractured surface revealed patches of low-melting eutectic. The cracking is influenced to a great extent by the fusion zone microstructure and thorium content. The alloy has been welded with a continuous-wave high-power CO/sub 2/ laser system with beam power ranging from 5 to 10 kW and welding speeds of 8 to 25 mm/s. Successful laser welds without hot cracking have been obtained in this particular alloy. This is attributable to the highly concentrated heat source available in the laser beam and the refinement in fusion zone microstructure obtained during laser welding. Efforts to refine the fusion zone structure during gas tungsten-arc welding of Ir-0.3 % W alloy containing 60 wt ppM Th were partially successful. Here transverse arc oscillation during gas tungsten-arc welding refines the fusion zone structure to a certain extent. However, microstructural analysis of this alloy's laser welds indicates further refinement in the fusion zone microstructure than in that from the gas tungsten-arc process using arc oscillations. The fusion zone structure of the laser weld is a strong function of welding speed.

David, S.A.; Liu, C.T.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

NETL: Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Project No.: DE-FE0009702 Washington University in St. Louis is developing a unique pressurized system to capture carbon from coal-fired power plants that incorporates a fuel-staged combustion approach. By staging the combustion, the temperature and heat transfer can be controlled. The potential benefits of the process are: higher efficiency, reduced process gas volume, increased radiative heat transfer, reduced oxygen demands, reduced capital equipment costs, increased CO2 purity entering the carbon compression and purification unit, and reduced auxiliary power demands. These benefits are expected to yield a lower cost of electricity than alternative approaches to pressurized oxy-combustion.

373

Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Development of a method for measuring the density of liquid sulfur at high pressures using the falling-sphere technique  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new method for the in situ measurement of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature using the falling-sphere technique. Combining synchrotron radiation X-ray radiography with a large-volume press, the newly developed falling-sphere method enables the determination of the density of a liquid at high pressure and high temperature based on Stokes' flow law. We applied this method to liquid sulfur and successfully obtained the density at pressures up to 9 GPa. Our method could be used for the determination of the densities of other liquid materials at higher static pressures than are currently possible.

Funakoshi, Ken-ichi; Nozawa, Akifumi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10/sup 12/ protons per cm/sup 3/ and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F/sup +/ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, R.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

376

Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10.sup.12 protons per cm.sup.3 and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Gonzalez, Roberto (Madrid, ES)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

Nibur, Kevin A.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray  

SciTech Connect

Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Chen Jiuhua [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Department of Geosciences, Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-2100 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Huang Shu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199 (United States); Luo Shengnian [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure laser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation, January 15, 1991--April 14,1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of synthesis gas can be converted into ethanol by the bacterium Clostridium ljunfdahlii, Strain PETC. This microorganism achieves complete conversion of synthesis gas and gives stoichiometric yields of ethanol with high energy efficiency. The reaction rate and bioreactor size are the controlling factors in the commercialization of this process.Synthesis gas fermentations are mass transfer limited due to the very low gas solubilities. It has been demonstrated that reaction rate is proportional to pressure at least up to 10 atm, the limit of existing experimental equipment. The equivalent retention time at 10 atm can be reduced to three minutes. It is felt that retention times of a few seconds are possible and can be demonstrated at higher pressures. With such short equivalent reaction times, the reactor volume for large scale alcohol production becomes nominal and commercial application is assured. The objective of this project is to construct and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. This system will be fabricated and assembled and the unit used to define the effects of elevated pressure on the growth and performance of C. ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in immobilized cell and stirred tank reactors. Minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser  

SciTech Connect

The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

384

Science on high-energy lasers: From today to the NIF  

SciTech Connect

This document presents both a concise definition of the current capabilities of high energy lasers and a description of capabilities of the NIF (National Ignition Facility). Five scientific areas are discussed (Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics, Material Properties, Plasma Physics, Radiation Sources, and Radiative Properties). In these five areas we project a picture of the future based on investigations that are being carried on today. Even with this very conservative approach we find that the development of new higher energy lasers will make many extremely exciting areas accessible to us.

Lee, R.W.; Petrasso, R.; Falcone, R.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

386

Deflagration Behavior of PBXN-109 and Composition B at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report deflagration rate measurements on PBXN-109 (RDWAVHTPB) and Composition B (RXDTTNThrvax) at pressures from 1,500-100,000 psi (10-700 MPa). This was done with the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner, in which embedded wires are used to record the time-of-arrival of the burn front in the cylindrical sample as a function of pressure. The propellant samples are 6.4 mm in diameter and 6.4 mm long, with burn wires inserted between samples. Burning on the cylindrical surface is inhibited with an epoxy or polyurethane layer. With this direct measurement we do not have to account for product gas equation of state or heat losses in the system, and the burn wires allow detection of irregular burning. We report deflagration results for PBXN-109 as received, and also after it has been damaged by heating. The burn behavior of pristine PBXN-109 is very regular, and exhibits a reduction in pressure exponent from 1.32 to 0.85 at pressures above 20,000 psi (135 MPa). When PBXN-109 is thermally damaged by heating to 170-180 C, the deflagration rate is increased by more than a factor of 10. This appears to be a physical effect, as the faster burning may be explained by an increase in surface area. Our results with Composition B show an apparent 2nd order pressure dependence for initial deflagration, followed by deconsolidation and onset of very rapid and erratic burning. The deconsolidation may be the result of the TNT melting as heat flows into the sample.

Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F

2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

387

High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6/2010 6/2010 www.cleanvehicle.org 1 High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop April 29, 2010 Douglas Horne, PE The Facts  High pressure Type 4 gaseous fuel tanks are now designed under standards that specify finite lifetimes of 15, 20 and 25 years based on specific design and testing (the HGV2 standard under development had a life as short as 10 years as an option)  It is unique within the transportation industry to have a critical device (the fuel tank) with a designated life that may be shorter than the vehicle itself  Although vehicle owners are told up front of the limited life fuel storage cylinders some tend to forget after 15 years  A parallel concern is the requirement for these fuel tanks

388

The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

D. Lorca; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment.

Neev, Joseph (Laguna Beach, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Glinsky, Michael E. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

391

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source. 7 figs.

Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Hofstadler, S.A.

1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

392

High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Wind Pressure Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Ion current detector for high pressure ion sources for monitoring separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to any application involving the monitoring of signal arising from ions produced by electrospray or other high pressure (>100 torr) ion sources. The present invention relates specifically to an apparatus and method for the detection of ions emitted from a capillary electrophoresis (CE) system, liquid chromatography, or other small-scale separation methods. And further, the invention provides a very simple diagnostic as to the quality of the separation and the operation of an electrospray source.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Wahl, Jon H. (Richland, WA); Hofstadler, Steven A. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

High-brightness picosecond ion beam source based on BNL Terawatt CO2 laser: Proof-of-principle experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the continuing DOE support, we have: o assembled the basic experiment setup and then continued expanding it to include diverse diagnostics and to accommodate gas jet targets in addition to metal foils; o conducted an extensive study of our novel laser, significantly enhanced laser beam diagnostics, and improved relevant laser parameters; o turned our experiments into a truly international endeavor with active collaboration of close to 20 researchers in US, UK, and Germany; o conducted the first ever experiments with proton and ion acceleration by lasers interacting with overcritical plasma of gas jets; o for the first time directly observed radiation pressure acceleration of protons, including quasi-monoenergetic spectra promising for future applications; o for the first time directly observed quasi-stable, bubble-like plasma structures that likely evolved from relativistic laser-plasma solitons (post-solitons). Thus, we have confirmed a strong potential of a picosecond TW CO2 laser as a research tool in laser-plasma science and as a promising vehicle for future applications of laser ion acceleration. This has led to apparent increase of the interest in mid-IR laser ion acceleration. In particular, another major research group began extensive proton acceleration experiments with their own CO2 laser at UCLA. As a result, the mechanisms responsible for laser proton acceleration in gas jets have become somewhat clearer. It is also important to note that modest DOE funding played the role of a seed support ensuring the formation of a multinational research team, whose members contributed its time and equipment with value well in excess of that seed amount.

Shkolnikov, Peter

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effects of high pressure-dependent leakoff and high process-zone stress in coal-stimulation treatments  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing in coals has been studied extensively over the last two decades; however, there are factors that were often ignored or incorrectly diagnosed, resulting in screenouts. Assuming that a majority of the perforations are open and there are no problems with the stimulation fluids, screenouts during coal hydraulic-fracture treatments can be attributed to either high pressure-dependent leakoff (PDL), high process-zone stress (PZS) or in some cases both. The objective of this work is to discuss, help identify, and present solutions to address these reservoir-related issues such that screenouts can be avoided in optimized refracture treatments and new well stimulations. The tools for identifying these reservoir-related parameters include a diagnostic fracture-injection test (DFIT) and a grid-oriented fully functional 3D fracture simulator with shear decoupling. An example for each respective case is presented in this paper. In the first example, in which high PZS was considered to be the dominant reason for screenout or pressure out, the well was restimulated successfully by implementing the solutions presented in this paper. In the second example, in which high PDL was considered to be the main reason for screenout, there were several wells in the same project area that exhibited the same behavior resulting in screenouts. After implementing the solutions presented in this paper to address high PDL, all new wells were stimulated successfully without any issues.

Ramurthy, M.; Lyons, B.; Hendrickson, R.B.; Barree, R.D.; Magill, D.R. [Halliburton, Denver, CO (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper selection of drilling fluids plays a major role in determining the efficient completion of any drilling operation. With the increasing number of ultra-deep offshore wells being drilled and ever stringent environmental and safety regulations coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most of the existing literature, the testing procedure is simple - increase the temperature of the fluid in steps and record rheological properties at each step. A major drawback of this testing procedure is that it does not represent the continuous temperature change that occurs in a drilling fluid as it is circulated through the well bore. To have a better understanding of fluid behavior under such temperature variation, a continuous test procedure was devised in which the temperature of the drilling fluid was continuously increased to a pre-determined maximum value while monitoring one rheological parameter. The results of such tests may then be used to plan fluid treatment schedules. The experiments were conducted on a Chandler 7600 XHPHT viscometer and they seem to indicate specific temperature ranges above which the properties of the drilling fluid deteriorate. Different fluid compositions and drilling fluids in use in the field were tested and the results are discussed in detail.

Ravi, Ashwin

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

High-power SRS lasers - coherent summators (the way it was)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history of the research works performed under the guidance of H.G. Basov and aimed at developing high-energy lasers - coherent summators (CSs) - based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen is reported. The work was performed jointly by researchers of FIAN [the Laboratory of Quantum Radiophysics (LQRP)] and VNIIEF. Many problems were solved as a result of these studies. Liquid nitrogen and oxygen were found to be optimal active media for high-power SRS lasers with high energy per pulse. A method for purifying these cryogenic liquids from micro- and nanoimpurities was developed, which made it possible to eliminate nonlinear loss of pump radiation and converted radiation in the active medium and ensure effective operation of SRS lasers - coherent summators (SRSL CSs) with high output energy. Cryogenic cells providing high optical homogeneity of liquid nitrogen and oxygen were developed, which ensured low (at a level of 0.1 mrad) divergence of converted radiation with high energy density. Raster focusing systems providing optimal concentration of pump radiation in the active medium were designed. These studies resulted in the development of high-power highenergy SRSL CSs with a low beam divergence, based on liquid nitrogen ({lambda}{sub S} = 1.89 {mu}m) and liquid oxygen ({lambda}{sub S} = 1.65 {mu}m), with pumping by explosively pumped iodine lasers (EPILs) ({lambda}{sub p} = 1.315 {mu}m). The characteristics of the SRSL CSs developed were record for that time (the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s): energy up to 2.5 kJ per 10-{mu}s pulse, beam divergence {approx}10{sup -4} rad, and beam energy density of several hundreds of J cm{sup -2}. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

Grasiuk, Arkadii Z; Zubarev, I G; Efimkov, V F; Smirnov, V G [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Pressure recovery in a cylindrical heat pipe at high radial Reynolds numbers and at high Mach numbers  

SciTech Connect

The pressure recovery in a cylindrical heat pipe has been investigated. The experiments cover average radial Reynolds numbers between 5 and 150 and average Mach numbers up to the velocity of sound. During preliminary experiments in a cylindrical, gravity-assisted heat pipe at high Mach numbers large condensate flow instabilities were observed. As a consequence the heat pipe power varied strongly. Based on these observations an improved heat pipe design was made that resulted in steady operating conditions throughout the entire parameter range. This heat pipe is described. The pressure recovery was measured and compared with results from a two-dimensional analytical model for describing compressible vapor flow in heat pipes. Good agreement with the experimental data was found.

Haug, F.; Busse, C.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Uniform irradiation of adjustable target spots in high-power laser driver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For smoothing and shaping the on-target laser patterns flexibly in high-power laser drivers, a scheme has been developed that includes a zoom lens array and two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). The size of the target pattern can be controlled handily by adjusting the focal length of the zoom lens array, while the profile of the pattern can be shaped by fine tuning the distance between the target and the focal plane of the principal focusing lens. High-frequency stripes inside the pattern caused by beamlet interference are wiped off by spectral dispersion. Detailed simulations indicate that SSD works somewhat differently for spots of different sizes. For small spots, SSD mainly smooths the intensity modulation of low-to-middle spatial frequency, while for large spots, SSD sweeps the fine speckle structure to reduce nonuniformity of middle-to-high frequency. Spatial spectra of the target patterns are given and their uniformity is evaluated.

Jiang Xiujuan; Li Jinghui; Li Huagang; Li Yang; Lin Zunqi

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

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401

High-speed Photography of Pyrotechnic Materials and Components with a Coppper Vapor Laser  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of the properties of energetic materials, such as burn rate and ignition energy, is of primary importance in understanding their reactions and the functioning of devices containing them. One method for recording such information is high-speed photography at rates of up to 20,000 images per second. When a copper vapor lazer is synchronized with the camera, laser-illuminated images can be recorded that detail the performance of a material or component in a manner never before possible. Recent results from high-speed photography of several pyrotechnic materials and devices will be presented. These include a pyrotechnic torch, laser ignition of high explosives, and a functioning igniter. Equilibrium chemical computations have recently been begun on the pyrotechnic torch to obtain flame compositions and temperatures. The results of these calculations, and their explanation of the change in torch function with composition, will be discussed.

Dosser, Larry R.; Reed, John W.; Stark, Margaret A.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A Plasma Lens for High Intensity Laser Focusing  

SciTech Connect

A plasma lens based on a short hydrogen-filled alumina capillary discharge is experimentally characterized. For a plasma length of about 5mm, the focal length, measured from the plasma entrance, was {approx} 11 to 8mm for on axis densities of {approx} 2.5 to 5 x 1018cm-3, respectively. The plasma temperature away from the walls of the 1/2mm diameter capillary was estimated to be {approx} 8eV indicating that the plasma is fully ionized. Such a lens should thus be suitable for focusing very high intensity pulses. Comparisons of the measured focusing strength to that predicted by a first-order fluid model [N. A. Bobrova, et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 016407 (2002)] shows reasonable agreement given that some of the observed plasma parameters are not predicted by this model.

Fang, F.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C. [UCLA Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 (United States); Lopes, N. C. [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, ESuperior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Ito, H. [Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya City, Zip 321-8585 (Japan)

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

403

Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 ? ° C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature ( 22 ? ° C ) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities

Bernhard Seifried; Feral Temelli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Dispersion of CNG following a high-pressure release. Final report, February 1995-March 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research described in the report was designed to evaluate the adequacy of the current convention concerning safeguards against CNG-related fires in transit buildings where CNG powered buses are fueled, stored, or maintained. The convention embraces the belief that precautions need to be taken only at or near the ceiling of the buildings. It is based on the premise that, since CNG is primarily methane and methane is approximately one-half the density of air at ambient temperature and pressure, any natural gas released would immediately rise to the ceiling as a buoyant plume. The experiments described here tested theoretical predictions that challenge this premise. During the tests, infrared imaging was used to track the movement of CNG following release from a high-pressure source close to the floor.

Gaumer, R.L.; Raj, P.K.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

FY96-98 Summary Report Mercury: Next Generation Laser for High Energy Density Physics SI-014  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Mercury Laser project encompasses the research, development, and engineering required to build a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Mercury Laser will be the first integrated demonstration of laser diodes, crystals, and gas cooling within a scalable laser architecture. This report is intended to summarize the progress accomplished during the first three years of the project. Due to the technological challenges associated with production of 900 nm diode-bars, heatsinks, and high optical-quality Yb:S-FAP crystals, the initial focus of the project was primarily centered on the R&D in these three areas. During the third year of the project, the R&D continued in parallel with the development of computer codes, partial activation of the laser, component testing, and code validation where appropriate.

Bayramian, A.; Beach, R.; Bibeau, C.; Chanteloup, J.-C.; Ebbers, C.; Emanuel, M.; Freitas, B.; Fulkerson, S.; Kanz, K.; Hinz, A.; Marshall, C.; Mills, S.; Nakano, H.; Orth, C.; Rothenberg, J.; Schaffers, K.; Seppala, L.; Skidmore, J.; Smith, L.; Sutton, S.; Telford, S.; Zapata, L.

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

406

FY96-98 Summary Report Mercury: Next Generation Laser for High Energy Density Physics SI-014  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Mercury Laser project encompasses the research, development, and engineering required to build a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Mercury Laser will be the first integrated demonstration of laser diodes, crystals, and gas cooling within a scalable laser architecture. This report is intended to summarize the progress accomplished during the first three years of the project. Due to the technological challenges associated with production of 900 nm diode-bars, heatsinks, and high optical-quality Yb:S-FAP crystals, the initial focus of the project was primarily centered on the R&D in these three areas. During the third year of the project, the R&D continued in parallel with the development of computer codes, partial activation of the laser, component testing, and code validation where appropriate.

Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Bibeau, C; Chanteloup, J; Ebbers, C; Emanuel, M; Freitas, B; Fulkerson, S; Kanz, K; Hinz, A; Marshall, C; Mills, S; Nakano, H; Orth, C; Rothenberg, J; Schaffers, K; Seppala, L; Skidmore, I; Smith, L; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Zapata, L

2000-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

407

Laser-Triggered Lightning Laboratory Tests: Preparation for Testing at Mississippi State University High-Voltage Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning diversion using laser technology could be operationally used in the power industry to protect sensitive facilities such as nuclear power plants and critical substations, control centers, and customer facilities. This report provides results to date and plans for large-scale, high-voltage laboratory testing of laser-triggered lightning technology.

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

An Integrated Method for Accurate Determination of Melting in High-Pressure Laser Heating Experiments  

SciTech Connect

We present an integrated approach for melting determination by monitoring several criteria simultaneously. In particular we combine x-ray diffraction observations with the detection of discontinuities in the optical properties by spectroradiometric measurements. This approach significantly increases the confidence of melt identification, especially with low-Z samples. We demonstrate the method with observations of melt in oxygen at 47 and 55 gigapascals.

Benedetti, L R; Antonangeli, D; Farber, D L; Mezouar, M

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

409

High-temperature treatment of In-doped CZT crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the effect of high-temperature treatment of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te:In single crystals using Hall-effect measurements, medium- and high-temperature annealing under various deviations from stoichiometry, and infra-red (IR) transmission microscopy Annealing at ~730 K sharply increased the electrical conductivity (by ~1-2 orders-of-magnitude). Plots of the temperature- and cadmium-pressure dependences of the electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility were obtained. Treating previously annealed Cd-samples under a Te overpressure at 1070 K allowed us to restore their resistance to its initial high values. The main difference in comparing this material with CdTe was its lowered electron density. We explained our results within the framework of Kröger’s theory of quasi-chemical reactions between point defects in solids.

Bolotnikov A.; Fochuk, P.; Nakonechnyi, I.; Kopach, O.; Verzhak, Ye.; Panchuk, O.; Komar, V.; Terzin, I.; Kutnij, V.; Rybka, A.; Nykoniuk, Ye.; Camarda, G.C.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

410

Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

High pressure/high temperature hydrogen permeability in candidate Stirling engine alloys  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen permeation tests of eight high-temperature alloys were conducted in 20.7 MPa hydrogen at 923 to 1088 K for assessing suitability in Stirling engine application for heater head and heater head tubing. The iron-nickel-base alloys investigated included N-155, Incoloy 800 (IN 800), A-286, and 19-9DL, and cast alloys CRM-6D, SAF-11, and XF-818. Low carbon alloys Stellite 6B (6BLC), a cobalt-base wrought alloy, was also investigated. 15 refs.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Vesely, E.J. Jr.; Hill, V.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Radial Diffraction Strength and Elastic Behavior of CaF2 in Low- and High-Pressure Phases  

SciTech Connect

The radial-diffraction lattice behavior of CaF2 was analyzed in its low-pressure (fluorite) and high-pressure phase up to 11.5 GPa using radial x-ray diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. Between 3.5 and 7.1 GPa, fluorite develops a radial-diffraction strength of {approx}0.8 GPa. The corresponding lattice anisotropy of the fluorite phase was measured to be equal to 0.73, in good agreement with previous Brillouin spectroscopy measurements. By 8.8 GPa, CaF2 has undergone a phase transformation to its high-pressure (orthorhombic) phase, with a corresponding volume decrease of 10.4%. By 11.5 GPa, the volume drop between the low-pressure and high-pressure phase has increased to 11.5%. In addition, the high-pressure phase is found to withstand a significantly larger differential stress than the low-pressure fluorite phase, with a large degree of lattice anisotropy. In the maximum stress direction at 8.8 GPa, we observe a time-dependent evolution of the lattice parameters of CaF2, indicating that the high-pressure structure is still undergoing deformation on time scales of hours after the phase boundary has been crossed.

Kavner,A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

High harmonic attosecond pulse train amplification in a free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

It is shown using three-dimensional simulations that the temporal structure of an attosecond pulse train, such as that generated via high harmonic generation in noble gases, may be retained in a free electron laser amplifier through to saturation using a mode-locked optical klystron configuration. At wavelengths of {approx}12 nm, a train of attosecond pulses of widths {approx}300 as with peak powers in excess of 1 GW are predicted.

McNeil, B.W.; Sheehy, B.; Thompson, N.R.; Dunning, D.J.

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

Apparatus for injecting high power laser light into a fiber optic cable  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High intensity laser light is evenly injected into an optical fiber by the combination of a converging lens and a multisegment kinoform (binary optical element). The segments preferably have multi-order gratings on each which are aligned parallel to a radial line emanating from the center of the kinoform and pass through the center of the element. The grating in each segment causes circumferential (lateral) dispersion of the light, thereby avoiding detrimental concentration of light energy within the optical fiber.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

High-order-harmonic generation in gas with a flat-top laser beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present experimental and numerical results on high-order-harmonic generation with a flat-top laser beam. We show that a simple binary tunable phase plate, made of two concentric glass plates, can produce a flat-top profile at the focus of a Gaussian infrared beam. Both experiments and numerical calculations show that there is a scaling law between the harmonic generation efficiency and the increase of the generation volume.

Boutu, W.; Auguste, T.; Binazon, L.; Gobert, O.; Carre, B. [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, CEA-Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boyko, O.; Valentin, C. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR 7639 ENSTA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, FR-91761 Palaiseau (France); Sola, I.; Constant, E.; Mevel, E. [Universite de Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS UMR 5107, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), FR-33400 Talence (France); Balcou, Ph. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR 7639 ENSTA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, FR-91761 Palaiseau (France); Universite de Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS UMR 5107, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), FR-33400 Talence (France); Merdji, H. [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, CEA-Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Time-dependent polarization states of high power, ultrashort laser pulses during atmospheric propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate, through simulation, the evolution of polarization states during atmospheric propagation of high power, ultrashort laser pulses. A delayed rotational response model handling arbitrary, transverse polarization couples both the amplitude and phase of the polarization states. We find that, while circularly and linearly polarized pulses maintain their polarization, elliptically polarized pulses become depolarized due to energy equilibration between left and right circularly polarized states. The depolarization can be detrimental to remote radiation generation schemes and obscures time-integrated polarization measurements.

Palastro, J P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Treating high pressure zones in one trip in Canyon Reef area of Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Canyon Reef area near Snyder, Texas, Chevron U.S.A. Inc. is employing ratchet operated, packer type retrievable bridge plugs which have allowed operators to test, treat, or squeeze high pressure zones over a 35-day period on a single trip of the workstring. More zones could have been treated if necessary. The bridge plug was moved and set 31 times while treating the zones. Elapsed time is shown in days starting with T-date being the day tools were first run in for the treatment. The job was run with an average treating pressure of 1,000 psi, and a differential pressure of 2,500 psi that alternated from above the bridge plug to below and back each time the plug was moved to a new zone. The bridge plug used for the job seals by the action of a patented ratcheting mechanism which requires relatively light weight to set. Design of the ratchet enables the sealing elements to hold a seal against the casing wall while the hold-down slips are being set.

Cooley, G.; Mccowen, D.; Fore, M.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Narrow Energy Spread Protons and Ions from High-Intensity, High-Contrast Laser Solid Target Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent simulations show that an idealized, high intensity, short pulse laser can generate quasi-monoenergetic proton beams with energies over 100 MeV in an interaction with a thin film. However, most short pulse laser facilities with sufficient intensity have difficulty controlling the nanosecond and picosecond contrast necessary to realize such a regime. Experiments were performed to investigate proton and ion acceleration from a high contrast, short pulse laser by employing dual plasma mirrors along with a deformable mirror at the HERCULES