Sample records for high power density

  1. High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4484/16/4/003 High power density supercapacitors usingproduced very high speci?c power density of about 30 kW kg ?manufacturing of high power density supercapacitors and

  2. High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power density supercapacitors using locally alignedof high power density supercapacitors and other similarcells [6], and for supercapacitors [7–18]. As unique energy

  3. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  4. High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model, the cooling power densities of the devices can alsothe cooling power densities 2–24 times. Experimentally, the14 4 OCTOBER 2004 High-power-density spot cooling using bulk

  5. Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

  6. Design of annular fuel for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, Paolo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enabling high power density in the core of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is economically profitable for existing or new reactors. In this work, we examine the potential for increasing the power density in BWR plants by ...

  7. High power density thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noreen, D.L. [R& D Technologies, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Du, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D Technologies is developing thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology based on the use of porous/fibrous ceramic broadband-type emitter designs that utilize recuperative or regenerative techniques to improve thermal efficiency and power density. This paper describes preliminary estimates of what will be required to accomplish sufficient power density to develop a practical, commercially-viable TPV generator. It addresses the needs for improved, thermal shock-resistant, long-life porous/fibrous ceramic emitters and provides information on the photocell technology required to achieve acceptable power density in broadband-type (with selective filter) TPV systems. TPV combustors/systems operating at a temperature of 1500 {degree}C with a broadband-type emitter is proposed as a viable starting point for cost-effective TPV conversion. Based on current projections for photocell cost, system power densities of 7.5--10 watts per square centimeter of emitter area will be required for TPV to become a commercially viable technology. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Liquid Walls Innovative High Power Density Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Surface Heat Flux > 2 MW/m2 2. High Power Conversion Efficiency (> 40%) 3. High Availability -Lower rrr ×= V r J r PV r B r 1P 2P g r + - V r #12;V(initial momentum) g rFluidIn FluidOutBackingWall 2Dsurfaceturbulence · Poloidal Pumping + - J r - flowpoloidal direction - Enhancesurfaceheat transferwith2D turbulence

  9. Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    High charge state High velocity flow ~60 m/s High heat capacity of Li Absorbs power depositedThin liquid lithium targets for high power density applications: heavy ion beam strippers and beta Hilton Malmö City #12;Outline Liquid Lithium Stripper idea for FRIB Brief theory of film stability

  10. Thermal Properties of Graphene and Applications for Thermal Management of High-Power Density Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the development of high-power density semiconductor devices.Management of High-Power Density Electronics A DissertationManagement of High-Power Density Electronics by Zhong Yan

  11. The design of high power density annular fuel for LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yi, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel performance models have been developed to assess the performance of internally and externally cooled LWR annular fuel. Such fuel may be operated at 30-50% higher core power density than the current operating LWRs, and ...

  12. An evolutionary fuel assembly design for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Aydin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evolutionary BWR fuel assembly design was studied as a means to increase the power density of current and future BWR cores. The new assembly concept is based on replacing four traditional assemblies and large water gap ...

  13. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J. F.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. The heat pipe is used to cool the nuclear reactor while the heat pipe is connected thermally and electrically to a thermionic converter. If the receiver requires greater thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparatively low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  14. Loops and Power Counting in the High Density Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schaefer

    2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the high density effective theory of QCD. We discuss, in particular, the problem of developing a consistent power counting scheme.

  15. High-Power Density Target Design and Analyses for Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    management ­ Lithium · Excellent conductivity, but low heat capacity compared to other coolants ­ Sodium · Better heat capacity than lithium ­ Mercury · Power generation in coolant limits applicability ­ Lithiumcooled Tungsten Plate Liquid Target Concepts ­ Lead Bismuth Eutectic Workshop on Applications of High

  16. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Song Chi; Ahmed Elasser; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Yan Jiang; Frank Mueller; Fengfeng Tao

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  17. High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartment of HIGH1

  18. High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartment of HIGH10

  19. High-density thermoelectric power generation and nanoscale thermal metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Peter (Peter Matthew), 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power generation has been around for over 50 years but has seen very little large scale implementation due to the inherently low efficiencies and powers available from known materials. Recent material advances ...

  20. Development of a high power density motor for aircraft propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibua, Imoukhuede Tim Odion

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    are currently powered by heavy gas turbine engines that require fueling. The development of electric motors to replace gas turbines would be a big step towards accomplishing more efficient aircraft propulsion. The primary objective of this research extends...

  1. NEUTRONIC AND THERMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGNS OF ANNULAR FUEL FOR HIGH POWER DENSITY BWRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, P.

    As a promising new fuel for high power density light water reactors, the feasibility of using annular fuel for BWR services is explored from both thermal hydraulic and neutronic points of view. Keeping the bundle size ...

  2. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development of

  3. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development ofEnergy 1 DOE

  4. The Influence of Isotopic Mass, Edge Magnetic Shear and Input Power on High Density ELMy H-modes in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Influence of Isotopic Mass, Edge Magnetic Shear and Input Power on High Density ELMy H-modes in JET

  5. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  6. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  7. A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bombelli, Paolo; Mueller, Thomas; Herling, Therese W.; Howe, Christopher J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells Paolo Bombelli,1, a) Thomas Mu¨ller,2, a) Therese W. Herling,2 Christopher J. Howe,1, b) and Tuomas P. J. Knowles2, c) 1)Department of Biochemistry... that achievable through synthetic materials. Here, we devise a platform to harness the large power densities afforded by miniaturised geometries. To this effect, we have developed a soft-lithography approach for the fabrication of microfluidic biophotovoltaic...

  8. LOW POWER SCANNER FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRODE ARRAY NEURAL RECORDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    of this research is to design a low power integrated system that can be used in vivo for scanning the electrode. A model created in Python provides input vectors and output comparison for the verification processLOW POWER SCANNER FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRODE ARRAY NEURAL RECORDING A Thesis work submitted

  9. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  10. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. High excitation power photoluminescence studies of ultra-low density GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnenberg, D.; Graf, A.; Paulava, V.; Heyn, Ch.; Hansen, W. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Zentrum für Mikrostrukturforschung, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricate GaAs epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) by filling of self-organized nanoholes in AlGaAs. The QDs are fabricated under optimized process conditions and have ultra-low density in the 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?2} regime. At low excitation power the optical emission of single QDs exhibit sharp excitonic lines, which are attributed to the recombination of excitonic and biexcitonic states. High excitation power measurements reveal surprisingly broad emission lines from at least six QD shell states.

  12. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  13. A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bombelli, Paolo; Herling, Therese W; Howe, Christopher J; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biophotovoltaics has emerged as a promising technology for generating renewable energy since it relies on living organisms as inexpensive, self-repairing and readily available catalysts to produce electricity from an abundant resource - sunlight. The efficiency of biophotovoltaic cells, however, has remained significantly lower than that achievable through synthetic materials. Here, we devise a platform to harness the large power densities afforded by miniaturised geometries. To this effect, we have developed a soft-lithography approach for the fabrication of microfluidic biophotovoltaic devices that do not require membranes or mediators. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells were injected and allowed to settle on the anode, permitting the physical proximity between cells and electrode required for mediator-free operation. We demonstrate power densities of above 100 mW/m2 for a chlorophyll concentration of 100 {\\mu}M under white light, a high value for biophotovoltaic devices without extrinsic supply of additional...

  14. Performance Optimization of Battery-Super Capacitor Hybrid System Electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) offer high power density when compared to battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Performance Optimization of Battery-Super Capacitor Hybrid System Electrochemical capacitors a decreased value of power and energy densities for the hybrid system. Figure 1shows the fractional capacity (ultracapacitors) offer high power density when compared to battery systems and also have a relatively large energy

  15. APEX and ALPS, high power density technology programs in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States). Fusion Group; Berk, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Fusion Energy Sciences; Abdou, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Fusion Power Program

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In fiscal year (FY) 1998 two new fusion technology programs were initiated in the US, with the goal of making marked progress in the scientific understanding of technologies and materials required to withstand high plasma heat flux and neutron wall loads. APEX is exploring new and revolutionary concepts that can provide the capability to extract heat efficiently from a system with high neutron and surface heat loads while satisfying all the fusion power technology requirements and achieving maximum reliability, maintainability, safety, and environmental acceptability. ALPS program is evaluating advanced concepts including liquid surface limiters and divertors on the basis of such factors as their compatibility with fusion plasma, high power density handling capabilities, engineering feasibility, lifetime, safety and R and D requirements. The APEX and ALPS are three-year programs to specify requirements and evaluate criteria for revolutionary approaches in first wall, blanket and high heat flux component applications. Conceptual design and analysis of candidate concepts are being performed with the goal of selecting the most promising first wall, blanket and high heat flux component designs that will provide the technical basis for the initiation of a significant R and D effort beginning in FY2001. These programs are also considering opportunities for international collaborations.

  16. High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research,, Inc.; Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Falce, Lou [Consultant; Schwartzkopf, Steve [Ron Witherspoon, Inc.; Busbaher, Daniel [Semicon Associates

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the world’s largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

  17. Development of optimized core design and analysis methods for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirvan, Koroush

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is vital to its future. Improving the economics of BWRs is the main goal of this work, focusing on designing cores with higher power density, to reduce the BWR ...

  18. Assessment of helical-cruciform fuel rods for high power density LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy, Thomas M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to significantly increase the power density of Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the helical-cruciform (HC) fuel rod assembly has been proposed as an alternative to traditional fuel geometry. The HC assembly is a ...

  19. Evaluation of high power density annular fuel application in the Korean OPR-1000 reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang, Ph. D.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared to the traditional solid fuel geometry for PWRs, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel offers the potential to increase the core power density while maintaining or increasing safety margins. It is ...

  20. Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

  1. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Blanchet, Scott [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab] [Argonne National Lab; Borup, Rod [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (?0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (?1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss was correlated with the upper potential limit in the cycle tests, although the performance degradation was found to be a strong function of initial Pt loading. A large fraction of the voltage degradation was found due to increased mass transfer overpotentials, especially in the lower Pt loading cells. Increased mass transfer overpotentials were responsible for a large fraction of the voltage degradation at high current densities. Analysis of the impedance and polarization data indicated O2 diffusion in the aged electrode ionomer to be the main source of the increased mass transfer overpotentials. Results from the experimental parametric studies were used to inform and calibrate newly developed durability model, simulating lifetime performance of the fuel cell under variety of load-cycle protocols, electrode loadings and throughout wide range of operating conditions, including elevated-to-3.0A/cm2 current densities. Complete durability model included several sub-models: platinum dissolution-and-growth as well as reaction-diffusion model of cathode electrode, applied sequentially to study the lifetime predictions of ECSA and polarization performance in the ASTs and NSTs. These models establish relations between changes in overpotentials, ECSA and oxygen mass transport in fuel cell cathodes. The model was calibrated using single cells with land-channel and open flowfield architectures. The model was validated against Nuvera Orion® (open flowfield) short stack data in the load cycle durability tests. The reaction-diffusion model was used to correlate the effective mass transfer coefficients for O2 diffusion in cathode ionomer and separately in gas pores with the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, gas velocity in flow field and current density), Pt loading, and ageing related growth in Pt particles and thinning of the electrode. Achievements of both modeling and experimental objectives were demonstrated in a full format, subscale stacks operating in a simulated but fully realistic ambient environment, using system-compatible operating protocols.

  2. Effect of electron density profile on power absorption of high frequency electromagnetic waves in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi Yanbin; Liu Yue [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering different typical electron density profiles, a multi slab approximation model is built up to study the power absorption of broadband (0.75-30 GHz) electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized nonuniform magnetized plasma layer. Based on the model, the power absorption spectra for six cases are numerically calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the absorption strongly depends on the electron density fluctuant profile, the background electron number density, and the collision frequency. A potential optimum profile is also analyzed and studied with some particular parameters.

  3. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) enable direct use of higher hydrocarbons4­6 , but have not been seriously con- sidered

  4. Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

  5. Thermal Properties of Graphene and Applications for Thermal Management of High-Power Density Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turin and A. A. Balandin, Electronics Letters 40, 81 (2004).REFERENCES G. E. Moore, Electronics 38 (1965). E. Pop, Nanofor High-power Electronics” PCSI-38:38th Conference on the

  6. The need for high density energy storage for wind turbine and solar power has proven to be a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    1 The need for high density energy storage for wind turbine and solar power has proven applications where under-hood temperatures may exceed the 85 °C normal rating, where the Y5V and Y5R capacitors (currently ~0.22 F) is also considerable. The resultant devices are anticipated to be the new generation

  7. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R., E-mail: bhethana@usf.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  8. Microwave power spectral density and its effects on exciting electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, S.J.; Goss, H.H.; Lapatovich, W.P. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Salem, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a microwave source generating a spectrally dense power spectrum on the operation of an electrodeless high intensity discharge lamp were measured. Spectrally pure sources operating within ISM bands at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz produce stable capacitively coupled discharges useful for producing flicker-free light for numerous applications. The internal plasma temperature distribution and lamp geometry define acoustic resonance modes within the lamp which can be excited with power sidebands. The operation of lamps with commercially available power sources and custom built generators are discussed. Estimates of the spectral purity required for stable operation are provided.

  9. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Anil V. Virkar

    2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

  10. Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

  11. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

  12. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  13. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9November 6, In this3,Office of Science

  14. Minimization of Fractional Power Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minimization of Fractional Power Densities. Robert Hardt, Rice University. Abstract: A k dimensional rectifiable current is given by an oriented k dimensional

  15. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  16. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

  17. Doped LiFePO? cathodes for high power density lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloking, Jason T. (Jason Thompson), 1979-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olivine LiFePO4 has received much attention recently as a promising storage compound for cathodes in lithium ion batteries. It has an energy density similar to that of LiCoO 2, the current industry standard for cathode ...

  18. Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us DrewDualLight-Duty2

  19. High density matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Stone

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this review the latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS) of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of the matter are surveyed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available observational data on neutron stars, including gravitational masses, radii and cooling patterns is presented. The effect of changing rotational frequency on the composition of neutron stars during their lifetime is demonstrated. Compatibility of EoS of high-density, low temperature compact objects and low density, high temperature matter created in heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  20. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  1. High Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Microcoolers Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris LaBounty, John E. Bowers, Edward Croke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Microcoolers Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris La, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 ABSTRACT Fabrication and characterization of SiGe for their potential monolithic integration with Si microelectronics. SiGe is a good thermoelectric material especially

  2. Compact, Low-Profile Power Converters: Highly-Laminated, High-Saturation-Flux-Density, Magnetic Cores for On-Chip Inductors in Power Converter Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is creating compact, low-profile power adapters and power bricks using materials and tools adapted from other industries and from grid-scale power applications. Adapters and bricks convert electrical energy into useable power for many types of electronic devices, including laptop computers and mobile phones. These converters are often called wall warts because they are big, bulky, and sometimes cover up an adjacent wall socket that could be used to power another electronic device. The magnetic components traditionally used to make adapters and bricks have reached their limits; they can't be made any smaller without sacrificing performance. Georgia Tech is taking a cue from grid-scale power converters that use iron alloys as magnetic cores. These low-cost alloys can handle more power than other materials, but the iron must be stacked in insulated plates to maximize energy efficiency. In order to create compact, low-profile power adapters and bricks, these stacked iron plates must be extremely thin-only hundreds of nanometers in thickness, in fact. To make plates this thin, Georgia Tech is using manufacturing tools used in microelectromechanics and other small-scale industries.

  3. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  4. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zénó Farkas

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  5. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  6. Designing materials for energy storage with high power and energy density : LiFePO? cathode material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Byoungwoo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LiFePO? has drawn a lot of attention as a cathode material in lithium rechargeable batteries because its structural and thermal stability, its inexpensive cost, and environmental friendliness meet the requirements of power ...

  7. Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume; Monard, Francois; Triki, Faouzi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of a diffusion coefficient in an elliptic equation from knowledge of several power densities. The power density is the product of the diffusion coefficient with the square of the modulus of the gradient of the elliptic solution. The derivation of such internal functionals comes from perturbing the medium of interest by acoustic (plane) waves, which results in small changes in the diffusion coefficient. After appropriate asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density of the equation point-wise inside the domain. Such a setting finds applications in ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound modulated optical tomography. We show that the diffusion coefficient can be uniquely and stably reconstructed from knowledge of a sufficient large number of power densities. Explicit expressions for the reconstruction of the diffusion coefficient are also provided. Such results hold for a large class of boundary...

  8. Methods to enhance blanket power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Wessol, D.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this task is to investigate the extent to which the power density in the FED/INTOR breeder blanket test modules can be enhanced by artificial means. Assuming a viable approach can be developed, it will allow advanced reactor blanket modules to be tested on FED/INTOR under representative conditions.

  9. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  10. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  11. Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities Guillaume Bal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density) provides access to the power density H(x) = (x)|u|2 (x) for all x inside the domain of interestInverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities Guillaume Bal , Eric Bonnetier , Fran

  12. Power Density Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei M. Beloborodov

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Power density spectra (PDSs) of long gamma-ray bursts provide useful information on GRBs, indicating their self-similar temporal structure. The best power-law PDSs are displayed by the longest bursts (T_90 > 100 s) in which the range of self-similar time scales covers more than 2 decades. Shorter bursts have apparent PDS slopes more strongly affected by statistical fluctuations. The underlying power law can then be reproduced with high accuracy by averaging the PDSs for a large sample of bursts. This power-law has a slope alpha\\approx -5/3 and a sharp break at 1 Hz. The power-law PDS provides a new sensitive tool for studies of gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we calculate the PDSs of bright bursts in separate energy channels. The PDS flattens in the hard channel (h\

  13. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  14. High power connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Christopher E. (Warren, OH); Beer, Robert C. (Noblesville, IN); McCall, Mark D. (Youngstown, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power connection system adapted for automotive environments which provides environmental and EMI shielding includes a female connector, a male connector, and a panel mount. The female connector includes a female connector base and a snap fitted female connector cover. The male connector includes a male connector base and a snap fitted male connector cover. The female connector base has at least one female power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective female power terminal. The male connector base has at least one male power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective male power terminal. The female connector is covered by a cover seal and a conductive shroud. A pair of lock arms protrude outward from the front end of the male connector base, pass through the panel mount and interface with a lever of a lever rotatably connected to the shroud to thereby mechanically assist mating of the male and female connectors. Safety terminals in the male and female connectors provide a last-to-connect-first-to-break connection with an HVIL circuit.

  15. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

  16. assisted high power: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery electrodes a b s t r a c t...

  17. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  18. High density laser-driven target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindl, John D. (San Ramon, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

  19. Efficient high density train operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P. (Oakland, CA); Evans, John A. (Hayward, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  20. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented.

  1. Protostellar fragmentation in a power-law density distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Burkert; M. Bate; P. Bodenheimer

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrodynamical calculations in three space dimensions of the collapse of an isothermal, rotating 1 M\\sol protostellar cloud are presented. The initial density stratification is a power law with density $\\rho \\propto r^{-p}$, with $p=1$. The case of the singular isothermal sphere ($p=2$) is not considered; however $p=1$ has been shown observationally to be a good representation of the density distribution in molecular cloud cores just before the beginning of collapse. The collapse is studied with two independent numerical methods, an SPH code with 200,000 particles, and a finite-difference code with nested grids which give high spatial resolution in the inner regions. Although previous numerical studies have indicated that such a power-law distribution would not result in fragmentation into a binary system, both codes show, in contrast, that multiple fragmentation does occur in the central regions of the protostar. Thus the process of binary formation by fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the fact that a large fraction of young stars are observed to be in binary or multiple systems.

  2. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  3. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  4. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  5. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density Keith Mathieson1,4 , James Loudin1 to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high

  6. Density Power Spectrum of Compressible Hydrodynamic Turbulent Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jongsoo Kim; Dongsu Ryu

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments, and understanding density structures and their statistics in turbulent media is of great importance in astrophysics. In this paper, we study the density power spectra, $P_{\\rho}$, of transonic and supersonic turbulent flows through one and three-dimensional simulations of driven, isothermal hydrodynamic turbulence with root-mean-square Mach number in the range of $1 \\la M_{\\rm rms} \\la 10$. From one-dimensional experiments we find that the slope of the density power spectra becomes gradually shallower as the rms Mach number increases. It is because the density distribution transforms from the profile with {\\it discontinuities} having $P_{\\rho} \\propto k^{-2}$ for $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim 1$ to the profile with {\\it peaks} having $P_{\\rho} \\propto k^0$ for $M_{\\rm rms} \\gg 1$. We also find that the same trend is carried to three-dimension; that is, the density power spectrum flattens as the Mach number increases. But the density power spectrum of the flow with $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim 1$ has the Kolmogorov slope. The flattening is the consequence of the dominant density structures of {\\it filaments} and {\\it sheets}. Observations have claimed different slopes of density power spectra for electron density and cold H I gas in the interstellar medium. We argue that while the Kolmogorov spectrum for electron density reflects the {\\it transonic} turbulence of $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim 1$ in the warm ionized medium, the shallower spectrum of cold H I gas reflects the {\\it supersonic} turbulence of $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim$ a few in the cold neutral medium.

  7. On the Power Spectrum Density of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motoko Suzuki; Masahiro Morikawa; Izumi Joichi

    2001-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are known to have short-time variability and power-law behavior with the index -1.67 in the power spectrum density. Reanalyzing the expanded data, we have found a) the power-law comes from the global profile of the burst and not from the self-similar shots nor rapid fluctuations in the luminosity profile. b) The power indices vary from burst to burst and the value -1.67 is given simply as the mean value of the distribution; there is no systematic correlation among GRBs to yield the power law.

  8. HIGH-POWER, HIGH-EFFICIENCY FELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Kumada, "Scaling of the FEL-ID Equations", ELF Note 128,Instability in a High-power, Short- Wavelength FEL", Proc.of the Ninth FEL" Conference, Williamsburg (1988), and

  9. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  10. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  11. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K. [Laboratory for X-ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  12. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. Abstract: We will...

  13. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program...

  14. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012...

  15. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  16. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  17. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Power-law tails in probability density functions of molecular cloud column density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunt, Chris

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-law tails are often seen in probability density functions (PDFs) of molecular cloud column densities, and have been attributed to the effect of gravity. We show that extinction PDFs of a sample of five molecular clouds obtained at a few tenths of a parsec resolution, probing extinctions up to A$_{{\\mathrm{V}}}$ $\\sim$ 10 magnitudes, are very well described by lognormal functions provided that the field selection is tightly constrained to the cold, molecular zone and that noise and foreground contamination are appropriately accounted for. In general, field selections that incorporate warm, diffuse material in addition to the cold, molecular material will display apparent core+tail PDFs. The apparent tail, however, is best understood as the high extinction part of a lognormal PDF arising from the cold, molecular part of the cloud. We also describe the effects of noise and foreground/background contamination on the PDF structure, and show that these can, if not appropriately accounted for, induce spurious ...

  19. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  20. Limits to the power density of very large wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Takafumi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple analysis is presented concerning an upper limit of the power density (power per unit land area) of a very large wind farm located at the bottom of a fully developed boundary layer. The analysis suggests that the limit of the power density is about 0.38 times $\\tau_{w0}U_{F0}$, where $\\tau_{w0}$ is the natural shear stress on the ground (that is observed before constructing the wind farm) and $U_{F0}$ is the natural or undisturbed wind speed averaged across the height of the farm to be constructed. Importantly, this implies that the maximum extractable power from such a very large wind farm will not be proportional to the cubic of the wind speed at the farm height, or even the farm height itself, but be proportional to $U_{F0}$.

  1. Constraints on power spectrum of density fluctuations from PBH evaporations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar Bugaev; Peter Klimai

    2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate neutrino and photon energy spectra in extragalactic space from evaporation of primordial black holes, assuming that the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations has a strong bump in the region of small scales. The constraints on the parameters of this bump based on neutrino and photon cosmic background data are obtained.

  2. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE

  3. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE0 DOE

  4. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh Efficiency Low -1 DOE0 DOE09

  5. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; /SLAC; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M. (Merrick, NY); Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ)

    1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  7. Power Electronics and Electrical Drives Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    High power and torque densities High power and torque densities Research Topics PMSM / IPMSM Modeling

  8. 1998 Tutorial on Micro Mechatronics and Micro Robotics Powering 3 Dimensional Microrobots: Power Density Limitations \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    is the effective power density of the actuator. As inertia and gravitional forces become less significant for small at the micro­scale. One scaling law that is helpful for micro­actuators is the increased break down field

  9. Temperature Power Law of Equilibrium Heavy Particle Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A standard calculation of the energy density of heavy stable particles that may pair-annihilate into light particles making up thermal medium is performed to second order of coupling, using the technique of thermal field theory. At very low temperatures a power law of temperature is derived for the energy density of the heavy particle. This is in sharp contrast to the exponentially suppressed contribution estimated from the ideal gas distribution function. The result supports a previous dynamical calculation based on the Hartree approximation, and implies that the relic abundance of dark matter particles is enhanced compared to that based on the Boltzmann equation.

  10. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  11. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  12. High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. N. Basu; Tapan Mukhopadhyay

    2006-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Role of the isospin asymmetry in nuclei and neutron stars, with an emphasis on the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, is discussed. The symmetry energy is obtained using the isoscalar as well as isovector components of the density dependent M3Y effective interaction. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. Implications for the density dependence of the symmetry energy in case of a neutron star are discussed, and also possible constraints on the density dependence obtained from finite nuclei are compared.

  13. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  14. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  15. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  16. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  17. The DOE Program in High Energy Density New Initiatives in Matter in Extreme Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The DOE Program in High Energy Density Physics: New Initiatives in Matter in Extreme Conditions Siegfried H. Glenzer (SLAC) December 11, 2013 Presentation to: 2013 FUSION POWER ASSOCIATES 34th Annual to determine pressures of dense matter · Summary · High power laser workshop and outlook towards a bright

  18. High Power, Linear CMOS Power Amplifier for WLAN Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afsahi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components in silicon, achieving a high power enhancement ratio from a single stage LC matching network or single transformer

  19. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  20. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  1. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  2. High Density H-Mode Discharges with Gas Fueling and Good Confinement on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.W. Leonard; T.H. Osborne; M.A. Mahdavi; M.E. Fenstermacher; C.J. Lasnier; T.W. Petrie; J.G.Watkins

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-mode operation at high density is an attractive regime for future reactor-grade tokamaks [1]. High density maximizes fusion power output while the high confinement of H-mode keeps the plasma energy loss below the alpha heating power. One concern though is the energy released due to individual ELMs must be kept small to protect the diverter target from excess ablation. We report on discharges in DIII-D with electron densities as high as 1.45 times the Greenwald density, n{sub GW}(10{sup 20}m{sup -3})=I{sub p}(MA)/[{pi}{sup 2}(m)], with good confinement, H{sub ITER89P}=1.9, and ELMs with energy amplitude small enough to protect the divertor. These results were achieved at low triangularity single-null divertor, {delta}{approx}0.0 with a plasma current of 1.2 MA, q{sub 95} {approx} 3-4, and moderate neutral beam heating power of 2-4 MW. The density was controlled by moderate gas puffing and private flux pumping. A typical discharge is shown in Fig. 1 where upon gas puffing the pedestal density, n{sub e,epd}, quickly rises to {approx}0.8 x n{sub GW}. The confinement initially drops with the gas puff, on a longer timescale the central density rises, peaking the profile and increasing the confinement until an MHD instability terminates the high density and high confinement phase of the discharge. In this report we describe in detail edge pedestal changes and its effect on confinement as the density is increased. We then describe peaking of the density profile that offsets degradation of the pedestal at high density and restores good confinement. Finally we describe the small benign ELMs that result at these high densities.

  3. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  4. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Han, “W-band, 5W Solid-State Power Amplifier/Combiner,”materials have made high-power solid-state power amplifiersCMOS RF power amplifier for GSM-EDGE,” IEEE J. Solid-State

  5. High-capacity electric double-layer capacitor with high-density-activated carbon fiber electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shudo, Atsushi; Miura, Kouichi

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the authors have presented a method to prepare activated carbon fiber with high bulk density (HD-ACF) without using any binders. The possibility of using the HD-ACF as an electrode for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) was examined in this paper. The capacitance of the EDLC with the HD-ACF electrode increased with the increase of bulk density of the HD-ACF, indicating that individual fibers are highly packed without losing their capacitance. The capacitance also increased in proportion to the size of the HD-ACF electrode. The initial discharge current of the EDLC showed little dependency on either the bulk density or the size of the HD-ACF electrode. These results clarified that the HD-ACF electrode is suitable for constructing a high-power EDLC. The initial discharge current was directly proportional to the conductivity of aqueous KCI used as the electrolyte, indicating that the resistance of the electrolyte is much higher than that of the HD-ACF electrode. This result showed that the efficiency of the HD-ACF was well above the efficiency of the electrolyte used in this study and that the improvement of the ionic conductivity of electrolyte is also necessary for developing a high-power EDLC.

  6. PSD computations using Welch's method. [Power Spectral Density (PSD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Jr, O M

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Welch's method for computing Power Spectral Densities (PSDs). We first describe the bandpass filter method which uses filtering, squaring, and averaging operations to estimate a PSD. Second, we delineate the relationship of Welch's method to the bandpass filter method. Third, the frequency domain signal-to-noise ratio for a sine wave in white noise is derived. This derivation includes the computation of the noise floor due to quantization noise. The signal-to-noise ratio and noise flood depend on the FFT length and window. Fourth, the variance the Welch's PSD is discussed via chi-square random variables and degrees of freedom. This report contains many examples, figures and tables to illustrate the concepts. 26 refs.

  7. Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries Ashoutosh Panday Scott Mullin Nitash Balsara Proposed Battery anode (Li metal) Li Li + + e - e - Li salt in a hard solid...

  8. Inexpensive Production of High Density Thin Ceramic Films on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inexpensive Production of High Density Thin Ceramic Films on Rigid or Porous Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing...

  9. Brain Tissue Depth (mm) LightPowerDensity(mW/mm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Mark

    Brain Tissue Depth (mm) LightPowerDensity(mW/mm2 ) Power Meter Tissue block Bare Fiber = 12° = 6 with the beveled cannula over CeA. d) Chart indicating estimated light power density seen at various distances from the fiber tip in mouse brain tissue when the light power density seen at the fiber tip was 7 mW (~99 mW/mm2

  10. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States); Stratton, B. C. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  11. The Column Density Distribution of the Lyman-Alpha Forest: A Measure of Small Scale Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam Hui; Nickolay Y. Gnedin; Yu Zhang

    1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption lines in the Lyman-alpha forest can be thought of as peaks in neutral hydrogen density along lines of sight. The column density distribution (the number density of absorption lines as a function of column density) is then a statistic of density peaks, which contains information about the underlying power spectrum. In particular, we show that the slope of the distribution provides a measure of power on scales smaller than those probed by studies of present-day large scale structure.

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER BambooFiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Bamboo­Fiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites: Effect of Coupling Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE)/bamboo composites of the composites were studied. The equilibrium torque during compounding decreased with use of clay master- batch

  13. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  14. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007...

  15. High-Precision Thermodynamics and Hagedorn Density of States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey B. Meyer

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the entropy density of the confined phase of QCD without quarks on the lattice to very high accuracy. The results are compared to the entropy density of free glueballs, where we include all the known glueball states below the two-particle threshold. We find that an excellent, parameter-free description of the entropy density between 0.7Tc and Tc is obtained by extending the spectrum with the exponential spectrum of the closed bosonic string.

  16. High voltage-high power components for large space power distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renz, D.D.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For over a decade, Lewis Research Center has been developing space power components. These components include a family of bi-polar power switching transistors, fast switching power diodes, heat pipe cooled high-frequency transformers and inductors, high frequency conduction cooled transformers, high powerhigh frequency capacitors, remote power controllers and rotary power transfer devices. Many of these components such as the power switching transistors, power diodes and the high frequency capacitor are commercially available. All the other components have been developed to the prototype level. Series resonant dc/dc converters have been built to the 25 kW level.

  17. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  18. The inverse conductivity problem with power densities in dimension n2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Monard, Guillaume Bal

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 19, 2012 ... The inverse conductivity problem with power densities in dimension n ? 2. François Monard Guillaume Bal. Dept. of Applied Physics and ...

  19. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode 2012 Accepted 11 October 2012 Available online 6 November 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Power overshoot Polarization Anode potential Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power

  20. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system configurations...

  1. atheroprotective high-density lipoprotein: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mean-field energy functional. By studying the latter we derive global properties of high-density ground state configurations in bounded domains and in infinite space. Our main...

  2. Magnetic Fields in High-Density Stellar Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German Lugones

    2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I briefly review some aspects of the effect of magnetic fields in the high density regime relevant to neutron stars, focusing mainly on compact star structure and composition, superconductivity, combustion processes, and gamma ray bursts.

  3. Online Strategies for High-Performance Power-Aware Thread Execution on Emerging Multiprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeh, Vincent

    and component density of emerging su- percomputers pose a hard requirement for power-aware sys- tem design PowerEdge 6650 with Intel Xeon HT processors. The high- lighted area indicates opportunitiesOnline Strategies for High-Performance Power-Aware Thread Execution on Emerging Multiprocessors

  4. High Power Co-Axial Coupler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M. [Muons, Inc.; Dudas, A. [Muons, Inc.; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Guo, Jiquan [JLAB; Williams, R. Scott [JLAB

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A very high power Coax RF Coupler (MW-Level) is very desirable for a number of accelerator and commercial applications. For example, the development of such a coupler operating at 1.5 GHz may permit the construction of a higher-luminosity version of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) being planned at JLab. Muons, Inc. is currently funded by a DOE STTR grant to develop a 1.5-GHz high-power doublewindowcoax coupler with JLab (about 150 kW). Excellent progress has been made on this R&D project, so we propose an extension of this development to build a very high power coax coupler (MW level peak power and a max duty factor of about 4%). The dimensions of the current coax coupler will be scaled up to provide higher power capability.

  5. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  6. High power rechargeable batteries Paul V. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    and/or self-heating, which ultimately limit the max provide the required electrical output for a given application. It is the cells making up the battery (e.g. fast charging electric vehicles and consumer electronics, high power portable tools, power grid

  7. Quark number susceptibility of high temperature and finite density QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Hietanen; Kari Rummukainen

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize lattice simulations of the dimensionally reduced effective field theory (EQCD) to determine the quark number susceptibility of QCD at high temperature ($T>2T_c$). We also use analytic continuation to obtain results at finite density. The results extrapolate well from known perturbative expansion (accurate in extremely high temperatures) to 4d lower temperature lattice data

  8. High-bandwidth polarimeter for a high density, accelerated spheromak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carle, Patrick J. F.; Morelli, Jordan [Department of Physics, Queen's University, 99 University Ave., Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, Queen's University, 99 University Ave., Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Howard, Stephen [General Fusion, Inc., 108-3680 Bonneville Pl, Burnaby, British Columbia V3N 4T5 (Canada)] [General Fusion, Inc., 108-3680 Bonneville Pl, Burnaby, British Columbia V3N 4T5 (Canada)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-beam heterodyne polarimeter has been built to diagnose the PI-1 plasma injector at General Fusion, Inc. The polarimeter measures plasma density and Faraday rotation, which can provide estimates of magnetic field magnitude and direction. Two important calibration steps are required for the polarimeter to produce reasonable Faraday rotation signals. Beam polarization ellipticity must be measured to ensure there is a linear Faraday rotation response. In addition, the two beams travelling through the plasma must be collinear to reduce error due to differences in plasma density. Once calibrated, the Faraday rotation signals are in much better agreement with other diagnostics. For a null signal, the Faraday rotation measurement noise floor is 0.1° at 0.5 MHz bandwidth. Comparing preliminary spheromak Faraday rotation measurements to a model, the maximum error is about 0.3° at 0.5 MHz bandwidth, which is primarily due to electrical noise during the injector's capacitor discharge and limitations of the model. At a bandwidth of 0.5 MHz, the polarimeter has an axial resolution between 6 cm and 30 cm depending on the speed of the spheromak, which varies between 30 km/s and 150 km/s. The spheromak length ranges from 0.75 m to 2 m. Additional polarimeter chords will be added in future upgrades.

  9. Symmetry energy systematics and its high density behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the systematics of the density dependence of nuclear matter symmetry energy in the ambit of microscopic calculations with various energy density functionals, and find that the symmetry energy from subsaturation density to supra-saturation density can be well determined by three characteristic parameters of the symmetry energy at saturation density $\\rho_0 $, i.e., the magnitude $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_0 })$, the density slope $L$ and the density curvature $K_{\\text{sym}}$. This finding opens a new window to constrain the supra-saturation density behavior of the symmetry energy from its (sub-)saturation density behavior. In particular, we obtain $L=46.7 \\pm 12.8$ MeV and $K_{\\text{sym}}=-166.9 \\pm 168.3$ MeV as well as $E_{\\text{sym}}({2\\rho _{0}}) \\approx 40.2 \\pm 12.8$ MeV and $L({2\\rho _{0}}) \\approx 8.9 \\pm 108.7$ MeV based on the present knowledge of $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_{0}}) = 32.5 \\pm 0.5$ MeV, $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_c}) = 26.65 \\pm 0.2$ MeV and $L({\\rho_c}) = 46.0 \\pm 4.5$ MeV at $\\rho_{\\rm{c}}= 0.11$ fm$^{-3}$ extracted from nuclear mass and the neutron skin thickness of Sn isotopes. Our results indicate that the symmetry energy cannot be stiffer than a linear density dependence.In addition, we also discuss the quark matter symmetry energy since the deconfined quarks could be the right degree of freedom in dense matter at high baryon densities.

  10. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  11. Do high redshift quasars have powerful jets?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian, A. C.; Walker, S. A.; Celotti, A.; Ghisellini, G.; Mocz, P.; Blundell, K. M.; McMahon, R. G.

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    for the injection spectrum and surrounding gas profile (set [A] in Mocz et al (2011): the in- jection spectrum is given by a power-law index 2.14 and Lorentz factors ranging between 1 to 106; the surrounding density profile has a powerlaw index of 1.5). We assume... the galaxy hosts of quasars at z > 3 are com- pact (Szomoru et al 2013), and their group and cluster gas have more energy than is explainable by gravitational infall alone (Wu et al 2000; McCarthy et al 2012). Powerful jets are a considerable source of energy...

  12. High Efficiency Broadband Envelope-Tracking Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Jonmei Johana

    17] Bumman, K. , et.al; "Efficiently Amplified," MicrowaveM. ,   “   Wideband High Efficiency Envelope Tracking PowerPeter  M. ,  “High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking High Power

  13. High Efficiency Broadband Envelope-Tracking Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Jonmei Johana

    M. ,   “   Wideband High Efficiency Envelope Tracking PowerPeter  M. ,  “High-Efficiency Envelope Tracking High PowerMemory! DPD! Drain! Efficiency! (%)! Gain! (dB)! Output!

  14. Gamma-ray burst prompt emission light curves and power density spectra in the ICMART model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: bozhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately high magnetization parameter ? in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately high ? flow. The runaway growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function of time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission Light Curves and Power Density Spectra in the ICMART Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately-high magnetization parameter $\\sigma$ in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately-high-$\\sigma$ flow. The run-away growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  16. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  17. Enhanced surfaces lead to increased heat transfer and power density.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) to con- vert DC battery power into a form that can IHTC-14, Washington, DC, USA. Moreno, G., 2010,"Characterization and Development of Advanced Heat

  18. A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms Sairaj to the power output of a wind farm while factoring in the availability of the wind turbines in the farm availability model for the wind turbines, we propose a method to determine the wind-farm power output pdf

  19. Enhanced residual entropy in high-density nanoconfined bilayer ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabiano Corsetti; Jon Zubeltzu; Emilio Artacho

    2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel kind of crystal order in high-density nanoconfined bilayer ice is proposed from molecular dynamics and density-functional theory simulations. A first-order transition is observed between a low-temperature proton-ordered solid and a high-temperature proton-disordered solid. The latter is shown to possess crystalline order for the oxygen positions, arranged on a close-packed triangular lattice with AA stacking. Uniquely amongst the ice phases, the triangular bilayer is characterized by two levels of disorder (for the bonding network and for the protons) which results in a residual entropy twice that of bulk ice.

  20. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  1. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  2. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  3. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  4. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Schmitz, P. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group; Vandersande, J. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  5. Small high cooling power space cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  6. GPGPUs: How to Combine High Computational Power with High Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    recent results derived from radiation experiments about the reliability of GPGPUs. Third, it describes of applications running on GPGPUs. Keywords--GPGPUs, reliability, HPC, fault injection, radiation experiments I their appearance on the market. Their very high computational power combined with low cost, reduced power

  7. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  8. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  9. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance.

  10. Power density spectrum of NGC 5548 and the nature of its variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Czerny; A. Schwarzenberg-Czerny; Z. Loska

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive power density spectra in the optical and X-ray band in the timescale range from several years down to $\\sim $ a day. We suggest that the optical power density spectrum consists of two separate components: long timescale variations and short timescale variations, with the dividing timescale around 100 days. The shape of the short timescale component is similar to X-ray power density spectrum which is consistent with the interpretation of short timescale optical variations being caused by X-ray reprocessing. We show that the observed optical long timescale variability is consistent with thermal pulsations of the accretion disc.

  11. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I strength and flexural modulus of the resultant composites. With 50 wt % wood fiber, the optimum compounding of the modified blends and the dynamic mechanical properties of the resultant composites. The melt torque

  12. High energy density lithium-oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1989-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy density lithium-oxygen secondary cell is described comprising a lithium-containing negative electrode; a lithium ion conducting molten salt electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting and containing the molten salt electrolyte; and an oxygen redox positive electrode contacting the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte.

  13. FLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, �mer L.

    premixed combustion diagrams. Small-scale transport of heat and species may be more important and chemistryFLAME SURFACE DENSITIES IN PREMIXED COMBUSTION AT MEDIUM TO HIGH TURBULENCE INTENSITIES O¨ MER L in turbulent premixed propane= air flames were determined experimentally. The instantaneous flame fronts were

  14. Electromagnetic Potentials Basis for Energy Density and Power Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. E. Puthoff

    2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well understood that various alternatives are available within EM theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress-energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell's equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an option based on use of the EM potentials alone.

  15. Efficient Transmitters and Receivers for High-Power Wireless Powering Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Efficient Transmitters and Receivers for High-Power Wireless Powering Systems Zoya Popovic, Tibault of a wireless powering system is maximized when the power transmitter power-added efficiency (PAE), power system, which is valid for any type of wireless power coupling. Experimental results for high

  16. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems - Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 years lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operation as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  17. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  18. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIS ... Dataset Activity Stream Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km resolution for Ghana from NREL (Abstract):  Raster GIS data, exported as BIL...

  19. Constraining the Power Spectrum Using the Column Density Distribution: a Status Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam Hui

    1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the arguments for how the slope of the column density distribution of the Lyman-alpha forest should depend on the matter power spectrum. The latest progress, presented by various groups in this conference and elsewhere, is summarized.

  20. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    file, 50 m wind power density for eastern China. (Purpose): To provide information on the wind resource potential in eastern China. Values range from 0 to 3079 Wm2. (Supplemental...

  1. Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D

    2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.

  2. Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and SuhImpact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams ImpactTerephthalate) Microcellular Foams Vipin KurnaW, Richard P Juntunena, and Chris Barlowb University of Washington, Seattle

  3. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in...

  4. USABC Energy Storage Testing - High Power and PHEV Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Storage Testing - High Power and PHEV Development USABC Energy Storage Testing - High Power and PHEV Development Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  5. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers This presentation was...

  6. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy...

  7. High Dialectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Dialectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems High Dialectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  8. High-Dialectric-Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Dialectric-Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems High-Dialectric-Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and...

  9. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief...

  10. Texas Tech Effort Overview Collaborative Research on Novel High Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    N) · Nonlinear Transmission lines · High Power Microwave source development · High reprate rf sources · HPM wave Power Microwave breakdown · Vacuum UV Spectroscopy in atmospheric gases · Explosively driven HPM

  11. High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EVs Based on Novel, High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Storage Systems Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 6182014 1 High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV's Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems Keith D. Kepler...

  12. Plasma relaxation mechanics of pulsed high power microwave surface flashover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, S.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave transmission and reflection characteristics of pulsed radio frequency field generated plasmas are elucidated for air, N{sub 2}, and He environments under pressure conditions ranging from 10 to 600 torr. The pulsed, low temperature plasma is generated along the atmospheric side of the dielectric boundary between the source (under vacuum) and the radiating environment with a thickness on the order of 5 mm and a cross sectional area just smaller than that of the waveguide. Utilizing custom multi-standard waveguide couplers and a continuous low power probing source, the scattering parameters were measured before, during, and after the high power microwave pulse with emphasis on the latter. From these scattering parameters, temporal electron density estimations (specifically the longitudinal integral of the density) were calculated using a 1D plane wave-excited model for analysis of the relaxation processes associated. These relaxation characteristics ultimately determine the maximum repetition rate for many pulsed electric field applications and thus are applicable to a much larger scope in the plasma community than just those related to high power microwaves. This manuscript discusses the diagnostic setup for acquiring the power measurements along with a detailed description of the kinematic and chemical behavior of the plasma as it decays down to its undisturbed state under various gas type and pressure conditions.

  13. High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    power source among renewables, is poised to emerge also as a flexible power source, balancing intermittent wind and solar power production and reducing variability in energy...

  14. Different methods for particle diameter determination of low density and high density lipoproteins-Comparison and evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaidyanathan, Vidya

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Predominance of small dense Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is associated with a two to threefold increase in risk for Coronary Heart Disease (CVD). Small, dense HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) particles protect small dense LDL from oxidative stress...

  15. High-power, high-intensity laser propagation and interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprangle, Phillip [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Hafizi, Bahman [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents overviews of a number of processes and applications associated with high-power, high-intensity lasers, and their interactions. These processes and applications include: free electron lasers, backward Raman amplification, atmospheric propagation of laser pulses, laser driven acceleration, atmospheric lasing, and remote detection of radioactivity. The interrelated physical mechanisms in the various processes are discussed.

  16. ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

  17. A Tale of Two Electrons: Correlation at High Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loos, Pierre-François

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review our recent progress in the determination of the high-density correlation energy $\\Ec$ in two-electron systems. Several two-electron systems are considered, such as the well known helium-like ions (helium), and the Hooke's law atom (hookium). We also present results regarding two electrons on the surface of a sphere (spherium), and two electrons trapped in a spherical box (ballium). We also show that, in the large-dimension limit, the high-density correlation energy of two opposite-spin electrons interacting {\\em via} a Coulomb potential is given by $\\Ec \\sim -1/(8D^2)$ for any radial external potential $V(r)$, where $D$ is the dimensionality of the space. This result explains the similarity of $\\Ec$ in the previous two-electron systems for $D=3$.

  18. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W., E-mail: khill@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, J. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  19. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  20. The Power Spectrum of Galaxy Density Fluctuations: Current Results and Improved Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael S. Vogeley

    1995-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations measured from galaxy redshift surveys provides important constraints on models for the formation of large-scale structure. I review current results for the 3-D power spectrum and examine the limitations of current measurements and estimation techniques. To span the decade of wavelength between the scales probed by galaxy surveys and COBE, measure the detailed shape of the power spectrum, and accurately examine the dependence of clustering on galaxy species, we require deeper samples with carefully controlled selection criteria and improved techniques for power spectrum estimation. I describe a new method for estimating the power spectrum that optimally treats survey data with arbitrary geometry and sampling.

  1. Chapter 4: High-Density Regimes in the FTU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigione, D.; Pieroni, L.; Buratti, P.; Giovannozzi, E.; Romanelli, M.; Esposito, B.; Leigheb, M.; Gabellieri, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione (Italy)

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density plasmas (n{sub o} {approx} 8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) achieving steady improved core-confinement have been obtained in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) up to the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T) by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas exhibit also high purity, efficient electron-ion coupling, and peaked density profiles sustained for several energy confinement times. Neutron yields in excess of 1 x 10{sup 13} n/s are measured, consistent with the reduction of the ion transport to neoclassical levels. Improved performance is associated with sawtooth stabilization that occurs when the pellet penetrates close to the q = 1 surface. In this regime, impurity accumulation can be prevented if a slow sawtooth activity is maintained. Experiments aimed at obtaining radiation-improved modes at high field have also been carried out using neon injection. The observed increase of the average density, with respect to the reference discharge, is significantly larger than the contribution of Ne. The neutron yield increases also by a factor of 3 to 6, and the energy confinement time increases by a factor up to 1.4.

  2. Note: High density pulsed molecular beam for cold ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokish, M. G.; Rajagopal, V.; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C., E-mail: b-odom@northwestern.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.

  3. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, Craig T. (Overland Park, KS); Krogh, Michael L. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

  4. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a diagnostic detector head harp used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires, typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit formed on a ceramic substrate. A method to fabricate harps to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit disposed on the ceramic substrate connects electrically between the detector wires and diagnostic equipment which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires by the high energy particle beams. 6 figs.

  5. MI high power operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourbanis, Ioanis; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.

  6. E?H mode transition density and power in two types of inductively coupled plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yin-chang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhe; Liu, Yu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Pi; Cao, Jin-xiang, E-mail: jxcao@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    E???H transition power and density were investigated at various argon pressures in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in a cylindrical interlaid chamber. The transition power versus the pressure shows a minimum transition power at 4?Pa (?/?=1) for argon. Then the transition density hardly changes at low pressures (?/??1), but it increases clearly when argon pressure exceeds an appropriate value. In addition, both the transition power and transition density are lower in the re-entrant configuration of ICP compared with that in the cylindrical configuration of ICP. The result may be caused from the decrease of stochastic heating in the re-entrant configuration of ICP. This work is useful to understand E???H mode transition and control the transition points in real plasma processes.

  7. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  8. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e}???10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (?1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10?T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  9. High power THz sources for nonlinear imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tekavec, Patrick F.; Kozlov, Vladimir G. [Microtech Instruments, 858 West Park Street, Eugene, OR 97401 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Many biological and chemical compounds have unique absorption features in the THz (0.1 - 10 THz) region, making the use of THz waves attractive for imaging in defense, security, biomedical imaging, and monitoring of industrial processes. Unlike optical radiation, THz frequencies can pass through many substances such as paper, clothing, ceramic, etc. with little attenuation. The use of currently available THz systems is limited by lack of highpower, sources as well as sensitive detectors and detector arrays operating at room temperature. Here we present a novel, high power THz source based on intracavity downconverison of optical pulses. The source delivers 6 ps pulses at 1.5 THz, with an average power of >300 ?W and peak powers >450 mW. We propose an imaging method based on frequency upconverison that is ideally suited to use the narrow bandwidth and high peak powers produced by the source. By upconverting the THz image to the infrared, commercially available detectors can be used for real time imaging.

  10. High Power, Linear CMOS Power Amplifier for WLAN Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afsahi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking OFDM Power Amplier,” IEEE Journal of Solid-StateGSM/GPRS CMOS Power Ampli?er,” IEEE Journal of Solid-StateEnded Switching Power Ampli?es,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State

  11. The Space Density of Galaxy Peaks and the Linear Matter Power Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert A. C. Croft; Enrique Gaztanaga

    1997-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One way of recovering information about the initial conditions of the Universe is by measuring features of the cosmological density field which are preserved during gravitational evolution and galaxy formation. In this paper we study the total number density of peaks in a (galaxy) point distribution smoothed with a filter, evaluating its usefulness as a means of inferring the shape of the initial (matter) power spectrum. We find that in numerical simulations which start from Gaussian initial conditions, the peak density follows well that predicted by the theory of Gaussian density fields, even on scales where the clustering is mildly non-linear. For smaller filter scales, $r \\simlt 4-6 \\hmpc$, we see evidence of merging as the peak density decreases with time. On larger scales, the peak density is independent of time. One might also expect it to be fairly robust with respect to variations in biasing, i.e. the way galaxies trace mass fluctuations. We find that this is the case when we apply various biasing prescriptions to the matter distribution in simulations. If the initial conditions are Gaussian, it is possible to use the peak density measured from the evolved field to reconstruct the shape of the initial power spectrum. We describe a stable method for doing this and apply it to several biased and unbiased non-linear simulations. We are able to recover the slope of the linear matter power spectrum on scales $k \\simlt 0.4 \\hmpc^{-1}$. The reconstruction has the advantage of being independent of the cosmological parameters ($\\Omega$, $\\Lambda$, $H_0$) and of the clustering normalisation ($\\sigma_8$). The peak density and reconstructed power spectrum slope therefore promise to be powerful discriminators between popular cosmological scenarios.

  12. Observation of a new high-? and high-density state of a magnetospheric plasma in RT-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Kawazura, Y.; Nogami, T.; Yamasaki, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high-? and high-density state is reported for a plasma confined in a laboratory magnetosphere. In order to expand the parameter regime of an electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment, the 8.2?GHz microwave power of the Ring Trap 1 device has been upgraded with the installation of a new waveguide system. The rated input power launched from a klystron was increased from 25 to 50?kW, which enabled the more stable formation of a hot-electron high-? plasma. The diamagnetic signal (the averaged value of four magnetic loops signals) of a plasma reached 5.2 mWb. According to a two-dimensional Grad-Shafranov analysis, the corresponding local ? value is close to 100%.

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 55, NO. 4, APRIL 2008 1067 Nonuniform RF Overstress in High-Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Yoram

    , IEEE Abstract--Nonuniform light emission from power transistors at 2­3-dB compression levels has been), light emission, parasitic oscillations, power transistor. I. INTRODUCTION THE PERFORMANCE of high-power amplifiers (HPAs) is continually being improved in terms of power density, efficiency, and gain, without any

  14. Minimizing lighting power density in office rooms equipped with Anidolic Daylighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric lighting is responsible for up to one third of an office building's electricity needs. Making daylight more available in office buildings can not only contribute to significant energy savings but also enhance the occupants' performance and wellbeing. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are one type of very effective facade-integrated daylighting systems. All south-facing office rooms within the LESO solar experimental building in Lausanne (Switzerland) are equipped with a given type of ADS. A recent study has shown that these offices' occupants are highly satisfied with their lighting environment. The most energy-efficient south-facing offices have a lighting power density of less than 5W/m{sup 2}. The lighting situation within these ''best practice''-offices has been assessed using the lighting simulation software RELUX Vision. Because this lighting situation is very much appreciated by the occupants, it was used as a starting point for developing even more energy-efficient office lighting designs. Two new lighting designs, leading to lighting power densities of 3.9W/m{sup 2} and 3W/m{sup 2}, respectively, have been suggested and simulated with RELUX Vision. Simulation results have shown that the expected performances of these new systems are comparable to that of the current lighting installation within the ''best practice''-offices or even better. These simulation results have been confirmed during experiments on 20 human subjects in a test office room recently set up within the LESO building. This article gives engineers, architects and light planers valuable information and ideas on how to design energy-efficient and comfortable electric lighting systems in office rooms with abundant access to daylight. (author)

  15. A Cherenkov Radiation Detector with High Density Aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremaldi, Lucien; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Donald J; Reidy, Jim

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed a threshold Cherenkov detector at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory to identify muons with momenta between 230 and 350 MeV/c. We investigated the properties of three aerogels for the design. The nominal indexes of refraction were n = 1.03, 1.07, 1.12, respectively. Two of the samples are of high density aerogel not commonly used for Cherenkov light detection. We present results of an examination of some optical properties of the aerogel samples and present basic test beam results.

  16. Search for High Energy Density Cathode Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG -EnergyProcess|2StanfordOptimizationofSeanHigh

  17. Enhanced modified faraday cup for determination of power density distribution of electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron or ion beam using electron beam profile data acquired by an enhanced modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power ion or electron beams. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits, one slit being about twice the width of the other slits, is placed above a Faraday cup. The electron or ion beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. The enlarged slit enables orientation of the beam profile with respect to the coordinates of the welding chamber. A second disk having slits therein is positioned below the first slit disk and inside of the Faraday cup and provides a shield to eliminate the majority of secondary electrons and ions from leaving the Faraday cup. Also, a ring is located below the second slit disk to help minimize the amount of secondary electrons and ions from being produced. In addition, a beam trap is located in the Faraday cup to provide even more containment of the electron or ion beam when full beam current is being examined through the center hole of the modified Faraday cup.

  18. Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

  19. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  20. High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes S Cuynet1 as a cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. An increase of 80 % at 0.65 V of the PEMFC power density) 272001" #12;2 Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have the potential to provide

  1. High Dielectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dielectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems High Dielectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  2. High Dialectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dialectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems High Dialectric Constant Capacitors for Power Electronic Systems 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  3. 1998 Tutorial on Micro Mechatronics and Micro Robotics Powering 3 Dimensional Microrobots: Power Density Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    density of the actuator. As inertia and gravitional forces become less significant for small robots at the micro-scale. One scaling law that is helpful for micro-actuators is the increased break down field

  4. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a more detailed plans for experiments (Ch. VI), highlighting the uniqueness the HEDS endstation will play in providing mission-relevant HED data and in the development of the field. One of the more exciting aspects of NNSA-relevant experiments on LCLS is that, given the extraordinary investment and consequent advances in accurate atomic-scale simulations of matter (to a large extent via the Accelerated Scientific Computing program sponsored by NNSA), the facility will provide a platform that, for the first time, will permit experiments in the regimes of interest at the time and spatial scales of the simulations. In Chapter III, the report places the potential of LCLS with an HED science endstation in the context of science required by NNSA, as well as explicating the relationship of NNSA and HED science in general. Chapter IV discusses 4th-generation light sources, like LCLS, in the context of other laboratory technologies presently utilized by NNSA. The report concludes, noting that an HED endstation on LCLS can provide access to data in regimes that are relevant to NNSA needs but no mechanism exists for providing such data. The endstation will also serve to build a broad-based community in the 'X-Games' of physics. The science generated by the facility will be a collaboration of NNSA-based laboratory scientists and university-based researchers. The LCLS endstation fulfills the need for an intermediate-scale facility capable of delivering fundamental advances and mission-relevant research in high energy density science.

  5. Power spectrum of electron number density perturbations at cosmological recombination epoch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Venhlovska; B. Novosyadlyj

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The power spectrum of number density perturbations of free electrons is obtained for the epoch of cosmological recombination of hydrogen. It is shown that amplitude of the electron perturbations power spectrum of scales larger than acoustic horizon exceeds by factor of 17 the amplitude of baryon matter density ones (atoms and ions of hydrogen and helium). In the range of the first and second acoustic peaks such relation is 18, in the range of the third one 16. The dependence of such relations on cosmological parameters is analysed too.

  6. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLerran, L.

    2011-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  7. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  8. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  9. Power Densities Using Different Cathode Catalysts (Pt and CoTMPP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the maximum power achieved using ferricyanide ion as oxidant in the cathode chamber was 50-80% greater than and PTFE) in Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells S H A O A N C H E N G , H O N G L I U , A N D B R U C E catalysts and binders were examined for their effect on power densities in single chamber, air

  10. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Dymond, Jr., Lauren E. (North Potomac, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD); Grimm, William G. (Silver Spring, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Ola, Samuel A. (Silver Spring, MD); Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  11. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  12. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Quentin A. (Bloomingdale, IL); Miller, Harold W. (Winfield, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  13. High-Powered Lasers for Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNot Logged3 HanfordHarry|High-Powered Lasers

  14. Computing High Accuracy Power Spectra with Pico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William A. Fendt; Benjamin D. Wandelt

    2007-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the second release of Pico (Parameters for the Impatient COsmologist). Pico is a general purpose machine learning code which we have applied to computing the CMB power spectra and the WMAP likelihood. For this release, we have made improvements to the algorithm as well as the data sets used to train Pico, leading to a significant improvement in accuracy. For the 9 parameter nonflat case presented here Pico can on average compute the TT, TE and EE spectra to better than 1% of cosmic standard deviation for nearly all $\\ell$ values over a large region of parameter space. Performing a cosmological parameter analysis of current CMB and large scale structure data, we show that these power spectra give very accurate 1 and 2 dimensional parameter posteriors. We have extended Pico to allow computation of the tensor power spectrum and the matter transfer function. Pico runs about 1500 times faster than CAMB at the default accuracy and about 250,000 times faster at high accuracy. Training Pico can be done using massively parallel computing resources, including distributed computing projects such as Cosmology@Home. On the homepage for Pico, located at http://cosmos.astro.uiuc.edu/pico, we provide new sets of regression coefficients and make the training code available for public use.

  15. 2012 Jonathan G. Lange IMPROVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERY POWER AND ENERGY DENSITIES USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    1 ©2012 Jonathan G. Lange #12;1 IMPROVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERY POWER AND ENERGY DENSITIES USING ABSTRACT Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used as energy storage devices in a variety of applications. The cathode architectures and materials have a large influence on the performance of lithium-ion batteries

  16. Ultralow-power local laser control of the dimer density in alkali-metal vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jha, Pankaj K; Yi, Zhenhuan; Yuan, Luqi; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Welch, George R; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Scully, Marlan O

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultralow-power diode-laser radiation is employed to induce photodesorption of cesium from a partially transparent thin-film cesium adsorbate on a solid surface. Using resonant Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this photodesorption process enables an accurate local optical control of the density of dimer molecules in alkali-metal vapors.

  17. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  18. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  19. Materials considerations for a high power-density accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelotti, R.A.; Tennant, R.A.; Bultman, N.K.; Uher, J.L.; Brewton, R.J.; Mayer, A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 100-mA 50-MeV H/sup -/ accelerator is being designed at Los Alamos. The accelerating structures will operate at 425-MHz and will consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to 2-MeV and a drift-tube linac (DTL) from 2 to 50-MeV. Design parameters have been specified to match the maximum operating capabilities of the rf system: 2-ms pulse length and 6% duty factor. The accelerating gradient in the DTL will be 4-MV/m; the maximum electric field will be approximately 1.2 times the Kilpatrick limit. These design parameters are substantially more ambitious than those of the accelerating test stand (ATS). That copper will be used on the rf-structure surfaces is not in question. Concern with residual activation and thermal management forces the investigation of materials other than the traditional carbon- and stainless-steel base materials used at Los Alamos.

  20. High power density capacitor and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Enis

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A ductile preform for making a drawn capacitor includes a plurality of electrically insulating, ductile insulator plates and a plurality of electrically conductive, ductile capacitor plates. Each insulator plate is stacked vertically on a respective capacitor plate and each capacitor plate is stacked on a corresponding insulator plate in alignment with only one edge so that other edges are not in alignment and so that each insulator plate extends beyond the other edges. One or more electrically insulating, ductile spacers are disposed in horizontal alignment with each capacitor plate along the other edges and the pattern is repeated so that alternating capacitor plates are stacked on alternating opposite edges of the insulator plates. A final insulator plate is positioned at an extremity of the preform. The preform may then be drawn to fuse the components and decrease the dimensions of the preform that are perpendicular to the direction of the draw.

  1. Modeling and fabrication of high power density microscale thermophotovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Ashish A., 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been renewed interest over the past decade or two in the potential of using thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems for direct conversion of thermal energy into electricity. The invention of TPV systems can be traced ...

  2. Cooling of high-power-density computer components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work carried out during the first two years of a research program sponsored by IBM Corporation. This study has elucidated a number of the heat-transfer characteristics of several fluorochemicals which ...

  3. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Chavez, Bart D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallegos, Phillip L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wicker, Ryan B. (El Paso, TX); Medina, Francisco R. (El Paso, TX)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  4. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  5. Analysis and design of high frequency link power conversion systems for fuel cell power conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yu Jin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, new high frequency link power conversion systems for the fuel cell power conditioning are proposed to improve the performance and optimize the cost, size, and weight of the power conversion systems. ...

  6. Analysis and design of high frequency link power conversion systems for fuel cell power conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yu Jin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, new high frequency link power conversion systems for the fuel cell power conditioning are proposed to improve the performance and optimize the cost, size, and weight of the power conversion systems. The first study proposes a...

  7. Power excursion analysis for high burnup cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Neymotin, L.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken of power excursions in high burnup cores. There were three objectives in this study. One was to identify boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) transients in which there is significant energy deposition in the fuel. Another was to analyze the response of BWRs to the rod drop accident (RDA) and other transients in which there is a power excursion. The last objective was to investigate the sources of uncertainty in the RDA analysis. In a boiling water reactor, the events identified as having significant energy deposition in the fuel were a rod drop accident, a recirculation flow control failure, and the overpressure events; in a pressurized water reactor, they were a rod ejection accident and boron dilution events. The RDA analysis was done with RAMONA-4B, a computer code that models the space- dependent neutron kinetics throughout the core along with the thermal hydraulics in the core, vessel, and steamline. The results showed that the calculated maximum fuel enthalpy in high burnup fuel will be affected by core design, initial conditions, and modeling assumptions. The important uncertainties in each of these categories are discussed in the report.

  8. PLASMA FOCUSING OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ELECTRON AND POSITRON BEAMS \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PLASMA FOCUSING OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ELECTRON AND POSITRON BEAMS \\Lambda J.S.T. Ng, P. Chen, W present results from the SLAC E­150 experiment on plasma focusing of high energy density electron and of the SLAC E­150 experiment are to study plasma focusing for high energy, high density par­ ticle beams

  9. Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Srensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Sørensen Department of Energy Technology and product lifetime. The high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) belongs to the group of electronics

  10. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1...

  11. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2...

  12. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever...

  13. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartmentHighand

  14. Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Hyun diameters less than 10 nm and lengths of several micrometers. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that Li, lithium ion battery, LiMn2O4 nanowires, high power density, Jahn-Teller distortion T he high energy

  15. Monochromatic radiography of high energy density physics experiments on the MAGPIE generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: gareth.hall@imperial.ac.uk; Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Stuart, N. H.; Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Smith, R. A.; Patankar, S.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Grouchy, P. de; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Pickworth, L.; Skidmore, J. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A monochromatic X-ray backlighter based on Bragg reflection from a spherically bent quartz crystal has been developed for the MAGPIE pulsed power generator at Imperial College (1.4 MA, 240 ns) [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (2005)]. This instrument has been used to diagnose high energy density physics experiments with 1.865 keV radiation (Silicon He-?) from a laser plasma source driven by a ?7 J, 1 ns pulse from the Cerberus laser. The design of the diagnostic, its characterisation and performance, and initial results in which the instrument was used to radiograph a shock physics experiment on MAGPIE are discussed.

  16. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University] [Michigan State University

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  17. High Efficiency Interleaved Power Electronics Converter for wide operating power range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    High Efficiency Interleaved Power Electronics Converter for wide operating power range K driving strategy for improving the efficiency of power converters even if they are not used is presented. Index Terms-Power converters, Interleaved, Power efficiency I. CONTEXTE, INTRODUCTION One

  18. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy...

  19. Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  20. Plasma behaviour at high beta and high density in the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Bower, D L [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet fuelling of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) plasmas has resulted in high density and high plasma beta. The density in improved confinement discharges has been increased fourfold, and a record plasma beta (beta(tot) = 26%) for the improved confinement reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved. At higher beta, a new regime for instabilities is accessed in which local interchange and global tearing instabilities are calculated to be linearly unstable, but experimentally, no severe effect, e. g., a disruption, is observed. The tearing instability, normally driven by the current gradient, is driven by the pressure gradient in this case, and there are indications of increased energy transport ( as compared with low-density improved confinement). Pellet fuelling is also compared with enhanced edge fuelling of standard confinement RFP discharges for the purpose of searching for a density limit in MST. In standard-confinement discharges, pellet fuelling peaks the density profile where edge fuelling cannot, but transport appears unchanged. For a limited range of plasma current, MST discharges with edge fuelling are constrained to a maximum density corresponding to the Greenwald limit. This limit is surpassed in pellet-fuelled improved confinement discharges.

  1. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR...

  2. The number density of quasars as a probe of initial power spectrum on small scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Novosyadlyj; Yu. Chornij

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of the number density of the bright QSOs at different redshifts ($n_{QSO}(z)$) on initial power spectrum is studied. It is assumed that QSO phenomenon is an early short term stage of evolution of massive galaxies with $M\\geq 2\\times 10^{11}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$. The duration of such QSO stage which is passed through by fraction $\\alpha$ of galaxies is determined by means of minimization of the divergence of the theoretical number density of QSOs at different redshifts for specified initial spectrum from observable one \\cite{sc91}. It is shown that the nearest number densities of QSOs at $0.7\\le z\\le 3.5$ to observable ones are obtained for the tilted CDM model ($\\Omega_{b}=0.1$, $n=0.7$). The QSO stage lasts $\\sim 7\\times 10^{7}/\\alpha$ years and begins soon after the moment of rise of the first counterflow in collisionless component and shock wave in gas. The possibility of the reconstruction of initial power spectrum on small scale on the base of the observable data on number density of QSOs at different $z$ is considered too. Such reconstructed spectrum in comparison with standard CDM has steep reducing of power at $k\\ge 0.5 h Mpc^{-1}$.

  3. High power solid state laser modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  4. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  5. Aerodynamic focusing of high-density aerosols D.E. Ruiz a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerodynamic focusing of high-density aerosols D.E. Ruiz a,n , L.M. Gunderson a , M.J. Hay a , E Accepted 24 May 2014 Available online 17 June 2014 Keywords: Aerodynamic lens High-density aerosol beam Inertial focusing Particle focusing a b s t r a c t High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form

  6. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 5, MAY 2007 357 Direct Monitoring of RF Overstress in High-Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Yoram

    Shapira, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Light emission from power transistors at a com- pression level Terms--Breakdown, high-power amplifier (HPA), impact ionization, light emission, parasitic oscillations improved in terms of power density, efficiency, and gain without any reduction in reliability re

  7. Density-potential pairs for spherical stellar systems with Sersic light-profiles and (optional) power-law cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balsa Terzic; Alister W. Graham

    2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Popular models for describing the luminosity-density profiles of dynamically hot stellar systems (e.g., Jaffe, Hernquist, Dehnen) were constructed with the desire to match the deprojected form of an R^{1/4} light-profile. Real galaxies, however, are now known to have a range of different light-profile shapes that scale with mass. Consequently, although highly useful, the above models have implicit limitations, and this is illustrated here through their application to a number of real galaxy density profiles. On the other hand, the analytical density profile given by Prugniel & Simien (1997) closely matches the deprojected form of Sersic R^{1/n} light-profiles - including deprojected exponential light-profiles. It is thus applicable for describing bulges in spiral galaxies, dwarf elliptical galaxies, and both ordinary and giant elliptical galaxies. Here we provide simple equations, in terms of elementary and special functions, for the gravitational potential and force associated with this density profile. Furthermore, to match galaxies with partially depleted cores, and better explore the supermassive black hole / galaxy connection, we have added a power-law core to this density profile and derived similar expressions for the potential and force of this hybrid profile. Expressions for the mass and velocity dispersion, assuming isotropy, are also given. These models may also prove appropriate for describing the dark matter distribution in halos formed from LCDM cosmological simulations.

  8. A semi-analytic power balance model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R., E-mail: rsingh129@yahoo.co.in [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); Nordman, H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Bourdelle, C. [Euratom-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, A. 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a semi-analytic model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold (P{sub th}). Two main assumptions are made in our study. First, high poloidal mode number drift resistive ballooning modes (high-m DRBM) are assumed to be the dominant turbulence driver in a narrow edge region near to last closed flux surface. Second, the pre-transition edge profile and turbulent diffusivity at the narrow edge region pertain to turbulent equipartition. An edge power balance relation is derived by calculating the dissipated power flux through both turbulent conduction and convection, and radiation in the edge region. P{sub th} is obtained by imposing the turbulence quench rule due to sheared E?×?B rotation. Evaluation of P{sub th} shows a good agreement with experimental results in existing machines. Increase of P{sub th} at low density (i.e., the existence of roll-over density in P{sub th} vs. density) is shown to originate from the longer scale length of the density profile than that of the temperature profile.

  9. Metrology Challenges for High Energy Density Science Target Manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seugling, R M; Bono, M J; Davis, P

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, High Energy Density Science (HEDS) experiments are used to support and qualify predictive physics models. These models assume ideal conditions such as energy (input) and device (target) geometry. The experiments rely on precision targets constructed from components with dimensions in the millimeter range, while having micrometer-scale, functional features, including planar steps, sine waves, and step-joint geometry on hemispherical targets. Future target designs will likely have features and forms that rival or surpass current manufacturing and characterization capability. The dimensional metrology of these features is important for a number of reasons, including qualification of sub-components prior to assembly, quantification of critical features on the as-built assemblies and as a feedback mechanism for fabrication process development. Variations in geometry from part to part can lead to functional limitations, such as unpredictable instabilities during an experiment and the inability to assemble a target from poorly matched sub-components. Adding to the complexity are the large number and variety of materials, components, and shapes that render any single metrology technique difficult to use with low uncertainty. Common materials include metal and glass foams, doped transparent and opaque plastics and a variety of deposited and wrought metals. A suite of metrology tools and techniques developed to address the many critical issues relevant to the manufacture of HEDS targets including interferometry, x-ray radiography and contact metrology are presented including two sided interferometry for absolute thickness metrology and low force probe technology for micrometer feature coordinate metrology.

  10. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Weizhong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dirmyer, Matthew R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Jin K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keith, Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierpont, Aaron W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smythe, Mathan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sutton, Andrew D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trovitch, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasudevan, Kalyan V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waidmann, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R. Thomas [UNIV OF OTTAWWA; Schlaf, Marcel [UNIV OF GUELPH

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  11. High power linear pulsed beam annealer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strathman, Michael D. (Concord, CA); Sadana, Devendra K. (Berkeley, CA); True, Richard B. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power pulsed electron beam is produced in a system comprised of an electron gun having a heated cathode, control grid, focus ring, and a curved drift tube. The drift tube is maintained at a high positive voltage with respect to the cathode to accelerate electrons passing through the focus ring and to thereby eliminate space charge. A coil surrounding the curved drift tube provides a magnetic field which maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the tube and imparts motion on electrons in a spiral path for shallow penetration of the electrons into a target. The curvature of the tube is selected so there is no line of sight between the cathode and a target holder positioned within a second drift tube spaced coaxially from the curved tube. The second tube and the target holder are maintained at a reference voltage that decelerates the electrons. A second coil surrounding the second drift tube maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the second drift tube and compresses the electron beam to the area of the target. The target holder can be adjusted to position the target where the cross section of the beam matches the area of the target.

  12. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

  13. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT nanowire arrays can be used as a potential X-ray and low energy gamma ray detector material at room temperature with a much low bias potential (0.7 – 4V) as against 300 – 500 V applied in the commercial bulk detector materials.

  14. Evolution of particle density in high-energy pp collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Bautista; C. Pajares; J. Dias de Deus

    2012-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the evolution of the particle density, dn/d\\eta at fixed \\eta with the beam rapidity Y in the framework of string percolation model. Our main results are: (i) The width of the "plateau" increases proportionally to Y, (ii) limiting fragmentation is violated, and (iii) the particle density, reduces to a step function.

  15. Saturated absorption at nanowatt power levels using metastable xenon in a high-finesse optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. Hickman; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong saturated absorption at nanowatt power levels has been demonstrated using metastable xenon in a high-finesse optical cavity. The use of metastable xenon allows a high quality factor of Q=2*10^8 to be achieved at relatively high atomic densities without any contamination or damage to the optical surfaces, which is often a problem when using high-density rubidium or other alkali atoms. This technique provides a relatively straightforward way to produce nonlinearities at the single-photon level with possible applications in quantum communications and computing.

  16. Particle-Number Restoration within the Energy Density Functional formalism: Nonviability of terms depending on noninteger powers of the density matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Duguet; M. Bender; K. Bennaceur; D. Lacroix; T. Lesinski

    2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the origin of pathological behaviors that have been recently identified in particle-number-restoration calculations performed within the nuclear energy density functional framework. A regularization method that removes the problematic terms from the multi-reference energy density functional and which applies (i) to any symmetry restoration- and/or generator-coordinate-method-based configuration mixing calculation and (ii) to energy density functionals depending only on integer powers of the density matrices, was proposed in [D. Lacroix, T. Duguet, M. Bender, arXiv:0809.2041] and implemented for particle-number restoration calculations in [M. Bender, T. Duguet, D. Lacroix, arXiv:0809.2045]. In the present paper, we address the viability of non-integer powers of the density matrices in the nuclear energy density functional. Our discussion builds upon the analysis already carried out in [J. Dobaczewski \\emph{et al.}, Phys. Rev. C \\textbf{76}, 054315 (2007)]. First, we propose to reduce the pathological nature of terms depending on a non-integer power of the density matrices by regularizing the fraction that relates to the integer part of the exponent using the method proposed in [D. Lacroix, T. Duguet, M. Bender, arXiv:0809.2041]. Then, we discuss the spurious features brought about by the remaining fractional power. Finally, we conclude that non-integer powers of the density matrices are not viable and should be avoided in the first place when constructing nuclear energy density functionals that are eventually meant to be used in multi-reference calculations.

  17. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  18. Off-center HII regions in power-law density distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Arthur

    2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion of ionization fronts in uniform and spherically symmetric power-law density distributions is a well-studied topic. However, in many situations, such as a star formed at the edge of a molecular cloud core, an offset power-law density distribution would be more appropriate. In this paper a few of the main issues of the formation and expansion of HII regions in such media are outlined and results are presented for the particular cases where the underlying power laws are 1/r^2 and 1/r^3. A simple criterion is developed for determining whether the initial photoionized region will be unbounded, which depends on the power-law exponent and the ratio of the equivalent Stroemgren radius produced by the star in a uniform medium to the stellar offset distance. In the expansion stage, the ionized volumes will eventually become unbounded unless pressure balance with the external medium is reached before the ionization front velocity becomes supersonic with respect to the ionized gas.

  19. Techniques for high-efficiency outphasing power amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godoy, Philip (Philip Andrew)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A trade-off between linearity and efficiency exists in conventional power amplifiers (PAs). The outphase amplifying concept overcomes this trade-off by enabling the use of high efficiency, non-linear power amplifiers for ...

  20. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Real-time High-Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Real-time High-Performance Computing Infrastructure for Next- Generation Power Grid Analysis OBJECTIVE » We are developing infrastructure, software, formal models for real Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) national electric

  1. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    - thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator. The approach is predicted to be capable of up to 32% efficient heat system that was built and tested comprises a silicon propane microcombustor, an inte- grated high, generating 344 mW of electric power over a 1-cm2 area. catalytic combustion | micro generator | thermal

  2. High Power, Linear CMOS Power Amplifier for WLAN Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afsahi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Tian, “A Highly Linear Direct-Conversion Transmit MixerIntegrated MIMO Multiband Direct Conversion CMOS Transceiver

  3. Aerodynamic Focusing of High-Density Aerosols D.E. Ruiza,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerodynamic Focusing of High-Density Aerosols D.E. Ruiza, , L. Gundersona , M.J. Haya , E. Merinob Abstract High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications-density aerosol focusing for 1µm silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic

  4. Broadband High Power Amplifier using Spatial Power Combining Pengcheng Jia 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low noise are among the most important features in amplifier design. Broadband spatial power combining the heat sinking in high power application. A high power amplifier using the compact combiner design maintaining good linearity and improving phase noise of the MMIC amplifiers. Coaxial waveguide was used

  5. Chapter 7: High-Density H-Mode Operation in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stober, Joerg Karl; Lang, Peter Thomas; Mertens, Vitus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results are reported on the maximum achievable H-mode density and the behavior of pedestal density and central density peaking as this limit is approached. The maximum achievable H-mode density roughly scales as the Greenwald density, though a dependence on B{sub t} is clearly observed. In contrast to the stiff temperature profiles, the density profiles seem to allow more shape variation and especially with high-field-side pellet-injection, strongly peaked profiles with good confinement have been achieved. Also, spontaneous density peaking at high densities is observed in ASDEX Upgrade, which is related to the generally observed large time constants for the density profile equilibration. The equilibrated density profile shapes depend strongly on the heat-flux profile in the sense that central heating leads to significantly flatter profiles.

  6. Nuclear power high technology colloquium: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports presenting information on technology advancements in the nuclear industry and nuclear power plant functions have been abstracted and are available on the energy data base.

  7. Transformation of the courtyard house--low-rise high density urban housing in Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Gene S. (Gene Sungjin)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of low-rise high-density urban housing is based on two fundamental objectives: 1) To provide higher density by intensifying land use as urban growth escalates at an unprecedented rate. 2) To reconsider the essential ...

  8. High Power Lasers... Another approach to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program #12;4 Electricity Generator Reaction chamber The laser fusion energy drive targets Can lead to an attractive electricity generating power plant Developing Laser Fusion Attributes : Beam uniformity, wavelength, cost, scaling to large systems Technologies for rep

  9. High speed measurements of neutral beam turn-on and impact of beam modulation on measurements of ion density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, B. A., E-mail: bgriers@pppl.gov; Grisham, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Crowley, B.; Scoville, J. T. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modulation of neutral beams on tokamaks is performed routinely, enabling background rejection for active spectroscopic diagnostics, and control of injected power and torque. We find that there exists an anomalous initial transient in the beam neutrals delivered to the tokamak that is not accounted for by the accelerator voltage and power supply current. Measurements of the charge-exchange and beam photoemission on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] at high speed (200 ?s) reveal that the energy of the beam neutrals is constant, but the density of beam neutrals displays dramatic variation in the first 2–3 ms following beam turn-on. The impact of this beam density variation on inferred ion densities and impurity transport is presented, with suggested means to correct for the anomalous transient.

  10. A new power combining and outphasing modulation system for high-efficiency power amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper describes a new power combining and outphasing system that provides both high efficiency and linear output control. Whereas conventional outphasing systems utilize two power amplifiers, the system introduced ...

  11. A New Power Combining and Outphasing Modulation System for High-Efficiency Power Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper describes a new power combining and outphasing system that provides both high efficiency and linear output control. Whereas conventional outphasing systems utilize two power amplifiers, the system introduced ...

  12. High force density linear permanent magnet motors : "electromagnetic muscle actuators"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Bryan P. (Bryan Paul), 1983-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Actuator performance represents a key constraint on the capability of many engineered devices. Performance of these devices is often exceeded by their muscle-powered natural counterparts, inspiring the development of new, ...

  13. Generation of potential/surface density pairs in flat disks Power law distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -M. Hure; D. Pelat; A. Pierens

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a simple method to generate potential/surface density pairs in flat axially symmetric finite size disks. Potential/surface density pairs consist of a ``homogeneous'' pair (a closed form expression) corresponding to a uniform disk, and a ``residual'' pair. This residual component is converted into an infinite series of integrals over the radial extent of the disk. For a certain class of surface density distributions (like power laws of the radius), this series is fully analytical. The extraction of the homogeneous pair is equivalent to a convergence acceleration technique, in a matematical sense. In the case of power law distributions, the convergence rate of the residual series is shown to be cubic inside the source. As a consequence, very accurate potential values are obtained by low order truncation of the series. At zero order, relative errors on potential values do not exceed a few percent typically, and scale with the order N of truncation as 1/N**3. This method is superior to the classical multipole expansion whose very slow convergence is often critical for most practical applications.

  14. Cree's High-Power White LED Delivers 121 lm/W

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cree's commercial high-power white LEDs can now deliver 121 lm/W at 35A/cm2 current density. These particular Cree XLamp® XP-G LEDs deliver 267 lumens at a drive current of 700 mA and an operating...

  15. A High-Performance Fortran Code to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Sen'kov; M. Horoi; V. G. Zelevinsky

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities.The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g9/2 - model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g9/2-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g9/2, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf.

  16. A High-Performance Fortran Code to Calculate Spin- and Parity-Dependent Nuclear Level Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen'kov, R; Zelevinsky, V G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance Fortran code is developed to calculate the spin- and parity-dependent shell model nuclear level densities.The algorithm is based on the extension of methods of statistical spectroscopy and implies exact calculation of the first and second Hamiltonian moments for different configurations at fixed spin and parity. The proton-neutron formalism is used. We have applied the method for calculating the level densities for a set of nuclei in the sd-, pf-, and pf+g9/2 - model spaces. Examples of the calculations for 28Si (in the sd-model space) and 64Ge (in the pf+g9/2-model space) are presented. To illustrate the power of the method we estimate the ground state energy of 64Ge in the larger model space pf+g9/2, which is not accessible to direct shell model diagonalization due to the prohibitively large dimension, by comparing with the nuclear level densities at low excitation energy calculated in the smaller model space pf.

  17. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreiskott, Sascha (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  18. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PLANAR OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE COUPLER TRANSFORMERS FOR HIGH-POWER SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION AND TRAMSMISSION Nobuhiko P. Kobayashi Baskin School of Engineering, University of California...

  19. High Power Superconducting Continuous Wave Linacs for Protons...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    research, national security, therapeutic isotopes and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel Argonne National Laboratory has been working on research and development of high power...

  20. Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Power Induction and Permanent Magnet Electric Motors 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  1. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research Conference 2010 Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Siddhartha Banerjee, Christopher J. Rutland...

  2. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  3. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  4. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  5. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, Yang [Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cai, Sendan [Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China); Wu, Lijun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, Weijing [Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China); Xie, Jingying [Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Engineering Center for Power and Energy Storage Systems, Shanghai (China); Wen, Wen [BL14B1 Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Jin-Cheng [Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China); Zheng, Yi [Shanghai Inst. of Space Power Sources, Shanghai (China)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg?¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance and an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g?¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg?¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g?¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, Yang; Zhu, Yimei; Cai, Sendan; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Weijing; Xie, Jingying; Wen, Wen; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li/CFx primary possesses the highest energy density of 2180 W h kg?¹ among all primary lithium batteries. However, a key limitation for the utility of this type of battery is in its poor rate capability because the cathode material, CFx, is an intrinsically poor electronic conductor. Here, we report on our development of a controlled process of surface de-fluorination under mild hydrothermal conditions to modify the highly fluorinated CFx. The modified CFx, consisting of an in situ generated shell component of F-graphene layers, possesses good electronic conductivity and removes the transporting barrier for lithium ions, yielding a high-capacity performance andmore »an excellent rate-capability. Indeed, a capacity of 500 mA h g?¹ and a maximum power density of 44 800 W kg?¹ can be realized at the ultrafast rate of 30 C (24 A g?¹), which is over one order of magnitude higher than that of the state-of-the-art primary lithium-ion batteries.« less

  7. Soft Magnetic Materials in High-Frequency, High-Power Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Voltage DC (HVDC) technologies aim to improve the effi- ciency of power networks and benefit from high

  8. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B.G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    drive targets for inertial fusion energy. 1. Introduction Adensity matter and fusion energy. Previously, experiments inHeavy ion fusion science research for high energy density

  9. The Nuclear Equation of State at high densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Fuchs

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Ab inito calculations for the nuclear many-body problem make predictions for the density and isospin dependence of the nuclear equation-of-state (EOS) far away from the saturation point of nuclear matter. I compare predictions from microscopic and phenomenological approaches. Constraints on the EOS derived from heavy ion reactions, in particular from subthreshold kaon production, as well as constraints from neutron stars are discussed.

  10. Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy and power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    capacitors (EDLCs) have evoked wide interest in recent years due to their ability to supply high power of EDLCs is based on the quick formation of a double layer of surface charges and counter materials for EDLCs should have large surface area to accumulate a large amount of charges, and a size

  11. A new high power, fast charge, sealed lead acid battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juergens, T.; Nelson, R.F.; Ruderman, M.A. [Bolder Technology Corp., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to the design of lead acid batteries has been developed based on the use of very thin lead foil current collectors and very high current carrying capacity. The basic cell construction and the performance characteristics for the new cell are described. Spiral wrap cells based on this electrode concept exhibit extremely high power output with excellent capacity maintenance. Additionally, these cells exhibit flat voltage at all currents, and are capable of very rapid recharge. Applications for this high power technology cover a broad spectrum such as portable power tools, UPS systems, electrically heated catalytic converters, pulse power applications and electric and hybrid vehicles. 9 refs.

  12. DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ELASTIC ACCUMULATOR USING POLYURETHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    steels and titanium alloys have a gravimetric energy density of around 1-1.5 kJ/kg [1]. ConsequentlyDESIGN AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ELASTIC ACCUMULATOR USING POLYURETHANE Alexander-35%. However, the relatively low gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of conventional HAs prohibit

  13. High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37 OPAMResourceEmploymentHealth,HelpHigh

  14. Power densities for two-step gamma-ray transitions from isomeric states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silviu Olariu; Agata Olariu

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the incident photon power density P_2 for which the two-step induced emission rate from an isomeric nucleus becomes equal to the natural isomeric decay rate. We have analyzed two-step transitions for isomeric nuclei with a half-life greater than 10 min, for which there is an intermediate state of known energy, spin and half-life, for which the intermediate state is connected by a known gamma-ray transition to the isomeric state and to at least another intermediate state, and for which the relative intensities of the transitions to lower states are known. For the isomeric nucleus 166m-Ho, which has a 1200 y isomeric state at 5.98 keV, we have found a value of P_2=6.3 x 10^7 W cm^{-2}, the intermediate state being the 263.8 keV level. We have found power densities P_2 of the order of 10^{10} W cm^{-2} for several other isomeric nuclei.

  15. High Power Hg Target Conceptual Design Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Monitor $12000Total $5500 LabView control system (software & hardware) $500 Control box (power supplies in Solidworks $4800AL Base Support Secondary Containment Primary Containment Sump Subsystem $13000Total $5700SS U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Conceptual Design Review 7-8 Feb 05 Outline · Procured systems - Syringe

  16. High Power Target Design and Operational Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    remote handling is a major driving requirement). #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department Issues · Steady state power handling. ­ Cooling of target/enclosure window ­ wettability. ­ Hot spots systems: ­ Mercury loop operation. ­ Remote handling. · Nuclear data. #12;4 Managed by UT

  17. High-Efficiency and High-Power CMOS Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Applications /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agah, Amir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    large output powers at the millimeter-wave regime has been mainly focused on power combining techniques, using Wilkinson combiners and transformer-

  18. Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60 DATE: MarchNEPA/309 ReviewersAdvanced Lithiumof

  19. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,Official FileEnergyAERMOD-PRIME, Units

  20. High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Richard A. (Naperville, IL); Goeppner, George A. (Orland Park, IL); Noonan, John R. (Naperville, IL); Farrell, William J. (Flossmoor, IL); Ma, Qing (Westmont, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

  1. High energy-density water: density functional theory calculations of structure and electrical conductivity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the properties of water is essential for correctly describing the physics of shock waves in water as well as the behavior of giant planets. By using finite temperature density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/super-ionic/electronic liquid). There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm{sup 3} while electronic conduction dominates at temperatures above 6000 K. We predict that the fluid bordering the super-ionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Earlier work instead has the super-ionic phase bordering an insulating fluid, with a transition to metallic fluid not until 7000 K and 250 GPa. The tools and expertise developed during the project can be applied to other molecular systems, for example, methane, ammonia, and CH foam. We are now well positioned to treat also complex molecular systems in the HEDP regime of phase-space.

  2. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used to inject plasma into the final focus region right inplasma flow is slowed down once entering the high field region of the final focus

  3. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henestroza, E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used to inject plasma into the final focus region right inplasma flow is slowed down once entering the high field region of the final focus

  4. Power Density Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves: Implications on Theory and Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heon-Young Chang; Insu Yi

    2001-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the power density spectrum (PDS) of artificial light curves of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We investigate statistical properties of GRB light curves by comparing the reported characteristics in the PDSs of the observed GRBs with those that we model, and discuss implications on interpretations of the PDS analysis results. Results of PDS analysis of observed GRBs suggest that the averaged PDS of GRBs follows a power law over about two decades of frequency with the power law index, -5/3, and the distribution of individual power follows an exponential distribution. Though an attempt to identify the most sensitive physical parameter has been made on the basis of the internal shock model, we demonstrate that conclusions of this kind of approach should be derived with due care. It is indicative that the physical information extracted from the slope can be misleading. We show that the reported slope and the distribution can be reproduced by adjusting the sampling interval in the time domain for a given decaying timescale of individual pulse in a specific form of GRB light curves. In particular, given that the temporal feature is modeled by a two-sided exponential function, the power law behavior with the index of -5/3 and the exponential distribution of the observed PDS is recovered at the 64 ms trigger time scale when the decaying timescale of individual pulse is $\\sim 1$ second, provided that the pulse sharply rises. Another way of using the PDS analysis is an application of the same method to individual long bursts in order to examine a possible evolution of the decaying timescale in a single burst.

  5. High density plasma damage in InGaP/GaAs as AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.W.; Pearton, S.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Ren, F.; Kopf, R.F.; Kuo, J.M. [Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Lucent Technologies; Shul, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Constantine, C.; Johnson, D. [Plasma-Therm Inc., St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of plasma damage in InGaP/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using both inductively coupled plasma and electron cyclotron resonance Ar discharges. The saturated drain-source current is found to be decreased through introduction of compensating deep levels into the InGaP or AlGaAs donor layer. The degradation of device performance is a strong function of ion energy and ion flux, and an advantage of both high density plasma tools is that ion energy can be reduced by increasing the plasma density. Increasing process pressure and source power, and decreasing radio-frequency chuck power produce the lowest amounts of plasma damage in HEMTs.

  6. High voltage ignition of high pressure microwave powered UV light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, J.D.; Cekic, M.; Wood, C.H. [Fusion U.V. Curing Systems Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial microwave powered (electrodeless) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of {approximately}300 Torr of buffer gas and metal-halide fills. The predominant reason for such restrictions has been the inability to microwave ignite the plasma due to the collisionality of higher pressure fills and/or the electronegativity of halide bulb chemistries. Commercially interesting bulb fills require electric fields for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. Many auxiliary ignition methods are evaluated for efficiency and practicality before the choice of a high-voltage system with a retractable external electrode. The scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to its operating point (T{sub e} {approx} 0.5 eV). This process is currently being used in a new generation of lamps, which are using multi-atmospheric excimer laser chemistries and pressure and constituent enhanced metal-halide systems. At the present time, production prototypes produce over 900 W of radiation in a 30 nm band, centered at 308 nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce over 1 kW of radiation in 30 nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  7. High Density Sensor Network Development | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartmentInnovation Portal 130221326

  8. High power semiconductor laser sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yariv, A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of the research was to design and fabricate a surface-emitting semiconductor laser based on multi quantum-well amplification. During the contract period, the author succeeded in improving the basic quantum-well active medium so as to result in maximum gain for a given inversion density and analyzed the fabrication of GaAs/GaAlAs multilayer dielectric reflectors for providing the optical feedback to the surface-emitting semiconductor laser. He also made significant progress in the development of diffusion techniques to provide the p and n regions adjacent to the active region for carrier injection.

  9. High density cluster jet target for storage ring experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Täschner; Esperanza Köhler; Hans-Werner Ortjohann; Alfons Khoukaz

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a newly developed cluster jet target installation for hadron physics experiments are presented which, for the first time, is able to generate a hydrogen cluster jet beam with a target thickness of above $10^{15}\\,\\mathrm{atoms/cm}^2$ at a distance of two metres behind the cluster jet nozzle. The properties of the cluster beam and of individual clusters themselves are studied at this installation. Special emphasis is placed on measurements of the target beam density as a function of the relevant parameters as well as on the cluster beam profiles. By means of a time-of-flight setup, measurements of the velocity of single clusters and velocity distributions were possible. The complete installation, which meets the requirements of future internal fixed target experiments at storage rings, and the results of the systematic studies on hydrogen cluster jets are presented and discussed.

  10. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  11. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  12. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  13. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tooker, A; Shah, K; Tolosa, V; Sheth, H; Felix, S; Delima, T; Pannu, S

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {mu}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal studbumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9x10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  14. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, K G; Delima, T; Felix, S; Sheth, H; Tolosa, V; Tooker, A; Pannu, S S

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {micro}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal stud-bumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9 x 10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  15. Improving the AGR Fuel Testing Power Density Profile Versus Irradiation-Time in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang; David A. Petti; John T. Maki; Misti A. Lillo

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles. Each TRISO-coated fuel particle has its own containment which serves as the principal barrier against radionuclide release under normal operating and accident conditions. These fuel particles, in the form of graphite fuel compacts, are currently undergoing a series of irradiation tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification program. A representive coated fuel particle with an 235U enrichment of 19.8 wt% was used in this analysis. The fuel burnup analysis tool used to perform the neutronics study reported herein, couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN2. The fuel burnup methodology known as Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) was used to evaluate the AGR experiment assembly and demonstrate compliance with ATR safety requirements. For the AGR graphite fuel compacts, the MCWO-calculated fission power density (FPD) due to neutron fission in 235U is an important design parameter. One of the more important AGR fuel testing requirements is to maintain the peak fuel compact temperature close to 1250°C throughout the proposed irradiation campaign of 550 effective full power days (EFPDs). Based on the MCWO-calculated FPD, a fixed gas gap size was designed to allow regulation of the fuel compact temperatures throughout the entire fuel irradiation campaign by filling the gap with a mixture of helium and neon gases. The chosen fixed gas gap can only regulate the peak fuel compact temperature in the desired range during the irradiation test if the ratio of the peak power density to the time-dependent low power density (P/T) at 550 EFPDs is less than 2.5. However, given the near constant neutron flux within the ATR driver core and the depletion of 235U in the graphite fuel compacts versus EFPD, the P/T ratio was calculated to be 5.3, which is unacceptable given the fuel compact temperature control requirement. To flatten the FPD profile versus EFPDs, two proposed options are – (a) add fertile (232Th) particles to the fuel compact and (b) add burnable absorber (B4C) to the graphite holder. The effectiveness of these two proposed options to flatten the FPD profile versus EFPDs were investigated and the results are compared in this study.

  16. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui, E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Bitter, M., E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kerr, S. [Department of Applied Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  17. RAPID FORMATION OF HIGH DENSITY MICROWAVE DISCHARGES FOR APPLICATION IN COUNTERHPM PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Building Abstract Recent decades of research on high power microwave (HPM) sources for nonlethal discharges as a means of protect ing sensitive electronics from HPM irradiation. Collectively

  18. Positional control of catalyst nanoparticles for the synthesis of high density carbon nanofiber arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise arrangement of nanoscale elements within larger systems, is essential to controlling higher order functionality and tailoring nanophase material properties. Here, we present findings on growth conditions for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers that enable synthesis of high-density arrays and individual rows of nanofibers, which could be used to form barriers for restricting molecular transport, that have regular spacings and few defects. Growth through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was initiated from precisely formed nickel catalyst dots of varying diameter and spacing that were patterned through electron beam lithography. Nanofiber growth conditions, including power, precursor gas ratio, growth temperature and pressure were varied to optimize fiber uniformity and minimize defects that result from formation and migration of catalyst particles prior to growth. It was determined that both catalyst dot diameter and initial plasma power have a considerable influence on the number and severity of defects, while growth temperature, gas ratio (C2H2:NH3) and pressure can be varied within a considerable range to fine-tune nanofiber morphology.

  19. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A. (Oak Forest, IL); Mulderink, Kenneth A. (Countryside, IL); Marin, Ovidiu (Lisle, IL)

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  20. High performance magnet power supply optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The power supply system for the joint LBL--SLAC proposed accelerator PEP provides the opportunity to take a fresh look at the current techniques employed for controlling large amounts of dc power and the possibility of using a new one. A basic requirement of +- 100 ppM regulation is placed on the guide field of the bending magnets and quadrupoles placed around the 2200 meter circumference of the accelerator. The optimization questions to be answered by this paper are threefold: Can a firing circuit be designed to reduce the combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage unbalance to less than 100 ppM in the magnet field. Given the ambiguity of the previous statement, is the addition of a transistor bank to a nominal SCR controlled system the way to go or should one opt for an SCR chopper system running at 1 KHz where multiple supplies are fed from one large dc bus and the cost--performance evaluation of the three possible systems.

  1. Bayesian semiparametric power spectral density estimation in gravitational wave data analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Matthew C; Christensen, Nelson

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard noise model in gravitational wave (GW) data analysis assumes detector noise is stationary and Gaussian distributed, with a known power spectral density (PSD) that is usually estimated using clean off-source data. Real GW data often depart from these assumptions, and misspecified parametric models of the PSD could result in misleading inferences. We propose a Bayesian semiparametric approach to improve this. We use a nonparametric Bernstein polynomial prior on the PSD, with weights attained via a Dirichlet process distribution, and update this using the Whittle likelihood. Posterior samples are obtained using a Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler. We simultaneously estimate the reconstruction parameters of a rotating core collapse supernova GW burst that has been embedded in simulated Advanced LIGO noise. We also discuss an approach to deal with non-stationary data by breaking longer data streams into smaller and locally stationary components.

  2. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  3. Isothermal and shock compression of high density ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, F.W.; Persson, P.A. (Research Center for Engergetic Materials, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States)); Olinger, B. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk sound speed measurements, isothermal volume compression/X-ray diffraction experiments and shock loading experiments (maximum pressure [approx]20 GPa) have been performed for high initial density ([ge]94% TMD) ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP). The experimental data, and full density Hugoniots calculated from that data, suggest the presence of low pressure, shock induced phase transitions in both the AN and AP. The AP phase transition occurs at [approx]4 GPa, and exhibits characteristics of a high density to low density phase transition, but the present data are not conclusive. The AN phase change occurs at a shock pressure of less than 3.5 GPa, but the associated volume change is relatively large, indicating the presence of a previously unidentified high pressure, high density phase. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  4. A SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTER STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming

    and wireless diplexers. An exact analysis of the voltage/power distribution inside a filter involves the 3D is derived. This transformation is then used to relate the actual voltage distribution inside a transmissionA SIMPLIFIED ANALYSIS FOR HIGH POWER MICROWAVE BANDPASS FILTER STRUCTURES Apu Sivadas, Ming Yu

  5. High Performance Circuits for Power Management and Millimeter Wave Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amer, Ahmed 1979-

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to achieve the required goals in terms of small silicon area and power consumption while at the same time achieve high performance. Four key building blocks in power management and a switchable harmonic mixer with pre-amplifier and poly-phase generator as a...

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John B. [Cornell University; Seyler, Charles [Cornell University

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and thermal energy; reconnection and outflow are triggered when the current begins to decrease and the electric field reverses. The reconnecting flow is driven by both magnetic and thermal pressure forces, and it has been found to be possible to vary the configuration so that one or the other dominates. The magnetic null extends into a current sheet that is heated and radiates strongly, with supersonic outflows. This is the first study of reconnection in this HED plasma regime. This compressible, radiative regime, and the triggering mechanism, may be relevant to solar and astrophysical processes. The PERSEUS extended MHD code has been developed for simulation of these phenomena, and will continue to be used and further developed to help interpret and understand experimental results, as well as to guide experimental design. The code is well-suited to simulations of shocks, and includes Hall and electron inertia physics that appear to be of importance in a number of ablation flow regimes, and definitely in the reconnection regime when gradient scales are comparable to the ion inertial scale. During the final year, our graduate student supported by this grant completed a new version of PERSEUS with the finite volume computational scheme replaced by a discontinuous Galerkin method that gives much less diffusive behavior and allows faster run time and higher spatial resolution. Thecode is now being used to study shock structures produced in the outflow region of the reconnection regime.

  7. Tracing high density gas in M 82 and NGC 4038

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Bayet; C. Lintott; S. Viti; J. Martín-Pintado; S. Martín; D. A. Williams; J. M. C. Rawlings

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first detection of CS in the Antennae galaxies towards the NGC 4038 nucleus, as well as the first detections of two high-J (5-4 and 7-6) CS lines in the center of M 82. The CS(7-6) line in M 82 shows a profile that is surprisingly different to those of other low-J CS transitions we observed. This implies the presence of a separate, denser and warmer molecular gas component. The derived physical properties and the likely location of the CS(7-6) emission suggests an association with the supershell in the centre of M 82.

  8. Power conversion architecture for grid interface at high switching frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Seungbum

    This paper presents a new power conversion architecture for single-phase grid interface. The proposed architecture is suitable for realizing miniaturized ac-dc converters operating at high frequencies (HF, above 3 MHz) and ...

  9. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  10. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  11. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  12. Silicon carbide mirrors for high power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and high energy lasers (HEL) in recent years has brought about the need for optical materials that can withstand the harsh operating conditions in such devices. SR mirrors must be ultra-high vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must maintain surface figure under thermal loading and must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide in combination with sintered substrate material meets these requirements and offers additional benefits as well. It is an extremely hard material and offers the possibility of being cleaned and recoated many times without degradation of the surface finish, thereby prolonging the lifetime of expensive optical components. It is an extremely strong material and offers the possibility of weight reduction over conventional mirror materials.

  13. Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gary L. (Elkridge, MD); Potter, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

  14. Low Cost Components: Advanced High Power & High Energy Battery...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08amine2.pdf More Documents & Publications Engineering of High...

  15. High power terahertz generation using 1550?nm plasmonic photomixers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Christopher W. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hashemi, Mohammad R.; Jarrahi, Mona [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Electrical Engineering Department, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Preu, Sascha [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University Darmstadt, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Lu, Hong; Gossard, Arthur C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a 1550?nm plasmonic photomixer operating under pumping duty cycles below 10%, which offers significantly higher terahertz radiation power levels compared to previously demonstrated photomixers. The record-high terahertz radiation powers are enabled by enhancing the device quantum efficiency through use of plasmonic contact electrodes, and by mitigating thermal breakdown at high optical pump power levels through use of a low duty cycle optical pump. The repetition rate of the optical pump can be specifically selected at a given pump duty cycle to control the spectral linewidth of the generated terahertz radiation. At an average optical pump power of 150 mW with a pump modulation frequency of 1 MHz and pump duty cycle of 2%, we demonstrate up to 0.8 mW radiation power at 1 THz, within each continuous wave radiation cycle.

  16. Control of high power IGBT modules in the active region for fast pulsed power converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cravero, JM; Garcia Retegui, R; Maestri, S; Uicich, G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At CERN, fast pulsed power converters are used to supply trapezoidal current in different magnet loads. These converters perform output current regulation by using a high power IGBT module in its ohmic region. This paper presents a new strategy for pulsed current control applications using a specifically designed IGBT driver.

  17. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power Microwave Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, Michael C [ORNL; Pesavento, Philip V [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 10 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Omega balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Omega dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Omega-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Omega to 75 Omega. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway.

  18. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Mountain View, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  19. Electronic power conditioning for dynamic power conversion in high-power space systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James Michael

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 55. 56. 57. Voltage and Current Waveforms for the Single-Phase PM System at Full Power ? w = v, z, z . Voltage and Current Waveforms f' or the Single-Phase PiVI System at Full Power ? ~ & cu, q, s, Compensated Voltage and Current Waveforms..., Compensated Voltage and Current Waveforms for the Single-Phase PM System at Half Power ? ~ & ~?, z, s, Compensated Voltage and Current Waveforms for the Three-Phase WF System at Full Power ? w: M, gtpd Voltage and Current Waveforms for the Three-Phase WF...

  20. Photon and dilepton emission rates from high density quark matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaikumar, P.; Rapp, Ralf; Zahed, I.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new critical survey is presented of all half-life, decay-energy, and branching-ratio measurements related to 20 superallowed 0(+)-> 0(+)beta decays. Compared with our last review, there are numerous improvements: First, we have added 27 recently published measurements and eliminated 9 references, either because they have been superseded by much more precise modern results or because there are now reasons to consider them fatally flawed...of particular importance, the new data include a number of high-precision Penning-trap measurements of decay energies. Second, we have used the recently improved isospin symmetry-breaking corrections, which were motivated by these new Penning-trap results. Third, our calculation of the statistical rate function f now accounts for possible excitation in the daughter atom, a small effect but one that merits inclusion at the present level of experimental precision. Finally, we have re-examined the systematic uncertainty associated with the isospin symmetry-breaking corrections by evaluating the radial-overlap correction using Hartree-Fock radial wave functions and comparing the results with our earlier calculations, which used Saxon-Woods wave functions... survey, although the new value of V(ud) is statistically consistent with the old one. From these data we also set limits on the possible existence of scalar interactions, right-hand currents, and extra Z bosons. Finally, we discuss the priorities...

  1. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices intrinsic carrier density, carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Graphene, a material for high temperature devices ­ intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift 3.87 3 106 cm22 K22 ?T2 ), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order

  2. Klamath Falls: High-Power Acoustic Well Stimulation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Brian

    2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic well stimulation (AWS) technology uses high-power sonic waves from specific frequency spectra in an attempt to stimulate production in a damaged or low-production wellbore. AWS technology is one of the most promising technologies in the oil and gas industry, but it has proven difficult for the industry to develop an effective downhole prototype. This collaboration between Klamath Falls Inc. and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) included a series of tests using high-power ultrasonic tools to stimulate oil and gas production. Phase I testing was designed and implemented to verify tool functionality, power requirements, and capacity of high-power AWS tools. The purpose of Phase II testing was to validate the production response of wells with marginal production rates to AWS stimulation and to capture and identify any changes in the downhole environment after tool deployment. This final report presents methodology and results.

  3. Dislocation density evolution during high pressure torsion of a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongqi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Y B [NON LANL; Ho, J C [NON LANL; Cao, Y [NON LANL; Liao, X Z [NON LANL; Ringer, S P [NON LANL; Zhu, Y T [NON LANL; Zhao, Y H [NON LANL; Lavernia, E J [NON LANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) induced dislocation density evolution in a nanocrystalline Ni-20wt.%Fe alloy was investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results suggest that the dislocation density evolution is different from that in coarse-grained materials. An HPT process first reduces the dislocation density within nanocrystalline grains and produces a large number of dislocations located at small-angle sub grain boundaries that are formed via grain rotation and coalescence. Continuing the deformation process eliminates the sub grain boundaries but significantly increases the dislocation density in grains. This phenomenon provides an explanation of the mechanical behavior of some nanostructured materials.

  4. Lower hybrid current drive at high density in Alcator C-Mod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, R.W.

    Experimental observations of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) at high density on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak are presented in this paper. Bremsstrahlung emission from relativistic fast electrons in the core plasma drops ...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Lithium Battery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton U.-SUNY at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - achieving high-density states Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3He. High densities of magnons are created by pulsed Nuclear Magnetic... confined in an aerogel matrix has been achieved. In this state, only a fraction of the magnons... into a...

  7. Battery concepts for high density energy storage: Principles and practice. C. Austen Angell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Battery concepts for high density energy storage: Principles and practice. C. Austen Angell Dept such as the lithium-air battery, and the more advanced zinc-air battery in which only the source needs to be "bottled

  8. The Materials genome : rapid materials screening for renewable energy using high-throughput density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Anubhav, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis relates to the emerging field of high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) computation for materials design and optimization. Although highthroughput DFT is a promising new method for materials discovery, ...

  9. Magnetic Pattern Fabrication and Characterization for Next Generation High Density Magnetic Recording System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Beomseop

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bit patterned media (BPM), capable of achieving magneticfrom the transitions in the BPM film under study. Throughoutthe EBL-fabricated ultra-high-density BPM media. vi Table of

  10. High Density Single Crystalline GaN Nanodot Arrays Fabricated Using Template-Assisted Selective Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yadong

    High density, uniform GaN nanodot arrays with controllable size have been synthesized by using template-assisted selective growth. The GaN nanodots with average diameter 40nm, 80nm and 120nm were selectively grown by ...

  11. Uppsala High Power Test Stand for ESS Spoke Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogi, RA; Dancila, D; Gajewski, K; Hermansson, L; Noor, M; Wedberg, R; Santiago-Kern, R; Ekelöf, T; Lofnes, T; Ziemann, V; Goryashko, V; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is one of the world’s most powerful neutron source. The ESS linac will accelerate 50mA pulse current of protons to 2.5GeV in 2.86 ms long pulses at a repetition rate of 14 Hz. It produces a beam with 5MW average power and 125MW peak power. ESS Spoke Linac consist of 28 superconducting spoke cavities, which will be developed by IPN Orsay, France. These Spoke Cavities will be tested at low power at IPN Orsay and high power testing will be performed in a high power test stand at Uppsala University. The test stand consists of tetrode based RF amplifier chain (352MHz, 350 kW) power and related RF distribution. Outputs of two tetrodes shall be combined with the hybrid coupler to produce 350 kW power. Preamplifier for a tetrode shall be solid state amplifier. As the spoke cavities are superconducting, the test stand also includes horizontal cryostat, Helium liquefier, test bunker etc. The paper describes features of the test stand in details.

  12. A Completely Modular Power Converter for High-Power High-Current DC Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    and filter components. Reliability and availability are other important requirements from the power converter connection of semiconductor devices, however, several centralized components (filters, transformer etc.) are used, which lead to multiple failure modes. Replacement of these large power components is both time

  13. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  14. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  15. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, J.S.; Sapak, D.L.; Ward, J.M.

    1990-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis Mole %): P[sub 2]O[sub 5], 45-70; Li[sub 2]O, 15-35; Na[sub 2]O, 0-10; Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], 10-15; Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0.01-6; La[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-6; SiO[sub 2], 0-8; B[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-8; MgO, 0-18; CaO, 0-15; SrO, 0-9; BaO, 0-9; ZnO, 0-15; the amounts of Li[sub 2]O and Na[sub 2]O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK and [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3] can be replaced by other lasing species. 3 figs.

  16. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator] [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager] [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact] [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE?EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven?stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy? technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling?up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke? unlimited Power Take?Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery...

  18. DIII-D ICRF high voltage power supply regulator upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cary, W.P.; Burley, B.L.; Grosnickle, W.H.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For reliable operation and component protection, of the 2 MW 30--120 MHz ICRF Amplifier System on DIII-D, it is desirable for the amplifier to respond to high VSWR conditions as rapidly as possible. This requires a rapid change in power which also means a rapid change in the high voltage power supply current demands. An analysis of the power supply`s regulator dynamics was needed to verify its expected operation during such conditions. Based on this information it was found that a new regulator with a larger dynamic range and some anticipation capability would be required. This paper will discuss the system requirements, the as-delivered regulator performance, and the improved performance after installation of the new regulator system. It will also be shown how this improvement has made the amplifier perform at higher power levels more reliably.

  19. RF Input Power Couplers for High Current SRF Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, V. F. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany; Anders, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany; Burrill, Andrew [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany; Knobloch, Jens [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany; Kugeler, Oliver [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany; Neumann, Axel [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany; Wang, Haipeng [JLAB

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High current SRF technology is being explored in present day accelerator science. The bERLinPro project is presently being built at HZB to address the challenges involved in high current SRF machines with the goal of generating and accelerating a 100 mA electron beam to 50 MeV in continuous wave (cw) mode at 1.3 GHz. One of the main challenges in this project is that of handling the high input RF power required for the photo-injector as well as booster cavities where there is no energy recovery process. A high power co-axial input power coupler is being developed to be used for the photo-injector and booster cavities at the nominal beam current. The coupler is based on the KEK–cERL design and has been modified to minimise the penetration of the coupler tip in the beam pipe without compromising on beam-power coupling (Qext ~105). Herein we report on the RF design of the high power (115 kW per coupler, dual couplers per cavity) bERLinPro (BP) coupler along with initial results on thermal calculations. We summarise the RF conditioning of the TTF-III couplers (modified for cw operation) performed in the past at BESSY/HZB. A similar conditioning is envisaged in the near future for the low current SRF photo-injector and the bERLinPro main linac cryomodule.

  20. High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

  1. Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)] [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Wilson, J.; Allison, R. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)] [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  2. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  3. R&D ERL: High power RF systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltsman, A.

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2.5 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  4. High-Power Microwave Switch Employing Electron Beam Triggering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power active microwave pulse compressor is described that modulates the quality factor Q of the energy storage cavity by a new means involving mode conversion controlled by a triggered electron-beam discharge through a switch cavity. The electron beam is emitted from a diamond-coated molybdenum cathode. This report describes the principle of operation, the design of the switch, the configuration used for the test, and the experimental results. The pulse compressor produced output pulses with 140 - Ã?Â?165 MW peak power, power gain of 16 - 20, and pulse duration of 16 - 20 ns at a frequency of 11.43 GHz.

  5. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

  6. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research Center Blvd. Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479)-443-5759 Email: marcelo@apei.net Website: www.apei.net High Temperature and High Power Density SiC Power Electronic...

  7. Ultralow-power local laser control of the dimer density in alkali-metal vapors through photodesorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankaj K. Jha; Konstantin E. Dorfman; Zhenhuan Yi; Luqi Yuan; Vladimir A. Sautenkov; Yuri V. Rostovtsev; George R. Welch; Aleksei M. Zheltikov; Marlan O. Scully

    2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultralow-power diode-laser radiation is employed to induce photodesorption of cesium from a partially transparent thin-film cesium adsorbate on a solid surface. Using resonant Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this photodesorption process enables an accurate local optical control of the density of dimer molecules in alkali-metal vapors.

  8. Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical an alternative approach to wind farming that has the potential to concurrently reduce the cost, size-axis wind turbine arrays John O. Dabiria) Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories and Bioengineering, California

  9. Early structure formation from primordial density fluctuations with a blue-tilted power spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki; Spergel, David; Yorke, Harold W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While observations of large-scale structure and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong constraints on the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) on scales larger than 10 Mpc, the amplitude of the power spectrum on sub-galactic length scales is much more poorly constrained. We study early structure formation in a cosmological model with a blue-tilted PPS. We assume that the standard scale-invariant PPS is modified at small length scales as $P(k) \\sim k^{m_{\\rm s}}$ with $m_{\\rm s} > 1$. We run a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to examine the dependence of the formation epoch and the characteristic mass of primordial stars on the tilt of the PPS. In models with $m_{\\rm s} > 1$, star-forming gas clouds are formed at $z > 100$, when formation of hydrogen molecules is inefficient because the intense CMB radiation destroys chemical intermediates. Without efficient coolant, the gas clouds gravitationally contract while keeping a high temperature. The protostars formed in such ...

  10. Science opportunities at high power accelerators like APT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents applications of high power RF proton linear accelerators to several fields. Radioisotope production is an area in which linacs have already provided new isotopes for use in medical and industrial applications. A new type of spallation neutron source, called a long-pulse spallation source (LPSS), is discussed for application to neutron scattering and to the production and use of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The concept of an accelerator-driven, transmutation of nuclear waste system, based on high power RF linac technology, is presented along with its impact on spent nuclear fuels.

  11. A Simple Relation between Plasma Density and Temperature in the Scrape-Off Layer of High Recycling Divertors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Simple Relation between Plasma Density and Temperature in the Scrape-Off Layer of High Recycling Divertors

  12. High power light emitting diode based setup for photobleaching fluorescent impurities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Laura

    High power light emitting diode based setup for photobleaching fluorescent impurities Tobias K be photobleached before final sample preparation. The instrument consists of high power light emitting diodes

  13. High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Development High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle...

  14. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation 2005 Diesel Engine...

  15. Population Ecology at the Range Edge Survival and Dispersal of a High-Density Lepidopteran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Population Ecology at the Range Edge Survival and Dispersal of a High-Density Lepidopteran Population Cecilia Ronnås Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences Department of Ecology Service/Repro, Uppsala 2011 #12;Population Ecology at the Range Edge. Survival and Dispersal of a High

  16. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y.W. Kang; D.E. Anderson; I.E. Campisi; M. Champion; M.T. Crofford; R.E. Fuja; P.A. Gurd; S. Hasan; K.-U. Kasemir; M.P. McCarthy; D. Stout; J.Y. Tang; A.V. Vassioutchenko; M. Wezensky; G.K. Davis; M. A. Drury; T. Powers; M. Stirbet

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavities have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducting and superconducting accelerating cavities and components.

  17. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  18. Screening for high-performance piezoelectrics using high-throughput density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armiento, Rickard R.

    We present a large-scale density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the ABO3 chemical space in the perovskite crystal structure, with the aim of identifying those that are relevant for forming piezoelectric materials. ...

  19. Shock waves in a Z-pinch and the formation of high energy density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, H. U. [Magneto-Inertial Fusion Technologies Inc. (MIFTI), Irvine, California 92612 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Irvine, Irvine California 92697 (United States); Ney, P. [Mount San Jacinto College, Menifee, California 92584 (United States); Presura, R. [University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, Nevada 89557-0208 (United States); Ellahi, Rahmat [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIU, Islamabad (Pakistan) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Shukla, P. K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Z-pinch liner, imploding onto a target plasma, evolves in a step-wise manner, producing a stable, magneto-inertial, high-energy-density plasma compression. The typical configuration is a cylindrical, high-atomic-number liner imploding onto a low-atomic-number target. The parameters for a terawatt-class machine (e.g., Zebra at the University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Terawatt Facility) have been simulated. The 2-1/2 D MHD code, MACH2, was used to study this configuration. The requirements are for an initial radius of a few mm for stable implosion; the material densities properly distributed, so that the target is effectively heated initially by shock heating and finally by adiabatic compression; and the liner's thickness adjusted to promote radial current transport and subsequent current amplification in the target. Since the shock velocity is smaller in the liner, than in the target, a stable-shock forms at the interface, allowing the central load to accelerate magnetically and inertially, producing a magneto-inertial implosion and high-energy density plasma. Comparing the implosion dynamics of a low-Z target with those of a high-Z target demonstrates the role of shock waves in terms of compression and heating. In the case of a high-Z target, the shock wave does not play a significant heating role. The shock waves carry current and transport the magnetic field, producing a high density on-axis, at relatively low temperature. Whereas, in the case of a low-Z target, the fast moving shock wave preheats the target during the initial implosion phase, and the later adiabatic compression further heats the target to very high energy density. As a result, the compression ratio required for heating the low-Z plasma to very high energy densities is greatly reduced.

  20. Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will be utilized in the design of a 40-MW high efficiency Vision 21 power plant. Additionally, these tests are providing the valuable insight for DFC/Turbine power plant potential for load following, increased reliability, and enhanced operability.

  1. Proof of the the Riemann hypothesis from the strong density hypothesis via a power sum method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuanyou Cheng; S. Albeverio

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the $\\varpi$-form of the prime number theorem as $\\varpi(x) =O(x\\sp{1/2} \\log\\sp{2} x)$, where $\\varpi(x) =\\sum\\sb{n\\le x}\\ \\bigl(\\Lambda(n) -1\\big)$ with the sum running through the set of all natural integers. Let ${\\mathsf Z}(s) = -\\tfrac{\\zeta\\sp{\\prime}(s)}{\\zeta(s)} -\\zeta(s)$. We use the classical integral formula for the Heaviside function in the form of ${\\mathsf H}(x) =\\int\\sb{m -i\\infty} \\sp{m +i\\infty} \\tfrac{x\\sp{s}}{s} \\dd s$ where $m >0$, and ${\\mathsf H}(x)$ is 0 when $\\tfrac{1}{2} 1$. However, we diverge from the literature by applying Cauchy's residue theorem to the function ${\\mathsf Z}(s) \\cdot \\tfrac{x\\sp{s}} {s}$, rather than $-\\tfrac{\\zeta\\sp{\\prime}(s)} {\\zeta(s)} \\cdot \\tfrac{x\\sp{s}}{s}$, so that we may utilize the formula for $\\tfrac{1}{2}1$ of ${\\mathsf Z}(s)$, we use induction to reduce the size of the exponent $\\theta$ in $\\varpi(x) =O(x\\sp{\\theta} \\log\\sp{2} x)$, while we also use induction on $x$ when $\\theta$ is fixed. We prove that the Riemann hypothesis is valid under the assumptions of the explicit strong density hypothesis and the Lindel\\"of hypothesis recently proven, via a result of the implication on the zero free regions from the remainder terms of the prime number theorem by the power sum method of Tur\\'an.

  2. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.] [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  3. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covrig, S. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 ?A rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 ?A beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  4. Coherent beam combiner for a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase conjugate laser mirror employing Brillouin-enhanced four wave mixing allows multiple independent laser apertures to be phase locked producing an array of diffraction-limited beams with no piston phase errors. The beam combiner has application in laser and optical systems requiring high average power, high pulse energy, and low beam divergence. A broad range of applications exist in laser systems for industrial processing, especially in the field of metal surface treatment and laser shot peening.

  5. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  6. Cooling System for the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    and a remote PVSS supervision station connected via Ethernet. Operation Modes: Cooling of proximity cryogenicsCooling System for the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment Haug F., Pereira H., Silva P., Pezzetti M a free mercury jet inside a normal conducting pulsed 15 T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid

  7. POWER-TO-GAS PROCESS WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    · Transportation of energy from production areas to consumption areas Substitute Natural Gas (methane) Myriam DeP · Use of existing natural gas network · Mid or long term storage · Transportation · Production. Energy background 2. Power-to-Substitute Natural Gas process with high temperature steam electrolysis

  8. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  9. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high­peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based is then to implement the control algorithms on a physical tube in order to build a ``smart tube'' HPM source. By smart

  10. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based is then to implement the control algorithms on a physical tube in order to build a "smart tube" HPM source. By smart

  11. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction Present day high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the * *single shot], [2]. There are however commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples repetition* * rate is attractive for practical implementation of an HPM system. The physics

  12. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Present day high­peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of which include a system based implementation of an HPM system. The physics of the interaction between a relativistic electron beam and various

  13. Iterative Learning Control Applications to High Power Microwave Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    day high-peak power microwave (HPM) sources typically operate in the * *single shot regime because commercial HPM systems that operate at modest repetition rates, two examples of* * which include a system the control algorithms on a * *physical tube in order to build a "smart tube" HPM source. By smart tube we

  14. Generation of high power sub-terahertz radiation from a gyrotron with second harmonic oscillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Teruo; Yamada, Naoki; Ikeuti, Shinji; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Ogasawara, Shinya [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8463 (Japan); Manuilov, Vladimir N. [Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Shimozuma, Takashi; Kubo, Shin; Nishiura, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Kawahata, Kazuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New power records of second harmonic gyrotron oscillation have been demonstrated in the sub-THz band. The first step gyrotron of demountable type had succeeded in oscillation with power more than 50 kW at 350 GHz and nearly 40 kW at 390 GHz [T. Notake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 225002 (2009)]. Then, the second step gyrotron of sealed-off type was manufactured. A cavity mode was carefully selected to avoid mode competition with a neighboring fundamental harmonic mode. Matching of the selected mode with the electron gun was also circumspectly considered. The second step gyrotron has attained higher power radiation than the first gyrotron. The maximum single mode power was 62 kW at 388 GHz. Then, the electron gun was modified for use of a different cavity mode with a higher coupling coefficient than that for the 62 kW mode. The new mode proved single mode oscillation power of 83 kW at about 389 GHz. These results are new second-harmonic-oscillation power records for sub-THz gyrotrons. The present study constitutes foundations of development of high power second harmonic sub-THz gyrotron for application to collective Thomson scattering measurement on fusion plasmas, especially on high-density plasmas such as those produced in LHD [N. Ohyabu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 055002 (2006)]. This paper reports the design consideration to realize high power single mode gyrotron oscillation at second harmonic and the examination of oscillation characteristics of the gyrotron.

  15. High Density Neutron Star Equation of State from 4U 1636-53 Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. S. Olson

    2002-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A bound on the compactness of the neutron star in the low mass x-ray binary 4U 1636-53 is used to estimate the equation of state of neutron star matter at high density. Observations of 580 Hz oscillations during the rising phase of x-ray bursts from this system appear to be due to two antipodal hot spots on the surface of an accreting neutron star rotating at 290 Hz, implying the compactness of the neutron star is less than 0.163 at the 90% confidence level. The equation of state of high density neutron star matter estimated from this compactness limit is significantly stiffer than extrapolations to high density of equations of state determined by fits of experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and properties of light nuclei to two- and three-body interaction potentials.

  16. Increasing the power density when using inert matrix fuels to reduce production of transuranics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Deinert, M.R. [University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78715-0162 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing the production of transuranics is a goal of most advanced nuclear fuel cycles. One way to do this is to recycle the transuranics into the same reactors that are currently producing them using an inert matrix fuel. In previous work we have modeled such a reactor where 72%, of the core is comprised of standard enriched uranium fuel pins, with the remaining 28% fuel made from Yttria stabilized zirconium, in which transuranics are loaded. A key feature of this core is that all of the transuranics produced by the uranium fuel assemblies are later burned in inert matrix fuel assemblies. It has been shown that this system can achieve reductions in transuranic waste of more than 86%. The disadvantage of such a system is that the core power rating must be significantly lower than a standard pressurized water reactor. One reason for the lower power is that high burnup of the uranium fuel precludes a critical level of reactivity at the end of the campaign. Increasing the uranium enrichment and changing the pin pitch are two ways to increase burnup while maintaining criticality. In this paper we use MCNPX and a linear reactivity model to quantify the effect of these two parameters on the end of campaign reactivity. Importantly, we show that in the region of our proposed reactor, enrichment increases core reactivity by 0.02 per percent uranium 235 and pin pitch increases reactivity by 0.02 per mm. Reactivity is lost at a rate of 0.005 per MWd/kgIHM uranium burnup. (authors)

  17. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  18. High-Beta, Improved Confinement Reversed-Field Pinch Plasmas at High Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Brower, D. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Hartog, D. J. Den [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Deng, B. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ding, W. X. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ebrahimi, F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ennis, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Fiksel, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Franz, P. [EURATOM / ENEA, Italy; Gangadhara, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Goetz, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; O'Connell, R, [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Oliva, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Prager, S. C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reusch, J. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sarff, J. S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Yates, T. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Madison Symmetric Torus Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991 discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching ne=41019 m 3. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  19. High-{beta}, improved confinement reversed-field pinch plasmas at high density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, M. D.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D. A.; Fiksel, G.; Gangadhara, S.; Goetz, J. A.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S. P.; Prager, S. C.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bonomo, F.; Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Brower, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1594 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching n{sub e}=4x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  20. Wind: wind power density maps at 50m above ground and 1km resolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    density for Ghana. (Purpose):HTMLREMOVEDHTMLREMOVEDTo provide information on the wind resource potential in Ghana. Data and Resources Download MapsZIP Download Maps More...

  1. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 400m...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    density for Sri Lanka (Purpose):HTMLREMOVEDHTMLREMOVEDTo provide information on the wind resource potential within Sri Lanka and selected offshore areas (Supplemental...

  2. Wind: wind power density maps at 50 m above ground and 1km resolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    density for Cuba. (Purpose):HTMLREMOVEDHTMLREMOVEDTo provide information on the wind resource potential in Cuba. Data and Resources Download MapsZIP Download Maps More...

  3. Low power low-density parity-checking (ldpc) codes decoder design using dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weihuang

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a low-power LDPC decoder design based on speculative scheduling of energy necessary to decode dynamically varying data frame in both block-fading channels and general AWGN channels. A model of a memory-efficient low-power high...

  4. High Efficiency Broadband Envelope-Tracking Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Jonmei Johana

    of the combiner, power losses, and amplifier switchingand the power ). The power loss in the modulator can besuch that The dynamic power loss of the dynamic modulator

  5. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  6. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenig, Clarence L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2200.degree. C. and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made.

  7. New developments for high power electron beam equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melde, C.; Jaesch, G.; Maedler, E. [Von Ardenne Anlagentechnnik GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High power electron guns for industrial use work in the range of power of more than 10 kW up to 1200 kW. The only suitable principle for this purpose is that used in axial guns. Elements necessary for these EB guns and their design are described. The outstanding properties required for applications in production and R & D can only be achieved if the equipment is supplemented by a high voltage supply, beam guidance supply, vacuum generator and the various devices for observation, measurement and control. Standard rules for both the technical demands in application and dimensioning of some of the necessary components are explained. Special developments, such as high speed deflection, observation by BSE-camera and arc-free electron beam systems are also presented.

  8. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PROTON ACCELERATORS FOR HIGH POWER APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WENG, W.T.

    2006-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many applications requiring high power proton accelerators of various kinds. However, each type of proton accelerator can only provide beam with certain characteristics, hence the match of accelerators and their applications need careful evaluation. In this talk, the beam parameters and performance limitations of linac, cyclotron, synchrotron, and FFAG accelerators are studied and their relative merits for application in neutron, muon, neutrino, and ADS will be assessed in terms of beam energy, intensity, bunch length, repetition rate, and beam power requirements. A possible match between the applications and the accelerator of choice is presented in a matrix form. The accelerator physics and technology issues and challenges involved will also be discussed.

  10. Advanced High Energy and High Power Battery Systems for Automotive Applications Khalil Amine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    -dependent Industry 41% Oil-dependent 17% Oil-dependent 72% 22% 1% 5% U.S. Oil Consumption by End-use Sector 199.30am Advanced High Energy and High Power Battery Systems for Automotive Applications Khalil Amine Argonne National Laboratory Abstract To meet the high-energy requirem ent that can enab le the 40-miles

  11. Fast neutron thermionic-converters for high-power space nuclear power systems. [Na; K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pupko, V.Y.; Vizgalov, A.V.; Raskach, F.P.; Shestjorkin, A.G.; Almambetov, A.K. (Obninsk, Kaluga region, USSR (SU)); Bystrov, P.I.; Yuditsky, V.D.; Sobolev, Y.A.; Sinyavsky, V.V.; Bakanov, Y.A.; Lipovy, N.M. (SIA Energiya'', Kaliningrad, Moscow (USSR)); Gryaznov, G.M.; Serbin, V.I.; Trykhanov, Y.L. (SIA Krasnaya Zvezda'', Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of tests with a thermionic reactor-converter utilizing fast neutrons and a high temperature cooling system are described. The reactor can be useful for a wide range of applications with a specific mass of about 20 kg/kW and power level of 2500 kW. (AIP)

  12. The powerful high-voltage glow discharge electron gun and power unit on its base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernov, V.A. [All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and operational characteristics and features of powerful electron gun with cold cathodes on the basis of high-voltage glow discharge (HGD) are submitted. The systems, ensuring their work are described. Some results of operation and applications of these non-traditional electron guns are presented.

  13. High power semiconductor laser sources. Annual report, 12 March 1985-11 March 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, R.; Salzman, J.; Yariv

    1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Unstable semiconductor lasers were fabricated, and their potential as high power laser sources was analyzed.

  14. Parametric Study of Emerging High Power Accelerator Applications Using Accelerator Systems Model (ASM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berwald, D H; Myers, T J; Paulson, C C; Peacock, M A; Piaszczyk, C M; Rathke, J W; Piechowiak, E M

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parametric Study of Emerging High Power Accelerator Applications Using Accelerator Systems Model (ASM)

  15. Decoupling of pion coupling f_? from quarks at high density in three models, and its possible observational consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjari Bagchi; Monika Sinha; Mira Dey; Jishnu Dey

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Chiral symmetry is restored at high density, quarks become nearly massless and pion, the Goldstone of the symmetry breaking decouples from the quarks. What happens at high density is important for finding the density dependence of Strange Quark Matter (SQM), - which in turn is relevant for understanding the structure of compact stars.

  16. Technology Survey and Performance Scaling for the Design of High Power Nuclear Electric Power and Propulsion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , use of electric primary propulsion in flight systems has been limited to low-power, solar electric thruster output power are identified. Design evolutions are presented for three thrusters that would1 Technology Survey and Performance Scaling for the Design of High Power Nuclear Electric Power

  17. Results of a preliminary, high power RF thruster test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, L.; Karras, T.; Frind, G.; Holmes, D.G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to demonstrate a high power electrodeless, RF electric propulsion concept. This was successfully accomplished. No attempt was made to optimize the design of the thruster with regard to physical dimensions, mass flow, nozzle shape, operational frequency, or power level. Measurements made were chamber pressure, total and static pressures at the nozzle exit plane and exhaust tank pressure. Mass flows range from about 0.4 to 1 gm/sec and, assuming perfect gas relationships, specific impulses up to 580 sec were obtained. Typical chamber pressure was 300 torr exhausting to a tank pressure of about 10 torr. Working fluids used were argon, helium and mixtures of the two. No degration of the device was detected after 12 start/stop cycles, about three hours of total run time, and a maximum input power of 70 kW. 10 refs.

  18. SLAC Next-Generation High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellomo, P.; MacNair, D.; /SLAC; ,

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAC recently commissioned forty high availability (HA) magnet power supplies for Japan's ATF2 project. SLAC is now developing a next-generation N+1 modular power supply with even better availability and versatility. The goal is to have unipolar and bipolar output capability. It has novel topology and components to achieve very low output voltage to drive superconducting magnets. A redundant, embedded, digital controller in each module provides increased bandwidth for use in beam-based alignment, and orbit correction systems. The controllers have independent inputs for connection to two external control nodes. Under fault conditions, they sense failures and isolate the modules. Power supply speed mitigates the effects of fault transients and obviates subsequent magnet standardization. Hot swap capability promises higher availability and other exciting benefits for future, more complex, accelerators, and eventually the International Linear Collider project.

  19. Current and Future High Power Operation of Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourbanis, I.; Adamson, P.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Chou, W.; Morris, D.; Seyia, K.; Wu, G.; Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing the MI beam power at 120 GeV to 400KW. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the plans to increase the power to 700KW for NOvA and to 2.1 MW for project X.

  20. Power/energy use cases for high performance computing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M; Hammond, Steven [National Renewable Energy Laboratory] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Elmore, Ryan; Munch, Kristin

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power and Energy have been identified as a first order challenge for future extreme scale high performance computing (HPC) systems. In practice the breakthroughs will need to be provided by the hardware vendors. But to make the best use of the solutions in an HPC environment, it will likely require periodic tuning by facility operators and software components. This document describes the actions and interactions needed to maximize power resources. It strives to cover the entire operational space in which an HPC system occupies. The descriptions are presented as formal use cases, as documented in the Unified Modeling Language Specification [1]. The document is intended to provide a common understanding to the HPC community of the necessary management and control capabilities. Assuming a common understanding can be achieved, the next step will be to develop a set of Application Programing Interfaces (APIs) to which hardware vendors and software developers could utilize to steer power consumption.

  1. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  2. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 547 (2005) 663678 Determining axial fuel-rod power-density profiles from in-core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    is proposed for determining power-density profiles in nuclear reactor fuel rods from neutron flux measurementsNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 547 (2005) 663­678 Determining axial fuel-rod power-density profiles from in-core neutron flux measurements J. Kenneth Shultis� Department

  3. Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Micro Refrigerators Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris LaBounty, Edward Croke2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Micro Refrigerators Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris Experiments were carried out to determine the cooling power density of SiGe/Si superlattice microcoolers by integrating thin film metal resistor heaters on the cooling surface. By evaluating the maximum cooling

  4. High power battery test methods for hybrid vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, G.L.; Haskins, H.; Heinrich, B.; Sutula, R.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commonly used EV battery tests are not very suitable for testing hybrid vehicle batteries, which may be primarily intended to supply vehicle acceleration power. The capacity of hybrid vehicle batteries will be relatively small, they will typically operate over a restricted range of states-of-charge, and they may seldom if ever be fully recharged. Further, hybrid propulsion system designs will commonly impose a higher regeneration content than is typical for electric vehicles. New test methods have been developed for use in characterizing battery performance and life for hybrid vehicle use. The procedures described in this paper were developed from the requirements of the government-industry cooperative Partnership for A New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program; however, they are expected to have broad application to the testing of energy storage devices for hybrid vehicles. The most important performance measure for a high power battery is its pulse power capability as a function of state-of-charge for both discharge and regeneration pulses. It is also important to characterize cycle life, although the {open_quote}cycles{close_quote} involved are quite different from the conventional full-discharge, full-recharge cycle commonly used for EV batteries, This paper illustrates in detail several test profiles which have been selected for PNGV battery testing, along with some sample results and lessons learned to date from the use of these test profiles. The relationship between the PNGV energy storage requirements and these tests is described so that application of the test methods can be made to other hybrid vehicle performance requirements as well. The resulting test procedures can be used to characterize the pulse power capability of high power energy storage devices including batteries and ultracapacitors, as well as the life expectancy of such devices, for either power assist or dual mode hybrid propulsion system designs.

  5. High-power LEDs based on InGaAsP/InP heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakovics, V. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (Hungary); Imenkov, A. N.; Sherstnev, V. V.; Serebrennikova, O. Yu.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Yakovlev, Yu. P., E-mail: Yak@iropt1.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with mesa diameters of 100, 200, and 300 ?m are developed on the basis of InGaAsP/InP heterostructures. The mesas are close in shape to a truncated cone with a generatrix inclination angle of ?45° in the vicinity of the active region of the LED, with a ring etched around the mesa serving as a reflector. The emission spectra and directivity patterns of these LEDs are studied in a wide range of current densities and it is shown that radiative recombination is dominant to a current density of ?5000 A/cm{sup 2}, which makes these structures promising for the development of high-power LEDs. An emission power of ?14 mW is obtained in the continuous-wave mode (I = 0.2 A, ? = 1.1 ?m), and that of 77 mW, in the pulsed mode (I = 2 A, ? = 1.1 ?m), which corresponds to external quantum efficiencies of 6.2 and 3.4%, respectively.

  6. High-Speed Transmitters in 90nm CMOS for High-Density Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    and the optical bandwidth's square-root dependence on average current. Output power saturation due to self-heating-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation [3]. Device performance is limited by a combination of electrical device parasitics electrical field, the reflected beam is modulated by changing the voltage across the device. While MQWMs don

  7. The wind power probability density forecast problem can be formulated as: forecast the wind power pdf at time step t for each look-ahead time step t+k of a given time-horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    The wind power probability density forecast problem can be formulated as: forecast the wind power ahead) knowing a set of explanatory variables (e.g. numerical weather predictions (NWPs), wind power measured values). Translating this sentence to an equation, we have: where pt+k is the wind power

  8. A High-Density Seismic Network for Earthquake Early Warning in Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    for Taiwan to seek solutions through scientific research. The Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) is oneA High-Density Seismic Network for Earthquake Early Warning in Taiwan Based on Low Cost Sensors for recording strong ground motions. The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) research group at National Taiwan Uni

  9. Gray molasses cooling of 39 K to a high phase-space density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    present new techniques in cooling 39 K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a newepl draft Gray molasses cooling of 39 K to a high phase-space density G. Salomon1 , L. Fouch´e1 , P, IOGS, CNRS, 351 cours de la Lib´eration, 33405 Talence, France PACS 37.10.De ­ Atom cooling methods

  10. Surface Science Letters Surface vibrations of a highly ordered low-density alkanethiol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    ; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Vibrations of adsorbed molecules; Gold; LowSurface Science Letters Surface vibrations of a highly ordered low-density alkanethiol monolayer-energy surface vibrational structure of the 11:5 Â p 3 striped phase of 1-decanethiol (C10H21SH) chemi- sorbed

  11. Approach for control of high-density plasma reactors through optimal pulse shaping*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    Approach for control of high-density plasma reactors through optimal pulse shaping* Tyrone L and it relies on a physical model of the plasma reactor used in conjunction with an optimal control algorithm surface in a HDP reactor can be biased separately to enable relatively independent control over plasma

  12. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

  13. Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated circuit technology. To

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    circuit technology. To come up with the heat generation, microscale cooling has been thought as a promising technology. Prediction of heat transfer rate is crucial in design of microscale cooling device1 Abstract Heat generation from electronics increases with the advent of high-density integrated

  14. Calcium balance and bone density in immature horses fed a high protein diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spooner, Holly Sue

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    is easy and non-invasive, the variability among horses is quite high, and thus it is best used for observations of changes in bone density over time for a specific animal. Computer assisted tomography (CAT scan) and dual energy x-ray 7...

  15. Turbulent structure of high-density suspensions formed under waves Michael P. Lamb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; KEYWORDS: wave boundary layer, oscillatory, high-density suspension, fluid mud, turbulent kinetic energy on the interactions between turbulent wave boundary layers and a predominantly silt-sized sediment bed. Under a wide, and sediment concentration revealed that the wave boundary layer, while typically >1 cm thick in sediment

  16. High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

  17. Electrostatically-driven elastomer components for user-reconfigurable high density microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maharbiz, Michel

    Electrostatically-driven elastomer components for user-reconfigurable high density microfluidics microfluidic system intended for very large scale integration (VLSI) microfluidics. By adding thin film metal with standard PDMS microfluidics, has actuation voltages low enough to be driven by commercial CMOS IC's and can

  18. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The Density Perturbation Power Spectrum to Second-Order Corrections in the Slow-Roll Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewan D. Stewart; Jin-Ook Gong

    2001-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We set up a formalism that can be used to calculate the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations produced during inflation up to arbitrary order in the slow-roll expansion, and explicitly calculate the power spectrum and spectral index up to second-order corrections.

  20. Electron density profile measurements at a self-focusing ion beam with high current density and low energy extracted through concave electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Y., E-mail: s1220908@u.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nakamiya, A.; Sakakita, H. [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan) [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan); Hirano, Y. [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan) [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan); Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H. [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)] [Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-focusing phenomenon has been observed in a high current density and low energy ion beam. In order to study the mechanism of this phenomenon, a special designed double probe to measure the electron density and temperature is installed into the chamber where the high current density ion beam is injected. Electron density profile is successfully measured without the influence of the ion beam components. Estimated electron temperature and density are ?0.9 eV and ?8 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup ?3} at the center of ion beam cross section, respectively. It was found that a large amount of electrons are spontaneously accumulated in the ion beam line in the case of self-forcing state.

  1. Characterization of the Li(Si)/CoS(2) couple for a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determined the capabilities of a thermal battery with high-voltage and high-power requirements, a detailed characterization of the candidate LiSi/LiCl-LiBr-LiF/CoS{sub 2} electrochemical couple was conducted. The rate capability of this system was investigated using 0.75 inch-dia. and 1.25 inch-dia. single and multiple cells under isothermal conditions, where the cells were regularly pulsed at increasingly higher currents. Limitations of the electronic loads and power supplies necessitated using batteries to obtain the desired maximum current densities possible for this system. Both 1.25 inch-dia. and 3 inch-dia. stacks were used with the number of cells ranging from 5 to 20. Initial tests involved 1.25 inch-dia. cells, where current densities in excess of 15 A/cm{sup 2} (>200 W/cm{sup 2}) were attained with 20-cell batteries during 1-s pulses. In subsequent follow-up tests with 3 inch-dia., 10-cell batteries, ten 400-A 1-s pulses were delivered over an operating period often minutes. These tests formed the foundation for subsequent full-sized battery tests with 125 cells with this chemistry.

  2. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  3. Spectroscopic imaging of self-organization in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore, Singapore; Andersson, Joakim; Ni, Pavel; Anders, Andre

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation.

  4. Technology survey and performance scaling for the design of high power nuclear electric power and propulsion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Daniel B., Jr

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power nuclear electric propulsion systems have the capability to enable many next-generation space exploration applications. To date, use of electric primary propulsion in flight systems has been limited to low-power, ...

  5. KT McDonald 4th High-Power Targetry Workshop May 2, 2011 1 The High-Power Target System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    in system! Targets for 2-4 MW Proton Beams No such thing as "solid-target-only" at this power level. #12;KT that will be limited to less than 2 MW, static solid targets continue to be appealing. #12;KT McDonald 4th High-PowerKT McDonald 4th High-Power Targetry Workshop May 2, 2011 1 The High-Power Target System for a Muon

  6. Measurements of continuous mix evolution in a high energy density shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E., E-mail: loomis@lanl.gov; Doss, F.; Flippo, K.; Fincke, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the novel integration of streaked radiography into a counter-flowing High Energy Density (HED) shear environment that continually measures a growing mix layer of Al separating two low-density CH foams. Measurements of the mix width allow us to validate compressible turbulence models and with streaked imaging, make this possible with a minimal number of experiments on large laser facilities. In this paper, we describe how the HED counter-flowing shear layer is created and diagnosed with streaked radiography. We then compare the streaked data to previous two-dimensional, single frame radiography and radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the experiment with inline compressible turbulent mix models.

  7. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel) [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel)] [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Paul, M.; Friedman, M.; Tessler, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm{sup 3}) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ?200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm{sup 2} and volume power density of ?2 MW/cm{sup 3} at a lithium flow of ?4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 1–2 mA) at SARAF.

  8. Highly Conductive and Porous Activated Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for High-Power Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highly Conductive and Porous Activated Reduced Graphene Oxide Films for High-Power Supercapacitors for a free-standing carbon film reported to date. A two-electrode supercapacitor using these carbon films. KEYWORDS: Graphene, flexible film, chemical activation, supercapacitors Free-standing thin film materials

  9. Plasma Physics Challenges of MMPlasma Physics Challenges of MM--toto--THz and High Power MicrowaveTHz and High Power Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid StateSolid State Microwave Power ElectronicsMicrowave Power Electronics · Both convert kinetic Devices (Avg) Vacuum HPM (Peak) Solid State Lasers (Peak) Solid State Devices (Avg) Power(W) (Single ...BUT ... For f > 100 GHz VEDs frontier 1/f2P High power limit for Solid State 1/f 2 and HPM Frontier

  10. Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generationa...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James E.

    confronting "classic" high power microwave HPM generators including long-life bright electron beam sources, high power mmw-to-THz sources are compared and contrasted to those of HPM generation, and future assume long pulse or average power, with exceptions be- tween 1 and 10 GHz for high power microwave HPM

  11. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy) [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)] [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 ?m and a mass density of 1.6 g cm{sup ?3}. This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ?22 k?), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors.

  12. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  13. High energy density and extreme field physics in the transparent-overdense regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jung, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniyappan, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dromey, B [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Henig, A [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Horlein, R [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Kefer, D. [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Tajima, T [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Yan, X [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Habs, D [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN-UNIV MUNCHEN

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Conclusions of this report are: (1) high harmonics generated on solid surfaces are a very versatile source of intense coherent XUV radiation; (2) high harmonics can be used to probe and monitor the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with nm-scale foil targets; (3) direct measurement of target density during relativistic interaction; (4) high harmonics generated with PW-scale short-pulse lasers could serve as unique backlighting sources for a wide range experiments; and (5) Trident can be a test bed to develop such experiments and the required instrumentation.

  14. Cell-Bridge-Based Connection of High Density Sensor Elements Akimasa Okada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    , and waste the power for communication. In this paper, we propose a novel network system named "cell bridge a similar goal, "Two-Dimensional Signal Transmission"[3] is studied. This technology realizes the flexible , and Hiroyuki Shinoda In this paper, we propose a novel network system named "cell bridge system" for a high

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research Center Blvd. Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479)-443-5759 Email: mschupb@apei.net Website: www.apei.net High Power Density Silicon Carbide Power Electronic Converters...

  16. Commissioning the new high power rf system for the AGS with high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Deng, D.P; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Otis, A.; Sanders, R.T.; Zaltsman, A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high power rf system has been installed in the AGS in order to raise the beam loading limit to beyond 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. The old system was limited to 2.2 {times} 10{sup l3} ppp by: available real power, multi-loop instability, and transient beam loading during batch filling from the Booster. The key components of the new system are: new power amplifiers in the tunnel using the Thomson-CSF TH573 300kW tetrode, rf feedback around the power stage, and reduction of the 10 cavities` R/Q by 1.8 by additional gap capacitors. Commissioning of the new rf system with high intensity beam is described. The intensity goal for the 1994 running period is 4 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. To date, 3.7 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp has been achieved.

  17. High damage-resistant Mo mirror for high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.; Okamoto, H.; Matsusue, N.; Kitajima, K.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-purity molybdenum (Mo) mirror was developed by an electron-beam melting method (e.b.m. Mo mirror). For high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser, the e.b.m. Mo mirror has two to four times higher surface damage threshold than that of an Au-coated glass mirror and three times longer lifetime than that of a powder metallurgy Mo mirror (p.m. Mo mirror) when laser energy density lower than 60 J/cm/sup 2/ was irradiated with a 0.5-pps repetition rate. It was found that the difference between the e.b.m. Mo mirror and the p.m. Mo mirror at the laser-damage threshold was due to the five surface without voids and the small amount of impurities.

  18. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  19. IN-VEHICLE, HIGH-POWER ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (BATTERY) Power Electronics Laboratory (PEL) Power Electronics Laboratory (PEL) Battery Energy Storage Technology (BEST) Center Battery Energy Storage Technology (BEST)...

  20. Thermodynamics and Structural Properties of the High Density Gaussian Core Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atsushi Ikeda; Kunimasa Miyazaki

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically study thermodynamic and structural properties of the one-component Gaussian core model (GCM) at very high densities. The solid-fluid phase boundary is carefully determined. We find that the density dependence of both the freezing and melting temperatures obey the asymptotic relation, $\\log T_f$, $\\log T_m \\propto -\\rho^{2/3}$, where $\\rho$ is the number density, which is consistent with Stillinger's conjecture. Thermodynamic quantities such as the energy and pressure and the structural functions such as the static structure factor are also investigated in the fluid phase for a wide range of temperature above the phase boundary. We compare the numerical results with the prediction of the liquid theory with the random phase approximation (RPA). At high temperatures, the results are in almost perfect agreement with RPA for a wide range of density, as it has been already shown in the previous studies. In the low temperature regime close to the phase boundary line, although RPA fails to describe the structure factors and the radial distribution functions at the length scales of the interparticle distance, it successfully predicts their behaviors at shorter length scales. RPA also predicts thermodynamic quantities such as the energy, pressure, and the temperature at which the thermal expansion coefficient becomes negative, almost perfectly. Striking ability of RPA to predict thermodynamic quantities even at high densities and low temperatures is understood in terms of the decoupling of the length scales which dictate thermodynamic quantities from the interparticle distance which dominates the peak structures of the static structure factor due to the softness of the Gaussian core potential.

  1. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  2. Addendum to ``Decoupling of pion coupling $f_?$ from quarks at high density in three models, and its possible observational consequences"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjari Bagchi; Monika Sinha; Mira Dey; Jishnu Dey

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The pions decouple from quarks while their coupling to nucleons $g_{\\pi NN}$ remains unchanged at high density. This will have consequences for some recent papers.

  3. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Yi, E-mail: yzou@utexas.edu; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time.

  4. Diagnostic evaluation of power fade phenomena and calendar life reduction in high-power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; McLarnon, Frank

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIFE REDUCTION IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES RobertRaman, AFM Introduction Lithium-ion batteries are being

  5. Constraining and applying a generic high-density equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark G. Alford; G. F. Burgio; Sophia Han; Gabriele Taranto; Dario Zappalà

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the "constant speed of sound" (CSS) parameterization of the equation of state of high density matter, and its application to the Field Correlator Method (FCM) model of quark matter. We show how observational constraints on the maximum mass and typical radius of neutron stars are expressed as constraints on the CSS parameters. We find that the observation of a $2\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ star already severely constrains the CSS parameters, and is particularly difficult to accommodate if the squared speed of sound in the high density phase is assumed to be around $1/3$ or less. We show that the FCM equation of state can be accurately represented by the CSS parameterization. We display the mapping between the FCM and CSS parameters, and see that FCM only allows equations of state in a restricted subspace of the CSS parameters.

  6. Constraining and applying a generic high-density equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alford, Mark G; Han, Sophia; Taranto, Gabriele; Zappalà, Dario

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the "constant speed of sound" (CSS) parameterization of the equation of state of high density matter, and its application to the Field Correlator Method (FCM) model of quark matter. We show how observational constraints on the maximum mass and typical radius of neutron stars are expressed as constraints on the CSS parameters. We find that the observation of a $2\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ star already severely constrains the CSS parameters, and is particularly difficult to accommodate if the squared speed of sound in the high density phase is assumed to be around $1/3$ or less. We show that the FCM equation of state can be accurately represented by the CSS parameterization. We display the mapping between the FCM and CSS parameters, and see that FCM only allows equations of state in a restricted subspace of the CSS parameters.

  7. Ground state properties and high pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Systematic density functional calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure induced structural transition of PuO$_{2}$. To properly describe the strong correlation in the Pu $5f$ electrons, the local density approximation$+U$ and the generalized gradient approximation$+U$ theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize the $U$ parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at the nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground state fluorite structure and high pressure cotunnite structure. The best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter $U$ at around 4 eV within the LDA$+U$ approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground state, we further in...

  8. Accretion Disc Turbulence and the X-Ray Power Spectra of Black Hole High States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael A. Nowak; Robert V. Wagoner

    1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The high state of black hole candidates is characterized by a quasi- thermal emission component at $kT \\sim 1$ keV. In addition, this state tends to have very low variability which indicates that it is relatively stable, at least on {\\it short} time scales. Most models of the high state imply that the bulk of the emission comes from an optically thick accretion disc; therefore, this state may be an excellent laboratory for testing our ideas about the physics of accretion discs. In this work we consider the implications of assuming that accretion disc viscosity arises from some form of turbulence. Specifically, we consider the simple case of three dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence. It is found that the coupling of such turbulence to acoustic modes in the disc can alter the disc emission. We calculate the amplitude and frequencies of this modulation, and we express our results in terms of the X-ray power spectral density. We compare our calculations with observations of the black hole candidate GS 1124-683, and show that for certain parameters we can reproduce some of the high frequency power. We then briefly explore mechanisms for producing the low frequency power, and note the difficulty that a single variability mechanism has in reproducing the full range of observed variability. In addition, we outline ways in which future spacecraft missions -- such as USA and XTE -- can further constrain our model, especially at frequencies above $\\sim 10^2$ Hz.

  9. Isothermal and shock compression of high density ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, F.W.; Persson, P.A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Olinger, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the widespread use of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP) for energetic materials applications, relatively little data is available regarding their behavior under shock loading. We have evaluated the shock Hugoniots of AN and AP at high initial density ({ge} 94% TMD) to pressures of approximately 20 GPa. We have used sound speed measurements, isothermal compfession X-ray diffraction experiments and shock loading experiments to further explore the behavior of the two materials at elevated pressures.

  10. Isothermal and shock compression of high density ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, F.W.; Persson, P.A. (New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)); Olinger, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the widespread use of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium perchlorate (AP) for energetic materials applications, relatively little data is available regarding their behavior under shock loading. We have evaluated the shock Hugoniots of AN and AP at high initial density ([ge] 94% TMD) to pressures of approximately 20 GPa. We have used sound speed measurements, isothermal compfession X-ray diffraction experiments and shock loading experiments to further explore the behavior of the two materials at elevated pressures.

  11. The development of a correlation for determining oil density in high temperature reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witte, Thurman William

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRELATION FOR DETERMINING OIL DENSITY IN HIGH TEMPERATURE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by Thurman William Witte Jr. Approved as to style and content by... change during the depletion of the reservoir. With the current state of techno logy in the petroleum industry reservoirs are being discovered at very great depths with tempera- tures frequently in excess of 200 'F. In many instances the fluids being...

  12. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handren, R.T.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  13. Title: Crack Diagnostics via Fourier Transform: Real and Imaginary Components vs. Power Spectral Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Title: Crack Diagnostics via Fourier Transform: Real and Imaginary Components vs. Power Spectral simultaneously the real and imaginary components of the Fourier transforms as diagnostics features approach consists of using new features based on the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform

  14. Pulse-Density Modulation for RF Applications: The Radio-Frequency Power Amplifier (RF PA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    . This enables complex digital processing and control of RF switching waveforms. Trends in processing speed demonstrates, techniques previously used for audio amplifiers, motor control, and power conversion may now generations of CMOS technology. We implement digital control of the carrier amplitude using pulse

  15. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleva, E. F. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Mehrotra, V. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  16. High-power radio-frequency attenuation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1981-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  17. High-Power Batteries | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggsmiddleware High-PerformancePower

  18. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sandLaserLaser Seeding Yields

  19. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sandLaserLaser Seeding YieldsLaser

  20. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,sandLaserLaser Seeding YieldsLaserLaser