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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

2

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

3

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc. August 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information History of Innovations... Announced breakthrough in all-composite lightweight, high capacity, low-cost fuel storage technologies. * Developed a series of robust, OEM compatible electronic control products. Developed H 2 storage system for SunLine Tran-sit Hythane® bus. Awarded patent for integrated module including in-tank regulator * Developed high efficiency H 2 fuel storage systems for DOE Future Truck programs Developed H 2 storage and metering system for Toyota's FCEV platform. First to certify 10,000 psi systems in Japan

4

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and...

5

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010Beijing, P.R. China September 27, 2010 Bonfire Tests of High...

6

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011.

7

High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cycles Fuel Lines * 10,000 psi nominal working pressure * O-ring face seal connections * CNC bent to CAD data * 316 Stainless Steel (Other materials available) * Welded end form or...

8

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Tank Testing High-Pressure Hydrogen Tank Testing Many types of compressed hydrogen tanks have been certified worldwide and demonstrated in several prototype fuel cell...

9

DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting On February 8-9, 2005, the Department...

10

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

Laves phase hydrogen storage alloys for super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ti-Cr- and Ti-Mn-based alloys were prepared to be low- and high-pressure stage metals for a double-stage super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Their crystallographic characteristics and hydrogen

Xiumei Guo; Shumao Wang; Xiaopeng Liu; Zhinian Li; Fang Lü; Jing Mi; Lei Hao…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N-AlOOH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in N significant amounts of hydrogen in stishovite under lower-mantle conditions. The enthalpy of solution pressure and temperature. We predict asymmetric hydrogen bonding in the stishovite^N-AlOOH solid solution

Stixrude, Lars

13

High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in...

14

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation by Zhili Feng of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013.

15

Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

Mark Leavitt

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Modeling and simulation of a high pressure hydrogen storage tank with Dynamic Wall.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrogen storage is one of the divisions of hydrogen powered vehicles technology. To increase performances of high pressure hydrogen storage tanks, a multilayered design is… (more)

Cumalioglu, Ilgaz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Modeling and simulation of a high pressure hydrogen storage tank with dynamic wall.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrogen storage is one of the divisions of hydrogen powered vehicles technology. To increase performances of high pressure hydrogen storage tanks, a multilayered design is… (more)

Cumalioglu, Ilgaz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Department of Energy Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Energy Workshop High Pressure Hydrogen Tank Manufacturing Mark Leavitt Quantum Fuel for integrated module including in-tank regulator · Developed high efficiency H2 fuel storage systems for DOE tank efficiency, the highest weight efficiency ever demonstrated, in partnership with Lawrence

19

High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas andHydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Gas and Blends - Materials Testing and Design Requirements for Hydrogen Components and Tanks International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Hydrogen...

20

An In-situ Tensile Test Apparatus for Polymers in High Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex-situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in-situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials like Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in-situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 5,000 psi. Modulus data from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

Alvine, Kyle J.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Pitman, Stan G.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Dahl, Michael E.

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

An in situ tensile test apparatus for polymers in high pressure hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degradation of material properties by high-pressure hydrogen is an important factor in determining the safety and reliability of materials used in high-pressure hydrogen storage and delivery. Hydrogen damage mechanisms have a time dependence that is linked to hydrogen outgassing after exposure to the hydrogen atmosphere that makes ex situ measurements of mechanical properties problematic. Designing in situ measurement instruments for high-pressure hydrogen is challenging due to known hydrogen incompatibility with many metals and standard high-power motor materials such as Nd. Here we detail the design and operation of a solenoid based in situ tensile tester under high-pressure hydrogen environments up to 42 MPa (6000 psi). Modulus data from high-density polyethylene samples tested under high-pressure hydrogen at 35 MPa (5000 psi) are also reported as compared to baseline measurements taken in air.

Alvine, K. J., E-mail: kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov; Kafentzis, T. A.; Pitman, S. G.; Johnson, K. I.; Skorski, D.; Tucker, J. C.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Dahl, M. E. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Hydrogen Delivery Analysis and High Pressure Tanks R&D Project Review Meeting Agenda, held February 8-9, 2005 by Argonne National Laboratory

23

High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

24

DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On February 8-9, 2005, the Department of Energy held the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was...

25

Ettringite Strengthening at High Pressures Induced by the Densification of the Hydrogen Bond Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ettringite Strengthening at High Pressures Induced by the Densification of the Hydrogen Bond Network ... Ettringite is a rare mineral with high-water content, more than half of its weight, and a relevant secondary product in Portland cement. ... Using density functional theory, we simulate the crystal structure and properties of ettringite under pressure. ...

H. Manzano; A. Ayuela; A. Telesca; P. J. M. Monteiro; J. S. Dolado

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

26

High pressure/high temperature hydrogen permeability in candidate stirling engine alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen permeation tests of eight high-temperature engineering alloys were conducted in 20.7 MPa hydrogen at 923 to 1088 K for assessing suitability in Stirling engine application for heater head and heater head...

S. Bhattacharyya; E. J. Vesely; V. L. Hill

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Ortho-para conversion of hydrogen at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ortho-para conversion rates in solid H2 measured as a function of pressure up to 58 GPa are examined theoretically. Analyses of the data provide information on the relative role of diffusion versus intrinsic dependences of the conversion rate on ortho concentration. A theory of the conversion has been developed using a closed-form representation of the conversion promoting nuclear magnetic interaction Hss expanded in spherical harmonics. The mechanisms considered include double conversion, excitations in the J=1 and J=2 manifolds as conversion energy sinks, and a possibility of intermediate states from which the conversion energy is dissipated via the strong electrical quadrupole-quadrupole (EQQ) interaction. Conversion rates were evaluated for a total of 12 new channels; the two other channels considered previously for moderate pressures have been reconsidered to account for factors that influence phonon-assisted energy dissipation, the most important being the compression-related decrease of the conversion energy (gap closing). Contributions from the standard one-phonon channels with single and double conversion yield fairly good agreement with low-pressure data. The proposed new channel identified as responsible for the observed conversion acceleration is the one in which the conversion Hamiltonian Hss only initiates conversion driving the system to a temporarily nonequilibrium state from which the conversion energy is dissipated via EQQ coupling into excitations within the J=1 manifold. Our mechanism predicts a strong and abrupt conversion slowdown at still higher compressions. The abrupt decrease in rate observed at a given pressure at longer times (decreasing ortho fractions) can be explained as due to the inability of slow diffusion to restore the random distribution of ortho species and due to the intrinsic inefficiency of the new channel at low c.

Mikhail A. Strzhemechny; Russell J. Hemley; Ho-kwang Mao; Alexander F. Goncharov; Jon H. Eggert

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Unexpectedly high pressure for molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen by a reliable electronic simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The study of the high pressure phase diagram of hydrogen has continued with renewed effort for about one century as it remains a fundamental challenge for experimental and theoretical techniques. Here we employ an efficient molecular dynamics based on the quantum Monte Carlo method, which can describe accurately the electronic correlation and treat a large number of hydrogen atoms, allowing a realistic and reliable prediction of thermodynamic roperties. We find that the molecular liquid phase is unexpectedly stable and the transition towards a fully atomic liquid phase occurs at much higher pressure than previously believed. The old standing problem of low temperature atomization is, therefore, still far from experimental reach.

Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Crystal structure prediction and hydrogen-bond symmetrization of solid hydrazine under high pressure: a first-principles study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three crystal structures of hydrazine under high pressure have been found, including the reported experimental phase. Pressure-induced hydrogen-bond symmetrization occurs at 235 GPa during the CcC2/c transition.

Zhang, H.-D.

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dynamic compression of materials: metallization of fluid hydrogen at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic high pressure is 1?GPa (10?kbar) or greater with a rise time and a duration ranging from 1?ps (10?12?s) to 1?µs (10?6?s). Today it is possible in a laboratory to achieve pressures dynamically up to ~500?GPa (5?Mbar) and greater, compressions as much as ~15-fold greater than initial density in the case of hydrogen and temperatures from ~0.1 up to several electronvolts (11?600?K). At these conditions materials are extremely condensed semiconductors or degenerate metals. Temperature can be tuned independently of pressure by a combination of shock and isentropic compression. As a result, new opportunities are now available in condensed matter physics at extreme conditions. The basic physics of the dynamic process, experimental methods of generating and diagnosing matter at these extreme conditions and a technique to recover metastable materials intact from ~100?GPa shock pressures are discussed.Results include (i) generation of pressure standards at static pressures up to ~200?GPa (2?Mbar) at 300?K, (ii) single-shock compression of small-molecular fluids, including resolution of the recent controversy over the correct shock-compression curve of liquid D2 at 100?GPa pressures, (iii) the first observations of metallization of fluid hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen compressed quasi-isentropically at 100?GPa pressures, (iv) implications for the interiors of giant planets within our solar system, extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs discovered recently and the equation of state of deuterium–tritium in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and (v) prospects of recovering novel materials from extreme conditions, such as metastable solid metallic hydrogen. Future research is suggested.

W J Nellis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

High-pressure storage of hydrogen fuel: ammonia borane and its related compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a promising candidate material for hydrogen storage, ammonia borane (NH3BH3) has attracted significant interest in recent years due to its remarkably high hydrogen content. Subjecting this material to high pre...

Yu Lin; Wendy L. Mao

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

Stalheim, Mr. Douglas [DGS Metallurgical Solutions Inc; Boggess, Todd [Secat; San Marchi, Chris [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Jansto, Steven [Reference Metals Company; Somerday, Dr. B [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Sofronis, Prof. Petros [University of Illinois

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27–29, 2010 in Beijing, China. High pressure...

35

Influence of Intense Beam in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of an intense beam in a high-pressure gas filled RF cavity has been measured by using a 400 MeV proton beam in the Mucool Test Area at Fermilab. The ionization process generates dense plasma in the cavity and the resultant power loss to the plasma is determined by measuring the cavity voltage on a sampling oscilloscope. The energy loss has been observed with various peak RF field gradients (E), gas pressures (p), and beam intensities in nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Observed RF energy dissipation in single electron (dw) in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gases was 2 10{sup -17} and 3 10{sup -17} Joules/RF cycle at E/p = 8 V/cm/Torr, respectively. More detailed dw measurement have been done in H{sub 2} gas at three different gas pressures. There is a clear discrepancy between the observed dw and analytical one. The discrepancy may be due to the gas density effect that has already been observed in various experiments.

Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Collura, M.G.; Jana, M.R.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Schwarz, T.; Tollestrup, A.; /Fermilab; Johnson, R.P.; Franagan, G.; /Muons, Inc. /IIT

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Quantum Monte Carlo Simulation of the High-Pressure Molecular-Atomic Crossover in Fluid Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A first-order liquid-liquid phase transition in high-pressure hydrogen between molecular and atomic fluid phases has been predicted in computer simulations using ab initio molecular dynamics approaches. However, experiments indicate that molecular dissociation may occur through a continuous crossover rather than a first-order transition. Here we study the nature of molecular dissociation in fluid hydrogen using an alternative simulation technique in which electronic correlation is computed within quantum Monte Carlo methods, the so-called coupled electron-ion Monte Carlo method. We find no evidence for a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition.

Kris T. Delaney; Carlo Pierleoni; D. M. Ceperley

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

Evidence for plasma phase transition in high pressure hydrogen from ab-initio simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have performed a detailed study of molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen using both Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with Density Functional Theory and Coupled Electron-Ion Monte Carlo simulations. We observe a range of densities where (dP/d{rho}){sub T} = 0 that coincides with sharp discontinuities in the electronic conductivity, which is clear evidence of the plasma phase transition for temperatures 600K {le} T {le} 1500K. Both levels of theory exhibit the transition, although Quantum Monte Carlo predicts higher transition pressures. Based on the temperature dependence of the discontinuity in the electronic conductivity, we estimate the critical point of the transition at temperatures slightly below 2000 K. We examine the influence of proton zero point motion by using Path Integral Molecular Dynamics with Density Functional Theory; the main effect is to shift the transition to lower pressures. Furthermore, we calculate the melting curve of molecular hydrogen up to pressures of 200 GPa, finding a reentrant melting line in good agreement with previous calculations. The melting line crosses the metalization line at 700 K and 220 GPa using density functional energetics and at 550 K and 290 GPa using Quantum Monte Carlo energetics.

Morales, M; Pierleoni, C; Schwegler, E; Ceperley, D

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

Methane-to-hydrogen conversion in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at a high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncatalytic process of partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a reversible flow filtration combustion reactor at high pressures has been considered. ... conversion process — the maximum temperature in the...

Yu. M. Dmitrenko; P. A. Klyovan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

High pressure/high temperature vapor liquid equilibrium study of light gases in hydrogen-coal liquid model compound systems using perturbation chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perturbation chromatography or gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLPC) provides a powerful tool for making physicochemical measurements. In this investigation GLPC was applied to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of light gases in nonvolatile coal liquid model compound solvents at high temperatures and high pressures. Improvements made in existing GLPC techniques include: the use of a high pressure tandem proportioning pump to give precise control of the carrier gas flow rate and low pressure drops; a high pressure ionization chamber to detect the injection of very dilute radioactive sample gases; and the use of a microcomputer to provide instantaneous integration and very precise retention times of the chromatographic peaks. Infinite dilution K-values for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide in hydrogen-dibenzofuran systems were obtained at 100 and 125 C and up to 800 psia. Infinite dilution K-values for the same light gases in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene systems were obtained at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 C and up to 3000 psia. Henry's constants were determined for the light gases in 9-methylanthracene. Second cross virial coefficients and vapor phase infinite dilution fugacity coefficients were calculated for methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane in hydrogen. These results were combined with the experimental K-value measurements to obtain Henry's constants in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene mixtures of fixed liquid compositions. Infinite dilution heats of solution of the solute gases in the mixtures were calculated.

Kragas, T.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Nuclear Quantum Effects and Nonlocal Exchange-Correlation Functionals Applied to Liquid Hydrogen at High Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using first-principles molecular dynamics, we study the influence of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) and nonlocal exchange-correlation density functionals (DFs) near molecular dissociation in liquid hydrogen. NQEs strongly influence intramolecular properties, such as bond stability, and are thus an essential part of the dissociation process. Moreover, by including DFs that account for either the self-interaction error or dispersion interactions, we find a much better description of molecular dissociation and metallization than previous studies based on classical protons and/or local or semilocal DFs. We obtain excellent agreement with experimentally measured optical properties along Hugoniot curves for precompressed states, and while we still find a first-order liquid-liquid transition at low temperatures, transition pressures are increased by more than 100 GPa.

Miguel A. Morales, Jeffrey M. McMahon, Carlo Pierleoni, and David M. Ceperley

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

42

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy...

43

Raman spectroscopy of Co,,OH...2 at high pressures: Implications for amorphization and hydrogen repulsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.50. p, 63.20. e, 33.20.Fb, 33.20.Tp INTRODUCTION The high-pressure behavior of brucite-type hydroxides- itially much more compressible than the a axis. This is a general feature of the compression of brucite

Duffy, Thomas S.

44

High-pressure/high-temperature gas-solubility study in hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems using static and chromatographic techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and discovery of sources for alternative energy such as coal liquefaction has become of major importance over the past two decades. One of the major problems in such design in the lack of available data, particularly, for gas solubility in polycyclic aromatics at high temperature and pressure. Static and gas-liquid partition chromatographic methods were used for the study of hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems. The static data for these two binaries were taken along 398.2, 423.2, 448.2, and 473.2 K isotherms up to 25.23 MPa. Gas-liquid partition chromatography was used to study the infinite dilution behavior of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the hydrogen-phenanthrene system as well as hydrogen, ethane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the methane-phenanthrene binary. The principle objective was to examine the role of the elution gas. Temperatures were along the same isotherms as the static data and up to 20.77 MPa. With the exception of carbon dioxide, Henry's constants were calculated for all systems. Expressions for the heat of solution as a function of pressure were derived for both binary and chromatographic data. Estimates of delta H/sub i/sup sol/ at high pressure were presented.

Malone, P.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide Catalyzed by Ruthenium Trimethylphosphine Complexes: A Mechanistic Investigation using High-Pressure NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The previously reported complex, cis-(PMe3)4RuCl(OAc) (1) acts as a catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation into formic acid in the presence of a base and an alcohol co-catalyst. NMR spectroscopy has revealed that 1 exists in solution in equilibrium with fac-(PMe3)3RuCl(h2-OAc) (2), [(PMe3)4Ru(h2-OAc)]Cl (3a), and free PMe3. Complex 2 has been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. 2 has been tested as a CO2 hydrogenation catalyst, however, it performed poorly under the conditions of catalysis used for 1. Complex 3a can be prepared by adding certain alcohols, such as MeOH, EtOH, or o-C6H5OH, to a solution of 1 in CDCl3. The chloride ion of 3a has been exchanged for the non-coordinating anions BPh4 or B(ArF )4 (B(ArF)4 = tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate) to produce [(PMe3)4Ru(h2-OAc)]BPh4 (3b) and [(PMe3)4Ru(h2-OAc)]B(ArF)4 (3c). Both of these complexes have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and in the case of 3b, X-ray crystallography. Complexes 3b and 3c perform just as well as 1 for CO2 hydrogenation to formic acid in the presence of an alcohol co-catalyst; however, 3b,c perform equally well without the added alcohol. High-pressure NMR has been used to investigate the mechanism of CO2 hydrogenation via 3a,b in the presence of base. Two of the intermediates involved have been identified as cis-(PMe3)4RuH2 (5) and cis-(PMe3)4Ru(H)O2CH (6), and the role of the base includes not only trapping of the formic acid product, but also initiation of the catalysis by aiding the conversion of 3b,c to 5.

Getty, April D.; Tai, Chih-Cheng; Linehan, John C.; Jessop, Philip G.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Rheingold, Arnold

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

47

Studies of the mechanism of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1-May 31, 1980. [For high-temperature, high pressure measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first quarterly report on the program Studies of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. This quarter has been devoted to constructing apparatus for high temperature-high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, characterizing the performance of the microwave cavity, and carrying out preliminary room temperature studies on coals and coal products. At the start of this program, there were no microwave cavities available to study high pressure-high temperature reactions. A system was constructed which can be used to study coal hydrogenation, and satisfies the conditions described in the report. This cavity was constructed using funding from Rockwell International, and will be used on this program. Because of the dependence of the work to be done with this device for this program, the construction is described in detail. This report, therefore, considers the design philosophy, construction of the device, a preliminary discussion of its performance, and application of the cavity for room temperature studies on several varieties of coal.

Goldberg, Ira B.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27-29, 2010 in Beijing, China. High pressure vessel experts gathered to share lessons learned from compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen vehicle deployments, and to identify R&D needs to aid the global harmonization of regulations, codes and standards to enable the successful deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The forum also included additional discussion resulting from the DOE and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) co-sponsored International Workshop on Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels held on December 10-11, 2009 in Washington, D.C.

49

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

50

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

OH-PLIF Measurements of High-Pressure, Hydrogen Augmented Premixed Flames in the SimVal Combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of the hydroxyl radical in lean, premixed natural gas flames augmented with hydrogen are presented. The experiments were conducted in the SimVal combustor at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) at operating pressures from 1 to 8 atmospheres. The data, which was collected in a combustor with well controlled boundary conditions, is intended to be used for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models under conditions directly relevant to land-based gas turbine engines. The images, which show significant effects of hydrogen on local flame quenching are discussed in terms of a turbulent premixed combustion regime and non-dimensional parameters such as Karlovitz number. Pressure was found to thin the OH region, but only had a secondary effect on overall flame shape compared to the effects of hydrogen addition which was found to decrease local quenching and shorten the turbulent flame brush. A method to process the individual images based on local gradients of fluorescence intensity is proposed and results are presented. Finally, the results of several Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are presented and compared to the experimental data in an effort to understand the issues related to model validation, especially for simulations that do not include OH as an intermediate species.

Strakey, P.A.; Woodruff, S.D.; Williams, T.C. (Sandia); Schefer, R.W. (Sandia)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Ammonia-Borane under High Pressure - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 4 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Jiuhua Chen (Primary Contact), Shah Najiba, Yongzhou Sun, Jennifer Girard, Vadym Drozd Center for the Study of Matters at Extreme Conditions Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Florida International University 11200 SW 8 th Street Miami, FL 33199 Phone: (305) 348-3140 Email: chenj@fiu.edu DOE Program Officer: Dr. Lane Wilson Phone: (301) 903-5877 Email: Lane.Wilson@science.doe.gov Subcontractor: Wendy Mao, Stanford University Objectives Understand pressure influence on the structure, phase * stability, dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and its

53

International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Proceedings from the forum, which took...

54

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

International Hydrogen International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications

55

Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FORUM AGENDA FORUM AGENDA U.S. Department of Energy and Tsinghua University International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Tsinghua University Beijing, PRC September 27 - 29, 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010 in Beijing, China. High pressure vessel experts gathered to share lessons learned from CNG and hydrogen vehicle deployments, and to identify R&D needs to aid the global harmonization of regulations, codes and standards to enable the successful deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Forum Objectives: * Address and share data and information on specific technical topics discussed at the workshop in

56

Experimental and modeling study of the effect of elevated pressure on lean high-hydrogen syngas flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract New laminar burning velocity measurements of 85:15% (by volume) H2–CO and H2–N2 mixtures with O2–He oxidizer are reported at lean conditions and elevated pressures (1–10 atm). Experiments are conducted using the heat flux method at initial temperature of 298 K. In this technique a near adiabatic flame is stabilized by balancing the heat loss from the flame to the burner with heat gain to the unburnt gas mixture such that no net heat loss to the burner is observed. A new facility was designed for such high pressure burner stabilized flame experiments. The results obtained are compared with five chemical kinetic schemes from literature for syngas mixtures at elevated pressures. Large differences are observed between the kinetic schemes and the experiments which can be attributed to certain key chemical reactions. A study of the kinetics is performed through reaction rate and sensitivity analysis which indicate that a high uncertainty still remains in important reactions that drive the production and consumption of species such as H, HO2 and OH. For lean mixtures the reaction H + O2(+M) = HO2(+M) contributes significantly to the deviation of models from the experiments. The present analysis in the lean mixture regime suggests the need for further studies in assessment and modification of rate constants for this reaction.

M. Goswami; J.G.H. van Griensven; R.J.M. Bastiaans; A.A. Konnov; L.P.H. de Goey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high-pressure stationary hydrogen storage tanks. The storagehigh-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage containers, and atrailer Compressed hydrogen storage High-pressure hydrogen

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

59

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

General trend for pressurized superconducting hydrogen-dense materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-standing prediction that hydrogen can assume a metallic state under high pressure, combined with arguments put forward more recently that this state might even be superconducting up to high temperatures, continues to spur tremendous research activities toward the experimental realization of metallic hydrogen. These efforts have however so far been impeded by the enormous challenges associated with the exceedingly large required pressure. Hydrogen-dense materials, of the MH{sub 4} form (where M can be, e.g., Si, Ge, or Sn) or of the MH{sub 3} form (with M being, e.g., Al, Sc, Y, or La), allow for the rather exciting opportunity to carry out a proxy study of metallic hydrogen and associated high-temperature superconductivity at pressures within the reach of current techniques. At least one experimental report indicates that a superconducting state might have been observed already in SiH{sub 4}, and several theoretical studies have predicted superconductivity in pressurized hydrogen-rich materials; however, no systematic dependence on the applied pressure has yet been identified so far. In the present work, we have used first-principles methods in an attempt to predict the superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) as a function of pressure (P) for three metal-hydride systems of the MH{sub 3} form, namely ScH{sub 3}, YH{sub 3}, and LaH{sub 3}. By comparing the obtained results, we are able to point out a general trend in the T{sub c}-dependence on P. These gained insights presented here are likely to stimulate further theoretical studies of metallic phases of hydrogen-dense materials and should lead to new experimental investigations of their superconducting properties.

Kim, D. Y.; Scheicher, R. H.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Kang, T. W.; Ahuja, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Agenda for the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held Sept. 27-29, 2010, in Beijing, China

62

High temperature pressure gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

High-pressure crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

Katrusiak, A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

64

Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies of adsorbates on Pt(111): Studies of CO at high pressures and temperatures, coadsorbed with olefins and its role as a poison in ethylene hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure high temperature CO adsorption and coadsorption with ethylene and propylene on Pt(111) was monitored in situ with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). At high pressures and high temperatures, CO dissociates on a Pt(111) surface to form carbon. At 400 torr CO pressure and 673K, CO modifies the Pt(111) surface through a carbonyl intermediate, and dissociates to leave carbon on the surface. SFG was used to follow the CO peak evolution from monolayer adsorption in ultra high vacuum (UHV) to 400 torr CO pressure. At this high pressure, a temperature dependence study from room temperature to 823K was carried out. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to identify carbon on the surface CO coadsorption with ethylene and CO coadsorption with propylene studies were carried out with 2-IR 1-visible SFG. With this setup, two spectral ranges covering the C-H stretch range and the CO stretch range can be monitored simultaneously. The coadsorption study with ethylene reveals that after 5L ethylene exposure on a Pt(111) surface to form ethylidyne , CO at high pressures cannot completely displace the ethylidyne from the surface. Instead, CO first adsorbs on defect sites at low pressures and then competes with ethylidyne for terrace sites at high pressures. Propylene coadsorption with CO at similar conditions shows that propylidyne undergoes conformation changes with increased CO pressure and at 1 torr, is absent from the Pt(111) surface. Experiments on CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation was carried by 2-IR 1-visible SFG. At 1 torr CO,10 torr ethylene and 100 torr hydrogen, CO was found to block active sites necessary for ethylene hydrogenation, Above 425K, CO desorbs from the surface to allow ethylene hydrogenation to occur. The gas phase species were monitored by gas chromatography.

Kung, Kyle Yi

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Jon Knudsen (Primary Contact), Don Baldwin Lincoln Composites 5117 N.W. 40 th Street Lincoln, NE 68524 Phone: (402) 470-5039 Email: jknudsen@lincolncomposites.com DOE Managers HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO18062 Project Start Date: July 1, 2008 Project End Date: April 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to design and develop the most effective bulk hauling and storage solution for hydrogen in terms of: Cost * Safety * Weight * Volumetric Efficiency * Technical Barriers This project addresses the following technical barriers

66

Vessel Design and Fabrication Technology for Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Zhili Feng (Primary Contact), Wei Zhang, John Wang and Fei Ren Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 1 Bethel Valley Rd, PO Box 2008, MS 6095 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone: (865) 576-3797 Email: fengz@ornl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov Subcontractors: * Global Engineering and Technology LLC, Camas, WA * Ben C. Gerwick Inc., Oakland, CA * MegaStir Technologies LLC, Provo, UT * University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction

67

High pressure counterflow CHF.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

Walkush, Joseph Patrick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

69

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction facilities on station 9.8 at the SRS Daresbury Laboratory - hydrogen location in the high-pressure structure of ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new high-pressure single-crystal diffraction facility constructed on station 9.8 at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory, is described. Initial results on the low-melting-point compound ethanol are presented; diffraction data were of sufficient quality to enable H-atoms to be located.

Allan, D.R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

PRESSURE DROP EVALUATION OF THE HYDROGEN CIRCULATION SYSTEM FOR JSNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In J-PARC, an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) driven by a proton beam of 1 MW has selected supercritical hydrogen with a temperature of around 20 K and the pressure of 1.5 MPa as a moderator material. A hydrogen-circulation system, which consists of two pumps, an ortho-para hydrogen converter, a heater, an accumulator and a helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, has been designed to provide supercritical hydrogen to the moderators and remove the nuclear heating there. A hydrogen-circulation system is cooled through the heat exchanger by a helium refrigerator with the refrigeration power of 6.45 kW at 15.5 K. It is important for the cooling design of the hydrogen-circulation system to understand the pressure drops through the equipments. In this work, the pressure drop through each component was analyzed by using a CFD code, STAR-CD. The correlation of the pressure drops through the components that can describe the analytical results within 14% differences has been derived. It is confirmed that the pressure drop in the hydrogen circulation system would be estimated to be 37 kPa for the circulation flow rate of 160 g/s by using the correlations derived here, and is sufficiently lower than the allowable pump head of 100 kPa.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

73

Spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water at pressures up to 200 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the Raman Q-branch of hydrogen in a solution with water at a temperature of about 280 K and at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa. From a least-mean-square fitting analysis of the broad Raman Q-branch, we isolated the contributions from the four lowest individual roto-vibrational lines. The vibrational lines were narrower than the pure rotational Raman lines of hydrogen dissolved in water measured previously, but significantly larger than in the gas. The separations between these lines were found to be significantly smaller than in gaseous hydrogen and their widths were slightly increasing with pressure. The lines were narrowing with increasing rotational quantum number. The Raman frequencies of all roto-vibrational lines were approaching the values of gas phase hydrogen with increasing pressure. Additionally, from the comparison of the integrated intensity signal of Q-branch of hydrogen to the integrated Raman signal of the water bending mode, we have obtained the concentration of hydrogen in a solution with water along the 280 K isotherm. Hydrogen solubility increases slowly with pressure, and no deviation from a smooth behaviour was observed, even reaching thermodynamic conditions very close to the transition to the stable hydrogen hydrate. The analysis of the relative hydrogen concentration in solution on the basis of a simple thermodynamic model has allowed us to obtain the molar volume for the hydrogen gas/water solution. Interestingly, the volume relative to one hydrogen molecule in solution does not decrease with pressure and, at high pressure, is larger than the volume pertinent to one molecule of water. This is in favour of the theory of hydrophobic solvation, for which a larger and more stable structure of the water molecules is expected around a solute molecule.

Borysow, Jacek, E-mail: jborysow@mtu.edu; Rosso, Leonardo del; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.ulivi@isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)] [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Moraldi, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

74

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydro-Pac Hydro-Pac Inc. A High Pressure Company * Founded in 1972 * Manufacturer of Hydraulically Driven Intensifiers * High Pressure Hydrogen Compressors Hydrogen Compressor Cost Reduction Topics * Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Identify Economical Hydrogen Compatible Materials * Specify Well Ventilated Sites with Remote Controls Standardize Configuration and Fueling Strategy * Limit the number of compressors and stages * Narrow the range of supply and discharge pressures * Select a flow and standardize Simple Designs and Proven Technologies * Variable speed drives * Double ended intensifiers * Water cooled cylinders * Flexible operational envelopes * Stop and start under load . Material Research / Installation Requirements

75

Pressure Relief Devices for Compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel Containers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CSA Standards HPRD1-2009 CSA Standards HPRD1-2009 Temporary Interim Requirement For Pressure Relief Devices For Compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Fuel Containers Published - August 2009 3 5.6 General Hydrogen Service Suitability 5.6.1 General. The purpose of this test is to demonstrate suitability of pressure relief devices in hydrogen service. The pressure relief devices will be selected to be in compliance with Section 5.1 and representative of normal production. NOTE: This series of performance tests may not guarantee that all cases and conditions of service will be validated; it is still incumbent on the designer/builder to carefully screen materials of construction for their intended use. Test Method. The general hydrogen service suitability test sequence will be performed on nine devices.

76

U.S. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27–29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

77

Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The purpose of the Energy Systems High Pressure Test Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to provide space where high pressure hydrogen components can be safely tested. High pressure hydrogen storage is an integral part of energy storage technology for use in fuel cell and in other distributed energy scenarios designed to effectively utilize the variability inherent with renewable energy sources. The high pressure storage laboratory is co-located with energy storage activities such as ultra-capacitors, super conducting magnetic flywheel and mechanical energy storage systems laboratories for an integrated approach to system development and demonstration. Hazards associated with hydrogen storage at pressures up to 10,000 psi include oxygen displacement, combustion, explosion, and pressurization of room air due to fast release and physical hazards associated with burst failure modes. A critical understanding of component failure modes is essential in developing reliable, robust designs that will minimize failure risk beyond the end of service life. Development of test protocol for accelerated life testing to accurately scale to real world operating conditions is essential for developing regulations, codes and standards required for safe operation. NREL works closely with industry partners in providing support of advanced hydrogen technologies. Innovative approaches to product design will accelerate commercialization into new markets. NREL works with all phases of the product design life cycle from early prototype development to final certification testing. High pressure tests are performed on hydrogen components, primarily for the validation of developing new codes and standards for high pressure hydrogen applications. The following types of tests can be performed: Performance, Component and system level efficiency, Strength of materials and hydrogen compatibility, Safety demonstration, Model validation, and Life cycle reliability.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

80

Steam Oxidation at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

High pressure synthesis gas conversion. Task 3: High pressure profiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research project was to build and test a high pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system were procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system was then used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by C. 1jungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships were found in CSTR and immobilized cell reactors (ICR). The minimum retention times and reactor volumes were found for ethanol production in these reactors.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Integrity management of a HIC-damaged pipeline and refinery pressure vessel through hydrogen permeation measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen permeation measurements were used in the successful operation of a sour gas pipeline subsequent to a hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) failure in September 1992. Two joints of HIC-resistant pipe were used to repair the failed section and adjacent cut-outs. The pipeline has been operated for five years with no further instances of HIC failure. Hydrogen permeation monitoring was chosen as an integrity management tool because no techniques are currently available to inspect for HIC damage in a pipeline this size. Self-powered electrochemical devices installed on the pipeline were employed to monitor and control the effectiveness of a batch inhibition program in maintaining diffusing hydrogen atom concentrations below the laboratory-measured threshold for initiation of HIC damage. Permeation monitoring of a HIC-damaged refinery pressure vessel indicated very high hydrogen atom flux, despite attempts to inhibit corrosion with ammonium polysulfide injection. In this instance it was decided that replacement of the vessel was necessary.

Hay, M.G.; Rider, D.W. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Sealing off a carbon nanotube with a self-assembled aqueous valve for the storage of hydrogen in GPa pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The end section of a carbon nanotube, cut by acid treatment, contains hydrophillic oxygen groups. Water molecules can self-assemble around these groups to seal off a carbon nanotube and form an "aqueous valve". Molecular dynamics simulations on single-wall (12,12) and (15,15) tubes with dangling carboxyl groups show that the formation of aqueous valves can be achieved both in the absence of and in the presence of high pressure hydrogen. Furthermore, significant diffusion barriers through aqueous valves are identified. It indicates that such valves could hold hydrogen inside the tube with GPa pressure. Releasing hydrogen is easily achieved by melting the "aqueous valve". Such a design provides a recyclable and non- destructive way to store hydrogen in GPa pressure. Under the storage conditions dictated by sealing off the container in liquid water, the hydrogen density inside the container is higher than that for solid hydrogen, which promises excellent weight storage efficiency.

Chen, H Y; Gong, X G; Liu, Zhi-Feng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline...

88

Silicon film formation by chemical transport in atmospheric-pressure pure hydrogen plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To prepare polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films at low temperatures ( atmospheric-pressure pure hydrogen plasma called the atmospheric-pressure enhanced chemical transport method. In this method high-pressure ( 200 – 760 Torr ) stable glow plasma of pure hydrogen was generated by a 150 MHz very high frequency power between the two parallel electrodes less than 2 mm apart. One of the electrodes is composed of the cooled Si solidsource and the other the heated substrate ( 200 – 400 ° C ) . According to the temperature dependence of hydrogen etching rate of Si Si H x species are mainly generated at the cooled Si solidsource by hydrogen atoms. These species are again decomposed in the plasma transported to the substrate to form Si films. In the present experiments on poly-Si film formation a high deposition rate of 300 nm ? min was achieved at 400 ° C and nearly ideal utilization efficiencies ( > 93 % ) of Si solidsource was realized in every condition. Si grains formed on a (001) Si substrate revealed anisotropic morphology elongated along ?110? directions and most of them had columnar structures epitaxially grown to the thickness of 2 ? m even at 200 ° C .

Hiromasa Ohmi; Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Yoshinori Hamaoka; Kiyoshi Yasutake

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Regenerable Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent and Regenerable Multifunctional Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent for High Temperature Gas Streams  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Sorbents for High Temperature Gas Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,767,000 entitled "Regenerable Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent and Regenerable Multifunctional Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent for High Temperature Gas Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a unique regenerable sorbent process that can remove contaminants from gas produced by the gasification of fossil fuels. Specifically, the process removes hydrogen chloride by using the regenerable sorbent and simultaneously extracts hydrogen chloride compounds and hydrogen

90

Pressure-Compensated Hydrogen Fuel Cell WiSys Prototype Development Fund  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pressure-Compensated Hydrogen Fuel Cell WiSys Prototype Development Fund Final Report Principal Description The purpose of this project was to reduce-to-practice the pressure-compensated hydrogen fuel cell was intended to provide a solution for making more reliable and efficient hydrogen fuel cells than the present

Wu, Mingshen

91

Review on the effects of hydrogen at extreme pressures and temperatures on the mechanical behavior of polymers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen on the mechanics (e.g. strength, ductility, and fatigue resistance) of polymer materials are outlined in this report. There are a small number of studies reported in the literature on this topic, and even fewer at the extreme temperatures to which hydrogen service materials will be exposed. Several studies found little evidence that hydrogen affects the static tensile properties, long term creep, or ductile fracture of high density polyethylene or polyamide. However, there has been a report that a recoverable drop in the modulus of high density polyethylene is observable under high hydrogen pressure. A research need exists on the mechanical effects of hydrogen on the wide range of polymers used or considered for use in the hydrogen economy, due to the lack of data in the literature.

Hecht, Ethan S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 × 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 × 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Summary of the...

94

High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)...

95

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation) High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation)...

96

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

UOP LLC. All rights reserved. High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...

97

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented...

98

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

99

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

100

Hydrogen Storage Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

storing hydrogen include: Physical storage of compressed hydrogen gas in high pressure tanks (up to 700 bar) Physical storage of cryogenic liquid hydrogen (cooled to -253C, at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Technical Forum Participants at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Photo of the Technical Forum Participants at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum, which was held on September 27–29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

102

Radio-frequency induction plasmas at atmospheric pressure: Mixtures of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen with argon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical calculations are reported which simulate atmospheric-pressure radiofrequency induction plasmas consisting of either pure argon or mixtures of argon with hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen. These calculati...

S. L. Girshick; W. Yu

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Gas separation by pressure swing adsorption for producing hydrogen from coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project demonstrated the feasibility of producing high purity hydrogen from a coal gasification product gas mixture by Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) using a commercial 5A zeolite as the adsorbent. The major advantage of PSA over conventional hydrogen upgrading processes is associated with lower overall production costs. This is mainly due to the integration of PSA into H/sub 2/ production plants as a single unit operation by replacing the low temperature carbon monoxide shift, carbon dioxide wash and methanation steps. In this way, hydrogen production costs are typically reduced from 7 to 40%. A single bed PSA process was designed to simulate the various steps of commercial multibed PSA plants. A new and very important step, ''Vacuum Purge'', was also investigated. 45 refs., 38 figs., 50 tabs.

Kapoor, A.; Ritter, J.A.; Yang, R.T.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

105

High-Frequency Gas Discharge Plasma in Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high-frequency electric field required to maintain a hydrogen plasma has been measured as a function of pressure and plasma electron density. A theory of the plasma based on a solution of the Boltzmann transport equation has been developed to predict this field; it agrees satisfactorily with experiment. The theory has no adjustable parameters, and uses only the probabilities of collision, excitation, and ionization of the gas by electrons, and the ionic mobility.

David J. Rose and Sanborn C. Brown

1955-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

High-pressure microhydraulic actuator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

107

Sandia National Laboratories: High-Pressure and High-Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECClimateCarbon CaptureHigh-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron...

108

R&D of Large Stationary Hydrogen/CNG/HCNG Storage Vessels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks Status and Progress in Research, Development and Demonstration of Hydrogen-Compressed...

109

High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes. Abstract: A substantial effort worldwide has been...

110

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches Presentation...

111

Neutron scattering at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering spectra at pressures up to 30 kilobar in the temperature range 300–4 K have been obtained with a compact clamped type apparatus. The pressure cell geometry by allowing the detection of neutronsscattered in a plane makes it compatible with operation on crystal spectrometers both for elastic and inelastic scattering. The instrument is light (4.5 kg) and easy to move. An external diameter of 68 mm makes the pressure cell adaptable to standard cryostats or furnaces.

D. Bloch; J. Paureau; J. Voiron; G. Parisot

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

An Analysis of Near-Term Hydrogen Vehicle Rollout Scenarios for Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage (mounted on a truckand a dispenser. The hydrogen storage truck trailer is towedan upgrade. Compressed hydrogen storage dispenser Hydrogen

Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Structure and elasticity of serpentine at high-pressure Mainak Mookherjee a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volcanoes, high electrical conductivities, magnetic and seismic anomalies. Using theoretical methods, we. Evidence of pressure- induced hydrogen bonding is absent in serpentine, as evident from reduction of O K is the bulk modulus, prime indicates pressure derivatives, and O refers to zero pressure. Our best

Stixrude, Lars

114

CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

Zhen Fan

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

High rate deposition of microcrystalline silicon films by high-pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) thin films were prepared by high-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) with a screened plasma. The deposition ra...

BingQing Zhou; MeiFang Zhu; FengZhen Liu…

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Metallic Hydrogen: A High-Temperature Superconductor?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of the BCS theory to the proposed metallic modification of hydrogen suggests that it will be a high-temperature superconductor. This prediction has interesting astrophysical consequences, as well as implications for the possible development of a superconductor for use at elevated temperatures.

N. W. Ashcroft

1968-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

118

BIOMACROMOLECULES UNDER HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water into the protein rather than the transfer of hydrophobic residues into water. To investigate water. Gil Toombes for teaching me SAXS analysis and help with the pressure pump motor control, Buz Barstow

Gruner, Sol M.

119

Observation of Metal-insulator and Metal-Metal Transitions in Hydrogen Iodide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen iodide has been studied up to pressures of 70 GPa at low temperatures in a diamondanvil cell. Electrical-conductivity and optical measurements have been used to observe pressure-induced phase transitions which are interpreted as follows: First a metal-insulator transition takes place in the molecular solid; with increased pressure a metal-metal molecular-to-atomic transition occurs. An additional transition due to intrinsic impurities has been observed. Implications for metallic hydrogen are discussed.

J. van Straaten and Isaac F. Silvera

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

High-Pressure Model Catalyst System | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of one atmosphere or below in a reactor situated just below an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber. In particular, heterogeneous catalytic reactions at realistic pressures over...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

An improved approach for hydrogen analysis in metal samples using single laser-induced gas plasma and target plasma at helium atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report in this paper the results of an experimental study on hydrogen analysis of solid samples in high pressure helium ambient gas employing the basic scheme of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)....

S.N. Abdulmadjid; M.M. Suliyanti; K.H. Kurniawan; T.J. Lie; M. Pardede…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ignition Delay Times of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends at Elevated Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applications of natural gases that contain high levels of hydrogen have become a primary interest in the gas turbine market. For reheat gas turbines, understanding of the ignition delay times of high-hydrogen natural gases is important for two...

Brower, Marissa

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

123

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

124

Combined effects of gas pressure and exciting frequency on electron energy distribution functions in hydrogen capacitively coupled plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combined effects of the variation of hydrogen pressure (40-400 mTorr) and exciting frequency (13.56-50 MHz) on the electron energy probability function (EEPF) and other plasma parameters in capacitively coupled hydrogen H{sub 2} discharge at fixed discharge voltage were investigated using rf-compensated Langmuir probe. At a fixed exciting frequency of 13.56 MHz, the EEPF evolved from Maxwellian-like distribution to a bi-Maxwellian distribution when the H{sub 2} pressure increased, possibly due to efficient vibrational excitation. The electron density largely increased to a peak value and then decreased with the increase of H{sub 2} pressure. Meanwhile, the electron temperature and plasma potential significantly decrease and reaching a minimum at 120 mTorr beyond, which saturated or slightly increases. On the other hand, the dissipated power and electron density markedly increased with increasing the exciting frequency at fixed H{sub 2} pressure and voltage. The electron temperatures negligibly dependent on the driving frequency. The EEPFs at low pressure 60 mTorr resemble Maxwellian-like distribution and evolve into a bi-Maxwellian type as frequency increased, due to a collisonless (stochastic) sheath-heating in the very high frequency regime, while the EEPF at hydrogen pressure {>=}120 mTorr retained a bi-Maxwellian-type distribution irrespective of the driving frequency. Such evolution of the EEPFs shape with the driving frequency and hydrogen pressure has been discussed on the basis of electron diffusion processes and low threshold-energy inelastic collision processes taking place in the discharge. The ratio of stochastic power to bulk power heating ratio is dependent on the hydrogen pressure while it is independent on the driving frequency.

Abdel-Fattah, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519 (Egypt); Sugai, H. [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Recent high pressure photoluminescence studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss two studies involving the effect of pressure on luminescence properties of organic molecules in polymeric media. (1) The efficiency of energy transfer from Coumarine 138 to Rhodamine B in polyacrylic acid (PAA) is measured by both steady state and time dependent methods. The Forster efficiency'' obtained by these two methods is consistent and shows the same pressure dependence as efficiencies derived from relative peak intensities. The non-monotonic pressure dependence of the efficiency is accounted for in terms of the properties of the molecules and the media. (2) The effect of pressure on the luminescent efficiency of molecules with two or more possible excited state geometries has been measured. The efficiency is described in terms of the non-radiative dissipation of energy from a planar excited state and the rates of crossing to and from the possible twisted states as well as non-radiative decay from these states. The processes involved in these two studies are pertinent to a number of technologically and biologically important processes. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

Drickamer, H.G.; Lang, J.M.; Dreger, Z.A. (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois, 1209 W. California Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to structures with symmetries $Pmc2_1$ (800 - 950 GPa) and $P2_1$ (1.17 TPa), but they are eventually regained at 5.62 TPa in a layered structure $C2/m$. The $P2_1 \\rightarrow C2/m$ transformation also marks the insulator-to-metal transition in ice, which occurs at a significantly higher pressure than recently predicted.

McMahon, Jeffrey M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Superconducting high-pressure phases of disilane 10.1073/pnas.1005242107 Xilian...DC 20015 High-pressure structures of disilane (Si2H6) are investigated extensively...linear-response calculations for Pm-3m disilane at 275 GPa show a large electron-phonon...

Xilian Jin; Xing Meng; Zhi He; Yanming Ma; Bingbing Liu; Tian Cui; Guangtian Zou; Ho-kwang Mao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Final Report for the DOE Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

of interest for further development into viable storage systems. High pressure hydrogen tanks, systems that store hydrogen in a cryocompressed state, or liquid hydrogen storage...

129

International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

experts presented information and data on testing and certification of storage tanks for compressed hydrogen, CNG, and HCNG fuels. 1 Specific objectives of the Forum were...

130

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes’ equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

131

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

133

Simple method for preparing hydrogenated amorphous silicon films by chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inexpensive one-step method is presented for fabricating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films with good photovoltaic properties using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of silane, disilane, trisilane, and higher polysilanes in hydrogen at one atmosphere total pressure. The gas mixture is generated by the action of dilute acid on magnesium silicide and used immediately in the CVD process. Thus, elaborate techniques for handling, transporting or storing the pyrophoric polysilanes are avoided. In addition, the method requires no expensive vacuum or electrical equipment. The conditions necessary for high (approx. =10%) hydrogen incorporation and very high deposition rates (50-100 A/sec) are explained. Experimental parameters are explained and properties as a function of these parameters are shown. The measurements include hydrogen content, optical, electrical and photovoltaic properties of the a-Si:H films. A chemical kinetic model is presented for this and other silane and polysilane CVD systems between about 400 and 600/sup 0/C. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions are considered. The model is derived from homogeneous gas-phase silane and polysilane chemistry and predicts, in agreement with our experiments, that the homogeneous gas-phase chemistry determines the a-Si:H film growth rate under a variety of conditions. The model is sufficiently predictive to be useful in determining appropriate experimental conditions. Stable solar cells are proposed for a-Si:H and fluorine doped tin oxide which can be produced by CVD at very high deposition rates. The unstable a-Si:H/tin oxide interface is eliminated by a very thin layer of titanium nitride and oxide between the a-Si:H and tin oxide.

Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for High for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations Background Coal and biomass are readily available in the United States and can be mixed for thermal processing to produce hydrogen and power. The produced hydrogen can be sent directly to a fuel cell for highly efficient and environmentally clean power generation. For coal and biomass to become economically viable sources of hydrogen, more efficient production processes need to be developed. To meet this

135

Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

High Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Research Questionnaire National High Magnetic Field Laboratory Operated by Florida State University, University of Florida, Los Alamos National Laboratory Florida State...

138

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Workshop HIGH THROUGHPUTCOMBINATORIAL SCREENING OF HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS June 26, 2007 Tom Boussie Symyx Technologies Symyx develops and applies proprietary high-throughput...

139

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage ... Use of hydrogen for transportation applications requires materials that not only store hydrogen at high density but that can operate reversibly at temperatures and pressures below approximately 100 °C and 10 bar, respectively. ... This composition is based on assuming the following complete hydrogenation reaction:which stores 2.6 wt % hydrogen. ...

Wen Li; John J. Vajo; Robert W. Cumberland; Ping Liu; Son-Jong Hwang; Chul Kim; Robert C. Bowman, Jr.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

140

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the reinforcing member and having a strengthening member wrapped around the refractory material. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA); Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

High pressure ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present header assembly when used with recuperators reduces the brittle effect of a portion of the ceramic components. Thus, the present header assembly used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present header assembly is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a strengthening reinforcing member being in spaced relationship to the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The header assembly is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in contacting relationship with the first ceramic member, the second ceramic member and the strengthening reinforcing member. The present header assembly provides a high strength load bearing header assembly having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

Harkins, B.D.; Ward, M.E.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

143

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline

144

Retention of Hydrogen in FCC Metals Irradiated at Temperatures Leading to High Densities of Bubbles or Voids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large amounts of hydrogen and helium are generated in structural metals in accelerator-driven systems. It is shown that under certain conditions, hydrogen can be stored in irradiated nickel and stainless steels at levels strongly in excess of that predicted by Sieverts Law. These conditions are first, the availability of hydrogen from various radiolytic and environmental sources and second, the formation of radiation-induced cavities to store hydrogen. These cavities can be highly pressurized bubbles or under-pressurized voids, with concurrent helium in the cavities at either low or very high levels. Transmutant sources of hydrogen are often insufficient to pressurize these cavities, and therefore environmental sources are required. The stored hydrogen appears to be stable for many years at room temperature. A conceptual model to describe such behavior requires the continuous generation of hydrogen from (n, p) reactions and possibly other radiolytic sources which can create a supersaturation of hydrogen in the metal, leading to the pressurization of voids and helium bubbles. Once captured in a bubble, the hydrogen is assumed to be in molecular form. Dissolution back into the metal requires chemisorption and dissociation on the bubble surface. Both of these processes have large activation barriers, particularly when oxygen, carbohydrates, and other impurities poison the bubble surface. However, these chemisorbed poisons may reduce but not entirely restrict the ingress or egress of atomic hydrogen.

Garner, Francis A.; Simonen, Edward P.; Oliver, Brian M.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Grossbeck, M L.; Wolfer, W. G.; Scott, P M.

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Huge-pressure-induced volume collapse in LiAlH4 and its implications to hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed high-pressure study on LiAlH4 has been carried out using the ab initio projected augmented plane-wave method. Application of pressure transforms ?- to ?-LiAlH4 (?-NaAlH4-type structure) at 2.6 GPa with a huge volume collapse of 17%. This abnormal behavior is associated with electronic transition from Al-s to -p states. At 33.8 GPa, a ? to ? transition is predicted from ?-NaAlH4-type to KGaH4-type structure. Up to 40 GPa LiAlH4 remains nonmetallic. The high weight percent of hydrogen, around 22% smaller equilibrium volume, and drastically different bonding behavior than ?-phase indicate that ?-LiAlH4 is expected to be a potential hydrogen storage material.

P. Vajeeston; P. Ravindran; R. Vidya; H. Fjellvåg; A. Kjekshus

2003-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

146

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

147

System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego; Anastasia A. Gandrik

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

workshop in Washington, D.C. including testing and certification of Type 3 and Type 4 tanks, pressure relief device testing and validation, tank inspection, and end-of-life...

149

Hydrogen Storage Research and Development Activities | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the National Hydrogen Storage Project. For compressed hydrogen, lightweight composite tanks with high pressure ratings (10,000 psi) and conformability are being developed. For...

150

Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Overall goal of the project is to develop materials technologies that would enable minimizing the problem of hydrogen embrittlement associated with the high-pressure transport of hydrogen

151

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Pressure-Induced Phase Transition in Guanidinium Perchlorate: A Supramolecular Structure Directed by Hydrogen Bonding and Electrostatic Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments have been performed to investigate the response of guanidinium perchlorate (C(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup +} {center_dot} ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, GP) to high pressures of {approx}11 GPa. GP exhibits a typical supramolecular structure of two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen-bonded ionic networks at ambient conditions. A subtle phase transition, accompanied by the symmetry transformation from R3m to C2, has been confirmed by obvious changes in both Raman and XRD patterns at 4.5 GPa. The phase transition is attributed to the competition between hydrogen bonds and close packing of the supramolecular structure at high pressure. Hydrogen bonds have been demonstrated to evolve into a distorted state through the phase transition, accompanied by the reduction in separation of oppositely charged ions in adjacent sheet motifs. A detailed mechanism of the phase transition, as well as the cooperativity between hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions, is discussed by virtue of the local nature of the structure.

Li, Shourui; Li, Qian; Wang, Kai; Tan, Xiao; Zhou, Mi; Li, Bing; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian; Zou, Bo (Jilin)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

153

Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Safety Evaluation Report: Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage, Lincoln Composites, Lincoln, NE, May 25, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lincoln Composites operates a facility for designing, testing, and manufacturing composite pressure vessels. Lincoln Composites also has a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to develop composite tanks for high-pressure hydrogen storage. The initial stage of this project involves testing the permeation of high-pressure hydrogen through polymer liners. The company recently moved and is constructing a dedicated research/testing laboratory at their new location. In the meantime, permeation tests are being performed in a corner of a large manufacturing facility. The safety review team visited the Lincoln Composites site on May 25, 2010. The project team presented an overview of the company and project and took the safety review team on a tour of the facility. The safety review team saw the entire process of winding a carbon fiber/resin tank on a liner, installing the boss and valves, and curing and painting the tank. The review team also saw the new laboratory that is being built for the DOE project and the temporary arrangement for the hydrogen permeation tests.

Fort, III, William C.; Kallman, Richard A.; Maes, Miguel; Skolnik, Edward G.; Weiner, Steven C.

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

155

Column Design in High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......consideration, and the high inlet pressure is the price to be paid for the short analysis time...silicious support impregnated with paraffin oil in reversed phase chromatography. As op...in the above described manner following heating of the product at 450 C. With relatively......

Csaba Horvath; S. R. Lipsky

1969-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Column Design in High Pressure Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Presented at the Fit th International...high inlet pressure is the price to be paid for the short analysis...support impregnated with paraffin oil in reversed phase chromatography...described manner following heating of the product at 450 C. With......

Csaba Horvath; S. R. Lipsky

1969-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

158

Catalytic pressurization of liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the use and applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expand the need for a lighter weight fuel allowing for longer duration flights has become the primary limiting factor in the advancement of these vehicles. To extend the operational envelope of UAV onboard condensed hydrogen storage for missions exceeding one week is necessary. Currently large spherical liquid hydrogen tanks that are pressurized with external helium tanks or electronic heating elements are utilized for this purpose. However the mass size and power consumption of the fuel storage tank and fuel pressurization system significantly limit the flight envelope of UAV. In an effort to alleviate these issues this paper investigates the technological feasibility of orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysis as a method of fuel pressurization. Typical pressurization requirements for takeoff cruise and landing are reviewed. Calculations of the catalyst system mass and response time are presented.

Jacob Leachman; Melissa Jean Street; Teira Graham

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Objective: Develop materials technologies to minimize embrittlement of steels used for high-pressure transport of hydrogen

162

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

163

Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Norman Newhouse (Primary Contact), Jon Knudsen, John Makinson Lincoln Composites, Inc. 5117 NW 40 th Street Lincoln, NE 68524 Phone: (402) 470-5035 Email: nnewhouse@lincolncomposites.com DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-09GO19004 Project Start Date: February 1, 2009 Project End Date: June 30, 2014 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Improve the performance characteristics, including * weight, volumetric efficiency, and cost, of composite pressure vessels used to contain hydrogen in adsorbants. Evaluate design, materials, or manufacturing process *

164

Intense and Highly Energetic Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Arrays.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis documents the efforts taken to produce highly ionized and concentrated atmospheric pressure plasma using an arrayed atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system. The… (more)

Furmanski, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

166

A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings K. Zapfe \\Lambday , B. Braun z , H of gaseous polarized hydrogen was formed by injecting polarized H atoms (produced by Stern­Gerlach spin separation) into a storage cell consisting of a cylindrical tube open at both ends. The target was placed

167

HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation for the high temperature combinatorial screening for high capacity hydrogen storage meeting

168

Thermal expansion of Mg(OH)2 brucite under high pressure and pressure dependence of entropy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An equation of state for Mg(OH)2 brucite under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions ... -ray diffraction. Pressure dependence of entropy of brucite has been calculated with thermal expansion coefficient....

H. Fukui; O. Ohtaka; T. Suzuki; K. Funakoshi

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Stability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited at high temperatures with a remote hydrogen plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is demonstrated that the stability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a?Si:H) is improved by deposition under the combined conditions of high substrate temperature (e.g. T D =400?°C) and high hydrogen dilution as are readily achieved in a remote hydrogen plasma reactor. In comparison with optimized films from conventional rfglow dischargedeposition (e.g. silane 230?°C 2 W) undoped high T D films possess a lower midgap defect density the dark dc conductivity in n?type (phosphorus?doped) films displays higher equilibration temperatures and longer relaxation times at a given temperature with an activation energy of 1.0 eV and undoped high T D films have a lower saturated density of light?induced defects. It is proposed that the ability to achieve the improved stability is a consequence of two effects: (1) the use of hydrogen dilution during deposition to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the film near 10 at.?% even at 400?°C and (2) the possibility that at high T D ’s the hydrogen is more stably incorporated in the random network and/or that the density of weak Si—Si bonds is smaller.

N. M. Johnson; C. E. Nebel; P. V. Santos; W. B. Jackson; R. A. Street; K. S. Stevens; J. Walker

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRI has completed the NBFZ test program, made modification to the experimental furnace for the HPBO test. The NBFZ datasets provide the information NEA needs to simulate the combustion and fuel-N conversion with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. BU has determined a linear swell of 1.55 corresponding to a volumetric increase of a factor of 3.7 and a decrease in char density by the same factor. These results are highly significant, and indicate significantly faster burnout at elevated pressure due to the low char density and large diameter.

Chris Guenther, Ph.D.

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

171

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

173

Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

174

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Subtask 1.1 Engine Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of ignition and stable combustion of directly injected, 3,000 psi, low-Btu gas with glow plug ignition assist at diesel engine compression ratios. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the combustion performance of synthesized low-Btu coal gas in a single-cylinder test engine combustion rig located at the Caterpillar Technical Center engine lab in Mossville, Illinois. The objective of Subtask 1.2 Fuel Processor Feasibility was to conduct research needed to establish the technical feasibility of air-blown, fixed-bed, high-pressure coal fuel processing at up to 3,000 psi operating pressure, incorporating in-bed sulfur and particulate capture. This objective was accomplished by designing, fabricating, testing and analyzing the performance of bench-scale processors located at Coal Technology Corporation (subcontractor) facilities in Bristol, Virginia. These two subtasks were carried out at widely separated locations and will be discussed in separate sections of this report. They were, however, independent in that the composition of the synthetic coal gas used to fuel the combustion rig was adjusted to reflect the range of exit gas compositions being produced on the fuel processor rig. Two major conclusions resulted from this task. First, direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize these low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risks associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept.

Greenhalgh, M.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Fast?switching, high?temperature propellant source for multistage pneumatic acceleration of hydrogen fuel pellets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fast arc?driven hydrogen gas source and its application as a module in a scheme for multiple downstream propellant supply to a light?gas gun is described. The potential of this scheme for high?speed acceleration of hydrogen fuel?pellets for fusion plasma fueling is considered. In experiments with a single module in which 200 J of electrical energy were dissipated with a power level approaching 5 MW within 30 ?s the velocity of a 23?mg plastic dummy pellet was increased from 1.7 to 2.4 km/s. Barrel pressure transients and arc characteristics are described.

S. A. Andersen; L. Baekmark

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...

178

Ris Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, hydrogen in the gaseous state has an extremely high ability to diffuse through solid materials be stored as a gas, a liquid or a solid. In the case of solid storage, the hydrogen exists as a chemical.0 70 10.0 141.0 Methanol 12.5 99 19.0 22.7 Gasoline 33.4 47.6 Lead/Acid Battery 0.2 Advanced battery 0

179

High-pressure coal fuel processor development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Research on hydrogen environment fatigue test system and correlative fatigue test of hydrogen storage vessel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 70MPa hydrogen environment fatigue test system has been designed and applied in the manufacture of a hydrogen storage vessel. Key equipment is the 80MPa flat steel ribbon wound high pressure hydrogen storage ve...

Rong Li ? ?; Chuan-xiang Zheng ???…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High pressure fiber optic sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Near-surface modification of optical properties of fused silica by low-temperature hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter, we report on the near-surface modification of fused silica by applying a hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma jet at ambient temperature. A significant decrease in...

Gerhard, Christoph; Tasche, Daniel; Brückner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Viöl, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Catalyst for Recombination of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Confined Spaces Under High Concentrations of Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Safety and Technology of Nuclear Hydrogen Production, Control, and Management / Hydrogen Safety and Recombiners

V. Shepelin; D. Koshmanov; E. Chepelin

184

Reversible Hydrogen Storage using CO2 and a Proton-Switchable Iridium Catalyst in Aqueous Media under Mild Temperatures and Pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Green plants convert CO{sub 2} to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO{sub 2} and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO{sub 2}, formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong {pi}-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

Hull J. F.; Himeda, Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Hashiguchi, B.; Szalda, D.J.; Muckerman, J.T.; Fujita, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize...

187

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to High-Altitude-Pilot Protection Suits- Mound Science and Energy Museum Programs Cover a Wide Range of Topics From Hydrogen Fuel Cells to...

188

Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering, Edited by Maximillian Lackner,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fundamentals of High Pressure Combustion Chapter in High Pressure Processes in Chemical Engineering for more than 50 years and are expected to continue to do so [2]. Diesel engines obtain pressures as large as 60atm after ignition [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Figure 1 presents a schematic of diesel and gas turbine engine

Miller, Richard S.

189

High-performances carbonaceous adsorbents for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Activated carbons (ACs) with controlled microporosity have been prepared and their H2 storage performances have been tested in a gravimetric device. Such adsorbents are natural Chinese anthracites chemically activated with alkaline hydroxides, NaOH or KOH. Outstanding total storage capacities of hydrogen, as high as 6.6wt.% equivalent to excess capacity of 6.2 wt.%, have been obtained at 4MPa for some of these adsorbents. These values of hydrogen adsorption are among the best, if not the highest, ever published so far in the open literature. They are well above those of some commercial materials, e.g. Maxsorb-3, considered as a reference of high-performance adsorbent for hydrogen adsorption. Such exceptional storage capacities may be ascribed to a higher volume of micropores (

Weigang Zhao; Vanessa Fierro; E Aylon; M T Izquierdo; Alain Celzard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

191

Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

192

High pressure and multiferroics materials: a happy marriage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of high pressure on the synthesis, properties and atomic structure of multiferroic materials with perovskite or perovskite-related structures is reviewed.

Gilioli, E.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- High Pressure Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The High Pressure Laboratory provides a comprehensive test facility providing the annual testing certification of various nuclear material shipping packages and leak testing...

194

High-pressure Infrared Spectra of Tal and Lawsonite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present high-pressure infrared spectra of two geologically important hydrous minerals: talc, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 and lawsonite, CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2{center_dot}H2O,{center_dot}at room temperature. For lawsonite, our data span the far infrared region from 150 to 550 cm-1 and extend to 25 GPa. We combine our new spectroscopic data with previously published high-pressure mid-infrared and Raman data to constrain the Gr{umlt u}neisen parameter and vibrational density of states under pressure. In the case of talc, we present high-pressure infrared data that span both the mid and far infrared from 150 to 3800 cm-1 covering lattice, silicate, and hydroxyl stretching vibrations to a maximum pressure of 30 GPa. Both phases show remarkable metastability well beyond their nominal maximum thermodynamic stability at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

Scott,H.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.; Williams, Q.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH STRENGTH, HYDROGEN-RESISTANT AUSTENITIC ALLOY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. G. Nelson, "Hydrogen Embrittlement Testing," ASTM STPis susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement but also indicatesis sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. Deformation-Induced

Chang, K.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current, AC, to direct current, DC, conversion is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of the plant was also performed using the H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. A required cost of $3.23 per kg of hydrogen produced was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. Approximately 73% of this cost ($2.36/kg) is the result of capital costs associated with the construction of the combined nuclear plant and hydrogen production facility. Operation and maintenance costs represent about 18% of the total cost ($0.57/kg). Variable costs (including the cost of nuclear fuel) contribute about 8.7% ($0.28/kg) to the total cost of hydrogen production, and decommissioning and raw material costs make up the remaining fractional cost.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Development of high-temperature heat exchanger for hydrogen combustion turbine system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New Rankine Cycle and Topping Regenerative Cycle are representative 500MW power generation systems for a hydrogen combustion turbine (HCT). The energy efficiency based on HHV of these is expected to be over 60% because the inlet temperature of turbine can be increased to 1,970K. These systems comprise various heat exchangers. Especially, the development of high temperature heat exchanger dealing with the high temperature and pressure steam is very important to realize the hydrogen combustion turbine system. The high-temperature heat exchanger of New Rankine Cycle is a supercritical heat recovery steam generator operating at pressure of 36MPa. This heat exchanger is heated by steam at temperature of 1,390K. On the other hand, Topping Regenerative Cycle has two high-temperature heat exchangers. One is a regenerator operating at pressure of 37MPa. The other is a regenerator operating at pressure of 5MPa. Both regenerators are heated by steam at temperature of 1,030K. The following are the principal development subject of high-temperature heat exchanger: (1) Improving the heat transfer characteristics to achieve the compact heat exchanger, and (2) Planning the heat exchanger structure suitable for the high thermal stress. To improve a heat transfer characteristic of the high-temperature heat exchangers, a parameter survey is conducted to optimize a tube arrangement and a fin configuration on tube outside and/or inside. The heat transfer areas are minimized through using the tubes with an extended heat transfer surface on both sides of a tube. Structural integrity is also estimated by conducting a structural analysis for the critical parts of the high-temperature heat exchangers.

Takakuwa, Akihiro; Mochida, Yoshio

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen embrittlement of steels and welds exposed to high pressure H2 is not well understood Effect not been studied Economics of technological solutions to remediate the effect of hydrogen embrittlement has not been quantified #12;Major Tasks Task 1: Evaluate high-pressure hydrogen embrittlement

199

Electrical resistance of Manganin under high static pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrical resistance of manganin was measured under pressures up to 220 kbar at room temperature. The pressure was produced by means of a multianvil apparatus using semisintered magnesia for the pressure medium and was calibrated against well?known fixed points. Obtained results show a linear relationship between the resistance and pressure up to 180 kbar with good reproducibility. The pressure coefficient of resistance turns out to be (2.322±0.008) ×10?3 kbar?1 which is in close agreement with the value obtained under hydrostatic conditions. Manganin can be satisfactorily used as a pressure gauge for a high?pressure experiment using a solidpressure medium. The deviation from the linearity observed above 180 kbar is ascribed to either an intrinsic property of Manganin or the uncertainty of the fixed point adopted. If the linearity is assumed above 180 kbar the transition pressure of GaP is estimated to be 206±2 kbar.

N. Fujioka; O. Mishima; S. Endo; N. Kawai

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Geological Aspects of High-Pressure Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...garnet-pyroxene assemblage typical of eclogites by heating it for an hour at 1200 C at a pressure...eclogite at the M discontinuity. The geothermal gradient would have to have curved so...kyanite-sillimanite transition three times. The geothermal gradient probably has a slope not far...

F. R. Boyd

1964-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition system for high-rate deposition of functional materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure plasmachemical vapor deposition(CVD) system has been developed to fabricate functional thin films at very high deposition rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma in which high-density radicals are created has been effectively used to depositthin films. Combination of the newly designed rotary electrode and the 150 MHz very high frequency power supply makes it possible not only to generate the high-density atmospheric pressure plasma but also to avoid ion bombardment against the film. By virtue of these noble characteristics of the system high quality films can be fabricated at an unprecedented high deposition rate. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric pressure plasmaCVD system hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H ) films were prepared in gas mixtures containing He H 2 and SiH 4 . The results showed that homogeneous a- Si:H films grew when substrates were heated at 200?°C. Extremely high deposition rate which was more than 100 times faster than that of the conventional low-pressure plasma CVD technique was realized.

Y. Mori; K. Yoshii; H. Kakiuchi; K. Yasutake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Presentation on DOE Hydrogen Program for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic hydrogen gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Fuel Summary: : Physical storage of compressed hydrogen gas in high pressure tanks (up to 700 bar); Physical storage... of a material either as hydrogen molecules (H2...

204

High pressure--high temperature research using high energy synchrotron radiation at the TRISTAN accumulation ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy synchrotron radiation emitted from the bending magnet of the TRISTAN accumulation ring (6.5 GeV) at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics has been used for the high pressure--high temperature diffraction experiments using a multianvil press system, MAX80. Owing to the specific features of high energy synchroton radiation, significant improvements have been brought to the high pressure research. The wide energy range of diffraction spectrum leads to an increase in the number of observable diffraction peaks in an energy-dispersive method, resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the measurements of the lattice and thermal parameters. Due to the high penetrating power of radiation, diffraction patterns can be taken in a short time from materials containing heavy elements or materials surrounded by a metal foil. Typical examples of high pressure--high temperature experiments with high energy synchrotron radiation are also described.

Kikegawa, T.; Shimomura, O.; Iwasaki, H.; Sato, S.; Mikuni, A.; Iida, A.; Kamiya, N.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Chapter 9 - Vacuum and High-Pressure Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In industrial practice, multistage distillation operations are carried out over a wide range of operating pressures, from about 0.1 to 40 bar (10,000 to 40·105 Pa). Major factors in choosing the operating pressure are the temperatures of the available cooling and heating media, with water and low-pressure steam being the most convenient ones. Volatile materials require high pressure to raise their condensation temperature to the desired level. Relative volatility tends to decrease with increasing pressure, and, thermodynamically, the upper limit is the critical temperature of the components in the feed. In such cases, a lower operating pressure is chosen and refrigeration must be employed for condensation of overhead vapor instead of cooling water or air. When dealing with high-boiling material, the upper limit for setting the operating pressure depends on the heat sensitivity of the bottom product components. This often requires distilling under an appropriate vacuum in conjunction with a low enough pressure drop to reduce the column bottom temperature accordingly. From the column design point of view, the operating pressure dictates to a great extent the choice and design of internals, and it influences significantly their functionality and overall performance. The main objective of the present chapter is to address and discuss operating pressure selection criteria as well as pressure effects on stage and reflux requirement, vapor and liquid properties, distillation process in general, and trayed and packed-column hydraulics and efficiency in particular.

Žarko Oluji?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}: Iron-containing complex hydride with high gravimetric hydrogen density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}, which has the highest gravimetric hydrogen density of iron-containing complex hydrides reported so far, is synthesized by hydrogenation of a powder mixture of iron and LiH above 6.1 GPa at 900?°C. In situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that while kinetics require high temperature and thus high pressure for the synthesis, Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is expected to be thermodynamically stable slightly below room temperature at ambient pressure; further synthetic studies to suppress the kinetic effects may enable us to synthesize Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} at moderate pressures. Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} can be recovered at ambient conditions where Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is metastable.

Saitoh, Hiroyuki, E-mail: cyto@spring8.or.jp [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Aoki, Katsutoshi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Iijima, Yuki [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Naruki [Renewable Energy Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Fukushima 963-0215 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Overview of High-Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last five years there has been a growing interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, particularly to augment transportation fuels and thus reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Hydrogen is now produced primarily via steam reforming of methane. However, in the long term, methane reforming is not a viable process for the large-scale hydrogen production since such fossil fuel conversion processes consume non-renewable resources and emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen without consuming fossil fuels and without emitting greenhouse gases through the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is developing three general categories of high temperature processes for hydrogen production: thermochemical, electrolytic and hybrid thermo-electrolytic. This paper introduces the work being done in the development of high temperature electrolysis of steam. High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is built on the technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which were invented over a century ago, but which have been most vigorously developed during the last twenty years. SOFCs consume hydrogen and oxygen and produce steam and electricity. Solid Oxide Electrolytic Cells (SOECs) consume electricity and steam and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the HTE research is to solve those problems unique to the electrolytic mode of operation, while building further on continuing fuel cell development. ORGANIZATION Experiments have been conducted for the last three years at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. on the operation of button cells and of progressively larger stacks of planar cells. In addition, the INL has been performing analyses of the cell-scale fluid dynamics and plant-scale flowsheets in order to determine optimum operating conditions and plant configurations. Argonne National Laboratory has been performing experiments for the development of new electrode materials, as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics and flowsheets for comparison with the work being done at the INL. ANL has also been performing diagnostic measures on components form long-duration tests at the INL and Ceramatec to determine the causes for the slow degradation in cell performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing high temperature porous membranes for the separation of hydrogen from the residual steam, thus avoiding the need to condense and reheat the steam. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas has been collaborating with ANL on the development of electrode and electrolyte materials and will soon begin to investigate the causes of cell degradation. HTE research also includes NERI projects at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute on the development of toughened SOEC composite seals and at the Georgia Institute of Technology on the microstructural design of SOEC materials. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The most recent large-scale test of HTE was performed from June 28 through Sept 22, 2006 at the Ceramatec plant in Salt Lake City. The test apparatus consists of two stacks of 60 cells each in a configuration that will be used in the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) experiment during FY-07. The ILS will contain three modules of four stacks each. The “Half-Module” initially produced 1.2 normal m3of H2/hour and 0.65 Nm3/hr at the end of the 2040-hour continuous test.

Herring, J. S.; O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Petri, M. C.; Carter, J. D.; Bischoff, B. L.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen energy is a clean or inexhaustible energy like renewable energy and nuclear energy. Today’s energy supply has a considerable impact on the environment. Hydrogen energy is a promising alternative solut...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

213

Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

Carr, K.R.

1983-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

214

Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

Coulter, K

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10...

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

715 Neutron scattering at high pressure D. B. McWhan Room 1D-234, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, U scattering at steady-state and pulsed sources are reviewed. The pressure cells available at most neutron 10 GPa have been made. For elastic scattering, a comparison is made between neutron scattering and X

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Bonding and Electronic Properties of Ice at High Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the nearest oxygen atoms. All ice structures that we discussed so far are insulators. Militzer 1 Bonding and Electronic Properties of Ice at High Pressure B. Militzer Department of Earth of water ice at megabar pressure are characterized with ab initio computer simulations. The focus lies

Militzer, Burkhard

218

Chemistry of nitromethane at very high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition of nitromethane is reported over the range of 115- 180/degree/C and 0.6-8.5 GPa. About 5 /mu/g of nitromethane is compressed with a diamond-anvil cell, heated to the point that reaction occurs, and held typically 10-20 minutes at the reaction temperature. The cell is cooled and the volatile contents of the cell are frozen as a thin layer in vacuo and an infrared absorption spectrum is recorded. The three volatile products observed are N/sub 2/O, CO/sub 2/, and water, with N/sub 2/O production peaking at 1.5 GPa, 135/degree/C, and 35% of NME; CO/sub 2/ production peaking at 3.5 GPa, 135/degree/C, and 65% of NME, and water yields at 20-50% of NME at the highest pressure measured, 8.5 GPa and 175/degree/C. Water yields were difficult to quantify due to background contamination. Results indicate three different reactions for solid NME dependent primarily on the pressure of the reaction, and that fluid NME does not decompose at 0.6 GPa and 175/degree/C, although the solid decomposes readily at 1.1 GPa and 120/degree/C. The authors conclude that, while various decomposition mechanisms are possible, the initial step CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/ /yields/ /center dot/CH/sub 3/ + /center dot/NO/sub 2/ is very unlikely. 14 refs., 5 figs.

Agnew, S.F.; Swanson, B.I.; Kenney, J.; Kenney, I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Failure Analysis, Permeation, and Toughness of Glass Fiber Composite Pressure Vessels for Inexpensive Delivery of Cold Hydrogen - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Andrew Weisberg (Primary Contact), Salvador Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) P.O. Box 808, L-792 Livermore, CA 94551 Phone: (925) 422-0864 Email: saceves@llnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: Spencer Composites Corporation (SCC), Sacramento, CA Project Start Date: October, 2004 Project End Date: October, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Optimize hydrogen delivery by tube trailer * Develop materials and manufacturing for low- * temperature hydrogen delivery Quantify performance and economics of delivery * pressure vessels Technical Barriers This project addresses the following technical barriers

220

High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance was uniform before cutting. A liquid filled bourdon tube gauge was used to deter- mine the prescribed operating pressures. The gauge measured the oil pressure of the intensifier which had a 20 to 1 ratio (Figure 4 ) ~ The gauge pressure...HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject...

Valco, Thomas Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

HIGH-THROUGHPUT/COMBINATORIAL TECHNIQUES IN HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS R&D WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-THROUGHPUT/COMBINATORIAL TECHNIQUES IN HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS R&D WORKSHOP U.S. Department 26, 2007, DOE's Hydrogen Storage Program held a one-day High- Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D meeting to identify how to better implement high

222

Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization -Measurement and Simulation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization - Measurement, sterilization I. INTRODUCTION Non-thermal plasma technology at atmospheric pressure using oxygen of atmospheric pressure non-thermal argon plasma produced by a variety of techniques has recently begun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydrogen and each hydrocarbon were determined experimentally at room temperature (20ºC) and initial pressures ranging from 1.0 atm to 0.1 atm. The experiments were conducted in a closed cylindrical stainless steel vessel with upward flame propagation...

Le, Thuy Minh Hai

2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

224

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

225

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTION KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HPCCK project was initiated with a kickoff meeting held on June 12, 2001 in Morgantown, WV, which was attended by all project participants. SRI's existing g-RCFR reactor was reconfigured to a SRT-RCFR geometry (Task 1.1). This new design is suitable for performing the NBFZ experiments of Task 1.2. It was decided that the SRT-RCFR apparatus could be modified and used for the HPBO experiments. The purchase, assembly, and testing of required instrumentation and hardware is nearly complete (Task 1.1 and 1.2). Initial samples of PBR coal have been shipped from FWC to SRI (Task 1.1). The ECT device for coal flow measurements used at FWC will not be used in the SRI apparatus and a screw type feeder has been suggested instead (Task 5.1). NEA has completed a upgrade of an existing Fluent simulator for SRI's RCFR to a version that is suitable for interpreting results from tests in the NBFZ configuration (Task 1.3) this upgrade includes finite-rate submodels for devolatilization, secondary volatiles pyrolysis, volatiles combustion, and char oxidation. Plans for an enhanced version of CBK have been discussed and development of this enhanced version has begun (Task 2.5). A developmental framework for implementing pressure and oxygen effects on ash formation in an ash formation model (Task 3.3) has begun.

Chris Guenther; Bill Rogers

2001-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

Ling, Kegang

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thermodynamics of high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report on a thermodynamic analysis for water electrolysis from normal conditions (P = 0.1 MPa, T = 298 K) up to heretofore unaddressed temperatures of 1000 K and pressures of 100 MPa. Thermoneutral and reversible potentials are determined using equations-of-state published by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The need for using accurate property models at these elevated temperatures and pressures is exemplified by contrasting results with those obtained via ideal assumptions. The utility of our results is demonstrated by their application in an analysis comparing pressurized electrolysis versus mechanical gas compression. Within the limits of our analysis, pressurized electrolysis demonstrates lower energy requirements albeit with electrical work composing a greater proportion of the total energy input.

Devin Todd; Maximilian Schwager; Walter Mérida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Electron Matter Wave Interferences at High Vacuum Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to trap and guide coherent electrons is gaining importance in fundamental as well as in applied physics. In this regard novel quantum devices are currently developed that may operate under low vacuum conditions. Here we study the loss of electron coherence with increasing background gas pressure. Thereby optionally helium, hydrogen or nitrogen is introduced in a biprism interferometer where the interference contrast is a measure for the coherence of the electrons. The results indicate a constant contrast that is not decreasing in the examined pressure range between $10^{-9}$ mbar and $10^{-4}$ mbar. Therefore no decoherence was observed even under poor vacuum conditions. Due to scattering of the electron beam with background H$_2$-molecules a signal loss of 94 % was determined. The results may lower the vacuum requirements for novel quantum devices with free coherent electrons.

Schütz, Georg; Pooch, Andreas; Stibor, Alexander

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

Rouxel, T.; Ji, H. [Applied Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Rennes 1, LARMAUR, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Hammouda, T. [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-OPG , Universite Blaise Pascal, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); Moreac, A. [IPR, CNRS-Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

230

Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

High-Pressure Single-Crystal Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...systems such as water, methanol, formic acid, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane...cryostat or a furnace. It is still worth mentioning some older reviews covering...However, due to the high world-market prize of large diamonds and the fact...

Ronald Miletich; David R. Allan; Werner F. Kuhs

232

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

Experiment Hazard Class 5.3 High Pressure Vessels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 High Pressure Vessels 3 High Pressure Vessels Applicability This hazard classification applies to working with pressure vessels and systems. Other hazard classifications and associated controls may apply to experiments in this hazard class. Experiment Category Experiments involving previously reviewed hazard controls are catergorized as medium risk experiments. Experiments involving new equipment, processes or materials, or modified hazard control schemes are categorized as high risk experiments. Hazard Control Plan Verification Statements Engineered Controls - The establishment of applicable controls in accordance with the (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ASME Boiler and Pressure Code, ASME B.31 Piping Code and applicable federal, state, and local codes. Verify vessel is stampled with ASME Code Symbol or allowable

234

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project Summary Full Title: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project ID: 159 Principal Investigator: Steve Herring Brief Description: A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). A solid-oxide fuel cell model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; solid oxide elctrolysis cell; nuclear; model Purpose Assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Performer Principal Investigator: Steve Herring

235

Short Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these methods so far shown sufficient promise for economical production of hydrogen (Miyake et al., 1999; WoodShort Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced cells (MECs) require high hydrogen production rates and a compact reactor. These goals can be achieved

236

Hydrogen Storage Materials Discovery via High Throughput Ball Milling and Gas Sorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in ...

Bin Li; Steven S. Kaye; Conor Riley; Doron Greenberg; Daniel Galang; Mark S. Bailey

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

237

High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Free Organic Molecular Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Free Organic Molecular Crystals Mina Yoon1, 2 and Matthias donor and acceptor molecules as a promising new class of hydrogen storage materials. Using quantum(Tetrathiafulvalene)/TCNQ(7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) become very efficient hydrogen storage media of high gravimetric

238

High-temperature Hydrogen Permeation in Nickel Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor concepts, tritium is produced as a tertiary fission product and by activation of graphite core contaminants, such as lithium; of the helium isotope, He-3, that is naturally present in the He gas coolant; and the boron in the B4C burnable poison. Because of its high mobility at the reactor outlet temperatures, tritium poses a risk of permeating through the walls of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) or steam generator (SG) systems, potentially contaminating the environment and in particular the hydrogen product when the reactor heat is utilized in connection with a hydrogen generation plant. An experiment to measure tritium permeation in structural materials at temperatures up to 1000 C has been constructed at the Idaho National Laboratory Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. The design is based on two counter flowing helium loops to represent heat exchanger conditions and was optimized to allow control of the materials surface condition and the investigation of the effects of thermal fatigue. In the ongoing campaign three nickel alloys are being considered because of their high-temperature creep properties, alloy 617, 800H and 230. This paper introduces the general issues related to tritium in the on-going assessment of gas cooled VHTR systems fission product transport and outlines the planned research activities in this area; outlines the features and capabilities of the experimental facility being operated at INL; presents and discusses the initial results of hydrogen permeability measurements in two of the selected alloys and compares them with the available database from previous studies.

P. Calderoni; M. Ebner; R. Pawelko

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Behavior of silver molybdate at high-pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavior of cubic spinel phase of Ag{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is investigated at high pressure using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The P-V data are fitted to a third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state using a value of B{sub 0}=113 GPa and B Prime {sub 0}=4. The compound is also found to exhibit a phase transition around 5 GPa to a tetragonal structure and the two phases are found to coexist over a range of pressures. Raman spectra exhibit dramatic changes across the phase transition. Increase of X-ray background scattering and broadening of the Raman peaks associated with MoO{sub 4} tetrahedral ions in the high pressure phase suggest evolution of positional disorder. However, no evidence of pressure-induced amorphization was found up to 47 GPa. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of the integrated intensity of all the diffraction peaks between 12 and 18 degree 2{theta} as a function of pressure. The rapid decrease of the intensity suggests evolution of positional disorder in the high-pressure tetragonal phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First in-situ X-ray diffraction and Raman study of cubic silver molybdate at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Commencement of a structural transition to a tetragonal phase is found at 2.3 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high-pressure phase is found to have positional disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bulk modulus of 113 GPa is obtained from the equation of state.

Arora, A.K., E-mail: akarora49@yahoo.co.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nithya, R. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Misra, Sunasira [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Liquid Metals and Structural Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Yagi, Takehiko [Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo University, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)] [Institute for Solid State Physics, Tokyo University, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

A theoretical analysis of interstitial hydrogen : pressure-composition-temperature, chemical potential, enthalpy and entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a first principles analysis of the physics and thermodynamics of interstitial hydrogen in metal. By utilizing recent advances in Density Functional Theory (DFT) to get state energies of the metal-hydrogen system, ...

Orondo, Peter Omondi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pressure and varies the motor speed is often used...12.398 is from the quantum mechanical relationship...detectors could in the future reduce data collection...kind of studies in the future. Other more fundamental...addressed in the near future. Temperature gradients...

Yingwei Fei; Yanbin Wang

242

Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REGIONAL REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA Melissa Klingenberg, PhD Melissa Klingenberg, PhD Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Program Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) Hydrogen Separation Hydrogen Sensors Resource Dynamics Corporation (RDC) Tradeoff/Sensitivity Analyses of Hydrogen Delivery Approaches EDO Fiber Science High Pressure/High Strength Composite Material Development and Prototyping CTC * Program Management * Hydrogen Delivery - CH 4 /H 2 co-transport - H 2 separation - Delivery approaches * Advanced Materials - Characterization - Testing/Analyses - Predictive Modeling * Sensors SRNL Pipeline Life Management Program Develop infrastructure technology for a H 2 economy Aims to serve as "go-to" organization to catalyze PA Hydrogen

243

Applicability of Henry's law to hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen solubilities in water and olive oil at 37 °C and pressures up to 300 atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solubilities of pure hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen in water and olive oil were measured at 37 °C at gas-saturation pressures from 25 to 300 atmospheres. Rigorous thermodynamic criteria were used to assess the applicability of Henry's law to the pressure dependence of the gas solubility in each system. The solubilities of the three gases in water and helium in olive oil followed Henry's law as given by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation. In contrast, hydrogen and nitrogen in olive oil each attained concentrations high enough to cause significant concentration-dependent variations of the dissolved gas activity coefficient and/or partial molal volume. The consequent deviations from Henry's law were greatest in the nitrogen-oil system, where mole fraction nitrogen solubilities calculated from the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation exceeded measured values by 8, 14, and 23% at 50, 100, and 250 atm, respectively. Incorporation of results into the critical volume model of nitrogen anesthesia, using olive oil as a model of the physiological anesthetic site and literature data for the anesthetic potency of nitrogen in mice breathing high-pressure He-N2-O2 atmospheres, shows that nonideal solution behavior may become important for gases dissolved in physiological hydrophobic regions at biologically active concentrations, even if dissolved gas binding to proteins or other macromolecules is not involved.

Wayne A. Gerth

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Liquid dispersion and holdup in a small-scale upflow hydrotreater at high temperatures and pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Residence time distribution experiments were carried out at high temperatures and pressure in a small-scale upflow reactor. A diluted and a non-diluted bed were tested. Middle distillates and hydrogen were used as feeds. The axial dispersion model was used to describe the liquid flow through the packed bed. The dependency of Pe and liquid holdup on feed velocity and temperature was examined. The behaviour of the beds tested at hot flow conditions is compared with that of identical beds tested at ambient conditions using toluene as liquid feed and the effect of liquid-phase properties is discussed.

A.M. Thanos; P.A. Galtier; N.G. Papayannakos

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

246

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

247

A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers A high-pressure nanoimaging breakthrough July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers made a major breakthrough in measuring the structure of nanomaterials under extremely high pressures. Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising tool to probe the internal strains of nanometer-sized crystals. But for high-pressure studies the x-ray beam must pass through a component of the diamond anvil cell, which can significantly affect the coherence properties of the beam. The researchers have developed a technique to deal with this that could lead to

248

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland.

249

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

250

Cross spectra between temperature and pressure in a constant area duct downstream of a hydrogen fueled combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was shown in a recent paper [J. H. Miles and E. A. Krejsa J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72 2008–2019 (1982)] that knowledge of pressure?temperature auto spectra and cross spectra could be used in a model for sound propagation in a variable duct having acoustic and convected entropy fluctuations. The present exploratory study investigates the measurement of pressure?temperature cross spectra and coherence and temperature cross spectra and coherence at well separated points in a combustion rig. Data obtained near the inlet and the exit of a 6.44?m?long duct attached to a J?47 combustor fueled with hydrogen are presented.

J. H. Miles; C. A. Wasserbauer; E. A. Krejsa

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE CHARACTER OF DISLOCATIONS IN HIGH-PURITY ALUMINUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserved. Keywords: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM); Aluminum; Hydrogen embrittlement; Dislocation to hydrogen embrittlement. From observations of slip lines on surfaces, it has been reported that soluteHYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE CHARACTER OF DISLOCATIONS IN HIGH-PURITY ALUMINUM P. J. FERREIRA{, I. M

Ferreira, Paulo J.

252

An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 50 51 REFERENCES APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL DATA 52 54 VITA 105 vail LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Schematic of test facility 13 Fig. 2 Comparison of Texas A&M drying facility operating ranges to other drying processes... of number of drying passes for drying temperatures of 93, 149, and 204 'C (200, 300, and 400 'F), a contact pressure of 1. 4 MPa (200 psi), a basis weight of 25 g/m' (0. 005 lb/ft'), and contact times between 20 to 180 msec with same side drying...

Patel, Kamal Raoji

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

Iterative Boltzmann plot method for temperature and pressure determination in a xenon high pressure discharge lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Boltzmann plot method allows to calculate plasma temperatures and pressures if absolutely calibrated emission coefficients of spectral lines are available. However, xenon arcs are not very well suited to be analyzed this way, as there are only a limited number of lines with atomic data available. These lines have high excitation energies in a small interval between 9.8 and 11.5 eV. Uncertainties in the experimental method and in the atomic data further limit the accuracy of the evaluation procedure. This may result in implausible values of temperature and pressure with inadmissible uncertainty. To omit these shortcomings, an iterative scheme is proposed that is making use of additional information about the xenon fill pressure. This method is proved to be robust against noisy data and significantly reduces the uncertainties. Intentionally distorted synthetic data are used to illustrate the performance of the method, and measurements performed on a laboratory xenon high pressure discharge lamp are analyzed resulting in reasonable temperatures and pressures with significantly reduced uncertainties.

Zalach, J.; Franke, St. [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Chapter 3 - High-Pressure Processing of Meats and Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Meat and seafood products represent a high proportion of the applications of high-pressure processing (HPP) in the world. Mainly used for decontamination purposes, this innovative process has proved to be a reliable technology for ensuring food safety and extending the shelf life of these perishable and fragile foods. However, meat and seafood may experience quality alterations under pressure. This chapter focuses on the effect of HPP on meat and seafood organoleptic quality (texture, color, aroma, taste…). The physicochemical processes responsible for these changes are also reviewed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. This chapter ends with an overview of current commercial applications and other potential applications.

Frédérique Duranton; Hélène Simonin; Claire Guyon; Stéphanie Jung; Marie de Lamballerie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

257

HIGH-n HYDROGEN RECOMBINATION LINES FROM THE FIRST GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the prospects of blind and targeted searches in the radio domain (10 MHz to 1 THz) for high-n hydrogen recombination lines from the first generation of galaxies, at z ?< 10. The expected optically thin spontaneous ?-line luminosities are calculated as a function of the absolute AB magnitude of a galaxy at 1500 Å. For a blind search, semi-empirical luminosity functions are used to calculate the number of galaxies whose expected flux densities exceed an assumed detectability threshold. Plots of the minimum sky area, within which at least one detectable galaxy is expected at a given observing frequency, in the fiducial instantaneous passband of 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1}, allow us to assess the blind search time necessary for detection by a given facility. We show that the chances for detection are the highest in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, but finding spontaneous emission in a blind search, especially from redshifts z >> 1, is a challenge even with powerful facilities, such as the Actama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array and Square Kilometre Array. The probability of success is higher for a targeted search of lines with principal quantum number n ? 10 in Lyman-break galaxies amplified by gravitational lensing. Detection of more than one hydrogen line in such a galaxy will allow for line identification and a precise determination of the galaxy's redshift.

Rule, E. [Johns Hopkins University and Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)] [Johns Hopkins University and Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States); Loeb, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Strelnitski, V. S. [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)] [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area A a layer in fluid flow between two plates bar pressure unit, 1 bar = 0.987 atms cm centimeter cp centipoise CO2 carbon dioxide oC Celsius temperature db ball diameter dt tube diameter D tube diameter ft foot or feet F... Subscripts Symbol Description 1atm 1 atmosphere Avg average CO2 carbon dioxide g gas H2S hydrogen sulfide i initial N2 nitrogen xiii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Davani, Ehsan

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

259

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Husky{trademark} is an ultra high pressure waterjet cutting tool system. The pump is mounted on a steel tube frame which includes slots for transport by a forklift. The Husky{trademark} features an automatic shutdown for several conditions such as low oil pressure and high oil temperature. Placement of the Husky{trademark} must allow for a three foot clearance on all sides for operation and service access. At maximum continuous operation, the output volume is 7.2 gallons per minute with an output pressure of 40,000 psi. A diesel engine provides power for the system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

High-pressure neutron diffraction study on H–D isotope effects in brucite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A neutron powder diffraction study of hydrogenated and deuterated brucite was conducted at ambient temperature and at...a axis, parallel to the sheets of Mg–O octahedra, decrease only slightly with pressure with ...

Juske Horita; António M. dos Santos…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

remotely and autonomous deployable structures for space and our high temperature composite technology developed for downhole applications. These devices offer several...

262

Effects of Hydrogen Pressure during Growth and Effects of Pregrowth with Hydrogen on Acetate Degradation by Methanosarcina Species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...containing similar numbers of cells) were taken from an H2-CO2-grown...was not due to the death of cells; no lag was seen when such...some intracellular electron car- rier. H2 at the partial pressure...cultures should draw H2 out of the cells, shifting the flow of electrons...

David R. Boone; José A. G. F. Menaia; Jane E. Boone; Robert A. Mah

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A temperature compensated pressure transducer for high temperature, high pressure applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will work only if the cliange in deflectiou due to tenrperature ivas constant for all pressures. which is uot the case. At 0 ksi, the rliaphragni deflection is constant (zerol for all possible temperatures. At 40 ksi. however, the deflection is much... temperature. 3, 3 Basic Dimensioning After selecting the basic configuration and material for the transclucer body a diaphragm cap, it ivas next necessary to determine the actual defle& tion of the diaphragni and any thermally induced affects. Prior to a...

Lippka, Sandra Margaret

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Combined technologies enable high-pressure slickline work  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operators conducting wireline operations can combine the attributes of the slickline grease head and conventional stuffing box to enable work in gas wells at wellhead pressures above 15,000 psi. Wireline/slickline work in high-pressure wells requires meeting the dual challenges of well control and freedom of movement (up and down) for the lines. In a notable application of the combined-technology technique, an operator offshore Louisiana attempted to conduct wireline operations in an 18,000-ft gas and condensate well with 15,600 psi wellhead pressure, using a standard slickline stuffing box to contain the pressure. The standard equipment could not perform the needed function, which involved several trips to depths of 5,000 ft and 18,000 ft. Using a combined-technology, flow-tube stuffing box, the operator was able to conduct the wireline operation without incident; the control arrangement resulted in use of only 3 gal of lubricating oil throughout the job. Post-job analysis of the packing showed only the minimal wear normally associated with low-pressure wireline operations. Although slickline work can be performed in low-pressure gas wells without using the flow-tube stuffing box, the device and the oil used with it isolate the stuffing-box packing from the dry gases, reducing friction swell. This isolation speeds up the operation and reduces packing wear.

Davis, G. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); West, T. [Halliburton Energy Services Inc., Houma, LA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

High-pressure EXAFS measurements of solid and liquid Kr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray-absorption measurements of liquid and solid krypton at room temperature in the pressure range 0.1–30 GPa have been performed using the dispersive setup and diamond-anvil cells as a pressure device. The evolution of the near-edge structures as a function of pressure, including the first intense resonance, has been interpreted using multiple-scattering calculations. It is shown that the near-edge structures are reproduced taking into account two-body and three-body terms associated with the first-neighbor atoms. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra have been analyzed in the framework a multiple-scattering data-analysis approach taking proper account of the atomic background including the [1s4p], [1s3d], and [1s3p] double-electron excitation channels. Isobaric Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations based on empirical pair potentials, as proposed by Barker (K2) and Aziz (HFD-B), have been performed to make a quantitative comparison of theoretical and experimental local structural details of condensed krypton at high pressures. From the analysis of EXAFS data we were able to obtain simultaneous information on average distance, width, and asymmetry of the first-neighbor distribution, as a function of pressure. These parameters yield a unique insight on the potential function because they are affected by both minimum position and curvature of the effective pair potential. The trend of the first-neighbor distribution as a function of pressure is in quantitative agreement with the HFD-B potential at moderate pressures, deviations are found at higher pressures where EXAFS spectra are very sensitive to the hard-core repulsive part of the potential. The weak EXAFS signal of liquid krypton at room temperature and 0.75 GPa has been found in accord with the results of the MC simulations within the noise of the measurement. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

A. Di Cicco; A. Filipponi; J. P. Itié; A. Polian

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pre-Inspection Checklist for High Pressure Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Notice: This checklist reflects the most common violations our field inspectors encounter when performing an inspection on a high-pressure steam boiler installation. It’s suggested that boiler industry personnel have access to a current set of applicable codebooks/jurisdictional laws. Such as: Section I of the ASME Boiler Code:

unknown authors

267

HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida HT Combinatorial Screening of HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Ali T Ali T - - Raissi Raissi Director, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell R&D Director, Hydrogen & Fuel Cell R&D Division Division High Throughput/Combinatorial Analysis of Hydrogen Storage High Throughput/Combinatorial Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop, Bethesda, MD Materials Workshop, Bethesda, MD 26 June 2007 26 June 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 2 Objectives Objectives Develop (i.e. design, build, test and verify) a high

268

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on the High Level Computational Chemistry given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

269

Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Neutral chlorine and molecular hydrogen at high redshift  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chlorine and molecular hydrogen are known to be tightly linked together in the cold phase of the local interstellar medium through rapid chemical reactions. We present here the first systematic study of this relation at high redshifts using H$_2$-bearing damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) detected along quasar lines of sight. Using high-resolution spectroscopic data from VLT/UVES and Keck/HIRES, we report the detection of Cl$\\,$I in 9 DLAs (including 5 new detections) out of 18 high-$z$ DLAs with $N($H$_2) \\ge 10^{17.3}\\,$cm$^{-2}$ (including a new H$_2$ detection at $z=3.09145$ towards J$\\,$2100$-$0641) and present upper limits for the remaining 9 systems. We find a $\\sim$5$\\,\\sigma$ correlation between $N$(Cl$\\,$I) and $N$(H$_2$) with only $\\sim$0.2$\\,$dex dispersion over the range 18.1$\\,<\\,$log$\\,N$(H$_2$)$\\,<\\,$20.1, thus probing column densities 10 times lower those seen towards nearby stars, roughly following the relation $N$(Cl$\\,$I$) \\approx 1.5\\times10^{-6} \\times N($H$_2)$. This relation betwee...

Balashev, S A; Klimenko, V V; Petitjean, P; Srianand, R; Ledoux, C; Ivanchik, A V; Varshalovich, D A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Gas Phase Diagnosis of Disilane/Hydrogen RF Glow Discharge Plasma and Its Application to High Rate Growth of High Quality Amorphous Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas phase diagnosis of disilane/hydrogen plasma was carried out using mass spectrometry. At high growth rate (20 Å/s) conditions using pure disilane as a source gas, the partial pressure of disilane molecules measured by mass spectrometry was more than one order of magnitude higher than in the case when mono-silane was used as a source gas. The stability of amorphous silicon films prepared from disilane was improved by the hydrogen dilution technique, although the disilane partial pressure in this condition was much higher than in the case when mono-silane was used as a source gas for device quality films. The relation between the gas phase species and the stability of the resulting films is studied. It was found that increase in disilane related signal intensity do not decrease film stability directly.

Wataru Futako; Tomoko Takagi; Tomonori Nishimoto; Michio Kondo; Isamu Shimizu; Akihisa Matsuda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Hydrogen-induced strain localization and failure of austenitic stainless steels at high hydrogen concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanical behavior and fractography of hydrogen-austenitic stainless steelsolid solutions were studied to determine the microstructural origins of hydrogen-assisted fracture. AISI 310S and 304 stainless steels containing hydrogen in homogeneous solid solution in concentrations up to approximately 15 at.% resulted in an increase in flow stress by more than a factor two. The loss in ductility increased with increasing hydrogen content and was accompanied by an increasing frequency of “brittle” secondary cracks. The 304 alloy was embrittled at lower concentrations than was the 310S. In the polycrystalline austenitic stainless steels “brittlw” cracking was predominantly intergranular, although there was evidence of shear crack formation along operating slip planes. Intensely localized shear along active slip planes was found on both fracture surface and on polished side surfaces on specimens containing solute hydrogen. Shear localization in the hydrogen-austenitic stainless steel solid solutions appeared to result from the limitation of the number of active slip systems by increasing the local stress to operate dislocation sources. In this study there was no evidence that hydrogen lowered the strength of internal interfaces, rather fracture was found to result from an extreme localization of slip into narrow slip bands and increased difficulty in slip transfer across interfaces.

D.G. Ulmer; C.J. Altstetter

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013.

274

A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and performance of a home-built high-pressure and high-temperature reactor equipped with a high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for catalytic studies. In this design, the STM body, sample, and tip are placed in a small high pressure reactor ({approx}19 cm{sup 3}) located within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. A sealable port on the wall of the reactor separates the high pressure environment in the reactor from the vacuum environment of the STM chamber and permits sample transfer and tip change in UHV. A combination of a sample transfer arm, wobble stick, and sample load-lock system allows fast transfer of samples and tips between the preparation chamber, high pressure reactor, and ambient environment. This STM reactor can work as a batch or flowing reactor at a pressure range of 10{sup -13} to several bars and a temperature range of 300-700 K. Experiments performed on two samples both in vacuum and in high pressure conditions demonstrate the capability of in situ investigations of heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry at atomic resolution at a wide pressure range from UHV to a pressure higher than 1 atm.

Tao, Feng; Tang, David C.; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Development of Larger Diameter High Pressure CNG Cylinder Manufactured by Piercing and Drawing for Natural Gas Vehicle  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

279

Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach; The welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Farmers Branch, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach, The Welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach, and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen-charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada); Sperling, E.J. [BP-Amoco, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shen, G. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.; Yin, H. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Detailed Studies of a HighDensity Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed Studies of a High­Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings Kirsten Zapfe 1 (1996) 293 Abstract A high­density target of polarized atomic hydrogen gas for applications in storage rings was produced by injecting atoms from an atomic beam source into a T­shaped storage cell

283

Cryotank for storage of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

more energy per pound than any other fuel 3 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hydrogen at low temperature and high pressure reduces weight, volume and cost of storage...

284

Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Currently, DOE's physical hydrogen storage R&D focuses on the development of high-pressure (10,000 psi) composite tanks, cryo-compressed tanks, conformable tanks, and other advanced concepts...

285

High pressure liquid chromatographic method for CP amide analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for the analysis of the 5-carboxamidotetrazolatopentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate contaminant of the explosive CP (2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)-pentaamminecobalt(III) perchlorate). The analysis utilizes a Zn/Hg reduction of the cobalt (III) complexes to allow a high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of the reaction products; the product analysis is directly related to the weight percent of impurity present in the explosive. The technique is described and shortcomings pointed out.

Loyola, V. M.; Womelsduff, J. E.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Inelastic neutron scattering from single crystal Zn under high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments have been performed for single crystals of Zn under pressures up to 8.8 GPa at 300 K. The phonon modes q/qmax=?=0.075 and ?=0.10 were measured in the transverse acoustic branch ?3, where q=0 corresponds with the elastic constant C44. The phonon energy showed a substantial hardening with increasing pressure. The experimental data below 6.8 GPa for ?=0.075 yield a constant Grüneisen mode ?i=-ln?i/lnV of 2.25 in good agreement with a previous calculation [H. Ledbetter, Phys. Status Solidi B 181, 81 (1994)]. Above 6.8 GPa, there is a very rapid increase of ?i which is indicative of the presence of a giant Kohn anomaly. This rapid divergence at high pressure indicates that a phonon softening may occur at pressures higher than 8.8 GPa caused by the collapse of the giant Kohn anomaly via an electronic topological transition (ETT). In an earlier Mössbauer Zn study at 4 K [W. Potzel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1139 (1994)], a drastic drop of the Lamb-Mössbauer factor was observed at 6.6 GPa, which was interpreted as being due to phonon softening, indicating this ETT had occurred. This paper also compares the compressibility data for single crystal Zn and Zn powder using neutron scattering. The results were found to be similar to an earlier x-ray Zn powder experiment [O. Schulte et al., High Pressure Res. 6, 169 (1991)]. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

J. G. Morgan; R. B. Von Dreele; P. Wochner; S. M. Shapiro

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

288

Toroid cavities as NMR detectors in high pressure probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cylindrical toroid cavity has been developed for application as an NMR detector for high sensitivity and high resolution spectroscopy in metal vessel probes. Those probes are used for in situ investigations at high temperature and pressure. Since the transmitted r.f. field is completely confined within the torus, the cavity can be placed inside the pressurized system without magnetic coupling to the metal vessel. Resonance frequencies up to 400 MHz make the toroid cavity detector especially suited for use in {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F spectroscopy. Typically achieved static {sup 1}H linewidths, measured on CHCl{sub 3} using cavities in Be-Cu pressure vessels, are 2.0 Hz. On the basis of theoretical considerations that include the radial dependence of the r.f. field within cylindrical or circular toroid detectors, equations were evolved to predict the signal intensity as a function of the pulse width. The equations precisely describe the deviations from the sinusoidal approximation, which is generally used for signal intensities derived from Helmholtz or solenoid coils.

Woelk, K.; Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite] [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University] [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University] [Penn State University

2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

290

Thermodynamic properties and electrical conductivity of hydrogen at multiple shock compression up to 150 GPa pressure ionization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic properties and electrical conductivity measurements of nonideal plasmas of hydrogen were carried out under multiple shock compression up to 1.5 Mbar. An abrupt increase of the electrical conductivity (by five orders of value) was registered starting at the density 0.3÷0.5? g/cm 3 . This electrical conductivity value approaches ?10 3 ?? ?1 ? cm ?1 which is near to the liquid metal values. The data obtained are described by the nonideal plasma model taking account of the increase of number of conductivity electrons due to the “pressure ionization.”

Vladimir E. Fortov; Vladimir Ya. Ternovoi; Sergei V. Kvitov; Viktor B. Mintsev; Dmitry N. Nikolaev; Alexei A. Pyalling; Alexander S. Filimonov

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

292

Humidity, Pressure, and Temperature Measurements in an Interdigitated-Flow PEM Hydrogen Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ measurements of humidity, temperature, and pressure are demonstrated for a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell of interdigitated gas flow channel layout. Sensors are embedded at ...

S. Bell; G. Hinds; M. de Podesta; M. Stevens…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Ned Stetson, Larry Blair 1 , Grace Ordaz, Carole Read, George Thomas 2 , and Sunita Satyapal Suite 900, 7475...

294

Highly Active Steam Reforming Catalyst for Hydrogen and Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toyo Engineering Corporation developed a steam reforming catalyst, which is four times as active as conventional catalysts, for hydrogen and syngas production from light natural gas. The catalyst has...3 plant. B...

Toru Numaguchi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Laser-based diagnostics for density, temperature, velocity, and dissociation fraction in high temperature hydrogen flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is essentially a review of the current state of the art in hydrogen atom and hydrogen molecule diagnostics. This paper contains some of our own results and ideas along with results from many other laboratories. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review; instead it summarizes some techniques which we believe are ideally suited as diagnostics for high temperature hydrogen which are of paramount importance for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). 31 refs., 1 fig.

Sappey, A.D.; Funk, D.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

297

Design and development of a high resolution differential pressure transducer for use at high temperature and high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are multiple diaphragms attached at the edges. Flat and corrugated diaphragms are discussed at length by Giovanni (1982). The three most common detection systems are strain gauges, capacitance gauges, and linear variable differential transformers (LVDT... be necessary to connect the resistor and ratio transformer to. the same secondary coil to balance the voltage of the . two secondary coils. Samplers Inlet Inert Fluid Inlet Pressure Housing Electrical Feedthrough LVDT Coils Magnetic Core Pressure...

Childers, Laren Paul

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

High pressure generation by hot electrons driven ablation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous model [Piriz et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 122705 (2012)] for the ablation driven by the hot electrons generated in collisionless laser-plasma interactions in the framework of shock ignition is revisited. The impact of recent results indicating that for a laser wavelength ? = 0.35 ?m the hot electron temperature ?{sub H} would be independent of the laser intensity I, on the resulting ablation pressure is considered. In comparison with the case when the scaling law ?{sub H}?(I?{sup 2}){sup 1/3} is assumed, the generation of the high pressures needed for driving the ignitor shock may be more demanding. Intensities above 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} would be required for ?{sub H}=25?30 keV.

Piriz, A. R. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)] [E.T.S.I. Industriales, CYTEMA, and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Piriz, S. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tahir, N. A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Assessing Hydrogen-Assisted Cracking Fracture Modes in High-Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

theoretical hydro- gen-assisted cracking mechanisms. In- deed, it was found that the microplastic- ity theory of Beachem can best describe how the stress intensity faqor and hydro- gen content affect the modes of inter to reassociate into diatomic hydrogen in pores and micro- voids. The pressure of diatomic hyd~oge~ KEY WORDS

Eagar, Thomas W.

300

High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Level Computational Chemistry Approaches Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of the Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems David A. Dixon Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Cast: Myrna Hernandez-Matus, Daniel Grant, Jackson Switzer, Jacob Batson, Ronita Folkes, Minh Nguyen Anthony J. Arduengo & co-workers Maciej Gutowski (PNNL) Robert Ramsay Chair Fund Shelby Hall Funding provided in part by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under the Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge, Solicitation No. DE-PS36- 03GO93013 Chemical H 2 Storage Center of Excellence The Promise of Chemical Hydrogen Storage * Chemical reaction releases H 2 at suitable pressures and temperatures - Reaction thermodynamics dictate max. H 2 pressure as function of T -

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mobility and trapping of hydrogen in high-strength steel Vucko Flavien, Aoufi Asdin, Bosch Cdric, Delafosse David,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detrimental to the mechanical properties of steels [1,2]. The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement increases are due to the presence of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms are closely linked to the mobilityMobility and trapping of hydrogen in high-strength steel Vucko Flavien, Aoufi Asdin, Bosch Cédric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

303

Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis under Pressure and at Moderate Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This project tests an alcaline electrolyser concept under pressure using the thermal activation at 200°C and available materials, i.e. uncatalised electrodes and metallic diaphragms made of porous nickel.

S. Kunstreich

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

High pressure studies on nanometer sized clusters: Structural, optical, and cooperative properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure Se EXAFS is used to study pressure-induced structural transformations in CdSe nanocrystals. The transformation is wurtzite to rock salt, at a pressure much higher than in bulk. High-pressure XRD is used to confirm the EXAFS results. Diffraction peak widths indicate that nanocrystals do not fragment upon transformation. Optical absorption correlates with structural transformations and is used to measure transition pressures; transformation pressure increases smoothly as nanocrystal size decreases. Thermodynamics of transformation is modeled using an elevated surface energy in the high-pressure phase. High-pressure study of Si nanocrystals show large increases in transformation pressure in crystallites to 500{angstrom} diameter, and an overall change in crystallite shape upon transformation is seen from XRD line widths. C{sub 60} single crystals were studied using Raman scattering; results provide information about the clusters` rotational state. Optical properties of high-pressure phase CdSe clusters were studied.

Tolbert, S.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Cryogenic Capable High Pressure Containers for Compact Storage...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial...

306

Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. pmp02blau...

307

The quenching effect of hydrogen on the nitrogen in metastable state in atmospheric-pressure N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} microwave plasma torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atmospheric-pressure microwave N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} plasma torch is generated and diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy. It is found that a large amount of N atoms and NH radicals are generated in the plasma torch and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is the strongest over the spectra. The mixture of hydrogen in nitrogen plasma torch causes the morphology of the plasma discharge to change with appearance that the afterglow shrinks greatly and the emission intensity of N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band decreases with more hydrogen mixed into nitrogen plasma. In atmospheric-pressure microwave-induced plasma torch, the hydrogen imposes a great influence on the characteristics of nitrogen plasma through the quenching effect of the hydrogen on the metastable state of N{sub 2}.

Li, Shou-Zhe, E-mail: lisz@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuan-Jie; Zhang, Jialiang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Yong-Xing [College of Electrical Engineering, Dalian 116024 (China); Xia, Guang-Qing [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Smart Onboard Inspection of High Pressure Gas Fuel Cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in automotive applications is not widespread primarily because of the high cost and durability of the composite storage tanks. Tanks manufactured using carbon fiber are desirable in weight critical passenger vehicles because of the low density of carbon fiber. The high strength of carbon fiber also translates to a weight reduction because thinner wall designs are possible to withstand the internal pressure loads. However, carbon fiber composites are prone to impact damage that over the life of the storage tank may lead to an unsafe condition for the vehicle operator. A technique that potentially may be a reliable indication of developing hazardous conditions in composite fuel tanks is imbedded fiber optics. The applicability of this technique to onboard inspection is discussed and results from preliminary lab testing indicate that fiber optic sensors can reliably detect impact damage.

Beshears, D.L.; Starbuck, J.M.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

309

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b , Shun 2009 Editor: L. Stixrude Keywords: electrical conductivity wadsleyite oxygen fugacity frequency water The electrical conductivity of wadsleyite aggregates has been determined under the broad range of thermodynamic

310

Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the event that high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions are encountered, we must attempt to achieve permeability in the set cement to prevent gas migration and to prevent any other fluid passing through to collapse the entire structure. Therefore...

Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

311

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On June 26, 2007 the Hydrogen Storage Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held a one-day meeting to identify how to better implement high-throughput/combinatorial techniques to benefit...

312

X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high hydrostatic pressure cell for X-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid/liquid interface is presented.

Wirkert, F.J.

2013-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

Mitigation of Hydrogen Capacity Losses during Pressure Cycling of the Li3N–H System by the Addition of Nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mitigation of Hydrogen Capacity Losses during Pressure Cycling of the Li3N–H System by the Addition of Nitrogen ... We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (?Go = ?98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (?Go = ?50.3 ... This triggered intensive research on hydrogen as a renewable fuel because the exhaust gases in hydrogen-powered vehicles mainly contain water vapor. ...

Joshua Lamb; Dhanesh Chandra; Wen-Ming Chien; Delphine Phanon; Nicolas Penin; Radovan C?erny?; Klaus Yvon

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

314

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

315

THE IMPACT OF TRACE ADDITIVES ON THE APPARENT SOLUBILITY OF HYDROGEN IN HEAVY OIL AND RELATED FEEDSTOCKS AT LOW AND HIGH TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic investigation was conducted to provide an accurate determination of hydrogen solubility in liquid media in temperatures in the range of 25-250 C and pressures in the range of 0.5-8 MPa. Results were obtained by an indirect gas solubility measurement method. The method was intended for use with high-resolution camera. The hydrogen solubility measurements were indirect and were based on pressure changes at constant temperature and measured volumes. Since the volume of the view cell was fixed the volume available for the vapor phase could be determined by measuring the location of the liquid-vapor interface. The interface was located to within the height of one pixel using high-resolution camera, which added {+-} 0.4 ml to the uncertainty of the vapor volume. Liquid-liquid interface locations were measured with equal precision. The accuracy of the method was illustrated through hydrogen solubility measurements in hexadecane and tetralin, which were in close agreement with the values available in the literature. Hydrogen solubilities in Athabasca bitumen vacuum bottoms (ABVB) were reported over a broad range of temperatures (80-250 C) and pressures (0.5-8 MPa).

Jalal Abedi

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Measurement of critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the critical energy for direct initiation of spherical detonations in stoichiometric high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures are measured and investigated to look at the effect of explosion limits on the detonation sensitivity. Results up to an initial pressure of 20 atm are obtained. Experiments are carried out in a spherical bomb and direct initiation is achieved via spark ignition from a high-voltage capacitor discharge. A detailed description of different methods to obtain a good estimate of the correct amount of energy deposited into the mixture used to initiate the detonation, including the calorimeter method and current method, is provided. It is demonstrated that at elevated initial pressure, the second explosion limit effect plays a significant role leading to slow-branching reactions and the detonation sensitivity of hydrogen mixtures is comparable to other common hydrocarbon mixtures at such condition. (author)

Kamenskihs, Vsevolods; Lee, John H.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Ng, Hoi Dick [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

High-pressure coal fuel processor development. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar shares DOE/METC interest in demonstrating the technology required to displace petroleum-based engine fuels with various forms of low cost coal. Current DOE/METC programs on mild gasification and coal-water-slurries are addressing two approaches to this end. Engine and fuel processor system concept studies by Caterpillar have identified a third, potentially promising, option. This option includes high-pressure fuel processing of run-of-the-mine coal and direct injection of the resulting low-Btu gas stream into an ignition assisted, high compression ratio diesel engine. The compactness and predicted efficiency of the system make it suitable for application to line-haul railroad locomotives. Two overall conclusions resulted from Task 1. First direct injected, ignition assisted Diesel cycle engine combustion systems can be suitably modified to efficiently utilize low-Btu gas fuels. Second, high pressure gasification of selected run-of-the-mine coals in batch-loaded fuel processors is feasible. These two findings, taken together, significantly reduce the perceived technical risk associated with the further development of the proposed coal gas fueled Diesel cycle power plant concept. The significant conclusions from Task 2 were: An engine concept, derived from a Caterpillar 3600 series engine, and a fuel processor concept, based on scaling up a removable-canister configuration from the test rig, appear feasible; and although the results of this concept study are encouraging, further, full-scale component research and development are required before attempting a full-scale integrated system demonstration effort.

Greenhalgh, M.L. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Strategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engines and gas turbines where the combustion chamber is at high pressure. Despite the use of catalyticStrategies for laser-induced fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in high-pressure flames. II. A combustion systems3�13 and thus develop new schemes to mini- mize NO effluent. The high operating pressure

Lee, Tonghun

319

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

A multi-purpose modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure. The system consists of a pressurised cell of volume ~100 microlitres, a temperature controlled holder, a ram and a piston. We have made each of these components in several versions which can be interchanged to allow a wide range of applications. Here, we report two pressure cells with pressure ranges 0.1-700MPa and 0.1-100MPa, which can be combined with hollow or solid rams and pistons. Our system is designed to work with fluorescent samples (using a confocal or epifluorescence microscope), but also allows for transmitted light microscopy via the hollow ram and piston. The system allows precise control of pressure and temperature [-20-70C], as well as rapid pressure quenching. We demonstrate its performance and versatility with two applications: time-resolved imaging of colloidal phase transitions caused by pressure changes between 0.1MPa and 101MPa, and imaging the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria at 50MPa. We ...

Vass, Hugh; Herzig, Eva M; Ward, F Bruce; Clegg, Paul S; Allen, Rosalind J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the “complex error function.” In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Suijker, J. L. G. [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

Mechanism for high hydrogen storage capacity on metal-coated carbon nanotubes: A first principle analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogen adsorption and binding mechanism on metals (Ca, Sc, Ti and V) decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that those metals coated on SWCNTs can uptake over 8 wt% hydrogen molecules with binding energy range -0.2--0.6 eV, promising potential high density hydrogen storage material. The binding mechanism is originated from the electrostatic Coulomb attraction, which is induced by the electric field due to the charge transfer from metal 4s to 3d. Moreover, we found that the interaction between the H{sub 2}-H{sub 2} further lowers the binding energy. - Graphical abstract: Five hydrogen molecules bound to individual Ca decorated (8, 0) SWCNT : a potential hydrogen-storage material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each transition metal atom can adsorb more than four hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interation between metal and hydrogen molecule is electrostatic coulomb attraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electric field is induced by the charge transfer from metal 4s to metal 3d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbed hydrogen molecules which form supermolecule can further lower the binding energy.

Lu, Jinlian; Xiao, Hong [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Radiation Resistance of Structural Materials of Nuclear Reactors on Irradiation with High-Energy Hydrogen and Helium Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basic principles of determination of the radiation resistance of structural materials of nuclear reactors with implantation of high-energy hydrogen and helium atoms have been presented. ... them with hydrogen and...

F. F. Komarov; A. F. Komarov; Vl. V. Pil?ko…

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

High pressure studies on nanocrystalline aurivillius oxides lead and mercury chalcogenides;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The high pressure and high temperature play a vital role in newlineunderstanding the physical properties of the solids including such classes of newlinematerials like semiconductors… (more)

Freny joy K M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Three precision differential pressure indicators for operation at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the design did have a 7 Pa sensitivity which is especially imoortant as the sensing transformer was located outside the pressure containment. This feature eliminates the need for electrical feedthroughs which usually limit the operating conditions... was constructed and the sensitivity increased to ? 5 -1 2x10 Pa using the same transformer. Based on the designs tested, a new differential pressure indicator was proposed. Using a diaphragm with a linear variable differential transformer outside the pressure...

Osburn, Douglas Clayton

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The viscosity of liquids (a) Normal octanol at atmospheric pressure (b) An equipment for high pressures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Theories of Liquid Viscosity lead to equations giving the variation of the viscosity with temperature and pressure, but give poor agreement with experimental values, particularly… (more)

De Verteuil, Georges Francois

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

CHALLENGES IN GENERATING HYDROGEN BY HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS USING SOLID OXIDE CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) high temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells is presented in this paper. The research results reported here have been obtained in a laboratory-scale apparatus. These results and common scale-up issues also indicate that for the technology to be successful in a large industrial setting, several technical, economical, and manufacturing issues have to be resolved. Some of the issues related to solid oxide cells are stack design and performance optimization, identification and evaluation of cell performance degradation parameters and processes, integrity and reliability of the solid oxide electrolysis (SOEC) stacks, life-time prediction and extension of the SOEC stack, and cost reduction and economic manufacturing of the SOEC stacks. Besides the solid oxide cells, balance of the hydrogen generating plant also needs significant development. These issues are process and ohmic heat source needed for maintaining the reaction temperature (~830°C), high temperature heat exchangers and recuperators, equal distribution of the reactants into each cell, system analysis of hydrogen and associated energy generating plant, and cost optimization. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. These issues need interdisciplinary research effort of federal laboratories, solid oxide cell manufacturers, hydrogen consumers, and other such stakeholders. This paper discusses research and development accomplished by INL on such issues and highlights associated challenges that need to be addressed for hydrogen to become an economical and viable option.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; J. S. Herring; E. A. Harvego

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

Parallel hydrogen injection into constant-area, high-enthalpy, supersonic airflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the mixing and burning of hydrogen injected into the combustion chamber are essential to the operation of a scramjet, experimental investigations of this process have been limited to speeds of less than 2.2 km/sec. The present experiment is an attempt to extend this limit to flight speeds of about 5 km/sec, whose corresponding stagnation enthalpies range up to MJ/kg. Mach-Zehnder interferograms were taken with a light source of 583 nm and 5 sec duration, while surface pressures were obtained with PCB quartz pressure transducers.

Stalker, R.J. (Queensland, University, Brisbane, Australia); Morgan, R.G.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Experimental investigation of the effect of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the particulate size distribution from a high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels on the exhaust particulate matter size distribution in a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4-cylinder, direct injection engine equipped with a modern high-pressure common rail. A nano-Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) was used in this work to study the particulate matter size distribution. All tests were conducted at the set operating point of 1,500 rpm. The experimental work showed that the particulate matter size distribution was not dramatically altered by the addition of EGR, but the main peak was shifted towards the nucleation mode with the addition of hydrogen. The addition of hydrogen increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), but reduces the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons (THC). Conversely, the addition of EGR reduces NOx, but can increase THC. Hydrogen addition increases the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise.

L. McWilliam; A. Megaritis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

High pressure humidification columns: Design equations, algorithm, and computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the detailed development of a computer model to simulate the humidification of an air stream in contact with a water stream in a countercurrent, packed tower, humidification column. The computer model has been developed as a user model for the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. This was done to utilize the powerful ASPEN flash algorithms as well as to provide ease of use when using ASPEN to model systems containing humidification columns. The model can easily be modified for stand-alone use by incorporating any standard algorithm for performing flash calculations. The model was primarily developed to analyze Humid Air Turbine (HAT) power cycles; however, it can be used for any application that involves a humidifier or saturator. The solution is based on a multiple stage model of a packed column which incorporates mass and energy, balances, mass transfer and heat transfer rate expressions, the Lewis relation and a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the air-water system. The inlet air properties, inlet water properties and a measure of the mass transfer and heat transfer which occur in the column are the only required input parameters to the model. Several example problems are provided to illustrate the algorithm`s ability to generate the temperature of the water, flow rate of the water, temperature of the air, flow rate of the air and humidity of the air as a function of height in the column. The algorithm can be used to model any high-pressure air humidification column operating at pressures up to 50 atm. This discussion includes descriptions of various humidification processes, detailed derivations of the relevant expressions, and methods of incorporating these equations into a computer model for a humidification column.

Enick, R.M. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Klara, S.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V., E-mail: k.kamenev@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom)] [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Azuma, Masaki [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)] [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Attfield, J. Paul [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Applications of toroids in high-pressure NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toroid detectors have distinct NMR sensitivity and imaging advantages. The magnetic field lines are nearly completely contained within the active volume element of a toroid. This results in high NMR signal sensitivity. In addition, the toroid detector may be placed next to the metallic walls of a containment vessel with minimal signal loss due to magnetic coupling with the metal container. Thus, the toroid detector is ideal for static high pressure or continuous flow monitoring systems. Toroid NMR detectors have been used to follow the hydroformylation of olefins in supercritical fluids under industrial process conditions. Supercritical fluids are potentially ideal media for conducting catalytic reactions that involve gaseous reactants, including H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The presence of a single homogeneous reaction phase eliminates the gas-liquid mixing problem of alternative two-phase systems, which can limit process rates and adversely affect hydroformylation product selectivities. A second advantage of toroid NMR detectors is that they exhibit a well-defined gradient in the rf field. This magnetic field gradient can be used for NMR imaging applications. Distance resolutions of 20 {mu} have been obtained.

Klingler, R.J.; Rathke, J.W.; Woelk, K. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions.

Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Distributed Ethanol Reforming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Bio-derived liquid fuels can be produced from renewable agricultural products, such as wood chips. Background Bio-derived renewable fuels are attractive for their high energy density and ease of transport. One scenario for a sustainable hydrogen economy considers that these bio-derived liquid fuels will be produced at plants close to the biomass resource, and then transported to distributed hydrogen production centers (e.g., hydrogen refueling stations), where the fuels will be reformed via the steam reforming process, similar to the current centralized production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of natural gas. Hydrogen produced by reforming these fuels must first be purified and compressed to appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing

337

Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ignition of high-pressure arc lamps8 and volume dc discharges.6 Here, we employ a hybrid discharge source of uniform, nonequilibrium glow plasmas for a variety of applications at pressures of 100

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

338

Direct ion flux measurements at high-pressure-depletion conditions for microcrystalline silicon deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of ions to the growth of microcrystalline silicon thin films has been investigated in the well-known high-pressure-depletion (HPD) regime by coupling thin-film analysis with plasma studies. The ion flux, measured by means of a capacitive probe, has been studied in two regimes, i.e., the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition regime and a low-to-high power regime; the latter regime had been investigated to evaluate the impact of the plasma power on the ion flux in collisional plasmas. The ion flux was found not to change considerably under the conditions where the deposited material undergoes a transition from the amorphous to the microcrystalline silicon phase; for solar-grade material, an ion-to-Si deposition flux of ?0.30 has been determined. As an upper-estimation of the ion energy, a mean ion energy of ?19 eV has been measured under low-pressure conditions (<1 mbar) by means of a retarding field energy analyzer. Combining this upper-estimate with an ion per deposited Si atom ratio of ?0.30, it is concluded that less than 6 eV is available per deposited Si atom. The addition of a small amount of SiH{sub 4} to an H{sub 2} plasma resulted in an increase of the ion flux by about 30% for higher power values, whereas the electron density, deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, decreased. The electron temperature, also deduced from optical emission spectroscopy analysis, reveals a slight decrease with power. Although the dominant ion in the HPD regime is SiH{sub 3}{sup +}, i.e., a change from H{sub 3}{sup +} in pure hydrogen HPD conditions, the measured larger ion loss can be explained by assuming steeper electron density profiles. These results, therefore, confirm the results reported so far: the ion-to-Si deposition flux is relatively large but has neither influence on the microcrystalline silicon film properties nor on the phase transition. Possible explanations are the reported high atomic hydrogen to deposition flux ratio, mitigating the detrimental effects of an excessive ion flux.

Bronneberg, A. C.; Kang, X.; Palmans, J.; Janssen, P. H. J.; Lorne, T. [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Creatore, M. [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands) [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Solliance Solar Research, High Tech Campus 5, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sanden, M. C. M. van de [Applied Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

339

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

340

High-Performance Bioassisted Nanophotocatalyst for Hydrogen Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct conversion of solar energy to chemical fuels such as hydrogen promises technology for providing clean energy in the near future. ... (17) The resultant electrochemical gradient is further converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP that powers the cell. ... Figure 4. (A) I–V characteristics of TiO2 and TiO2/bR photoelectrode in dark and light illumination (100 mW/cm2), (B) Energy level diagram showing a possible charge carrier injection in bR/TiO2 in the presence of I–/I3– redox species, (C) Short-circuit photocurrent response of TiO2, TiO2/bR, and TiO2/bR bleached electrode in aqueous electrolyte containing 5 mM hydroquinone (HQ) in 10 mM MES, pH 6.2 buffer. ...

Shankar Balasubramanian; Peng Wang; Richard D. Schaller; Tijana Rajh; Elena A. Rozhkova

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Instrumentation development for neutron scattering at high pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Neutron scattering at extremes of pressure is a powerful tool for studying the response of structural and magnetic properties of materials on microscopic level to… (more)

Fang, Junwei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

343

Hydrogen Storage Options: Technologies and Comparisons for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 kpsi) in carbon fiber-composite tanks, liquid hydrogen incarbon fiber is the highest cost material component of high pressure compressed gas tanks.

Burke, Andy; Gardiner, Monterey

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

High pressure water pyrolysis of coal to evaluate the role of pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities under geological conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the effect of water pressure on hydrocarbon generation and source rock maturation at high maturities for a perhydrous Tertiary Arctic coal, Svalbard. Using a 25 ml Hastalloy vessel, the coal was pyrolysed under low water pressure (230–300 bar) and high water pressure (500, 700 and 900 bar) conditions between 380 °C and 420 °C for 24 h. At 380 °C and 420 °C, gas yields were not affected by pressure up to 700 bar, but were reduced slightly at 900 bar. At 380 °C, the expelled oil yield was highest at 230 bar, but reduced significantly at 900 bar. At 420 °C cracking of expelled oil to gas was retarded at 700 and 900 bar. As well as direct cracking of the coal, the main source of gas generation at high pressure at both 380 °C and 420 °C is from bitumen trapped in the coal, indicating that this is a key mechanism in high pressure geological basins. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) was reduced by 0.16 %Ro at 380 °C and by 0.27 %Ro at 420 °C at 900 bar compared to the low pressure runs, indicating that source rock maturation will be more retarded at higher maturities in high pressure geological basins.

Clement N. Uguna; Andrew D. Carr; Colin E. Snape; Will Meredith

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Laminar burning velocities of lean hydrogen-air mixtures at pressures up to 1.0 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Values of laminar burning velocity, u{sub l}, and the associated strain rate Markstein number, Ma{sub sr}, of H{sub 2}-air mixtures have been obtained from measurements of flame speeds in a spherical explosion bomb with central ignition. Pressures ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa, with values of equivalence ratio between 0.3 and 1.0. Many of the flames soon became unstable, with an accelerating flame speed, due to Darrieus-Landau and thermodiffusive instabilities. This effect increased with pressure. The flame wrinkling arising from the instabilities enhanced the flame speed. A method is described for allowing for this effect, based on measurements of the flame radii at which the instabilities increased the flame speed. This enabled u{sub l} and Ma{sub sr} to be obtained, devoid of the effects of instabilities. With increasing pressure, the time interval between the end of the ignition spark and the onset of flame instability, during which stable stretched flame propagation occurred, became increasingly small and very high camera speeds were necessary for accurate measurement. Eventually this time interval became so short that first Ma{sub sr} and then u{sub l} could not be measured. Such flame instabilities throw into question the utility of u{sub l} for high pressure, very unstable, flames. The measured values of u{sub l} are compared with those predicted by detailed chemical kinetic models of one-dimensional flames. (author)

Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Liu, Kexin; Woolley, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Verhelst, S. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

System Analyses of High and Low-Temperature Interface Designs for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, an evaluation of a low-temperature heat-pump interface design for a nuclear-driven high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production plant was performed using the UniSim process analysis software. The lowtemperature interface design is intended to reduce the interface temperature between the reactor power conversion system and the hydrogen production plant by extracting process heat from the low temperature portion of the power cycle rather than from the high-temperature portion of the cycle as is done with the current Idaho National Laboratory (INL) reference design. The intent of this design change is to mitigate the potential for tritium migration from the reactor core to the hydrogen plant, and reduce the potential for high temperature creep in the interface structures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) operating at a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa and a reactor outlet temperature of 900°C. The lowtemperature heat-pump loop is a water/steam loop that operates between 2.6 MPa and 5.0 MPa. The HTE hydrogen production loop operated at 5 MPa, with plant conditions optimized to maximize plant performance (i.e., 800°C electrolysis operating temperature, area specific resistance (ASR) = 0.4 ohm-cm2, and a current density of 0.25 amps/cm2). An air sweep gas system was used to remove oxygen from the anode side of the electrolyzer. Heat was also recovered from the hydrogen and oxygen product streams to maximize hydrogen production efficiencies. The results of the UniSim analysis showed that the low-temperature interface design was an effective heat-pump concept, transferring 31.5 MWt from the low-temperature leg of the gas turbine power cycle to the HTE process boiler, while consuming 16.0 MWe of compressor power. However, when this concept was compared with the current INL reference direct Brayton cycle design and with a modification of the reference design to simulate an indirect Brayton cycle (both with heat extracted from the high-temperature portion of the power cycle), the latter two concepts had higher overall hydrogen production rates and efficiencies compared to the low-temperature heatpump concept, but at the expense of higher interface temperatures. Therefore, the ultimate decision on the viability of the low-temperature heat-pump concept involves a tradeoff between the benefits of a lower-temperature interface between the power conversion system and the hydrogen production plant, and the reduced hydrogen production efficiency of the low-temperature heat-pump concept compared to concepts using high-temperature process heat.

E. A. Harvego; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH-PURITY GERMANIUM CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bubble. Evidence to resolve the structure of the pits can be obtained from the high temperature stability

Hansen, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

A Flow-Through High-Pressure Electrical Conductance Cell for Determining of Ion Association of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flow-through high-pressure electrical conductance cell was designed and constructed to measure limiting molar conductances and ion association constants of dilute aqueous solutions with high precision at high temperatures and pressures. The basic concept of the cell employs the principle developed at the University of Delaware in 1995, but overall targets higher temperatures (to 600 C) and pressures (to 300 MPa). At present the cell has been tested by measuring aqueous NaCl and LiOH solutions (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} mol.kg{sup {minus}1}) to 405 C and 33 MPa with good results.

Bianchi, H.; Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.; Wood, R.H.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Solubility of Nitrogen in Water at High Pressures and Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K ... Two recent events allow a more detailed picture of the solubility of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and the noble gases in water to be given, than could have been given even a year ago. ...

John B. Goodman; Norman W. Krase

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A Process Model for the Production of Hydrogen Using High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature electrolysis (HTE) involves the splitting of stream into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. The primary advantage of HTE over conventional low temperature electrolysis is that considerably higher hydrogen production efficiencies can be achieved. Performing the electrolysis process at high temperatures results in more favorable thermodynamics for electrolysis, more efficient production of electricity, and allows direct use of process heat to generate steam. This paper presents the results of process analyses performed to evaluate the hydrogen production efficiencies of an HTE plant coupled to a 600 MWt Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) that supplies both the electricity and process heat needed to drive the process. The MHR operates with a coolant outlet temperature of 950 C. Approximately 87% of the high-temperature heat is used to generate electricity at high efficiency using a direct, Brayton-cycle power conversion system. The remaining high-temperature heat is used to generate a superheated steam / hydrogen mixture that is supplied to the electrolyzers. The analyses were performed using the HYSYS process modeling software. The model used to perform the analyses consisted of three loops; a primary high temperature helium loop, a secondary helium loop and the HTE process loop. The detailed model included realistic representations of all major components in the system, including pumps, compressors, heat exchange equipment, and the electrolysis stack. The design of the hydrogen production process loop also included a steam-sweep gas system to remove oxygen from the electrolysis stack so that it can be recovered and used for other applications. Results of the process analyses showed that hydrogen production efficiencies in the range of 45% to 50% are achievable with this system.

M. G. Mc Kellar; E. A. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

Brown, L.C.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production Southern Research Institute (SRI) Project Number: FE0012054 Project Description The focus of the project will be to develop, test, and optimize steam-reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, NH3, and CH4 in high-temperature and sulfur environments, increasing the ratio of hydrogen in syngas, as part of a modified, advanced gasification platform for the conversion of low-rank coals to syngas for coal-to-liquid and integrated gasification combined cycle applications. Project Details Program Background and Project Benefits Project Scope and Technology Readiness Level Accomplishments Contacts, Duration, and Cost Project Images Abstract Performer website: Southern Research Institute

355

A Fracture Criterion for the Notch Strength of High Strength Steels in the Presence of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the presence of lattice hydrogen increases the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement whereas trapped. Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen trapping, Weakest link statistics. 1. Introduction Steels, when failure. Consequently, the adverse effects of hydrogen embrittlement must be included in engineer- ing

Fleck, Norman A.

356

Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Three-Fluidized Bed Reactor Cold Flow Model for Chemical Looping Hydrogen Generation: Pressure Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping hydrogen generation (CLHG) can produce pure hydrogen with inherent separation of CO2 from fossils fuel. The process involves a metal oxide, as an oxygen carrier, such as iron oxide. The CLHG syst...

Zhipeng Xue; Wenguo Xiang; Shiyi Chen…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Mathematical modeling of high-pressure PEM water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the modeling and numerical optimization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers for operation at elevated pressures (up ... evolution reactions, the electro-osmotic drag of

S. A. Grigoriev; A. A. Kalinnikov; P. Millet…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Instrumentation development for neutron scattering at high pressure   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron scattering at extremes of pressure is a powerful tool for studying the response of structural and magnetic properties of materials on microscopic level to applied stresses. However, experimental neutron studies ...

Fang, Junwei

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

HIGH-PRESSURE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METHANE FROM GEOPRESSURED...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

to be about 100 based on CH4 solubility in brine at 50-125C from O'Sullivan and Smith (11), tnd low pressure CH solubility in hexadecane at 25-2002 from Cukor and Prausni...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the benefits of high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems.

362

Device for testing closure disks at high rates of change of pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is described for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A means is also disclosed for transmitting a tensile load from a piston to a hollow notched plug and for sealing the means for transmitting load within a hole in a piston. 5 figures.

Merten, C.W. Jr.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

363

Velocity of Sound Measurements in High?Pressure, High?Temperature Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental information concerning the acoustic velocity in steam as a function of pressure and temperature is quite limited. Yet it is of particular interest to steam turbine designers who are now planning units as large as 400 000 kw operating at 4500 lb/sq in. and 1200°F so as to increase thermal efficiencies of such units. Apparatus is now in operation for measuring the acoustic velocity up to 2000 lb/sq in. and 750°F using a variable path acoustic interferometer.Measurements are taken at 200?lb/sq in. intervals along a given isotherm using a sound frequency of 750 kc. A special experimental high?pressure boiler is used to generate the steam at the desired pressure and the stem is then increased in temperature by means of a stainless steel superheater before entering the interferometer. The interferometer also of stainless steel is enclosed by an insulated steel vessel maintained at a given constant temperature by another separate steam system. Future work is now being considered up to 6000?lb/sq in. steam pressure based upon results of present experiments.

James Woodburn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage (New DoDDLA Project), Ali T-Raissi, University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center High-Throughput Methodology for Discovery of Metal-Organic Frameworks...

365

High-pressure phase transition and behavior of protons in brucite Mg(OH)2: a high-pressure–temperature study using IR synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Infrared absorption spectra of brucite Mg (OH)2...were measured under high pressure and high temperature from 0.1?MPa 25?°C to 16?GPa 360?°C using infrared synchrotron radiation at BL43IR of Spring-8 and a high-...

K. Shinoda; M. Yamakata; T. Nanba; H. Kimura…

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a membrane testing system for individual evaluation of a plurality of planar membranes subjected to a feed gas on one side and a sweep gas on a second side. The membrane testing system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a retentate multiport valve for sampling or venting, and a stream of permeate gas from each membrane testing cell is ported by a permeate multiport valve for sampling or venting. Back pressure regulators and mass flow controllers act to maintain substantially equivalent gas pressures and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves cyclically, allowing for gas sampling of different membrane cells over an extended period of time.

Albenze, Erik J.; Hopkinson, David P.; Luebke, David R.

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ionization and equation of state of dense xenon at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ionization degree and equation of state of dense xenon plasma were calculated by using self-consistent fluid variational theory for temperature of 4–30kK and density of 0.01–8.5g?cm3. The dense fluid xenon will be ionized at high pressures and temperatures. The ionization energy of xenon will be lowered due to the interactions among all particles of Xe, Xe+, Xe2+, and e. The ionization degree is obtained from nonideal ionization equilibrium, taking into account the correlative contributions to the chemical potential which is determined self-consistently by the free energy function. The composition of xenon has been calculated with given densities and temperatures in the region of partial ionization. The calculated results show a pressure softening regime at the onset of ionization. Comparison is performed with available shock-wave experiments and other theoretical calculations.

Q. F. Chen, L. C. Cai, Y. J. Gu, and Y. Gu

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

High-temperature fiber optic cubic-zirconia pressure sensor - article no. 124402  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a critical need for pressure sensors that can operate reliably at high temperatures in many industrial segments such as in the combustion section of gas turbine engines for both transportation and power generation, coal gasifiers, coal fired boilers, etc. Optical-based sensors are particularly attractive for the measurement of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters in high-temperature and high-pressure industrial environments due to their small size and immunity to electromagnetic interference. A fiber optic pressure sensor utilizing single-crystal cubic zirconia as the sensing element is reported. The pressure response of this sensor has been measured at temperatures up to 1000{sup o}C. Additional experimental results show that cubic zirconia could be used for pressure sensing at temperatures over 1000{sup o}C. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel cubic-zirconia sensor for pressure measurement at high temperatures.

Peng, W.; Pickrell, G.R.; Wang, A.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.

370

High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-active-area fuel cells, to be made available for DOE testing Reduce catalyst cost while achieving the required · Subcontractors: ­ Technical University of Berlin ­ Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells ­ Massachusetts Institute

371

Development of High-Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Dry Feed Pressure Dry Feed Pump for Gasification Systems Background Even though coal-based power generation via Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is more efficient, cleaner, and uses less water than conventional pulverized coal burning systems, widespread IGCC deployment has not occurred because of its relatively high cost. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) high-pressure dry feed pump addresses IGCC cost disparity by enabling lower cost and more reliable coal feed

372

Carbon Nanotubes as High-Pressure Cylinders and Nanoextruders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nanotubes and demonstrated that even hard materials such as iron carbide or cobalt can be extruded under the pressures prevailing...dissolving 3 weight percent of a metallocene (ferrocene or cobalt acetylacetonate) in ethanol (for Fe) or toluene (for Co); the solution...

L. Sun; F. Banhart; A. V. Krasheninnikov; J. A. Rodríguez-Manzo; M. Terrones; P. M. Ajayan

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

373

High-Current Gas Discharge at Low Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Probe measurements in a mercury-vapour arc tube (diameter 54 mm.) at pressures less than 10-3 mm. show that ... than 10-3 mm. show that at currents greater than 50 amp. the radial_electric field Es is negligible compared to the term w1H except close to the tube walls ...

P. C. THONEMANN; W. T. COWHIG

1950-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

374

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates with increased stability using the hot wire filament technique  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method or producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate, comprising the steps of: positioning the substrate in a deposition chamber at a distance of about 0.5 to 3.0 cm from a heatable filament in the deposition chamber; maintaining a pressure in said deposition chamber in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr and pressure times substrate-filament spacing in the range of about 10 to 100 millitorr-cm, heating the filament to a temperature in the range of about 1,500 to 2,000.degree. C., and heating the substrate to a surface temperature in the range of about 280 to 475.degree. C.; and flowing silicohydride gas into the deposition chamber with said heated filament, decomposing said silicohydride gas into silicon and hydrogen atomic species and allowing products of gas reactions between said atomic species and the silicohydride gas to migrate to and deposit on said substrate while adjusting and maintaining said pressure times substrate-filament spacing in said deposition chamber at a value in said 10 to 100 millitorr range to produce statistically about 3 to 50 atomic collisions between the silicon and hydrogen atomic species migrating to said substrate and undecomposed molecules of the silane or other silicohydride gas in the deposition chamber.

Molenbroek, Edith C. (Utrecht, NL); Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO)

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

375

Testing the physics of heat conduction using high pressure: crystals, glasses, and interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, simplest case of thermal conductivity where resistive scattering dominates C() v() l() d C() = heatTesting the physics of heat conduction using high pressure: crystals, glasses, and interfaces David supported by CDAC and AFOSR #12;The story... · Use high pressure (gem anvil cells) to modify vibrational

Braun, Paul

376

Analysis and simplification of a mathematical model for high-pressure food processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, consumers look for minimally processed, additive-free food products that maintain their organoleptic properties. This has led to the development of new technologies for food processing. One emerging technology is high hydrostatic pressure, ... Keywords: Boundary layer solution, Food technology, Heat transfer, High pressure, Modelling, Separation of variables solution

N. A. S. Smith, S. L. Mitchell, A. M. Ramos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ultra-high hydrogen storage capacity of Li-decorated graphyne: A first-principles prediction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphyne, consisting of sp- and sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms, is a new member of carbon allotropes which has a natural porous structure. Here, we report our first-principles calculations on the possibility of Li-decorated graphyne as a hydrogen storage medium. We predict that Li-doping significantly enhances the hydrogen storage ability of graphyne compared to that of pristine graphyne, which can be attributed to the polarization of H{sub 2} molecules induced by the charge transfer from Li atoms to graphyne. The favorite H{sub 2} molecules adsorption configurations on a single side and on both sides of a Li-decorated graphyne layer are determined. When Li atoms are adsorbed on one side of graphyne, each Li can bind four H{sub 2} molecules, corresponding to a hydrogen storage capacity of 9.26 wt. %. The hydrogen storage capacity can be further improved to 15.15 wt. % as graphyne is decorated by Li atoms on both sides, with an optimal average binding energy of 0.226 eV/H{sub 2}. The results show that the Li-decorated graphyne can serve as a high capacity hydrogen storage medium.

Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Meng; Zhao Lixia; Luo Youhua [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Mingwen; Bu Hongxia; He Xiujie [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 Shandong (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Generalized enthalpy model of a high-pressure shift freezing process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...non-homogeneous temperature distribution induces a non-homogeneous...computational model for temperature and sterility distributions in a pilot-scale...high-pressure high-temperature process. A.I...and Da-Wen. Sun 2009 Simulation...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Surface loss probability of atomic hydrogen for different electrode cover materials investigated in H{sub 2}-Ar low-pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an inductively coupled H{sub 2}-Ar plasma at a total pressure of 1.5?Pa, the influence of the electrode cover material on selected line intensities of H, H{sub 2}, and Ar are determined by optical emission spectroscopy and actinometry for the electrode cover materials stainless steel, copper, tungsten, Macor{sup ®}, and aluminum. Hydrogen dissociation degrees for the considered conditions are determined experimentally from the measured emission intensity ratios. The surface loss probability ?{sub H} of atomic hydrogen is correlated with the measured line intensities, and ?{sub H} values are determined for the considered materials. Without the knowledge of the atomic hydrogen temperature, ?{sub H} cannot be determined exactly. However, ratios of ?{sub H} values for different surface materials are in first order approximation independent of the atomic hydrogen temperature. Our results show that ?{sub H} of copper is equal to the value of stainless steel, ?{sub H} of Macor{sup ®} and tungsten is about 2 times smaller and ?{sub H} of aluminum about 5 times smaller compared with stainless steel. The latter ratio is in reasonable agreement with literature. The influence of the atomic hydrogen temperature T{sub H} on the absolute value is thoroughly discussed. For our assumption of T{sub H}?=?600?K, we determine a ?{sub H} for stainless steel of 0.39?±?0.13.

Sode, M., E-mail: maik.sode@ipp.mpg.de; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kersten, H. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11-19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2004 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Printable Version 2004 Annual Progress Report III. Hydrogen Storage Each individual technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF for easier use. Download Adobe Reader. Hydrogen Storage Sub-Program Review, JoAnn Milliken, DOE (PDF 227 KB) A. Compressed/Liquid H2 Tanks Low-Cost, High-Efficiency, High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage, Jui Ko, Quantum (PDF 373 KB) Optimum Utilization of Available Space in a Vehicle through Conformable Hydrogen Tanks, Salvador Aceves, LLNL (PDF 614 KB) Next Generation Physical Hydrogen Storage, Andrew Weisberg, LLNL (PDF 1 MB) Back to Top B. Chemical Hydrides Low-Cost, Off-Board Regeneration of Sodium Borohydride, Ying Wu, Millennium Cell (PDF 420 KB) Hydrogen Storage: Radiolysis for Borate Regeneration, Bruce Wilding,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Title High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Cho, Kyu Taek, Paul L. Ridgway, Adam Z. Weber, Sophia Haussener, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Venkat Srinivasan Journal Journal of the Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 11 Pagination A1806 - A1815 Date Published 01/2012 ISSN 0013-4651 Keywords hydrogen/bromine, redox flow battery Abstract The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/bromine redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of bromine on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the bromine reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability.

382

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Brian Somerday, Chris San Marchi, and Dorian Balch Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, GA August 30-31, 2005 SNL has 40+ years experience with effects of high-pressure hydrogen gas on materials * Design and maintenance of welded stainless steel pressure vessels for containment of high-pressure H 2 isotopes - Extensive testing of stainless steels exposed to high-pressure H 2 gas * Six-year program in 1970s focused on feasibility of using natural gas pipeline network for H 2 gas - Materials testing in high-pressure H 2 gas using laboratory specimens and model pipeline - Examined fusion zone and heat affected zones of welds * Active SNL staff have authored 70+ papers and organized 6

383

Optimization of the output and efficiency of a high power cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operation of a cascaded arc hydrogen plasma source was experimentally investigated to provide an empirical basis for the scaling of this source to higher plasma fluxes and efficiencies. The flux and efficiency were determined as a function of the input power, discharge channel diameter, and hydrogen gas flow rate. Measurements of the pressure in the arc channel show that the flow is well described by Poiseuille flow and that the effective heavy particle temperature is approximately 0.8 eV. Interpretation of the measured I-V data in terms of a one-parameter model shows that the plasma production is proportional to the input power, to the square root of the hydrogen flow rate, and is independent of the channel diameter. The observed scaling shows that the dominant power loss mechanism inside the arc channel is one that scales with the effective volume of the plasma in the discharge channel. Measurements on the plasma output with Thomson scattering confirm the linear dependence of the plasma production on the input power. Extrapolation of these results shows that (without a magnetic field) an improvement in the plasma production by a factor of 10 over where it was in van Rooij et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121501 (2007)] should be possible.

Vijvers, W. A. J.; Gils, C. A. J. van; Goedheer, W. J.; Meiden, H. J. van der; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Westerhout, J.; Lopes Cardozo, N. J.; Rooij, G. J. van [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Schram, D. C. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

Qiu, Y. N. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China); Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 (China); Zhang, P. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology, WH430074 (China); Wang, G. P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

386

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

387

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Study of Potassium Azide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystal structure and compressibility of potassium azide was investigated by in-situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature up to 37.7 GPa. In the body-centered tetragonal (bct) phase, an anisotropic compressibility was observed with greater compressibility in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing N{sub 3}{sup -} ions than directions within that plane. The bulk modulus of the bct phase was determined to be 18.6(7) GPa. A pressure-induced phase transition may occur at 15.5 GPa.

C Ji; F Zhang; D Hong; H Zhu; J Wu; M Chyu; V Levitas; Y Ma

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

Angela D. Lueking; Qixiu Li; John V. Badding; Dania Fonseca; Humerto Gutierrez; Apurba Sakti; Kofi Adu; Michael Schimmel

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Prediction and Correlation of High-Pressure Gas Solubility in Polymers with Simplified PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction and Correlation of High-Pressure Gas Solubility in Polymers with Simplified PC-SAFT ... Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). ... Equations of Simplified PC-SAFT ...

Nicolas von Solms; Michael L. Michelsen; Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

2005-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

391

Phase Transitions in Solids Stimulated by Simultaneous Exposure to High Pressure and Relativistic Heavy Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many solids, heavy ions of high kinetic energy (MeV-GeV) produce long cylindrical damage trails with diameters of order 10 nm. Up to now, no information was available how solids cope with the simultaneous exposure to these energetic projectiles and to high pressure. We report the first experiments where relativistic uranium and gold ions from the SIS heavy-ion synchrotron at GSI were injected through several mm of diamond into solid samples pressurized up to 14 GPa in a diamond anvil cell. In synthetic graphite and natural zircon, the combination of pressure and ion beams triggered drastic structural changes not caused by the applied pressure or the ions alone. The modifications comprise long-range amorphization of graphite rather than individual track formation, and in the case of zircon the decomposition into nanocrystals and nucleation of the high-pressure phase reidite.

Ulrich A. Glasmacher; Maik Lang; Hans Keppler; Falko Langenhorst; Reinhard Neumann; Dieter Schardt; Christina Trautmann; Günther A. Wagner

2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

392

Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water and Cecile Langlade2,3 1 FRAMATOME-ANP Technical Center, Avenue B. Marcet, Porte Magenta, 71200 Le Creusot.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

Takasumi, D.S.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) model that we developed for an argon microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma at atmospheric pressure. This model-1- Influence of dissociative recombination on the LTE of argon high-frequency plasmas at atmospheric pressure A. Sáinz1 , J. Margot2 , M. C. García1 , M. D. Calzada1 1 Grupo de Espectroscopía de

Boyer, Edmond

395

Kinetic Analysis of CO2 Gasification of Petroleum Coke at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two petcoke samples were gasified by CO2 at total pressures of 10 and 15 atm in a high-pressure flat-flame burner reactor at conditions where the bulk phase consisted of either 40 or 90 mol % CO2 with gas temperatures up to 1909 K. Particle diameters of ... ...

Maryam Malekshahian; Josephine M. Hill

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

The preferred route for upgrading high metals residua: Hydrogen addition or carbon rejection?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted for Petroleos Mexicanos {open_quotes}PEMEX,{close_quotes} which evaluated commercially proven technologies for conversion and upgrading of high metals Mexican residua. The study results are also applicable to other heavy, high metals residua, such as those from Venezuela. Specifically, the ebullated-bed H-Oil{reg_sign} Process (hydrogen addition), licensed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) and Texaco Development Corporation (TDC), was compared to Delayed Coking (carbon rejection). Both technologies have commercial installations in Mexico processing high metals residua. Commercial data on process yields, investment, and operating costs were used in the analysis to determine what factors govern the selection of one technology over the other.

Peer, E.D.; Wisdom, L.I. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Extremely high-pressure generation and compression with laser implosion plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have tested a scheme for using laser implosion plasmas to generate pressures in the gigabar (100 TPa) regime. Cone-in-shell targets employed in fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion were irradiated to create a high-pressure source for compression of materials. The imploded plasmas pushed a foil embedded on the tip of a cone. The pressure was estimated from the shock velocity into the material; the shock velocity was obtained from an optical measurement. The measured shock velocity of the foil was above 100 km/s, corresponding to a pressure greater than 1 Gbar.

Shigemori, K.; Hironaka, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sunahara, A. [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kadono, T. [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan)] [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-Cho, Toyonaka 560-0831 (Japan)] [Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-Cho, Toyonaka 560-0831 (Japan)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

398

High-Shear-Rate Behavior of Radial Hydrogenated Styrene-Isoprene and Block Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Shear-Rate Behavior of Radial Hydrogenated Styrene-Isoprene and Block Ethylene additives (an ethylene-propylene block copolymer and a radial hydrogenated styrene-isoprene copolymer-isoprene copolymer and 1.5% for the ethylene-propylene additive, the viscosity was measured over a range of shear

Erickson, David

399

High-pressure cell for neutron reflectometry of supercritical and subcritical fluids at solid interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new high-pressure cell design for use in neutron reflectometry (NR) for pressures up to 50 MPa and a temperature range of 300 473 K is described. The cell design guides the neutron beam through the working crystal without passing through additional windows or the bulk fluid, which provides for a high neutron transmission, low scattering background, and low beam distortion. The o-ring seal is suitable for a wide range of subcritical and supercritical fluids and ensures high chemical and pressure stability. Wafers with a diameter of 5.08 cm (2 in.) and 5 mm or 10 mm thickness can be used with the cells, depending on the required pressure and momentum transfer range. The fluid volume in the sample cell is very small at about 0.1 ml, which minimizes scattering background and stored energy. The cell design and pressure setup for measurements with supercritical fluids are described. NR data are shown for silicon/silicon oxide and quartz wafers measured against air and subsequently within the high-pressure cell to demonstrate the neutron characteristics of the high-pressure cell. Neutron reflectivity data for supercritical CO2 in contact with quartz and Si/SiO2 wafers are also shown.

Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Banuelos, Jose Leo [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

A device for debridement using high pressure water jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Removing devitalized tissue from chronic wounds through debridement is critical to promote wound healing. In this thesis, technology using high-speed water jets is explored toward applications for debridement. After ...

Brown, Ashley (Ashley A.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed ... Press Release Pantex High Pressure Fire Loop Project Completed On Time, Under Budget

402

Microplasma Discharges in High Pressure Gases Scaling Towards the Sub-micron Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric pressure microplasmas are uniquely characterized by their very high energy densities and also by their small discharge sizes. These properties allow for unique applications in plasma processing technologies. We have investigated...

Chitre, Aditya Rajeev

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Vibrational Spectroscopy at High Pressure in CF4: Implications to the Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular analogue of methane, CF{sub 4} is the most fundamental saturated perfluorocarbon, exhibiting complex optical behavior that is highly unusual for such a simple molecular system. We present Raman measurements in solid CF{sub 4} over a wide range in pressure from 1.6 to over 30 GPa at room temperature. The Raman spectra exhibit polarization-dependent intensity variations and history-dependent absence or presence of high pressure modes. Our results compellingly demonstrate that previously identified phase transitions in CF{sub 4} based on Raman signatures need to be reconsidered. Though our data suggest possible new high-pressure transitions, we do not identify new phases because of spectral complexity. Finally, we used the measured longitudinal and transverse optical mode splitting to estimate the dipole moment derivative at high pressures and find it close to that of gaseous CF{sub 4}.

Lorenzana, H E; Magnus, J L; Evans, W J; Hemmi, N

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Refractory products and ramming bodies for high pressure burners of steam boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon carbide rammed bodies are suitable for lining the combustion zones of high-pressure cyclone burners of steam boilers. The life of the silicon carbide body depends on the heat resistance of the supporti...

N. I. Voronin; N. I. Krasotkina; A. I. kulik; T. S. Karmanova; G. E. Levin…

405

Evaluation of energy efficiency in cutting aerospace materials with high-pressure cooling lubricant supply  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the field of machining difficult-to-cut materials like titanium or nickel-based alloys, the use of high-pressure cooling lubricant supply (HPCLS) offers ... , tool wear can be decreased which allows higher app...

Fritz Klocke; Dieter Lung; Tolga Cayli…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Development of an electrochemical hydrogen separator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical hydrogen separator (EHS), under development at ERC, has several attractive features: The operating temperature (150{degree}C--200{degree}C) is higher than those associated with the currently available devices and is compatible with the low temperature shift reactors. The EHS can operate at atmospheric as well as elevated pressures and the product H{sub 2} is available at the feed stream pressure. High hydrogen recovery factor: 90% H{sub 2} recovery from feed streams containing less than 10% hydrogen is feasible. High hydrogen purity: The product H{sub 2} purity is >99% (dry basis) and is virtually independent of H{sub 2} concentration in the feed gas. The process is continuous. Low energy cost: Depending upon the operating conditions, the energy requirement varies between 2 to 6 kWh/1000 SCF of recovered hydrogen.

Abens, S.; Fruchtman, J.; Kush, A.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of an electrochemical hydrogen separator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical hydrogen separator (EHS), under development at ERC, has several attractive features: The operating temperature (150[degree]C--200[degree]C) is higher than those associated with the currently available devices and is compatible with the low temperature shift reactors. The EHS can operate at atmospheric as well as elevated pressures and the product H[sub 2] is available at the feed stream pressure. High hydrogen recovery factor: 90% H[sub 2] recovery from feed streams containing less than 10% hydrogen is feasible. High hydrogen purity: The product H[sub 2] purity is >99% (dry basis) and is virtually independent of H[sub 2] concentration in the feed gas. The process is continuous. Low energy cost: Depending upon the operating conditions, the energy requirement varies between 2 to 6 kWh/1000 SCF of recovered hydrogen.

Abens, S.; Fruchtman, J.; Kush, A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

409

Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydride, Pressure Vessel, and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

34 34 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Jamie D. Holladay (Primary Contact), Kriston P. Brooks, Ewa C.E. Rönnebro, Kevin L. Simmons and Mark R. Weimar. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 Phone: (509) 371-6692 Email: Jamie.Holladay@pnnl.gov DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-AC05-76RL01830

410

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloMetal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloCo-chair Efficient hydrogen storage is required for fuel

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Phase studies of the Zr-H system at high hydrogen concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The phase boundaries of the Zr-H system have been defined at high hydrogen concentrations, on the basis of studies performed on zirconium hydrides containing 4 at % uranium. The methods used include hightemperature X-ray diffraction, electrical resistance, dilatometry, and, to a limited extent, hot stage microscopy. The (?+?) two-phase region was found to exist between ZrH1.64 and ZrHi1.74 at 24 °C. This region diminishes in width with increasing temperature and closes at 455 °C and ZrH1.70. From this point, a single boundary, sloping toward higher hydrogen concentrations, separates the ? and ? single-phase regions. Precise lattice parameter measurements indicate that first-order transitions occur at the boundaries of the two-phase region. Theoretical considerations suggest that the ? ? ? transition is second order.

K.E. Moore; W.A. Young

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Thermodynamic properties of carbonates at high pressures from vibrational modelling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mineral. , 84 , 856-860. Frech, R., Wang, E.C., Bates, J.B. (1980...Physica B , 262 , 67-73. Guyot, F., Wang, P., Gillet, P., Ricard, Y...high-temperature volumes of olivines by synchroton X-ray diffraction. Comparison with...

Jan MATAS; Philippe GILLET; Yanick RICARD; Isabelle MARTINEZ

413

High Temperature and Pressure reactive flows through porous media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC), used as high temperature material for combustion chamber or stagnation and chemical composition (Gas Chromatograph, Mass Spectrometer, Infra-Red spectrometer) in stationary and transient conditions. The tests on metallic and composite samples have been conducted with N2, CH4, H2+CH4

Boyer, Edmond

414

The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism.

Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Effect of pressure on methylated glycine derivatives: relative roles of hydrogen bonds and steric repulsion of methyl groups  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase transitions with fragmentation of the single crystals into fine powder were observed for partially methylated N-methyl and N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas the structural changes in N,N,N-trimethylglycine were continuous with some peculiar features in the 1.4-2.0 GPa pressure range, and accompanied by splitting of the crystals into several large fragments. Structural rearrangements in N-methylglycine and N,N,N-trimethylglycine were strongly dependent on the rate of pressure variation: the higher the rate of increasing pressure, the lower the pressure at which the phase transition occurred.

Kapustin, E.A.

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

22013_earth 22013_earth 12/20/2013 A Lawrence Livermore researcher prepares a sample at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutrons and Pressure Diffractometer (SNAP). High-pressure studies of rare earth material could lead to lighter, cheaper magnets Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Sometimes you have to apply a little pressure to get magnetic materials to reveal their secrets. By placing a permanent magnet under high pressures, Lawrence Livermore researchers are exploring how atomic structure enhances magnetic strength and resistance to demagnetization. This fundamental research into magnetic behavior has important implications for engineering stronger, cheaper magnets. Permanent magnets based on rare earth elements are in high demand for

417

High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalization in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)

Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K. [Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), 310 Campbell Hall, 1300 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1170 (United States); Hope, Kevin M. [Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Harman Hall, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL, 35115 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Hydrogen storage in carbon nitride nanobells X. D. Bai, Dingyong Zhong, G. Y. Zhang, X. C. Ma, Shuang Liu, and E. G. Wanga)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen storage in carbon nitride nanobells X. D. Bai, Dingyong Zhong, G. Y. Zhang, X. C. Ma as hydrogen adsorbent. A hydrogen storage capacity up to 8 wt % was achieved reproducibly under ambient pressure and at temperature of 300 °C. The high hydrogen storage capacity under the moderate conditions

Zhang, Guangyu

419

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

420

Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5?×?10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3?×?10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC Porto—Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física, da Faculdade de Ciências, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Compression effects in inductively coupled, high-power radio-frequency discharges for negative hydrogen ion production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the paper we present a simplified model description of inductively coupled plasmadischarges operating at a rather high radio-frequency (rf) power. In this case the induced high plasma currents can cause periodic compressions over a substantial radial distance. Such conditions are obviously given in rf driven 1 MHz/150 kW plasma sources developed at the Institute for Plasma Physics Garching for negative (hydrogen) ion production in future neutral beam injection (NBI) systems for nuclear fusion research such as the 1 MeV/50 MW NBI system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor [T. Inoue R. Hemsworth V. Kulygin and Y. Okumura Fusion Eng. Design 55 291 (2001)]. The given model describes quite well the compression and other features of the discharge. The results include the Ohmic power input (i.e. electron heating) the resulting density build-up and—as a new feature—periodical plasma compressions leading to a direct energy input also into the plasma ions. The model also explains the strange effect of small argon admixtures which improve the negative ion yield in rf sources by a factor of up to 2–3 (but which have no effect in conventional dc arc sources). With the calculated dependencies from external parameters (e.g. rf-power and frequency gas pressure ion mass or the specific geometry) the modeling may help for the further optimization of the rf source.

Rolf Wilhelm

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems : applications, properties, and gap analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; San Marchi, Christopher W.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Hydrogen Tank Project Q2 Report - FY 11  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quarterly report that represents PNNL's results of HDPE, LDPE, and industrial polymer materials testing. ASTM D638 type 3 samples were subjected to a high pressure hydrogen environment between 3000 and 4000 PSI. These samples were tested using an instron load frame and were analyzed using a proprietary set of excel macros to determine trends in data. The development of an in-situ high pressure hydrogen tensile testing apparatus is discussed as is the stress modeling of the carbon fiber tank exterior.

Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Dahl, Michael E.; Pitman, Stan G.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

425

Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel - Georgia Institute of Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prediction of Combustion Stability Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High- Hydrogen Fuel-Georgia Institute of Technology Background Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), in collaboration with Pennsylvania State University and gas turbine manufacturers, is conducting research to improve the state-of-the-art in understanding and modeling combustion instabilities, one of the most critical problems associated with burning high-hydrogen content (HHC) fuels in

426

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret… (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas Pipelines Hydrogen embrittlement What is the relevance to hydrogen pipelines? ORNL researchHydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Team: Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Z Pressure Permeation Testing) Hydrogen Pipeline R&D, Project Review Meeting Oak Ridge National Laboratory

428

Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.

Tushar K Ghosh

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

429

Chapter 13 - Energy Conversion of Biomass and Recycling of Waste Plastics Using Supercritical Fluid, Subcritical Fluid and High-Pressure Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Utilization of unused or waste biomass as fuels is receiving much attention owing to the reduction of CO2 emission and the development of alternative energy to expensive fossil fuels. On the other hand, the recycling of waste plastics is important for the prevention of the exhaustion of fossil resources. In this chapter, typical several examples of the energy conversion of biomass and the recycling of waste plastics using supercritical fluid, subcritical fluid, and high-pressure superheated steam were introduced: (1) bioethanol production from paper sludge with subcritical water, (2) hydrogen production from various biomass with high-pressure superheated steam, (3) production of composite solid fuel from waste biomass and plastics with subcritical water, (4) waste treatment and recovery of thermal energy with high-pressure superheated steam oxidation, (5) recycling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with high-pressure superheated steam and supercritical alcohol, (6) recycling of laminate film with subcritical water, and (7) recycling of cross-linked polyethylene with supercritical methanol.

Idzumi Okajima; Takeshi Sako

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

High-pressure xenon detector development at Constellation Technology Corporation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xenon-filled ionization detectors, due to their high atomic number fill gas (Z=54), moderate densities (?0.3–0.5 g/cm3) and good energy resolution (2–4% at 662 keV), fill an important niche between more familiar technologies such as NaI(Tl) scintillators and germanium detectors. Until recently, difficulties with obtaining sufficient xenon purity, reducing microphonic sensitivity, and developing low-noise electronics compatible with small ionization signals have hampered the development of this nuclear detection field. Constellation Technology Corporation, whose experience with xenon detectors goes back to the mid 1990s, has made significant progress in these areas and has developed a commercial line of detectors with active volumes ranging from small (35 g Xe) to large (1400 g Xe). Current applications for Constellation's detectors are principally in the area of defense (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Advanced Spectroscopic Portals), but as awareness of this technology grows, it will surely find applications in a much expanded range of fields.

Robert A. Austin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

432

Structural phase transition in induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high-pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposing pressurized crystals to GeV heavy ions reveals unexpected structural changes. Irradiated at ambient conditions, natural zirconia ( ZrO 2 ) transforms from the monoclinic structure to its tetragonal (high-temperature) phase. For this process the required fluence must exceed 5 × 10 12 ions / cm 2 for Pb and U and becomes even significantly higher for lighter ions. If samples are pressurized during irradiation using diamond anvil cells, the required fluence drops at least by one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition becomes larger with increasing pressure.

B. Schuster; M. Lang; R. Klein; C. Trautmann; R. Neumann; A. Benyagoub

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hydrogen Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure in China  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure in China Hydrogen Vehicles and Fueling Infrastructure in China Prof. Jinyang Zheng Director of IPE, Zhejiang University Director of Engineering Research Center for High Pressure Process Equipment and Safety, Ministry of Education Vice Director of China National Safety Committee of Pressure Vessels Vice President of CMES-P.R. China China Representative of ISO/TC197 and ISO/TC58 U.S. Department of Transportation and U. S. Department of Energy Workshop: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Development of Vehicles,Dec.10-11,2009, Washington Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG,CNG-H2,H2 Vehicles and Fuels in China Content Hydrogen Production CNG Refueling Station Hydrogen Refueling Station Shanxi HCNG Project U.S. Department of Transportation and U. S. Department of Energy Workshop: Compressed Natural Gas and

434

Assessment of kinetic modeling for lean H2/CH4/O2/diluent flames at high pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and HO2 + H with the main branching reactions. Methane addition is shown to influence the pressure: Hydrogen; Methane; Syngas; Flame speed; Chemical mechanism 1. Introduction The H2/O2 reaction system CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other small hydrocarbons (synthetic gas or "syngas") from coal or biomass

Ju, Yiguang

435

Experimental and theoretical study of pressure effects on hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system brucite-water at elevated temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed, systematic experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate the effect of pressure on equilibrium D/H fractionation between brucite (Mg(OH)2) and water at temperatures from 200 to 600°C and pressures up to 800 MPa. A fine-grained brucite was isotopically exchanged with excess amounts of water, and equilibrium D/H fractionation factors were calculated by means of the partial isotope exchange method. Our experiments unambiguously demonstrated that the D/H fractionation factor between brucite and water increased by 4.4 to 12.4‰ with increasing pressure to 300 or 800 \\{MPa\\} at all the temperatures investigated. The observed increases are linear with the density of water under experimental conditions. We calculated the pressure effects on the reduced partition function ratios (?-factor) of brucite (300–800 K and P ? 800 MPa) and water (400–600°C and P ? 100 MPa), employing a statistical-mechanical method similar to that developed by Kieffer (1982) and a simple thermodynamic method based on the molar volumes of normal and heavy waters, respectively. Our theoretical calculations showed that the reduced partition function ratio of brucite increases linearly with pressure at a given temperature (as much as 12.6‰ at 300 K and 800 MPa). The magnitude of the pressure effects rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ?-factor of water decreases 4 to 5‰ with increasing pressure to 100 \\{MPa\\} at 400 to 600°C. Overall D/H isotope pressure effects combined from the separate calculations on brucite and water are in excellent agreement with the experimental results under the same temperature-pressure range. Our calculations also suggest that under the current experimental conditions, the magnitude of the isotope pressure effects is much larger on water than brucite. Thus, the observed pressure effects on D/H fractionation are common to other systems involving water. It is very likely that under some geologic conditions, pressure is an important variable in controlling D/H partitioning.

Juske Horita; David R. Cole; Veniamin B. Polyakov; Thomas Driesner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Geometry of hydrogen bonds formed by lipid bilayer nitroxide probes : A high frequency pulsed ENDOR/EPR study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solvent effects on magnetic parameters of nitroxide spin labels in combination with side-directed spin-labeling EPR methods provide very useful means for elucidating polarity profiles in lipid bilayers and mapping local electrostatic effects in complex biomolecular systems. One major contributor to these solvent effects is the hydrogen bonds that could be formed between the nitroxide moiety and water and/or the available hydroxyl groups. Here, formation of hydrogen bonds between a lipid bilayer spin probe 5-doxyl stearic acid, 5DSA and hydrogen-bond donors has been studied using high-frequency (HF) pulsed ENDOR and EPR. A hydrogen-bonded deuteron was directly detected in HF ENDOR (130 GHz) spectra of 5DSA dissolved in several deuterated alcohols, while the characteristic signal was absent in nonpolar toluene-d{sub 8}. The length of the hydrogen bond, 1.74 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}, and its geometry were found to be essentially the same for all four alcohols studied, indicating that nearly identical hydrogen bonds have been formed regardless of the solvent dielectric constant. This strengthens a hypothesis that HF EPR spectra are exclusively sensitive to formation of hydrogen bonds and could be used for probing the hydrogen-bond network in complex biomolecular assemblies and lipid bilayers with site-directed spin-labeling methods.

Smirnova, T. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Pachtchenko, S.; Poluektov, O. G.; Chemistry; North Carolina State Univ.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

Homogeneous carbon doping of magnesium diboride by high-temperature, high-pressure synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis at 1500–1700?°C and 10?MPa to create homogeneously C-substituted MgB{sub 2} from a B{sub 4}C + Mg mixture. X-ray diffraction analysis showed large peak-shifts consistent with a decrease in the a lattice parameter for the B{sub 4}C-derived MgB{sub 2} as compared to an undoped sample (0.033–0.037?Å, depending on the sample). Microstructural investigation showed a three-phase mixture in the B{sub 4}C-derived ingots: MgB{sub 2?x}C{sub x} (with 0.178?

Susner, M. A., E-mail: susner.1@osu.edu; Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Dregia, S. A.; Sumption, M. D.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E. W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Donovan, J. J. [Center for Advanced Materials Characterization in Oregon (CAMCOR), University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

439

Valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids has inner and outer spaced shells and a valve actuator support of inner and outer spaced members which are connected at their end portions to the inner and outer shells, respectively, to extend substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the inner shell. A layer of resilient heat insulating material covers the outer surfaces of the inner shell and the inner actuator support member and is of a thickness to only occupy part of the spaces between the inner and outer shells and inner and outer actuator support members. The remaining portion of the space between the inner and outer shells and the space between the inner and outer members is substantially filled with a body of castable, rigid refractory material. A movable valve member is disposed in the inner shell. A valve actuator assembly is supported in the valve actuator support to extend into the inner shell for connection with the movable valve member for movement of the movable valve member to positions from a fully open to a fully closed position to control flow of fluid through the inner shell. An anchor mneans is disposed adjacent opposite sides of the axis of the valve actuator support and attached to the inner shell so that relative radial movement between the inner and outer shell is permitted by the layer of resilient heat insulating material and relative longitudinal movement of the inner shell to the outer shell is permitted in opposite directions from the anchor means to thereby maintain the functional integrity of the movable valve member by providing an area of the inner shell surrounding the movable valve member longitdinally stationary, but at the same time allowing radial movement.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

Thomas Brunner; Daniel Fudenberg; Victor Varentsov; Amanda Sabourov; Giorgio Gratta; Jens Dilling; Ralph DeVoe; David Sinclair; William Fairbank Jr.; Joshua B Albert; David J Auty; Phil S Barbeau; Douglas Beck; Cesar Benitez-Medina; Martin Breidenbach; Guofu F Cao; Christopher Chambers; Bruce Cleveland; Matthew Coon; Adam Craycraft; Timothy Daniels; Sean J Daugherty; Tamar Didberidze; Michelle J Dolinski; Matthew Dunford; Lorenzo Fabris; Jacques Farine; Wolfhart Feldmeier; Peter Fierlinger; Razvan Gornea; Kevin Graham; Mike Heffner; Mitchell Hughes; Michael Jewell; Xiaoshan S Jiang; Tessa N Johnson; Sereres Johnston; Alexander Karelin; Lisa J Kaufman; Ryan Killick; Thomas Koffas; Scott Kravitz; Reiner Kruecken; Alexey Kuchenkov; Krishna S Kumar; Douglas S Leonard; Francois Leonard; Caio Licciardi; Yi-Hsuan H Lin; Jiajie Ling; Ryan MacLellan; Michael G Marino; Brian Mong; David Moore; Allen Odian; Igor Ostrovskiy; Christian Ouellet; Andreas Piepke; Andrea Pocar; Fabrice Retiere; Peter C Rowson; Maria P Rozo; Alexis Schubert; Erica Smith; Victor Stekhanov; Michal Tarka; Tamer Tolba; Delia Tosi; Karl Twelker; Jean-Luc L Vuilleumier; Josiah Walton; Timothy Walton; Manuel Weber; Liangjian J Wen; Ubi Wichoski; Liang Yang; Yung-Ruey Yen

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high pressure hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

High performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells made at a high deposition rate by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deposition rate, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared from rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) diluted in helium have been measured. These films show excellent electrical and optical properties and, most importantly, a high deposition rate coupled with satisfactory solar cell application was realized for the first time. At a deposition rate of 11 A/s, 5.47% and 6.5% conversion efficiencies were obtained with a first trial of n-i-p type solar cells deposited on SnO/sub 2//ITO glass and metal substrates, respectively.

Ohashi, Y.; Kenne, J.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

High pressure hydrogen effect on creep-rupture properties of superalloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The automotive Stirling engine, being developed by the United States Department...2 under constant initial stress conditions, and creep extensions were monitored with transducers placed internally. Air and H2 dat...

S. Bhattacharyya; R. H. Titran

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

High Pressure Equilibria of Dimethylamine Borane, Dihydridobis(dimethylamine)boron(III) Tetrahydridoborate(III), and Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was designed and executed as a part of the research funded by DOE-BES (DE-FG02-06ER46280). ... The results establish satisfactorily all the fundamental frequencies of these ions although precise values for two of the fundamentals cannot be given. ...

Robert G. Potter; Maddury Somayazulu; George Cody; Russell J. Hemley

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

444

Raman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence of the high-energy Raman modes in single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes was measuredRaman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure C. Thomsen, S. Reich, H properties of carbon nanotubes have become of scienti c interest since it was recognized that the low atomic

Nabben, Reinhard

445

Hydrogen sulphide alleviates oxidative damage and enhances light energy transformation under high light for Dendrobium officinale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an important biological messenger in plants, which has been implicated in response to abiotic stress. To study the effects of H2S on plant under high light menace, the seedlings of Dendrobium officinale were selected and treated with high light (800 ?mol m?2 s?1) to simulate photoinhibition. After application of sodium hydrogen sulphide (NaHS), the antioxidant enzyme activities and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined. The results showed that the plant supplied with 200 ?mol L?1 NaHS maintained higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower content of malondialdehyde (MDA) during high light treatment. However, higher concentration of NaHS (600 ?mol L?1) enhanced the effects of high light stress for plant. For further analysis of the response mechanism against to high light, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined. As a result, when the seedlings were treated with 200 ?mol L?1 NaHS, levels of chlorophyll parameters: Fv/Fm, ?PSII, ?NPQ, qP, qL, NPQ and ETR were obviously increased. The parameter ?NO was maintained lower. 200 ?mol L?1 NaHS treatment alleviated the photoinhibition and preserved the PSII from the photodamage. Contrarily, 600 ?mol L?1 NaHS treatment enhanced the photoinhibition and photodamage to PSII. Thus, the protection effect on plant under high light stress depends on the concentrations of H2S. These results may imply that 200 ?mol L?1 NaHS treatment triggered increase of antioxidant enzyme activities, which may be the reason that H2S could protect PSII against oxidative damage caused by high light.

Honghong Fan; Lei Guan; Tingchun Li; Qiuju Wu; Meijuan Wu; Yongping Cai; Yi Lin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

447

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquefaction and liquid hydrogen storage tanks are needed.low cost of liquid hydrogen storage is offset by the highrefueling pressure. Hydrogen storage requirements vary among

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquefaction and liquid hydrogen storage tanks are needed.low cost of liquid hydrogen storage is offset by the highrefueling pressure. Hydrogen storage requirements vary among

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Codes and Standards Gap Analysis Helps DOE Define Research Priorities (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 * November 2010 6 * November 2010 Fuel Vehicle Codes and Standards Gap Documents Impacted Gap Resolution HYDROGEN High pressure storage, handling, and use of hydrogen presents hazards specific to high- pressure systems that may not be completely addressed NFPA 2, NFPA 52, NFPA 55 CGA H series of documents, IFC Evaluated codes and standards that address high pressures to determine if requirements are adequate HYDROGEN Incomplete requirements for sensing technologies NFPA 2, NFPA 52, NFPA 55, IFC Support the use of sensing technologies that replace odorants through evaluating sensing technologies and supporting code and standards development work in sensing technologies HYDROGEN Off-road vehicle storage tank requirements are incomplete CSA HGV 2,

450

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure B transition becomes larger with increasing pressure. Keywords: Zirconia, phase transition, high pressure-temperature poly- morphs (tetragonal and cubic) (see Fig 1). At about 1200 C, a martensitic-type phase transition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Hydrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

452

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

453

Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional flow in high pressure catalytic combustor for gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is modeling the mechanism of high pressure and high temperature catalytic oxidation of natural gas, or methane. The model is two-dimensional steady-state, and includes axial and radial convection and diffusion of mass, momentum and energy, as well as homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (gas surface) single step irreversible chemical reactions within a catalyst channel. Experimental investigations were also made of natural gas, or methane combustion in the presence of Mn-substituted hexaaluminate catalysts. Axial profiles of catalyst wall temperature, and gas temperature and gas composition for a range of gas turbine combustor operating conditions have been obtained for comparison with and development of a computer model of catalytic combustion. Numerical calculation results for atmospheric pressure agree well with experimental data. The calculations have been extended for high pressure (10 atm) operating conditions of gas turbine.

Y. Tsujikawa; S. Fujii; H. Sadamori; S. Ito; S. Katsura

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy utilizing high-pressure cryopreservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present cryo x-ray diffraction microscopy of high-pressure-cryofixed bacteria and report high-convergence imaging with multiple image reconstructions. Hydrated D. radiodurans cells were cryofixed at 200 MPa pressure into ?10??m-thick water layers and their unstained, hydrated cellular environments were imaged by phasing diffraction patterns, reaching sub-30-nm resolutions with hard x-rays. Comparisons were made with conventional ambient-pressure-cryofixed samples, with respect to both coherent small-angle x-ray scattering and the image reconstruction. The results show a correlation between the level of background ice signal and phasing convergence, suggesting that phasing difficulties with frozen-hydrated specimens may be caused by high-background ice scattering.

Enju Lima; Yuriy Chushkin; Peter van der Linden; Chae Un Kim; Federico Zontone; Philippe Carpentier; Sol M. Gruner; Petra Pernot

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Dr. Katherine Ayers (Primary Contact), Andy Roemer Proton Energy Systems d/b/a Proton OnSite 10 Technology Drive Wallingford, CT 06492 Phone: (203) 678-2190 Email: kayers@protononsite.com DOE Managers HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov GO: Dave Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE000276 Subcontractors: * Entegris, Inc., Chaska, MN * The Electrochemical Engine Center at Penn State, University Park, PA * Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Project Start Date: September 1, 2009

457

Broadband, stable and highly coherent supercontinuum generation at telecommunication wavelengths in an hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a:Si-H) has recently been recognized as a highly nonlinear CMOS compatible photonic platform. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum (SC) spanning over 500 nm in a-Si:H photonic wire waveguide at telecommunication wavelengths using femtosecond input pulse with energy lower than 5 pJ. Numerical modeling of pulse propagation in the waveguide, based on the experimentally characterized dispersion profile, shows that the supercontinuum is the result of soliton fission and dispersive wave generation. It is demonstrated that the SC is highly coherent and that the waveguides do not suffer from material degradation under femtosecond pulse illumination. Finally, a direct comparison of SC generation in c-Si and a-Si:H waveguides confirms the higher performances of a-Si:H over c-Si for broadband low power SC generation at telecommunication wavelengths.

Leo, F; Kuyken, B; Roelkens, G; Gorza, S -P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

A Conjecture on 180° Production of High Energy Hydrogen Isotopes from Nuclei  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of 1 1igh energy hydrogen isotopes in the reac...func- tion. The production cross sections of the hydrogen isotopes are well...Assuming the production cross section of...the above mentioned method, we find it tend......

Fumiyo Uchiyama

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland.

460

High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting held June 26, 2007 in Bethesda, Maryland.

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461

Hydrogen transport in a niobium-foil assembly under the action of high-temperature hydrogen plasma on a plasma focus setup  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of hydrogen transport under the action of hydrogen-plasma pulses in the Plasma Focus (PF-4) setup in an assembly ... Nb foils under the action of the hydrogen plasma. These depths considerably exceed ...

A. Yu. Didyk; R. Wi?niewski…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

PROGRESS IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING PLANAR SOFC TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The research program includes both experimental and modeling activities. Selected results from both activities are presented in this paper. Experimental results were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, fabricated by Ceramatec , Inc. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was also created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model represents a single cell as it would exist in the experimental electrolysis stack. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT1. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential,