Sample records for high penetration rate

  1. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly designed...

  2. Sunshot Initiative High Penetration Solar Portal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the installed cost of solar energy systems by about 75% will drive widespread large-scale adoption of this renewable energy and restore U.S. leadership in the global clean energy race. The High Penetration Solar Portal was created as a resource to aggregate the most relevant and timely information related to high penetration solar scenarios and integrating solar into the grid. The site is designed so that utilities, grant awardees, regulators, researchers, and other solar professionals can easily share data, case studies, lessons learned, and demonstration project findings. [from https://solarhighpen.energy.gov/about_the_high_penetration_solar_portal

  3. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene as a frictional pair, and this can generate the pattern of the impact forces close to reality. Despite quite

  4. Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV with Grid Support Features Electric Energy System #12;#12;Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV project titled "Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV with Grid Support

  5. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

  6. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  7. Monitoring MWD torque improved pdc bit penetration rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koskie, E.T. Jr. (Diamant Boart, Stratabit, Houston, TX (US)); Slagel, P. (Anadrill Schlumberger, New Orleans, LA (US)); Lesso, W. Jr. (Anadrill Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (US))

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement while drilling tools were used to monitor and adjust downhole torque, which resulted in faster drilling and longer bit life. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have changed drilling strategies in the sand shale sequences of the Gulf of Mexico, increasing both rate of penetration and bit run lengths, and decreasing drilling costs, particularly in directional wells. While these important results have been achieved using the best drilling information available, little attention has been paid to downhole operating conditions since this information was unavailable during realtime drilling operations. In an effort to learn what benefits could be realized through applying MWD drilling technology to directional drilling with PDC bits, Tenneco teamed up with Anadrill Schlumberger for MWD downhole drilling measurements, and Diamant Boart Stratabit with their PD-11 series bits, to see what could be gained by the close cooperation of these three parties in drilling a typical offshore well. The result was a well drilled on target and under budget, and a new record bit run.

  8. Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

  9. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  10. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  11. Evaluating Future Standards and Codes with a Focus on High Penetration Photovoltaic (HPPV) System Deployment (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poster displaying solutions for evaluating future standards and codes for high penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) systems.

  12. High Penetration Solar Deployment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh

  13. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  14. Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3, Stage 2: p.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merguerian, Charles

    Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 quantification that the rock mass exhibited an unusually high degree of toughness and rock directional properties

  15. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHigh Penetration Solar

  16. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresentedHigh Penetration

  17. Improved Modeling Tools Development for High Penetration Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washom, Byron

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the significant objectives of the High Penetration solar research is to help the DOE understand, anticipate, and minimize grid operation impacts as more solar resources are added to the electric power system. For Task 2.2, an effective, reliable approach to predicting solar energy availability for energy generation forecasts using the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager technology has been demonstrated. Granular cloud and ramp forecasts for the next 5 to 20 minutes over an area of 10 square miles were developed. Sky images taken every 30 seconds are processed to determine cloud locations and cloud motion vectors yielding future cloud shadow locations respective to distributed generation or utility solar power plants in the area. The performance of the method depends on cloud characteristics. On days with more advective cloud conditions, the developed method outperforms persistence forecasts by up to 30% (based on mean absolute error). On days with dynamic conditions, the method performs worse than persistence. Sky Imagers hold promise for ramp forecasting and ramp mitigation in conjunction with inverter controls and energy storage. The pre-commercial Sky Imager solar forecasting algorithm was documented with licensing information and was a Sunshot website highlight

  18. The use of MWD for turbodrill performance optimisation as a means to improve rate of penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Bruijn, H.J.; van Dongen, J.C.M.; Kemp, A.J.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field tests have been carried out to monitor the performance of turbodrills driving poly-crystalling diamond compact (PDC) bits. Separate tests, using mud pulse MWD tools, involved measuring the rotational speed of the bit and measuring downhole torque. The results show that turbodrills are not always operated at the manufacturer's claimed maximum efficiency, resulting in disappointing rates of penetration. Based on the observed reduction in turbodrill run-away speed from the manufacturer's value it is estimated that thrust bearing friction can consume up to 50% of the net turbodrill power output. In 8 1/2 inch hole improvements in rate of penetration of up to 100% could be obtained using the measured bit rotational speeds to monitor power output of the turbodrill. However, it was difficult to control bit rotational speed from the weight on bit at the low average weights on bit necessary for present PDC bit designs. It was apparent that measuring downhole torque has limited field application because no distinction can be made between true reactive torque at the bit and additional torque from the turbodrill's thrust bearings and stabilisers. The possible effect of flowrate variations through the turbodrill during negative mud pulses was investigated using a flowloop. This proved to be insignificant.

  19. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  20. Policies and Programs to Integrate High Penetrations of Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project are to highlight the diverse approaches for enabling high renewable energy penetration; synthesize lessons on effective policies and programs and present avenues for action to energy ministers and other stakeholders.

  1. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a limited set of advanced inverter functions.

  2. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  3. Crossover between fractal and nonfractal flux penetration in high-temperature superconducting thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    -optics. We study thin films of Tl2Ba2CuO6 x on substrates with vicinal angles of 0° well-oriented , 0.5°, 2 investigations of magnetic flux penetration in high-Tc superconducting thin films show often a flux front with the smooth and well-defined flux penetration observed in single crystals1,2,10­17 and in some thin films.1

  4. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  5. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal storage is found to drop considerably (by more than \\$70/MWh) as the penetration of solar increases toward 30\\percent on an energy basis. This is due primarily to a steep drop in capacity value followed by a decrease in energy value. In contrast, the value of CSP with thermal storage drops much less dramatically as penetration increases. As a result, at solar penetration levels above 10\\percent, CSP with thermal storage is found to be considerably more valuable relative to PV and CSP without thermal storage. The marginal economic value of wind is found to be largely driven by energy value, and is lower than solar at low penetration. The marginal economic value of wind drops at a relatively slower rate with penetration, however. As a result, at high penetration, the value of wind can exceed the value of PV and CSP without thermal storage. Though some of these findings may be somewhat unique to the specific case study presented here, the results: (1) highlight the importance of an analysis framework that addresses long-term investment decisions as well as short-term dispatch and operational constraints, (2) can help inform long-term decisions about renewable energy procurement and supporting infrastructure, and (3) point to areas where further research is warranted.

  6. Antiwhirl PDC bits increased penetration rates in Alberta drilling. [Polycrystalline Diamond Compact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrosky, D. (Baker Hughes Inteq, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Osmak, G. (Petro-Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1993-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The antiwhirl PDC bits and an inhibitive mud system contributed to the quicker drilling of the time-sensitive shales. The hole washouts in the intermediate section were dramatically reduced, resulting in better intermediate casing cement jobs. Also, the use of antirotation PDC-drillable cementing plugs eliminated the need to drill out plugs and float equipment with a steel tooth bit and then trip for the PDC bit. By using an antiwhirl PDC bit, at least one trip was eliminated in the intermediate section. Offset data indicated that two to six conventional bits would have been required to drill the intermediate hole interval. The PDC bit was rebuildable and therefore rerunnable even after being used on five wells. In each instance, the cost of replacing chipped cutters was less than the cost of a new insert roller cone bit. The paper describes the antiwhirl bits; the development of the bits; and their application in a clastic sequence, a carbonate sequence, and the Shekilie oil field; the improvement in the rate of penetration; the selection of bottom hole assemblies; washout problems; and drill-out characteristics.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE DEPENDENCE OF LONG-ROD PENETRATION OF GRANULAR MEDIA USING AN IMPROVED DSR ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addiss, John W.; Collins, Adam L.; Proud, William G. [Fracture and Shock Physics, SMF Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge, CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR), a technique allowing measurement of the full field displacement maps in a plane within an opaque material, is used to follow the temporal progression of a long-rod (100 mm long, 10 mm diameter) penetrating a granular sample at a variety of rates. Quasi-static rates of 1.5 mm/min are achieved using an Instron machine, 5 m/s is achieved using a drop-weight and velocities between 10 and 200 m/s are achieved using a light gas gun. These experiments are carried out using a series of time delayed flash x-ray images analysed with an optimised Digital Image Cross Correlation algorithm (DICC). The subsequent data sheds considerable light on the response of granular materials to penetration at a variety of rates. Particularly, a large difference in the response of the material between quasi-static and dynamic rates is observed.

  8. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  9. Experimental investigation of welding penetration-depth in high-purity aluminium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, W. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States). Naval Nuclear Fuel Div.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the superconducting splice design is the welding penetration-depth because it determines the electrical resistivity across the welded joints through the high-purity aluminum stabilizers. Highly resistive welds could lead to conductor instability when the superconductor goes normal. In the present investigation, experiments were performed using gas tungsten-arc welding to identify the effects of the welding parameters on the penetration-depth. The experimental results will be applied to the optimization of the superconducting splice design. The mock-up test data and theoretical analysis have shown that the higher energy input and lower welding speed produce the deeper penetration-depth in high-purity aluminum. In order to achieve an approximately uniform penetration-depth, three methods were explored: (i) a starting-delay at the welding start point, (ii) an external cooling, and (iii) staggered overlapping weldments. The experimental results have suggested that a uniform penetration-depth can be obtained under the thermal equilibrium welding conditions.

  10. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Gao, Z.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.

  11. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  12. Impact of High Wind Penetration on the Voltage Profile of Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    of wind generator the voltage of the system may become lower than acceptable voltage level due and wind generator is presented. Simulation results are given in Section III which shows the impact of high--In this paper, simulation results showing the effect of lower and higher penetration of distributed wind

  13. Effects of magnetite on high-frequency ground-penetrating radar Remke L. Van Dam1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    Effects of magnetite on high-frequency ground-penetrating radar Remke L. Van Dam1 , Jan M. H, paleoclimatology (Maher and Thompson, 1995), soil development (Singer et al., 1996; Van Dam et al., 2008 et al., 2011), the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and land mines (Van Dam et al., 2005

  14. Analyzing of Balancing Authorities Cooperation Methods with High Variable Generation Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Zhou, Ning; Etingov, Pavel V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Ma, Jian; Diao, Ruisheng; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept is based on various forms of collaboration between individual BAs to manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as Area Control Error (ACE) diversity interchange (ADI), variable generation only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, and regulation and load following sharing are discussed in this paper. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other dealing with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements to evaluate the performance of different virtual BA strategies.

  15. Strategies to Mitigate Declines in the Economic Value of Wind and Solar at High Penetration in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This resource evaluates several options to reduce and eliminate the decline in the value of wind and solar PV technology, as a previous study had quantified the decline as penetration levels increased. Researchers found that largest increase in the value of PV at high penetration levels comes from assuming that low-cost bulk power storage is an investment option. Other attractive options, particularly at more modest penetration levels, include real-time pricing and technology diversity.

  16. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  17. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  18. Sub-Hourly Impacts of High Solar Penetrations in the Western United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hummon, M.; Hodge, B. M.; Heaney, M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. Extreme event analysis showed that most large ramps were due to sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher in the high-solar versus high-wind scenario. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability.

  19. Analysis Methodology for Balancing Authority Cooperation in High Penetration of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Malhara, Sunita V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Du, Pengwei; Sastry, Chellury

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapidly growing penetration level of wind and solar generation, the challenges of managing variability and the uncertainty of intermittent renewable generation become more and more significant. The problem of power variability and uncertainty gets exacerbated when each balancing authority (BA) works locally and separately to balance its own subsystem. The virtual BA concept means various forms of collaboration between individual BAs must manage power variability and uncertainty. The virtual BA will have a wide area control capability in managing its operational balancing requirements in different time frames. This coordination results in the improvement of efficiency and reliability of power system operation while facilitating the high level integration of green, intermittent energy resources. Several strategies for virtual BA implementation, such as ACE diversity interchange (ADI), wind only BA, BA consolidation, dynamic scheduling, regulation and load following sharing, extreme event impact study are discussed in this report. The objective of such strategies is to allow individual BAs within a large power grid to help each other deal with power variability. Innovative methods have been developed to simulate the balancing operation of BAs. These methods evaluate the BA operation through a number of metrics — such as capacity, ramp rate, ramp duration, energy and cycling requirements — to evaluate the performances of different virtual BA strategies. The report builds a systematic framework for evaluating BA consolidation and coordination. Results for case studies show that significant economic and reliability benefits can be gained. The merits and limitation of each virtual BA strategy are investigated. The report provides guidelines for the power industry to evaluate the coordination or consolidation method. The application of the developed strategies in cooperation with several regional BAs is in progress for several off-spring projects.

  20. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based on solar trough or parabolic dish technology) to PV astechnologies: wind, single-axis tracking photovoltaics (PV), 1 concentrating solarTechnology High Penetration of VG Single-Axis PV CSP w/ 6hr TES Wind Solar

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  2. High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System, Phase 1 Update: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hambrick, J.; Narang, D.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners have begun work on a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale photovoltaics (PV). Building upon the APS Community Power Project -- Flagstaff Pilot, this project will analyze the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes as well as large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters are being designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models will be used to analyze the impacts of the PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/var control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2011 IEEE PVSC conference that introduces the project and describes some of the preliminary consideration, as well as project plans and early results. This paper gives a status update of the project and presents selected results from Phase 2 of the project. It discusses baseline feeder modeling, load allocation, data acquisition, utility-scale PV integration, preliminary model validation, and plans for future phases.

  3. Design and Performance of Solar Decathlon 2011 High-Penetration Microgrid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.; Coddington, M.; Butt, R.; Solomon, S.; Wiegand, G.; Wagner, C.; Gonzalez, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The Solar Decathlon 2011 was held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 to October 2, 2011 . A high-penetration microgrid was designed, installed, and operated for the Solar Decathlon 2011 to grid-connect 19 highly energy-efficient, solar-powered competition houses to a single utility connection point. The capacity penetration of this microgrid (defined as maximum PV generation divided by maximum system load over a two-week period) was 74% based on 1-minute averaged data. Temporary, ground-laid conductors and electrical distribution equipment were installed to grid-connect the Solar Decathlon village, which included the houses as well as other electrical loads used by the event organizers. While 16 of the houses were connected to the 60 Hz microgrid, three houses from Belgium, China, and New Zealand were supplied with 50 Hz power. The design of the microgrid, including the connection of the houses powered by 50 Hz and a standby diesel generator, is discussed in this paper. In addition to the utility-supplied net energy meters at each house, a microgrid monitoring system was installed to measure and record energy consumption and PV energy production at 1-second intervals at each house. Bidirectional electronic voltage regulators were installed for groups of competition houses, which held the service voltage at each house to acceptable levels. The design and successful performance of this high-penetration microgrid is presented from the house, microgrid operator, and utility perspectives.

  4. Temporal variations of solar rotation rate at high latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

    2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Frequency splitting coefficients from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) observations covering the period 1995--2001 are used to study temporal variations in the solar rotation rate at high latitudes. The torsional oscillation pattern in the Sun is known to penetrate to a depth of about $0.1R_\\odot$ with alternate bands of faster and slower rotating plasma. At lower latitudes the bands move towards equator with time. At higher latitudes, however, the bands appear to move towards the poles. This is similar to the observed pole-ward movement of large scale magnetic fields at high latitudes. This also supports theoretical results of pole-ward moving bands at high latitudes in some mean field dynamo models. The polar rotation rate is found to decrease between 1995 and 1999 after which it has started increasing.

  5. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  6. Effect of Impact and Penetration on Microstructural Evolution of High-performance Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Fei [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Dipaolo, Beverly P [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the increased concern of public safety in recent years, blast resistance of infrastructures has become an emerging research focus in the cement and concrete industry. Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) with fiber reinforcement usually possesses compressive strengths greater than 200 MPa, which makes them promising candidates for blast-resistant building materials. In the current project, two UHPC materials, Ductal and ERDC-M, were subject to projectile penetration testing. The microstructural evolution due to projectile impact was examined via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Possible phase changes were observed in the impact volume, which was likely a result of the high temperature and high pressure induced by the impact.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  8. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  9. Methods of integrating a high penetration photovoltaic power plant into a micro grid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA); Nelson, Lauren (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA); Lenox, Carl (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA); Johnson, Robert. (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The island of Lanai is currently one of the highest penetration PV micro grids in the world, with the 1.2 MWAC La Ola Solar Farm operating on a grid with a peak net load of 4.7 MW. This facility interconnects to one of Lanai's three 12.47 kV distribution circuits. An initial interconnection requirements study (IRS) determined that several control and performance features are necessary to ensure safe and reliable operation of the island grid. These include power curtailment, power factor control, over/under voltage and frequency ride through, and power ramp rate limiting. While deemed necessary for stable grid operation, many of these features contradict the current IEEE 1547 interconnection requirements governing distributed generators. These controls have been successfully implemented, tested, and operated since January 2009. Currently, the system is producing power in a curtailed mode according to the requirements of a power purchase agreement (PPA).

  10. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  11. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Competitive Renewable Energy Zones in Texas, Report,Supply, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Sensfuß, F. ,in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios Marco

  12. High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

  13. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COVERED (From - To) Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modelinga Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025OnLocation) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  14. OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Richard Perez-shore wind and PV generation using the city of New York as a test case. While wind generation is not known one year's worth of hourly site & time-specific data including electrical demand PV and off-shore wind

  15. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  16. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  17. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  18. High Rate Physics at Neutrino Factories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce J. King

    1999-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Both muon colliders and non-colliding muon storage rings using muon collider technology have the potential to become the first true ``neutrino factories'', with uniquely intense and precisely characterized neutrino beams that could usher in a new era of high rate and long baseline neutrino physics studies at accelerators. This paper gives an overview of the predicted capabilities of neutrino factories for high rate neutrino physics analyses that will use huge event samples collected with novel, high performance neutrino detectors.

  19. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

  20. Optimal Inverter VAR Control in Distribution Systems with High PV Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farivar, Masoud; Clarke, Christopher; Low, Steven

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of the study detailed in this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of inverter var control on a fast timescale to mitigate rapid and large voltage fluctuations due to the high penetration of photovoltaic generation and the resulting reverse power flow. Our approach is to formulate the volt/var control as a radial optimal power flow (OPF) problem to minimize line losses and energy consumption, subject to constraints on voltage magnitudes. An efficient solution to the radial OPF problem is presented and used to study the structure of optimal inverter var injection and the net benefits, taking into account the additional cost of inverter losses when operating at non-unity power factor. This paper will illustrate how, depending on the circuit topology and its loading condition, the inverter's optimal reactive power injection is not necessarily monotone with respect to their real power output. The results are demonstrated on a distribution feeder on the Southern California Edison system that has a very ...

  1. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  2. Customer-Economics of Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Impact of High Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings with Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. There is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. This article uses a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under a reference scenario and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, the article develops retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV are estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. The article finds that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  3. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  4. High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Seven-Membered Diphosphine Ligands Containing High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using...

  5. Innovations in high rate condensate polishing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, M. [Graver Water Division, Union, NJ (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test work is being conducted at two major east coast utilities to evaluate flow distribution in high flow rate condensate polishing service vessels. The work includes core sample data used to map the flow distribution in vessels as originally manufactured. Underdrain modifications for improved flow distribution are discussed with data that indicates performance increases of the service vessel following the modifications. The test work is on going, with preliminary data indicating that significant improvements in cycle run length are possible with underdrain modifications. The economic benefits of the above modifications are discussed.

  6. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage. Technical Reportwith and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added onewith or without thermal energy storage at low penetration,

  7. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  8. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superpeaker OCGT CCGT Coal Nuclear Generation Capacities [generation options considered in THEA are nuclear, coal,Generation Share [%] Wind Low Wind Scenario High Wind Scenario Hydro Superpeaker OCGT CCGT Coal

  9. Aerosol penetration through transport lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to predict aerosol penetration thrush shrouded probes and transition fitting('s. Experimnents were carried Out to validate the code. The experiments were carried out for different flow rates for a particle size of IO lam aerodynamic diameter (AD...

  10. 2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Average Incidence of Wilt Date of Wilt Rating Earth 0.0 0.0 Sept. 8 Brownfield 5.5 1.8 Aug. 28 Petersburg

  11. Optimal Inverter VAR Control in Distribution Systems with High PV Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    in particular, the California Solar Initiative (CSI), is aimed at realizing 3,000 MW of new solar generation systems. Solar energy is highly intermittent and this introduces several challenges to existing utility Institute (ANSI) Standard C84.1 for power quality is an essential responsibility for utility companies

  12. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  13. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, Marco; Mills, Andrew D; Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, modeling investment and dispatch problems in electricity economics has been limited by computation power. Due to this limitation, simplifications are applied. One common practice, for example, is to reduce the temporal resolution of the dispatch by clustering similar load levels. The increase of intermittent electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) changes the validity of this assumption. RES-E already cover a certain amount of the total demand. This leaves an increasingly volatile residual demand to be matched by the conventional power market. This paper quantifies differences in investment decisions by applying three different time-resolution residual load patterns in an investment and dispatch power system model. The model optimizes investment decisions in five year steps between today and 2030 with residual load levels for 8760, 288 and 16 time slices per year. The market under consideration is the four zone ERCOT market in Texas. The results show that investment decisions significantly differ across the three scenarios. In particular, investments into base-load technologies are substantially reduced in the high resolution scenario (8760 residual load levels) relative to the scenarios with lower temporal resolution. Additionally, the amount of RES-E curtailment and the market value of RES-E exhibit noteworthy differences.

  14. High-G accelerometer for earth-penetrator weapons applications. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, B.R.; Montague, S.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Chanchani, R.; Christenson, T.; Murray, J.R.; Rey, D.; Ryerson, D.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micromachining technologies, or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), enable the develop of low-cost devices capable of sensing motion in a reliable and accurate manner. Sandia has developed a MEMS fabrication process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of surface micromachined sensors, such as silicon accelerometers, on the same chip. Integration of the micromechanical sensor elements with microelectronics provides substantial performance and reliability advantages for MEMS accelerometers. A design team at Sandia was assembled to develop a micromachined silicon accelerometer capable of surviving and measuring very high accelerations (up to 50,000 times the acceleration due to gravity). The Sandia integrated surface micromachining process was selected for fabrication of the sensor due to the extreme measurement sensitivity potential associated with integrated microelectronics. Very fine measurement sensitivity was required due to the very small accelerometer proof mass (< 200 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} gram) obtainable with this surface micromachining process. The small proof mass corresponded to small sensor deflections which required very sensitive electronics to enable accurate acceleration measurement over a range of 1,000 to 50,000 times the acceleration due to gravity. Several prototype sensors, based on a suspended plate mass configuration, were developed and the details of the design, modeling, fabrication and validation of the device will be presented in this paper. The device was analyzed using both conventional lumped parameter modeling techniques and finite element analysis tools. The device was tested and performed well over its design range (the device was tested over a range of a few thousand G to 46,000 G, where 1 G equals the acceleration due to gravity).

  15. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosic, Slavko

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful...

  16. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosic, Slavko

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful...

  17. Evolution of Massive Protostars with High Accretion Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hosokawa; Kazuyuki Omukai

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of massive stars by accretion requires a high accretion rate of > 10^-4 M_sun/yr to overcome the radiation pressure barrier of the forming stars. Here, we study evolution of protostars accreting at such high rates, by solving the structure of the central star and the inner accreting envelope simultaneously. The protostellar evolution is followed starting from small initial cores until their arrival at the stage of the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) stars. An emphasis is put on evolutionary features different from those with a low accretion rate of 10^-5 M_sun/yr, which is presumed in the standard scenario for low-mass star formation. With the high accretion rate of 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the protostellar radius becomes very large and exceeds 100 R_sun. It is not until the stellar mass reaches 40 M_sun that hydrogen burning begins and the protostar reaches the ZAMS phase, and this ZAMS arrival mass increases with the accretion rate. At a very high accretion rate of > 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the total luminosity of the protostar becomes so high that the resultant radiation pressure inhibits the growth of the protostars under steady accretion before reaching the ZAMS stage. Therefore, the evolution under the critical accretion rate 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr gives the upper mass limit of possible pre-main-sequence stars at 60 M_sun. The upper mass limit of MS stars is also set by the radiation pressure onto the dusty envelope under the same accretion rate at 250 M_sun. We also propose that the central source enshrouded in the Orion KL/BN nebula has effective temperature and luminosity consistent with our model, and is a possible candidate for such protostars growing under the high accretion rate. (abridged)

  18. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  19. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) Harmonicbet WhenHiggsmiddlewareHigh-PressureOffice of

  20. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTIONS AT HIGH STRAIN RATES OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    characteristics of high purity nickel processed by electrodeposition tested in compression up to a dynamic strainMECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTIONS AT HIGH STRAIN RATES OF ELECTRODEPOSITED NICKEL H. Couque1 , A. Ouarem2 , G. Dirras2 and J. Gubicza3 Summary ­ The mechanical and microstructural

  1. The Use Of Phosphates To Reduce Slag Penetration In Cr203-Based Refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing (Albany, OR); Dogan, Cynthia P. (Albany, OR); Bennett, James P. (Albany, OR); Chinn, Richard E. (Albany, OR); Petty, Arthur V. (Albany, OR)

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  2. Use of phosphates to reduce slag penetration in Cr2O3-based refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  3. Method and Case Study for Estimating the Ramping Capability of a Control Area or Balancing Authority and Implications for Moderate or High Wind Penetration: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In several regions of the United States there has been a significant increase in wind generation capability over the past several years. As the penetration rate of wind capacity increases, grid operators and planners are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability that wind contributes to the system. In this paper we examine the distinction between regulation, load following, hourly energy, and energy imbalance to understand how restructured power systems accommodate and value inter-hour ramps. We use data from two restructured markets, California and PJM, and from Western Area Power Administration's (WAPA's) Rocky Mountain control area to determine expected load-following capability in each region. Our approach is to examine the load-following capability that currently exists using data from existing generators in the region. We then examine the levels of wind penetration that can be accommodated with this capability using recently collected wind farm data. We discuss how load-following costs are captured in restructured markets, what resources are available to meet these requirements, why there are no explicit load-following tariffs, and the societal importance of being able to access generator ramping capability. Finally, the implications for wind plants and wind integration costs are examined.

  4. FAA fluorescent penetrant activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, D.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center; Larson, B.F. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center of Aviation Systems Reliability

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) and the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability (CASR) are currently working to develop a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) system evaluation capability that will support the needs of the penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the FAA. The main focus of this facility is to support the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials, penetrant systems and to apply resources to support industry needs. This paper discusses efforts to create such a facility and an initial project to produce fatigue crack specimens for evaluation of Type 1 penetrant sensitivities.

  5. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  6. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  7. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  8. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickerson, Jr., James P. (Cedar Crest, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM); Baldwin, Michael D. (Albuquerque, NM); Maguire, Michael C. (Worcester, MA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  9. High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borot, A.; Douillet, D.; Iaquaniello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Lopez-Martens, R. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.-P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments.

  10. A High Count Rate Beam Monitor for Thermal Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Amanda [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Menhard, Kocsis [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Sedov, Vladislav N [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool in neutron science facilities. Present beam monitors use either ionization chambers in integration mode, which are slow and have no timing information, or pulse counters which can easily be saturated by high beam intensities. Neutron beam monitors indicate the number of neutrons incident on a scattering sample and allow neutron experimental data to be analyzed even when the source strength varies with time. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. In this work, we report on a high count rate neutron beam monitor which also offers position sensitivity to provide a beam profile. This beam monitor offers good timing (less than 1 s) in addition to position resolution and will therefore improve the counting statistics at neutron energies up to 10 eV and allow moderator studies. The detector s main characteristics will be presented including its background rate, its count rate capability which is an order of magnitude higher than present counting monitors, and its efficiency for thermal neutrons.

  11. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K.; Venkatech, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling and Analysis Partnership (REMAP) sponsors ongoing workshops to discuss individual 'renewable' technologies, energy/economic modeling, and - to some extent - policy issues related to renewable energy. Since 2002, the group has organized seven workshops, each focusing on a different renewable technology (geothermal, solar, wind, etc.). These workshops originated and continue to be run under an informal partnership of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE). EPA originally funded the activities, but support is now shared between EPA and EERE. REMAP has a wide range of participating analysts and models/modelers that come from government, the private sector, and academia. Modelers include staff from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), NREL, EPA, Resources for the Future (RFF), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), Regional Economic Models Inc. (REMI), ICF International, OnLocation Inc., and Boston University. The working group has more than 40 members, which also includes representatives from DOE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and ACORE. This report summarizes the activities and findings of the REMAP activity that started in late 2006 with a kickoff meeting, and concluded in mid-2008 with presentations of final results. As the project evolved, the group compared results across models and across technologies rather than just examining a specific technology or activity. The overall goal was to better understand how and why different energy models give similar and/or different answers in response to a set of focused energy-related questions. The focus was on understanding reasons for model differences, not on policy implications, even though a policy of high renewable penetration was used for the analysis. A group process was used to identify the potential question (or questions) to be addressed through the project. In late 2006, increasing renewable energy penetration in the electricity sector was chosen from among several options as the general policy to model. From this framework, the analysts chose a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) as the way to implement the required renewable energy market penetration in the models. An RPS was chosen because it was (i) of interest and represented the group's consensus choice, and (ii) tractable and not too burdensome for the modelers. Because the modelers and analysts were largely using their own resources, it was important to consider the degree of effort required. In fact, several of the modelers who started this process had to discontinue participation because of other demands on their time. Federal and state RPS policy is an area of active political interest and debate. Recognizing this, participants used this exercise to gain insight into energy model structure and performance. The results are not intended to provide any particular insight into policy design or be used for policy advocacy, and participants are not expected to form a policy stance based on the outcomes of the modeling. The goals of this REMAP project - in terms of the main topic of renewable penetration - were to: (1) Compare models and understand why they may give different results to the same question, (2) Improve the rigor and consistency of assumptions used across models, and (3) Evaluate the ability of models to measure the impacts of high renewable-penetration scenarios.

  12. Method for generating high-energy and high repetition rate laser pulses from CW amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for obtaining high-energy, high repetition rate laser pulses simultaneously using continuous wave (CW) amplifiers is described. The method provides for generating micro-joule level energy in pico-second laser pulses at Mega-hertz repetition rates.

  13. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  14. Failure Rate Data Analysis for High Technology Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators.

  15. The Gamma Ray Burst Rate at High Photon Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Mannheim; Dieter Hartmann; Burkhardt Funk

    1996-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Some gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra exhibit high energy tails with the highest photon energy detected at 18 GeV. The spectral slope of the high-energy tails is sufficiently flat in nu F_nu to consider the possibility of their detection at still higher energies. We calculate how many bursts can reasonably be expected above a given energy threshold for a cosmological distribution of bursts satisfying the observed apparent brightness distribution. The crucial point is that the gamma-ray absorption by pair production in the intergalactic diffuse radiation field eliminates bursts from beyond the gamma-ray horizon tau ~ 1, thus drastically reducing the number of bursts at high energies. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of bursts by current experiments in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. For the earth-bound detector array MILAGRO, we predict a maximal GRB rate of ~ 10 events per year. The Whipple Observatory can detect, under favorable conditions, ~1 event per year. The event rate for the HEGRA array is ~ 0.01 per year. Detection of significantly higher rates of bursts would severely challenge cosmological burst scenarios.

  16. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    penetration in the electricity sector was chosen from amonggrid servicing electricity sector renewables lower. – UsingEmissions from the Electricity Sector: The Costs and

  17. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  18. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

    1980-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  19. Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

  20. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); STFC, ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton Didcot Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  1. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  2. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

  3. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  4. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  5. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REPETITION RATE X-RAY FEL ? M. Venturini † , J. Corlett, L.support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-of high-repetition rate FEL machine generat- ing soft x-rays

  6. Weld penetration and defect control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, B.A.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  7. High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCampo, J A; Raft, P D

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

  8. Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Steven Craig

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar PV and distributed generation. UTILITY RATE DESIGN ANDutility concerns that a high penetration of inverter-based solar energy systems along with other distributed generation

  9. High dose rate intraluminal irradiation in recurrent endobronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seagren, S.L.; Harrell, J.H.; Horn, R.A.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Palliative therapy for previously irradiated patients with symptomatic recurrent endobronchial malignancy is a difficult problem. We have had the opportunity to treat 20 such patients with high dose rate (50-100 rad/min) endobronchial brachytherapy. Eligible patients had received previous high dose thoracic irradiation (TDF greater than or equal to 90), a performance status of greater than or equal to 50, and symptoms caused by a bronchoscopically defined and implantable lesion. The radiation is produced by a small cobalt-60 source (0.7 Ci) remotely afterloaded by cable control. The source is fed into a 4 mm diameter catheter which is placed with bronchoscopic guidance; it may oscillate if necessary to cover the lesion. A dose of 1,000 rad at 1 cm from the source is delivered. We have performed 22 procedures in 20 patients, four following YAG laser debulking. Most had cough, some with hemoptysis. Eight had dyspnea secondary to obstruction and three had obstructive pneumonitis. In 12, symptoms recurred with a mean time to recurrence of 4.3 months (range 1-9 months). Eighteen patients were followed-up and reexamined via bronchoscope 1-2.5 months following the procedure; two were lost to follow-up. All had at least 50 percent clearance of tumor, and six had complete clearance; most regressions were documented on film or videotape. In six, the palliation was durable. The procedure has been well tolerated with no toxicity. We conclude that palliative endobronchial high dose rate brachytherapy is a useful palliative modality in patients with recurrent endobronchial symptomatic carcinoma.

  10. Optimization of time-based rates in forward energy markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.

    This paper presents a new two-step design approach of Time-Based Rate (TBR) programs for markets with a high penetration of variable energy sources such as wind power. First, an optimal market time horizon must be determined ...

  11. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  12. Resistive Wall Heating of the Undulator in High Repetition Rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J; Corlett, J; Emma, P; Wu, J

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In next generation high repetition rate FELs, beam energy loss due to resistive wall wakefields will produce significant amount of heat. The heat load for a superconducting undulator (operating at low temperature), must be removed and will be expensive to remove. In this paper, we study this effect in an undulator proposed for a Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) at LBNL. We benchmark our calculations with measurements at the LCLS and carry out detailed parameter studies using beam from a start-to-end simulation. Our preliminarym results suggest that the heat load in the undulator is about 2 W/m or lower with an aperture size of 6 mm for nominal NGLS preliminary design parameters.

  13. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  14. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  15. VOLUME 83, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 SEPTEMBER 1999 Kinetic Roughening of Penetrating Flux Fronts in High-Tc Thin Film Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    of Penetrating Flux Fronts in High-Tc Thin Film Superconductors R. Surdeanu, R. J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J. M) Kinetic roughening of flux fronts penetrating in superconducting thin films are studied by means of a high proposed that the gradual thermal depinning of a single vortex line in a superconductor with randomly

  16. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  17. Photon and dilepton emission rates from high density quark matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaikumar, P.; Rapp, Ralf; Zahed, I.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new critical survey is presented of all half-life, decay-energy, and branching-ratio measurements related to 20 superallowed 0(+)-> 0(+)beta decays. Compared with our last review, there are numerous improvements: First, we have added 27 recently published measurements and eliminated 9 references, either because they have been superseded by much more precise modern results or because there are now reasons to consider them fatally flawed...of particular importance, the new data include a number of high-precision Penning-trap measurements of decay energies. Second, we have used the recently improved isospin symmetry-breaking corrections, which were motivated by these new Penning-trap results. Third, our calculation of the statistical rate function f now accounts for possible excitation in the daughter atom, a small effect but one that merits inclusion at the present level of experimental precision. Finally, we have re-examined the systematic uncertainty associated with the isospin symmetry-breaking corrections by evaluating the radial-overlap correction using Hartree-Fock radial wave functions and comparing the results with our earlier calculations, which used Saxon-Woods wave functions... survey, although the new value of V(ud) is statistically consistent with the old one. From these data we also set limits on the possible existence of scalar interactions, right-hand currents, and extra Z bosons. Finally, we discuss the priorities...

  18. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  19. Cone penetration testing in polar snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCallum, Adrian Bruce

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Penetration Testing. Creep Ductile deformation of ice (and thus snow) primarily through the movement of crystallographic basal planes due to load applied at low strain rates . Effective Area The extended end-bearing area of the cone or plate during penetra... of determining snow strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.7 Classical creep curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Methods 28 3.1 Test location, Greenland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3...

  20. 2-D straw detectors with high rate capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Duginov, V N; Zyazyulya, F E; Korenchenko, A S; Kolesnikov, A O; Kravchuk, N P; Movchan, S A; Rudenko, A I; Smirnov, V S; Khomutov, N V; Chekhovsky, V A; Lobko, A S; Misevich, O V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurement of straw axial coordinate (along the anode wire) with accuracy compatible with straw radial coordinate determination by drift time measurement and increase of straw detector rate capability by using straw cathode readout instead of anode readout are presented.

  1. 2-D straw detectors with high rate capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Kuchinskiy; V. A. Baranov; V. N. Duginov; F. E. Zyazyulya; A. S. Korenchenko; A. O. Kolesnikov; N. P. Kravchuk; S. A. Movchan; A. I. Rudenko; V. S. Smirnov; N. V. Khomutov; V. A. Chekhovsky; A. S. Lobko; O. V. Misevich

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurement of straw axial coordinate (along the anode wire) with accuracy compatible with straw radial coordinate determination by drift time measurement and increase of straw detector rate capability by using straw cathode readout instead of anode readout are presented.

  2. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

  3. Ultrafast high strain rate acoustic wave measurements at high static pressure in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, M; Crowhurst, J; Reed, E; Zaug, J

    2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used sub-picosecond laser pulses to launch ultra-high strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}) nonlinear acoustic waves into a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure medium which has been precompressed in a standard diamond anvil cell. Using ultrafast interferometry, we have characterized acoustic wave propagation into the pressure medium at static compression up to 24 GPa. We find that the velocity is dependent on the incident laser fluence, demonstrating a nonlinear acoustic response which may result in shock wave behavior. We compare our results with low strain, low strain-rate acoustic data. This technique provides controlled access to regions of thermodynamic phase space that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  4. Design Studies for a High-Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORLETT, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a High-Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL* A. Brepetition-rate, seeded FEL. Figure 2: Longitudinal phase-spontaneous emission FEL with energy-chirped electron beam

  5. aerosol particle penetration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 Lmin to 169.9...

  6. A new high rate, fast charge, sealed lead acid battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juergens, T.; Ruderman, M.A.; Brodd, R.J. [Bolder Technological Corp., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to the design of lead acid batteries has been developed based on the use of very thin lead foil current collectors and very high current carrying capacity. The basic cell construction and the performance characteristics for the new cell are described. Spiral wrap cells based on this electrode concept exhibit extremely high power output with excellent capacity maintenance. Additionally, these cells exhibit flat voltage at all currents, and are capable of very rapid recharge. Applications for this high power technology cover a broad spectrum such as portable power tools, UPS systems, electrically heated catalytic converters, pulse power applications and electric and hybrid vehicles. 9 refs.

  7. FRP-to-concrete bond behaviour under high strain rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaoqin

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been used for strengthening concrete structures since early 1990s. More recently, FRP has been used for retrofitting concrete structures for high energy events such as impact ...

  8. applying high rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Applied High Energy QCD Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: These lectures stress the theoretical elements...

  9. Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios Presentation on Transition Strategies:...

  10. Characterization of TFTR shielding penetrations of ITER-relevance in D-T neutron field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    D-T operation of TFTR began successfully with trace tritium discharges in mid-November 1993. During the next year, the TFTR plasma tritium fraction is scheduled to be increased to at least 50%. The availability of larger amounts of D-T fusion neutrons in the high power D-T plasma phase of TFTR provides a useful opportunity to characterize tokamak shielding-penetration geometries of potential interest to ITER. These types of measurements can provide direct experimental data on the degree of enhancement of transmitted neutron flux along or across a realistic penetration and, as such, can be used to validate, calculational methods and to meet fusion reactor licensing requirements. The enhancement of neutron streaming in the shielding penetrations has the following significant consequences from the ITER viewpoint: (1) increased radiation damage to plasma diagnostics/detectors, (2) increased biological dose rates behind the shield, (3) increased radiation damage to the superconducting magnet on the inboard side. TFTR has penetrations of different varieties inside the vacuum vessel, the test cell, and the adjoining hot cell. In the initial stage, the authors have chosen to characterize three different types of penetrations in and around the TFTR test cell: (1) a straight hollow pipe coming out of the test cell concrete wall on east side of the test cell into the hot cell, (2) a bent pipe coming out of the test cell through the north concrete wall, and (3) a labyrinth in the north-west end of the test cell.

  11. Melt Rate Improvement for High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2002-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of research accomplished during the first year of the 3-year project. The data presented in this report have been gathered to support work on the mathematical modeling of waste-glass melters. At this stage, only a qualitative description and interpretation of the observed phenomena has been attempted. Two Savannah Rive feeds were used for the study. These feeds were subjected to thermal gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, evolved gas analysis with volume-expansion monitoring, modified reboil test, quantitative X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and M?ssbauer spectroscopy. Glass viscosity was also measured. Finally, it was recommended to use melt-rate furnace test data to measure thermal diffusivity of the feed. Though both feed were reduced to prevent oxygen evolution from the melt, oxygen evolved form one of the melts and COx evolved from both. Hence, foam is likely to form under the cold cap even when the feed is reduced. An important difference between the feeds was in the melt viscosity at the temperature at which the melt interfaces the cold cap. It was suggested that low viscosity destabilizes foam under the cold cap, thus enhancing the rate of melting.

  12. Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and LowIntroduction Rechargeable lithium batteries are known forfor rechargeable lithium batteries. When impregnated into a

  13. Instrumentation and Diagnostics for High Repetition Rate LINAC-Driven FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Santis, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evtushenko, “Electron Beam Diagnostics For High Current FELDrivers”, FEL 2011, Shanghai (2011). [5] F. Sannibale, etREPETITION RATE LINAC-DRIVEN FEL S. De Santis # , J. Byrd,

  14. 60 GHz High Data Rate Wireless Communication System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    amplifiers (PAs) non-linearities. OFDM requires large back-off for PAs, high stability and low phase noise.zaharia@insa-rennes.fr; ghais.el-zein@insa-rennes. Abstract ­ This paper presents the design and the realization of a 60 GHz analyzed to develop new MMW communication systems for commercial applications [1-2]. Due to the large

  15. Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Colombant, D.G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Sethian, J.D.; McGeoch, M. W. [Plasma Physics Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Plex LLC, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446-5478 (United States)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach to a high-repetition ignition facility based on direct drive with the krypton-fluoride laser is presented. The objective is development of a 'Fusion Test Facility' that has sufficient fusion power to be useful as a development test bed for power plant materials and components. Calculations with modern pellet designs indicate that laser energies well below a megajoule may be sufficient. A smaller driver would result in an overall smaller, less complex and lower cost facility. While this facility might appear to have most direct utility to inertial fusion energy, the high flux of neutrons would also be able to address important issues concerning materials and components for other approaches to fusion energy. The physics and technological basis for the Fusion Test Facility are presented along with a discussion of its applications.

  16. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J. [Studiengesellschaft fuer Eisenerzaufbereitung, Liebenburg-Othfresen (Germany); Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G. [LURGI AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  17. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresented By:DanielHighPresenter:

  18. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh EfficiencyMetal Removal

  19. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh EfficiencyMetal RemovalHybrid

  20. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh EfficiencyMetal

  1. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHigh EfficiencyMetalcost Titanium

  2. Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and LowRechargeable lithium batteries are known for their highBecause lithium ion batteries are especially susceptible to

  3. Emulsion separation rate enhancement with high frequency energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, E.R. [Phonon Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preponderance of stable oil/water emulsions, commonly encountered as pit oils or tank bottoms and known as sludges, presents an ever worsening remediation problem to oil producers and refiners. As the world`s crudes become heavier, the problem of emulsion generation becomes larger. Increasing regulatory and worldwide environmental controls also drive the need for cost effective reclamation of emulsions and sludges. Traditional methods of heating emulsions to force them to separate are difficult to practice. Emulsions can be hard to pump or may leave residue on heat transfer surfaces. High temperature processing can lead to loss of valuable volatiles. Revolutionary, cost effect technology for high frequency (RFM) energy separation of oil emulsions has been developed by Imperial Petroleum Recovery Corporation. RFM energy energizes the aqueous, surfactant and solid particulate components selectively, providing differential energy input. Proper choice of frequency provides dynamic coupling of the energy field to the natural frequency of the water component of the emulsion, accelerating coalescence of the water droplets into a separated phase. Field results have demonstrated the unique capabilities of RFM energy to accelerate separation of oil/water emulsions.

  4. Dynamic behavior of an aggregate material at simultaneous high pressure and strain rate: SHPB triaxial tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Dynamic behavior of an aggregate material at simultaneous high pressure and strain rate: SHPB Low velocity impacts on energetic materials induce plastic deformations and sliding friction which can pressure and high strain rate). Thus, a technique based on the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars system

  5. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Phillip W. (Rochester, MN); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Bradley, Orvil D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  6. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  7. Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

  8. Penetration seals for TFTR shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The penetrations of the shielding provided for TFTR are required to be sealed to avoid radiation streaming. This report provides a discussion of the properties required for these penetration seals. Several alternate designs are discussed and evaluated and designs recommended for specific applications.

  9. The high-strain-rate and spallation response of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, G.T. III; Rollett, A.D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compressive true stress-true response of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 were found to depend on the applied strain rate, in the range 0.001 to 7000 s{sup {minus}1}. The strain-rate sensitivities of the flow stress of tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 a 1% strain are 0.062, 0.031, and 0.024, respectively. The rates of strain hardening in Tantalum, Ta-10W, and T-111 are seen to exhibit differing behavior with increasing strain rate. The calculated average strain-hardening rate in tantalum, {Theta}, for the quasi-static (0.001 s{sup {minus}1}) data at 25{degrees}C is 2080 MPa/unit strain. The hardening rate at 3000s{sup {minus}1} at 25{degrees}C decreases to 846 MPa/unit strain. Normalizing the work hardening rate in tantalum with the Taylor Factor for a random polycrystal, ({Theta} / (3.07){sup 2}), yields work hardening rates of {mu}/276 at quasi-static strain rates and {mu}/680 at high-rates, assuming a shear modulus of 61 GPa for tantalum at room temperature. While the work hardening of all the tantalum-based materials are similar at quasi-static rates, alloying results in a small reduction in hardening rate. With increasing strain rate, the work hardening rate in tantalum decreases by approximately a factor of two compared to the alloys. Alloying tantalum with substitutional or interstitial elements is thought to result in increased edge dislocation storage and screw dislocation cross-slip due to interactions with the alloying elements at high strain rates. 28 refs.

  10. A MODEL FOR EXPERIMENTALLY-OBSERVED HIGH-STRAIN-RATE DYNAMIC STRAIN AGING IN TITANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    A MODEL FOR EXPERIMENTALLY-OBSERVED HIGH- STRAIN-RATE DYNAMIC STRAIN AGING IN TITANIUM JINGYI CHENG an anomalous response by commercially pure titanium at relatively high temperatures: for a ®xed high strain seems to accurately predict the response of commercially pure titanium, over a broad range of strain

  11. antimony interstitial penetration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bounding properties of the G Torquato, Salvatore 443 OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Renewable Energy Websites Summary:...

  12. activatable cell penetrating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bounding properties of the G Torquato, Salvatore 364 OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Renewable Energy Websites Summary:...

  13. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  14. High-strain-rate nanoindentation behavior of fine-grained magnesium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi

    The effects of temperature and alloying elements on deformation in the high-strain-rate regime were investigated by testing fine-grained magnesium alloys with an average grain size of 2 ? 3 ?m by a nanoindentation technique. ...

  15. High repetition rate mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with complete electric field control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sickler, Jason William, 1978-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in fully-stabilized mode-locked laser systems are enabling many applications, including optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG). In this thesis work, we describe the development of high repetition-rate ...

  16. Femtosecond fiber lasers at 1550 nm for high repetition rates and low timing jitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morse, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Femtosecond fiber lasers have become an important enabling technology for advances in many areas including: frequency combs, precise timing distribution, optical arbitrary waveform generation, and high bit rate sampling ...

  17. Weld penetration and defect control. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, B.A.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  18. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jing

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactions in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (as self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Tablein self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS)[32] In

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  20. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

  1. Dynamic tensile fracture of mortar at ultra-high strain-rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erzar, B., E-mail: benjamin.erzar@cea.fr; Buzaud, E.; Chanal, P.-Y. [CEA, DAM, GRAMAT, F-46500 Gramat (France)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    During the lifetime of a structure, concrete and mortar may be exposed to highly dynamic loadings, such as impact or explosion. The dynamic fracture at high loading rates needs to be well understood to allow an accurate modeling of this kind of event. In this work, a pulsed-power generator has been employed to conduct spalling tests on mortar samples at strain-rates ranging from 2 × 10{sup 4} to 4 × 10{sup 4}?s{sup ?1}. The ramp loading allowed identifying the strain-rate anytime during the test. A power law has been proposed to fit properly the rate-sensitivity of tensile strength of this cementitious material over a wide range of strain-rate. Moreover, a specimen has been recovered damaged but unbroken. Micro-computed tomography has been employed to study the characteristics of the damage pattern provoked by the dynamic tensile loading.

  2. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by the soil electromagnetic properties and their spatial distribution. As the dielectric permittivity of water overwhelms the permittivity of other soil components, the presence of water in the soil principally governs GPR wave propagation. Therefore, GPR-derived dielectric permittivity is usually used as surrogate measure for soil water content. In the areas of unsaturated zone hydrology and water resources, GPR has been used to identify soil stratigraphy, to locate water tables, to follow wetting front movement, to estimate soil water content, to assist in subsurface hydraulic parameter identification, to assess soil salinity, and to support the monitoring of contaminants. The purpose of this special section of the Vadose Zone Journal is to present recent research advances and applications of GPR in hydrogeophysics, with a particular emphasis on vadose zone investigations. This special section includes contributions presented at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2006 (EGU 2006, Vienna, Austria) and the 11th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR 2006, Columbus, OH). The studies presented here deal with a wide range of surface and borehole GPR applications, including GPR sensitivity to contaminant plumes, new methods for soil water content determination, three-dimensional imaging of the subsurface, time-lapse monitoring of hydrodynamic events and inversion techniques for soil hydraulic properties estimation, and joint interpretation of GPR and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) data.

  3. Mechanical and microstructural response of Ni sub 3 Al at high strain rate and elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sizek, H.W.; Gray, G.T. III.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the effect of strain rate and temperature on the substructure evolution and mechanical response of Ni{sub 3}Al will be presented. The strain rate response of Ni{sub 3}Al was studied at strain rates from 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1} (quasi-static) to 10{sup 4} s{sup {minus}1} using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Hopkinson Bar tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 77K to 1273K. At high strain rates the flow strength increased significantly with increasing temperature, similar to the behavior observed at quasi-static rates. The work hardening rates increased with strain rate and varied with temperatures. The work hardening rates, appeared to be significantly higher than those found for Ni270. The substructure evolution was characterized utilizing TEM. The defect generation and rate sensitivity of Ni{sub 3}Al are also discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobtsev, Sergei M.

    to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators," Phys. Lett. A 372, 3124­3128 (2008). 5Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses Sergey Kobtsev* , Sergey Kukarin, Yurii Fedotov Laser Systems Laboratory, Novosibirsk State University,Pirigova 2, Novosibirsk

  5. Abstract--With the increasing fears of the impacts of the high penetration rates of Photovoltaic (PV) systems, a technical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    by a transmission line. Despite its small size, this system was specifically designed to mimic very closely but the simulation gets slower as the system size gets lager. Both Simulink SimPowerSystems and PSCAD don't allow by the researchers and the developers in power systems. II. PSCAD MODEL OF GRID TIED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM The PSCAD

  6. Investigation of wellbore cooling by circulation and fluid penetration into the formation using a wellbore thermal simulator computer code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duda, L.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperatures of geothermal wells present severe problems for drilling, logging, and developing these reservoirs. Cooling the wellbore is perhaps the most common method to solve these problems. However, it is usually not clear what may be the most effective wellbore cooling mechanism for a given well. In this paper, wellbore cooling by the use of circulation or by fluid injection into the surrounding rock is investigated using a wellbore thermal simulator computer code. Short circulation times offer no prolonged cooling of fluid in the wellbore, but long circulation times (greater than ten or twenty days) greatly reduce the warming rate after shut-in. The dependence of the warming rate on the penetration distance of cooler temperatures into the rock formation (as by fluid injection) is investigated. Penetration distances of greater than 0.6 m appear to offer a substantial reduction in the warming rate. Several plots are shown which demonstrate these effects. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, Brett Darren

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The second setup used a ring cavity. A polarization controller and a temperature-controlled chamber were also employed to stabilize the output. The signal laser was modulated to produce pulses with the highest possible repetition rate and the highest possible...

  8. Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, Brett Darren

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The second setup used a ring cavity. A polarization controller and a temperature-controlled chamber were also employed to stabilize the output. The signal laser was modulated to produce pulses with the highest possible repetition rate and the highest possible...

  9. Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 /Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries. Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries. Abstract:...

  10. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  11. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  12. A High Count Rate Neutron Beam Monitor for Neutron Scattering Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Amanda [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hayward, Jason P [ORNL; Menhard, Kocsis [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Sedov, Vladislav N [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool in neutron science facilities. Present beam monitors use either ionization chambers in integration mode, which are slow and have no timing information, or pulse counters which can easily be saturated by high beam intensities. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low intrinsic efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. In this work, we report on a high count rate neutron beam monitor. This beam monitor offers good timing with an intrinsic efficiency of 10-3 and a counting rate capability of over 1,000,000 cps without saturation.

  13. Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Construction Methods, Specifications, and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLeod, Heather Anne Kirkvold

    2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development, construction, and evaluation of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained through the construction of 14 LC-HPC ...

  14. Value of storage with increased renewable penetration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainard, James Robert; Roach, Jesse Dillon

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem statement for this project is: (1) Renewable energy portfolio standards - (a) high penetration of intermittent and variable renewable generation on the grid, (b) utilities constrained by NERC Control Performance Standards, (c) requires additional resources to match generation with load; and (2) mitigation of impacts with energy storage - at what level of renewable penetration does energy storage become an attractive value proposition. Use a simplified, yet robust dispatch model that: (a) incorporates New Mexico Balance Area load and wind generation data, (b) distributes the load among a suite of generators, (c) quantifies increased generation costs with increased penetration of intermittent and variable renewable generation - fuel, startup, shut down, ramping, standby, etc., (d) tracks and quantifies NERC pentalties and violations, and (e) quantifies storage costs. Dispatch model has been constructed and it: (a) accurately distributes a load among a suite of generators, (b) quantifies duty cycle metrics for each of the generators - cumulative energy production, ramping and non ramping duration, spinning reserves, number of start-ups, and shut down durations, etc., (c) quantifies energy exchanges - cumulative exchanges, duration, and number of exchanges, (d) tracks ACE violations.

  15. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speiser, B.L. (St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States)); Spratling, L.

    1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% for the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Patel; J. F. Dynes; I. Choi; A. W. Sharpe; A. R. Dixon; Z. L. Yuan; R. V. Penty; A. J. Shields

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) uniquely allows distribution of cryptographic keys with security verified by quantum mechanical limits. Both protocol execution and subsequent applications require the assistance of classical data communication channels. While using separate fibers is one option, it is economically more viable if data and quantum signals are simultaneously transmitted through a single fiber. However, noise-photon contamination arising from the intense data signal has severely restricted both the QKD distances and secure key rates. Here, we exploit a novel temporal-filtering effect for noise-photon rejection. This allows high-bit-rate QKD over fibers up to 90 km in length and populated with error-free bidirectional Gb/s data communications. With high-bit rate and range sufficient for important information infrastructures, such as smart cities and 10 Gbit Ethernet, QKD is a significant step closer towards wide-scale deployment in fiber networks.

  17. A testing technique for concrete under confinement at high rates of strain P. Forquin1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A testing technique for concrete under confinement at high rates of strain P. Forquin1, , F://lmsX.polytechnique.fr/LMSX/ Abstract: A testing device is presented for the experimental study of dynamic compaction of concrete under numerical simulations of tests involving a set of 4 different concrete-like behaviours and different

  18. High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir, Dan

    High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl K I R * *Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. The results were consistent with those of nononline gas chromatography­mass spectrometry for COS and IR gas

  19. Component/OEM XC-HR50 High Frame Rate Monochrome Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demoulin, Pascal

    Monochrome Camera B/W Progressive Scan Cameras #12;These new cameras expand the range of products in Sony's progressive scan and high-frame rate, compact camera line up! Introducing the newest additions to Sony's B/sec. for compatibility with slower vision systems using Sony XC-55 cameras. The XC-HR50 and XC-HR70 cameras incorporate

  20. High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R. [Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA-Bage, 96413-170 (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, 13086-100 (Brazil)

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

  1. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications Donghwa Shin, Younghyun layer capacitors, or simply supercapacitors, have extremely low internal resistance, and a battery-supercapacitor architecture comprising a simple parallel connection does not perform well when the supercapacitor capacity

  2. A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT* J. Corlett#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT* J. Corlett# , J. Byrd, W. M. Fawley, M. Gullans, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A. Abstract We report on design studies for a seeded FEL light source that is responsive to the scientific needs of the future. The FEL process increases radiation flux by several orders

  3. Time Reversal UWB Communication: Experimental Study for High Data Rates in Dense Multipath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ), UMR CNRS 6164 National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA), 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coesmes, 35043. Classically, TR has been applied in acoustics and under water communication applications [4],[5], but recentlyTime Reversal UWB Communication: Experimental Study for High Data Rates in Dense Multipath

  4. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  5. High-Purity Germanium Spectroscopy at Rates in Excess of 10^{6} Events/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDevender, Brent A.; Dion, Michael P.; Fast, James E.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Wilen, Christopher D.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wright, Michael E.

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—In gamma spectroscopy, a compromise must be made between energy resolution and event-rate capability. Some foreseen nuclear material safeguards applications require a spectrometer with energy resolution typical of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, operated at rates up to and exceeding 106 events per second. We report the performance of an HPGe spectrometer adapted to run at such rates. Our system consists of a commercial semi-coaxial HPGe detector, a modified high-voltagerail, resistive-feedback, charge-sensitive preamplifier and a continuous waveform digitizer. Digitized waveforms are analyzed offline with a novel time-variant trapezoidal filter algorithm. Several time-invariant trapezoidal filters are run in parallel and the slowest one not rejected by instantaneous pileup conditions is used to measure each pulse height. We have attained full-widthat- half-maximum energy resolution of less than 8 keV measured at 662 keV with 1:08*106 per second incoming event rate and 38% throughput. An additional constraint on the width of the fast trigger filter removes a significant amount of edge pileup that passes the first pileup cut, reducing throughput to 26%. While better resolution has been reported by other authors, our throughput is over an order of magnitude higher than any other reported HPGe system operated at such an event rate.

  6. High-Rate Glass Resistive Plate Chambers For LHC Muon Detectors Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laktineh, I; Cauwenbergh, S; Combret, C; Crotty, I; Haddad, Y; Grenier, G; Guida, R; Kieffer, R; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Schirra, F; Seguin, N; Tytgat, M; Van der Donckt, M; Wang, Y; Zaganidis, N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPC) used as muon detector in LHC experiments is behind the absence of such detectors in the high TJ regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10ID O.cm) could be an adequate solution to equip the high TJ regions extending thus both the trigger efficiency and the physics performance. Different beam tests with single and multi-gap configurations using the new glass have shown that such detectors can operate at few thousands Hzlcm2 with high efficiency( > 90%).

  7. The compressive response of porcine adipose tissue from low to high strain rate Kerstyn Comley, Norman Fleck*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    at high strain rates (1000 sÀ1 e5700 sÀ1 ) were conducted with a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) using polycarbonate bars. Over the full range of strain rate from quasi-static to high strain rate, the magnitude pressure bar (SHPB) with polycarbonate bars (PC). It is demon- strated that a one dimensional Ogden model

  8. Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neev, J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Glinsky, M.E.; Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment. 8 figs.

  9. Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neev, Joseph (Laguna Beach, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Glinsky, Michael E. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment.

  10. ADONIS, high count-rate HP-Ge {gamma} spectrometry algorithm: Irradiated fuel assembly measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, P. [AREVA NC La Hague - Nuclear Measurement Team, 50444 Beaumont-Hague Cedex (France); Barat, E.; Dautremer, T.; Montagu, T. [CEA - Saclay, LIST, Electronics and Signal Processing Laboratory, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Normand, S. [CEA - Saclay, LIST, Sensors and Electronic Architectures Laboratory, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADONIS is a digital system for gamma-ray spectrometry, developed by CEA. This system achieves high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometry with correct dynamic dead-time correction, up to, at least, more than an incoming count rate of 3.10{sup 6} events per second. An application of such a system at AREVA NC's La Hague plant is the irradiated fuel scanning facility before reprocessing. The ADONIS system is presented, then the measurement set-up and, last, the measurement results with reference measurements. (authors)

  11. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients at Moderate or High Risk of Biochemical Recurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskin, Peter [Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Rojas, Ana, E-mail: arc03@btconnect.com [Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Ostler, Peter; Hughes, Rob; Milner, Jessica; Cladd, Helen [Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and biochemical control of disease in patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma treated with escalating doses per fraction of high-dose rate brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 patients were treated with 34 Gy in four fractions, 36 Gy in four fractions, 31.5 Gy in three fractions, or 26 Gy in two fractions. Median follow-up times were 60, 54, 36, and 6 months, respectively. Results: Incidence of early Grade {>=} 3 GU morbidity was 3% to 7%, and Grade 4 was 0% to 4%. During the first 12 weeks, the highest mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) value was 14, and between 6 months and 5 years it was 8. Grade 3 or 4 early GI morbidity was not observed. The 3-year actuarial rate of Grade 3 GU was 3% to 16%, and was 3% to 7% for strictures requiring surgery (4-year rate). An incidence of 1% Grade 3 GI events was seen at 3 years. Late Grade 4 GU or GI events were not observed. At 3 years, 99% of patients with intermediate-risk and 91% with high-risk disease were free of biochemical relapse (log-rank p = 0.02). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in urinary and rectal morbidity between schedules. Biochemical control of disease in patients with intermediate and high risk of relapse was good.

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  13. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  14. Z .Mechanics of Materials 28 1998 227236 Adiabatic shearband in WHA in high-strain-rate compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    , the deformation of a Z .conventional depleted uranium DU penetrator quickly localizes into intense adiabatic of the impacting face of the penetra- tor. Therefore, the uranium projectile is an efficient penetrator. The DU

  15. Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

  16. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

  17. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

  18. Recent advances in the measurement of high temperature bimolecular rate constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, J.V.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in the measurement of high temperature reaction rate constants are discussed. The studies carried out by shock tube methods are particularly considered because these results are important not only in theoretical chemical kinetics but also in practical applications. The work on 5 chemical reactions are reviewed in detail. These are: D + H{sub 2}, Cl + H{sub 2}, H + O{sub 2}, CH{sub 3} + CH{sub 3}, and H + NO{sub 2}.

  19. A numerical investigation of high-rate gas flow for gravel-packed completions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, James Kenyon

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A-2 Three-Dimensional Cylindrical Grid System for Simulation of Gravel-Packed Gas Well 58 D-I Perforation Model Schematic 74 INTRODUCTION In recent years, operators have produced gas at ultra high flow rates from shallow, unconsolidated sands... the application of "Systems Analysis" to cased-hole, gravel-packed wells. The second part concerns the numerical simulation of flow in perforations and gravel-packed wells. The method presently used by some operators to analyze the productivity of wells...

  20. An investigation into the inflow performance characteristics of high-rate gravel-packed gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Douglas Lee

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , surrounded by gravel. Gravel-filled perforations extend from the inside diameter of the casing, through the casing and cement sheath, and into the formation. The assumptions which apply to the numerical model and its application to this type of system... Performance 60 32 The Effect of Reservoir Temperature on Inflow Performance 62 33 The Effect of Reservoir Permeability on Inflow Performance 63 INTRODUCTION High-rate gas wells along the Gulf Coast are often completed with a gravel pack to control sand...

  1. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  2. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

  3. Development of high rate MSGCS overview of results from RD28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sauli, Fabio

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many laboratories world-wide have contributed to the R&D project RD-28 at CERN (development of high rate micro-strip gas chambers). Various aspects of the design and use of the detector have been studied, in particular those connected with long-term operation in a high radiation flux. This paper summarizes some major outcomes of the research: the development of controlled resistivity substrates, the studies of pollution-induced ageing processes, the effects of substrate and metallization on performance, the operating characteristics in beam conditions.

  4. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  5. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries A. Jaiswal 1 , C. R. Hornenext generation of Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics

  6. STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: high PV penetration levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SMART Grid, Solar Sandia National Laboratories, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and European Distributed Energies Research Laboratories (DERlab) have organized a...

  8. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  9. Ionization rate coefficients and induction times in nitrogen at high values of E/N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hays, G.N.; Pitchford, L.C.; Gerardo, J.B.; Verdeyen, J.T.; Li, Y.M.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-impact ionization rate coefficients in nitrogen at values of E/N, the ratio of the electric field to the neutral density, up to 12 000 Td (1 Td = 10/sup -17/ V cmS), are reported. In addition, we report experimental measurements of the ionization induction time, the time during the early portion of an applied electric field when the electron energy distribution function is transient and the plasma is characterized by nonexponential growth of the electron density. For nitrogen, we show that the induction period is approximately equal to the inverse of the ionization frequency for a large E/N range. Time-dependent Boltzmann calculations of the electron energy distribution function yield instantaneous ionization rates that are in good agreement with both the measured ionization rates and the induction period. The measurements were made in an electrodeless cell contained in an S-band waveguide immersed in a dc magnetic field and subjected to a pulsed rf electric field at cyclotron resonance. We show that our measurements are equivalent to experiments in dc electric fields; the equivalent dc electric field strength being uniquely related to the rf electric field strength. The use of an rf field for these high-E/N measurements circumvents complications that would be introduced by electrode effects. This is the first direct measurement of ionization rates at these extreme values of E/N.

  10. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Särhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  11. High swelling rates observed in neutron-irradiated V-Cr and V-Si binary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, F.A.; Gelles, D.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Takahashi, H.; Ohnuki, S.; Kinoshita, H. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additions of 5 to 14 wt% chromium to vanadium lead to very large swelling rates during neutron irradiation of the binary alloys, with swelling increasing strongly at higher irradiation temperatures. Addition of 2 wt% silicon to vanadium also leads to very large swelling rates but swelling decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. Addition of 1 wt% zirconium does not yield high swelling rates, however.

  12. Understanding the origin of high-rate intercalation pseudocapacitance in Nb2O5 crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kent, P. R. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Lubimtsev, Andrew A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pseudocapacitors aim to maintain the high power density of supercapacitors while increasing the energy density towards those of energy dense storage systems such as lithium ion batteries. Recently discovered intercalation pseudocapacitors (e.g. Nb2O5) are particularly interesting because their performance is seemingly not limited by surface reactions or structures, but instead determined by the bulk crystalline structure of the material. We study ordered polymorphs of Nb2O5 and detail the mechanism for the intrinsic high rates and energy density observed for this class of materials. We find that the intercalating atom (lithium) forms a solid solution adsorbing at specific sites in a network of quasi-2D NbOx faces with x {1.3, 1.67, or 2}, donating electrons locally to its neighboring atoms, reducing niobium. Open channels in the structure have low diffusion barriers for ions to migrate between these sites (Eb 0.28 0.44 eV) comparable to high-performance solid electrolytes. Using a combination of complementary theoretical methods we rationalize this effect in LixNb2O5 for a wide range of compositions (x) and at finite temperatures. Multiple adsorption sites per unit-cell with similar adsorption energies and local charge transfer result in high capacity and energy density, while the interconnected open channels lead to low cost diffusion pathways between these sites, resulting in high power density. The nano-porous structure exhibiting local chemistry in a crystalline framework is the origin of high-rate pseudocapacitance in this new class of intercalation pseudocapacitor materials. This new insight provides guidance for improving the performance of this family of materials.

  13. A Dynamic Feedback Model for High Repetition Rate LINAC-Driven FELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellado Munoz, M.; Doolittle, L.; Emma, P.; Huang, G.; Ratti, A.; Serrano, C.; Byrd, J. M.

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the concepts for the next generation of linacdriven FELs is a CW superconducting linac driving an electron beam with MHz repetition rates. One of the challenges for next generation FELs is improve the stability of the xray pulses by improving the shot-to-shot stability of the energy, charge, peak current, and timing jitter of the electron beam. A high repetition rate FEL with a CW linac presents an opportunity to use a variety of broadband feedbacks to stabilize the beam parameters. To understand the performance of such a feedback system, we are developing a dynamic model of the machine with a focus on the longitudinal beam properties. The model is being developed as an extension of the LITrack code and includes the dynamics of the beam-cavity interaction, RF feedback, beam-based feedback, and multibunch effects. In this paper, we present a detailed description of this model.

  14. Implementation of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilleby, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.lilleby@ous-hf.no [Cancer Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radiumhospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Tafjord, Gunnar; Raabe, Nils K. [Cancer Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radiumhospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome (overall survival [OS], the actuarial 5-year cancer-specific survival [CSS], disease-free survival [DFS], biochemical failure-free survival [BFS]), complications and morbidity in patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost and hormonal treatment with curative aims. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 275 prospectively followed pN0/N0M0 patients were included: 19 patients (7%) with T2, Gleason score 7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 and 256 patients (93%) with T3 or Gleason score 8-10 or PSA >20 received multimodal treatment with conformal four-field radiotherapy (prostate/vesiculae 2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25) combined with HDR-BT (iridium 192; prostate 10 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: After a median observation time of 44.2 months (range, 10.4-90.5 months) 12 patients had relapsed clinically and/or biochemically and 10 patients were dead, of which 2 patients died from prostate cancer. Five-year estimates of BFS, CSS, DFS, and OS rates were 98.5%, 99.3%, 95.6%, and 96.3%, respectively. None of the patients with either Gleason score <8 or with intermediate risk profile had relapsed. The number of HDR-BT treatments was not related to outcome. Despite of age (median, 65.7 years; range, 45.7-77 years) and considerable pretreatment comorbidity in 39 of 275 patients, Genitourinary treatment-related morbidity was moderate with long-lasting Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 voiding problems in 26 patients (9.5%) and occasionally mucous discharge in 20 patients (7%), none with Grade >2 for gastrointestinal at follow-up. Complications during implantations were related to pubic arch interference (4 patients) and lithotomy time, causing 2 patients to develop compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Despite still preliminary observations, our 5-year outcome estimates favor the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in high-risk patients combined with conformal external radiotherapy and long-term ADT. High-quality implants can be achieved by a trained specialized team at a high-turnover center using transrectal ultrasound-based treatment plans with acceptable morbidity and complication rates.

  15. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

  16. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Two Different Fractionation Schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaprealian, Tania [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Speight, Joycelyn L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I.-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score {>=}7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.

  17. Experiments and Simulations of Penetration into Granite by an Aluminum Shaped Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M J; Randers-Pehrson, G; Kuklo, R M; Rambur, T A; Switzer, L L; Summes, M A

    2003-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes experimental results and numerical simulations of jet penetration into granite from an aluminum lined shaped charge. Several penetration versus standoff experiments were conducted into an in-situ granite formation located in the Climax Ridge region of the Nevada Test Site. Simulations of the jet penetration were modeled with a two dimensional arbitrary lagrange eulerian hydrocode. The effects of variations in the granite flow stress, porosity, and EOS have been evaluated. The work described in this paper is a continuation of our studies on jet penetration and modeling into high strength concrete.

  18. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of High Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei. I. A Metallicity-Accretion Rate Relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Shemmer; H. Netzer; R. Maiolino; E. Oliva; S. Croom; E. Corbett; L. di Fabrizio

    2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new near infrared spectroscopic measurements of the H_beta region for a sample of 29 luminous high redshift quasars. We have measured the width of H_beta in those sources, and added archival H_beta width measurements, to create a sample of 92 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which H_beta width and rest-frame UV measurements of N V \\lambda 1240 and C IV \\lambda 1549 emission-lines are available. Our sample spans six orders of magnitude in luminosity and includes 31 radio-loud AGNs. It also includes 10 narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies and one broad absorption-line quasar. We find that metallicity, indicated by the N V/C IV line ratio, is primarily correlated with accretion rate, which is a function of luminosity and H_beta line-width. This may imply an intimate relation between starburst, responsible for the metal enrichment of the nuclear gas, and AGN fueling, represented by the accretion rate. The correlation of metallicity with luminosity, or black hole (BH) mass, is weaker in contrast with recent results which were based on measurements of the width of C IV. We argue that using C IV as a proxy to H_beta in estimating M_BH might be problematic and lead to spurious BH mass and accretion rate estimates in individual sources. We discuss the potential implications of our new result in the framework of the starburst-AGN connection and theories of BH growth.

  19. Cavity-enhanced field-free molecular alignment at high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benko, Craig; Allison, Thomas K; Labaye, François; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extreme ultraviolet frequency combs are a versatile tool with applications including precision measurement, strong-field physics, and solid-state physics. Here we report on an application of extreme ultraviolet frequency combs and their driving lasers to studying strong-field effects in molecular systems. We perform field-free molecular alignment and high-order hamonic generation with aligned molecules in a gas jet at 154 MHz repetition rate using a high-powered optical frequency comb inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity. The cavity-enhanced system provides means to reach suitable intensities to study field-free molecular alignment and enhance the observable effects of the molecule-field interaction. We observe modulations of the driving field, arising from the nature of impulsive stimulated Raman scattering responsible for coherent molecular rotations. We foresee impact of this work on the study of molecule-based strong-field physics, with improved precision and a more fundamental understanding of the int...

  20. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 µs at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle.

  1. Experimental study on GaP surface damage threshold induced by a high repetition rate femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yi; Liu Feng; Li Yanfeng; Chai Lu; Xing Qirong; Hu Minglie; Wang Chingyue

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface damage threshold of undoped bulk <110> GaP induced by a high repetition rate femtosecond pulse at 1040 nm with a duration of 61 fs was studied. The threshold value was obtained by a linear fit of the incident single pulse fluence and was confirmed with a breakdown test around the threshold level. The result will be useful in high intensity, high repetition rate laser applications and ultrafast processes.

  2. Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of Reynolds number for the aerosol transport system of Strom. Tube diameter = 15. 9 mm. 69 Figure Page 16. Comparison of model, experiments and Strom's data for aerosol penetration through the transport system of Strom. Tube diameter = 15. 9... mm, AED = 8 nm. 70 17. Comparison of model and experiments for aerosol penetration through the transport system of Strom. Tube diameter = 15. 9 mm, AED = 10 pm. . 71 18. Comparison of model, experiments and Strom's data for aerosol penetration...

  3. Slag Penetration into Refractory Lining of Slagging Coal Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The impurities in coal are converted into molten slag typically containing SiO2, FeO, CaO, and Al2O3 when coal feedstock is burned in slagging gasifiers. The slag flows down the gasifier sidewalls, dissolves, and penetrates and reacts with the refractory lining that protects the stainless steel shell of the gasifier from elevated temperatures (1300–1600°C). Refractories composed primarily of Cr2O3 have been found most resistant to slag corrosion, but they continue to fail performance requirements because of low resistance to spalling. Post-mortem analysis of high-chromia refractory bricks collected from commercial gasifiers suggests that the spalling is affected by the depth of slag penetration that is in turn affected by the wettability and interconnected porosity of the refractory as well as the slag viscosity. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of slags (Wyoming Powder River Basin [PRB], Pocahontas #3, and Pittsburgh #8), their contact angle on refractories (chromia-alumina [Aurex 75SR] and high-chromia [Serv 95 and Aurex 95P]), and the apparent porosity of selected refractories. In addition, the depth of slag penetration as a function of time and temperature was determined for various refractory-slag combinations. The results of laboratory tests were used to develop a refractory material that has high resistance to penetration by molten slag and thus has a potential to have a substantially longer service life than the materials currently being used.

  4. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Earl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zubelewicz, Aleksander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  5. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  6. Microcalorimeter Spectroscopy at High Pulse Rates: a Multi-Pulse Fitting Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, J W; Doriese, W B; Fischer, D A; Jaye, C; Joe, Y I; O'Neil, G C; Swetz, D S; Ullom, J N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition edge sensor microcalorimeters can measure x-ray and gamma-ray energies with very high energy resolution and high photon-collection efficiency. For this technology to reach its full potential in future x-ray observatories, each sensor must be able to measure hundreds or even thousands of photon energies per second. Current "optimal filtering" approaches to achieve the best possible energy resolution work only for photons well isolated in time, a requirement in direct conflict with the need for high-rate measurements. We describe a new analysis procedure to allow fitting for the pulse height of all photons even in the presence of heavy pulse pile-up. In the limit of isolated pulses, the technique reduces to the standard optimal filtering with long records. We employ reasonable approximations to the noise covariance function in order to render multi-pulse fitting computationally viable even for very long data records. The technique is employed to analyze x-ray emission spectra at 600 eV and 6 keV at r...

  7. High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

  8. Fuel-disruption experiments under high-ramp-rate heating conditions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.A.; Worledge, D.H.; Cano, G.L.; Mast, P.K.; Briscoe, F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report presents the preliminary results and analysis of the High Ramp Rate fuel-disruption experiment series. These experiments were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the timing and mode of fuel disruption during the prompt-burst phase of a loss-of-flow accident. High-speed cinematography was used to observe the timing and mode of the fuel disruption in a stack of five fuel pellets. Of the four experiments discussed, one used fresh mixed-oxide fuel, and three used irradiated mixed-oxide fuel. Analysis of the experiments indicates that in all cases, the observed disruption occurred well before fuel-vapor pressure was high enough to cause the disruption. The disruption appeared as a rapid spray-like expansion and occurred near the onset of fuel melting in the irradiated-fuel experiments and near the time of complete fuel melting in the fresh-fuel experiment. This early occurrence of fuel disruption is significant because it can potentially lower the work-energy release resulting from a prompt-burst disassembly accident.

  9. High accretion rates in magnetised Keplerian discs mediated by a Parker instability driven dynamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders Johansen; Yuri Levin

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydromagnetic stresses in accretion discs have been the subject of intense theoretical research over the past one and a half decades. Most of the disc simulations have assumed a small initial magnetic field and studied the turbulence that arises from the magnetorotational instability. However, gaseous discs in galactic nuclei and in some binary systems are likely to have significant initial magnetisation. Motivated by this, we performed ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of strongly magnetised, vertically stratified discs in a Keplerian potential. Our initial equilibrium configuration, which has an azimuthal magnetic field in equipartion with thermal pressure, is unstable to the Parker instability. This leads to the expelling of magnetic field arcs, anchored in the midplane of the disc, to around five scale heights from the midplane. Transition to turbulence happens primarily through magnetorotational instability in the resulting vertical fields, although magnetorotational shear instability in the unperturbed azimuthal field plays a significant role as well, especially in the midplane where buoyancy is weak. High magnetic and hydrodynamical stresses arise, yielding an effective $\\alpha$-value of around 0.1 in our highest resolution run. Azimuthal magnetic field expelled by magnetic buoyancy from the disc is continuously replenished by the stretching of a radial field created as gas parcels slide in the linear gravity field along inclined magnetic field lines. This dynamo process, where the bending of field lines by the Parker instability leads to re-creation of the azimuthal field, implies that highly magnetised discs are astrophysically viable and that they have high accretion rates.

  10. Massive star formation via high accretion rates and early disk-driven outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robi Banerjee; Ralph E. Pudritz

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an investigation of massive star formation that results from the gravitational collapse of massive, magnetized molecular cloud cores. We investigate this by means of highly resolved, numerical simulations of initial magnetized Bonnor-Ebert-Spheres that undergo collapse and cooling. By comparing three different cases - an isothermal collapse, a collapse with radiative cooling, and a magnetized collapse - we show that massive stars assemble quickly with mass accretion rates exceeding 10^-3 Msol/yr. We confirm that the mass accretion during the collapsing phase is much more efficient than predicted by selfsimilar collapse solutions, i.e. dM/dt ~ c^3/G. We find that during protostellar assembly the mass accretion reaches 20 - 100 c^3/G. Furthermore, we determined the self-consistent structure of bipolar outflows that are produced in our three dimensional magnetized collapse simulations. These outflows produce cavities out of which radiation pressure can be released, thereby reducing the limitations on the final mass of massive stars formed by gravitational collapse. Moreover, we argue that the extraction of angular momentum by disk-threaded magnetic fields and/or by the appearance of bars with spiral arms significantly enhance the mass accretion rate, thereby helping the massive protostar to assemble more quickly.

  11. Hydrates detection by cone penetration testing: cone penetration tests through ice layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanjean, Philippe Henri

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDRATES DETECTION BY CONE PENETRATION TESTING: PART I: CONE PENETRATION TESTS THROUGH ICE LAYERS A Thesis by PHILIPPE HENRI JEANJEAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABcM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering HYDRATES DETECTION BY CONE PENETRATION TESTING: PART I: CONE PENETRATION TESTS THROUGH ICE LAYERS A Thesis by PHILIPPE HENRI JEANJEAN Approved as to style...

  12. Long-range Cooper pair splitter with high entanglement production rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; D. N. Shi; D. Y. Xing

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooper pairs in the superconductor are a natural source of spin entanglement. The existing proposals of the Cooper pair splitter can only realize a low efficiency of entanglement production, and its size is constrained by the superconducting coherence length. Here we show that a long-range Cooper pair splitter can be implemented in a normal metal-superconductor-normal metal (NSN) junction by driving a supercurrent in the S. The supercurrent results in a band gap modification of the S, which significantly enhances the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) of the NSN junction and simultaneously quenches its elastic cotunneling. Therefore, a high entanglement production rate close to its saturation value can be achieved by the inverse CAR. Interestingly, in addition to the conventional entangled electron states between opposite energy levels, novel entangled states with equal energy can also be induced in our proposal.

  13. Experimental and Simulation of Gamma Radiation Dose Rate for High Exposure Building Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Akbar

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural radioactivity concentrations in high exposure building materials are commonly used in Iran, which is measured a direct exposure by using {\\gamma}-ray spectrometry. The values for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were in the ranges 3.8 - 94.2, 6.5 - 172.2 and 556.9 - 1539.2 Bqkg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates in the standard dwelling room due to 238U, 232Th series and 40K were calculated with MCNPX code. The simulation and experimental results were between 7.95 - 41.74 and 8.36 - 39.99 nGy h-1, respectively. These results were compared with experimental outing and there was overlap closely. The simulation results are able to develop for any kind of dwelling places.

  14. High strain rate approx. 10/sup 6//s response of 304 stainless steel at various strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.A.; Staudhammer, K.P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of high strain rate at controlled strain levels has been investigated on 304 stainless steel. This study implements a radial shock loading design with a reliable specimen recovery. Strains were measured by plating circle grids on a split anvil design and measured after shock loading. The strain levels were controlled by varying the momentum trap geometries. The shock wave profile impinging and traveling through the specimen as obtained by hydrocode calculations is in fact a shear wave. This shock loading design yields a specimen with a gradient of shock levels up to 1.7 Mbars at a pulse duration of less than one microsecond. The pressure range is achieved nominally independent of the strain level. With this strain pressure independence we were able to study the amount of strain induced ..cap alpha..'-martensite generally associated with 304 stainless steel deformation experiments.

  15. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  16. Experimental and Simulation of Gamma Radiation Dose Rate for High Exposure Building Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbar Abbasi; Mustfa Hassanzadeh

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural radioactivity concentrations in high exposure building materials are commonly used in Iran, which is measured a direct exposure by using {\\gamma}-ray spectrometry. The values for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were in the ranges 3.8 - 94.2, 6.5 - 172.2 and 556.9 - 1539.2 Bqkg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates in the standard dwelling room due to 238U, 232Th series and 40K were calculated with MCNPX code. The simulation and experimental results were between 7.95 - 41.74 and 8.36 - 39.99 nGy h-1, respectively. These results were compared with experimental outing and there was overlap closely. The simulation results are able to develop for any kind of dwelling places.

  17. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  18. EXPECTED TRIGGER RATES OF HIGH PT JETS AND DIRECT PHOTONS IN THE STAR EMC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BELT-TONJES,M. FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION

    1999-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is a large acceptance detector. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will provide a sensitive trigger to study high p{sub t} jets and hard photons in AuAu, pp, and pAu collisions. The capability for the EMC to trigger on jets and direct photons was studied for trigger level 0. Trigger efficiencies and expected process rates were obtained for pp reactions. Results from pp interactions will be essential to the interpretation of AuAu results as well as for the spin physics program. These studies were performed with the standard STAR software chain which includes GEANT and EMC simulations. The HIJING event generator was used to provide input for the simulations.

  19. Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

  20. Evolution of microstructure and crystalline texture in aluminum sheet metal subjected to high strain rate biaxial deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitler, Isaac Benjamin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrohydraulic forming was used to biaxially stretch commercial Aluminum 5052 sheet metal workpieces at a high strain rate. Annealed and unannealed workpieces were formed. Specimens were taken from unformed metal and ...

  1. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been. Kurkjian #12;732 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1998 Moisture Penetration Through Optical

  2. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Ojai, CA); Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Lewallen, Tricia S. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  3. The use of segmented cathode of a drift tube for designing a track detector with a high rate capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Duginov, V N; Zyazyulya, F E; Korenchenko, A S; Kolesnikov, A O; Kravchuk, N P; Movchan, S A; Rudenko, A I; Smirnov, V S; Khomutov, N V; Chekhovsky, V A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detector rate capability is one of the main parameters for designing a new detector for high energy physics due to permanent rise of the beam luminosity of modern accelerators. One of the widely used detectors for particle track reconstruction is a straw detector based on drift tubes. The rate capability of such detectors is limited by the parameters of readout electronics. The traditional method of increasing detector rate capability is increasing their granularity (a number of readout channels) by reducing the straw diameter and/or by dividing the straw anode wire into two parts (for decreasing the rate per readout channel). A new method of designing straw detectors with a high rate capability is presented and tested. The method is based on dividing the straw cathode into parts and independent readout of each part.

  4. Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain)] [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain)] [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about ?3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than ?1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet ?3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were ?7% for {sup 60}Co, ?0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and ?2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like {sup 169}Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at least a 0.1 cm bolus is advised for {sup 60}Co to avoid underdosing superficial target layers. For {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb, no bolus is needed. For those cases where no bolus is needed, its use might be detrimental as the lack of radiation scatter may be beneficial to the patient, although the 2% tolerance for dose calculation accuracy recommended in the AAPM TG-56 report is not fulfilled.

  5. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 fotw876web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 856 January 19, 2015 Plug-in and Hybrid Cars Receive High Scores for...

  6. Cryogenic Treatment of Production Components in High-Wear Rate Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, M.

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep Cryogenic Tempering (DCT) is a specialized process whereby the molecular structure of a material is ''re-trained'' through cooling to -300 F and then heating to +175-1100 F. Cryocon, Inc. (hereafter referred to as Cryocon) and RMOTC entered an agreement to test the process on oilfield production components, including rod pumps, rods, couplings, and tubing. Three Shannon Formation wells were selected (TD about 500 ft) based on their proclivity for high component wear rates. Phase 1 of the test involved operation for a nominal 120 calendar day period with standard, non-treated components. In Phase 2, treated components were installed and operated for another nominal 120 calendar day period. Different cryogenic treatment profiles were used for components in each well. Rod pumps (two treated and one untreated) were not changed between test phases. One well was operated in pumped-off condition, resulting in abnormal wear and disqualification from the test. Testing shows that cryogenic treatment reduced wear of rods, couplers, and pump barrels. Testing of production tubing produced mixed results.

  7. New developments in plasma-activated high-rate EB evaporation for metal strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiller, S.; Goedicke, K.; Hoetzsch, G. [Fraunhofer Institute, Dresden (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coating of metal strips by EB evaporation is well known since many years. But up to now the application on an industrial scale is very limited. One of the reasons are the costs and the progress of ECD technologies in the last ten years. But there are opportunities for the evaporation technology if layers with new properties can be produced. One way to meet this target is the application of a plasma-activated and ion-assisted process. However, the plasma density and the ion current density on the substrate must fit the high deposition rates. Many efforts in our institute are dedicated to the development of appropriate plasma sources. The systems are explained and main parameters are given. Using a plasma the layer properties can be improved remarkably. Therefore new applications come into play. First results are shown. Layers consisting of compounds will play a growing role for corrosion and abrasion protection. The technologies are explained and important film properties are presented.

  8. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

  9. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  10. Fact #875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - Dataset Fact 875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014...

  11. High-rate x-ray spectroscopy in mammography with a CdTe detector: A digital pulse processing approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Principato, F.; Del Sordo, S.; Ienzi, R.; Raso, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy) and INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose:Direct measurement of mammographic x-ray spectra under clinical conditions is a difficult task due to the high fluence rate of the x-ray beams as well as the limits in the development of high resolution detection systems in a high counting rate environment. In this work we present a detection system, based on a CdTe detector and an innovative digital pulse processing (DPP) system, for high-rate x-ray spectroscopy in mammography. Methods: The DPP system performs a digital pile-up inspection and a digital pulse height analysis of the detector signals, digitized through a 14-bit, 100 MHz digitizer, for x-ray spectroscopy even at high photon counting rates. We investigated on the response of the digital detection system both at low (150 cps) and at high photon counting rates (up to 500 kcps) by using monoenergetic x-ray sources and a nonclinical molybdenum anode x-ray tube. Clinical molybdenum x-ray spectrum measurements were also performed by using a pinhole collimator and a custom alignment device. Results: The detection system shows excellent performance up to 512 kcps with an energy resolution of 4.08% FWHM at 22.1 keV. Despite the high photon counting rate (up to 453 kcps), the molybdenum x-ray spectra, measured under clinical conditions, are characterized by a low number of pile-up events. The agreement between the attenuation curves and the half value layer values, obtained from the measured spectra, simulated spectra, and from the exposure values directly measured with an ionization chamber, also shows the accuracy of the measurements. Conclusions: These results make the proposed detection system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research and advanced quality controls in mammography.

  12. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence...

  13. WATER ICE IN HIGH MASS-LOSS RATE OH/IR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Young-Joo, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate water-ice features in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars. We use a radiative transfer code which can consider multiple components of dust shells to make model calculations for various dust species including water ice in the OH/IR stars. We find that the model SEDs are sensitively dependent on the location of the water-ice dust shell. For two sample stars (OH 127.8+0.0 and OH 26.5+0.6), we compare the detailed model results with the infrared observational data including the spectral data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For the two sample stars, we reproduce the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 3.1 {mu}m and 11.5 {mu}m; emission at 44 and 62 {mu}m) observed by ISO using a separate component of the water-ice dust shell that condensed at about 84-87 K (r {approx} 1500-1800 AU) as well as the silicate dust shell that condensed at about 1000 K (r {approx} 19-25 AU). For a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars, we present infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and AKARI data compared with theoretical model results. We find that the theoretical models clearly show the effects of the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 11.5 {mu}m and emission at 62 {mu}m) on the 2CDs.

  14. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  15. In vivo measurements for high dose rate brachytherapy with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu; Jursinic, Paul A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, West Michigan Cancer Center, 200 North Park Street, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49007 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To show the feasibility of clinical implementation of OSLDs for high dose-rate (HDR) in vivo dosimetry for gynecological and breast patients. To discuss how the OSLDs were characterized for an Ir-192 source, taking into account low gamma energy and high dose gradients. To describe differences caused by the dose calculation formalism of treatment planning systems.Methods: OSLD irradiations were made using the GammaMedplus iX Ir-192 HDR, Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA. BrachyVision versions 8.9 and 10.0, Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA, were used for calculations. Version 8.9 used the TG-43 algorithm and version 10.0 used the Acuros algorithm. The OSLDs (InLight Nanodots) were characterized for Ir-192. Various phantoms were created to assess calculated and measured doses and the angular dependence and self-absorption of the Nanodots. Following successful phantom measurements, patient measurements for gynecological patients and breast cancer patients were made and compared to calculated doses.Results: The OSLD sensitivity to Ir-192 compared to 6 MV is between 1.10 and 1.25, is unique to each detector, and changes with accumulated dose. The measured doses were compared to those predicted by the treatment planning system and found to be in agreement for the gynecological patients to within measurement uncertainty. The range of differences between the measured and Acuros calculated doses was -10%-14%. For the breast patients, there was a discrepancy of -4.4% to +6.5% between the measured and calculated doses at the skin surface when the Acuros algorithm was used. These differences were within experimental uncertainty due to (random) error in the location of the detector with respect to the treatment catheter.Conclusions: OSLDs can be successfully used for HDR in vivo dosimetry. However, for the measurements to be meaningful one must account for the angular dependence, volume-averaging, and the greater sensitivity to Ir-192 gamma rays than to 6 MV x-rays if 6 MV x-rays were used for OSLD calibration. The limitations of the treatment planning algorithm must be understood, especially for surface dose measurements. Use of in vivo dosimetry for HDR brachytherapy treatments is feasible and has the potential to detect and prevent gross errors. In vivo HDR brachytherapy should be included as part of the QA for a HDR brachytherapy program.

  16. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V., E-mail: igor.gera@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine); Sommer, J.-U. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden e.V. (Germany); Gerasimchuk, V. S. [National Technical University of Ukraine 'Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  17. A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

  18. Low to high strain rate deformation of amorphous polymers : experiments and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulliken, Adam Dustin, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation has been performed to understand the mechanical behavior of two amorphous polymers--polycarbonate and poly(methvl methacrylate)--at strain rates ranging from 10?? to 10? ...

  19. Design Studies for a High-Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORLETT, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL* A. B ELKACEM , J. M. BBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working to addressof several divisions at LBNL is working to define the

  20. A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance, based on a number of FEL configurations, fed byREPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT* J. Corlett # ,will be switched into each FEL in the array, in a time-

  1. INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

  2. Optical channel waveguides written by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation in Li-Zn fluoroborate glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Sunil; Solis, Javier; Biju, P R; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low loss, optical channel waveguides have been successfully produced by high repetition rate, femtosecond laser inscription in a Li-Zn fluoroborate glass (64.9B2O3 + 25Li2O + 10ZnF2 + 0.1Er2O3). High quality waveguides were produced at 500 kHz, 1 MHz and 2 MHz laser repetition rates, showing a refractive index contrast in the range of 3-6 x 10-3 depending on various fluences. Dependence of experimental parameters such as average laser power, pulse repetition rate and writing speed on the properties of fabricated waveguides has been discussed. The comparison of optical and compositional characterization techniques evidences an enrichment of B and Zn in the guiding region, while F migrates to the heat diffused region of the written structure.

  3. JOM, 2010, 62(3): p. 25-26. Symposium Preview: High Strain Rate Behaviors of Composites and Heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    25 JOM, 2010, 62(3): p. 25-26. Symposium Preview: High Strain Rate Behaviors of Composites and Heterogeneous Materials Nikhil Gupta and Kyu Cho The use of composite materials has been rapidly increasing and the usage is now over 8 million tons/year. In a significant advancement, composite materials comprise over

  4. High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigny, Christophe

    High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia, Indonesia Introduction Sulawesi Island, eastern Indonesia, is at the triple junction of the Paci®c (through- ABSTRACT In eastern Indonesia, the Central Sulawesi fault system consists of complex left-lateral strike

  5. High-Shear-Rate Behavior of Radial Hydrogenated Styrene-Isoprene and Block Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, David

    High-Shear-Rate Behavior of Radial Hydrogenated Styrene-Isoprene and Block Ethylene-Propylene additives (an ethylene-propylene block copolymer and a radial hydrogenated styrene-isoprene copolymer-isoprene copolymer and 1.5% for the ethylene-propylene additive, the viscosity was measured over a range of shear

  6. Low Rates of Expression Profile Divergence in Highly Expressed Genes and Tissue-Specific Genes During Mammalian Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Low Rates of Expression Profile Divergence in Highly Expressed Genes and Tissue-Specific Genes specificity influence the divergence of expression profiles between orthologous genes. Here we address expression profile change during evolution is negatively correlated with the level of gene expression

  7. Estimation of Nucleotide Diversity, Disequilibrium Coefficients, and Mutation Rates from High-Coverage Genome-Sequencing Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Michael

    Estimation of Nucleotide Diversity, Disequilibrium Coefficients, and Mutation Rates from High for the binomial sampling of parental alleles at individual nucleotide sites and to eliminate bias from various the average nucleotide heterozygosity and its variance among sites, the pattern of decomposition of linkage

  8. Path Prediction for High Issue-Rate Processors Kishore N. Menezes Sumedh W. Sathaye Thomas M. Conte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Thomas M.

    Path Prediction for High Issue-Rate Processors Kishore N. Menezes Sumedh W. Sathaye Thomas M. Conte predict a single branch at a time. Performance improvement is possible by predicting multiple branches in a single cycle. This paper presents a technique to predict paths in a single access. The correlation

  9. Multi-piconet Formation to Increase Channel Utilization in IEEE 802.15.3 High-Rate WPAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae-Jin

    .15.3 WPAN. 1 Introduction Recently, we have witnessed a noticeable increase of personal devices. The devices physical cables. Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) can con- nect various personal devices within}@ece.skku.ac.kr {jsd, hslee75, tgkwon, chojw}@keti.re.kr Abstract. IEEE 802.15.3 high-rate Wireless Personal Area

  10. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination of the free electron laser leads to very different plasma emission and produces films with high quality

  11. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--6 March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives for the University of Toledo are to: (1) establish a transferable knowledge and technology base for fabricating high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si-based solar cells, and (2) develop high-rate deposition techniques for the growing a-Si-based and related alloys, including poly-Si, c-Si, a-SiGe, and a-Si films and photovoltaic devices with these materials.

  12. Adaptation of the CVT algorithm for catheter optimization in high dose rate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulin, Eric; Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Beaulieu, Luc [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Axe oncologie du Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada)] [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Axe oncologie du Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Létourneau, Mélanie [Département de Radio-Oncologie, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada)] [Département de Radio-Oncologie, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (United Kingdom)] [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (United Kingdom); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: An innovative, simple, and fast method to optimize the number and position of catheters is presented for prostate and breast high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, both for arbitrary templates or template-free implants (such as robotic templates).Methods: Eight clinical cases were chosen randomly from a bank of patients, previously treated in our clinic to test our method. The 2D Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (CVT) algorithm was adapted to distribute catheters uniformly in space, within the maximum external contour of the planning target volume. The catheters optimization procedure includes the inverse planning simulated annealing algorithm (IPSA). Complete treatment plans can then be generated from the algorithm for different number of catheters. The best plan is chosen from different dosimetry criteria and will automatically provide the number of catheters and their positions. After the CVT algorithm parameters were optimized for speed and dosimetric results, it was validated against prostate clinical cases, using clinically relevant dose parameters. The robustness to implantation error was also evaluated. Finally, the efficiency of the method was tested in breast interstitial HDR brachytherapy cases.Results: The effect of the number and locations of the catheters on prostate cancer patients was studied. Treatment plans with a better or equivalent dose distributions could be obtained with fewer catheters. A better or equal prostate V100 was obtained down to 12 catheters. Plans with nine or less catheters would not be clinically acceptable in terms of prostate V100 and D90. Implantation errors up to 3 mm were acceptable since no statistical difference was found when compared to 0 mm error (p > 0.05). No significant difference in dosimetric indices was observed for the different combination of parameters within the CVT algorithm. A linear relation was found between the number of random points and the optimization time of the CVT algorithm. Because the computation time decrease with the number of points and that no effects were observed on the dosimetric indices when varying the number of sampling points and the number of iterations, they were respectively fixed to 2500 and to 100. The computation time to obtain ten complete treatments plans ranging from 9 to 18 catheters, with the corresponding dosimetric indices, was 90 s. However, 93% of the computation time is used by a research version of IPSA. For the breast, on average, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations would be satisfied down to 12 catheters. Plans with nine or less catheters would not be clinically acceptable in terms of V100, dose homogeneity index, and D90.Conclusions: The authors have devised a simple, fast and efficient method to optimize the number and position of catheters in interstitial HDR brachytherapy. The method was shown to be robust for both prostate and breast HDR brachytherapy. More importantly, the computation time of the algorithm is acceptable for clinical use. Ultimately, this catheter optimization algorithm could be coupled with a 3D ultrasound system to allow real-time guidance and planning in HDR brachytherapy.

  13. Birefringence-Induced Trains of High-Rate Pulses in a Mode-Locked Fiber Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zadok, Avinoam

    , August 2009 Avi Zadok Jacob Sendowski Amnon Yariv, Life Fellow, IEEE DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2027441 1943-Rate Pulses in a Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Avi Zadok, Jacob Sendowski, and Amnon Yariv, Life Fellow, IEEE published Online July 7, 2009. Current version published July 24, 2009. The work of A. Zadok is supported

  14. High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250km of ultra low loss fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stucki; N. Walenta; F. Vannel; R. T. Thew; N. Gisin; H. Zbinden; S. Gray; C. R. Towery; S. Ten

    2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a fully automated quantum key distribution prototype running at 625 MHz clock rate. Taking advantage of ultra low loss fibres and low-noise superconducting detectors, we can distribute 6,000 secret bits per second over 100 km and 15 bits per second over 250km.

  15. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE BULK REACTION RATES I: THEORY AND TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxter, Ethan F.

    and mineral chemistry. The local equilibrium assumption, used in geochronology, geothermobarometry describe in detail the theory and methodology of a technique for extracting bulk reaction rates directly for the exchange process. Forward modeling of the reactive transport process using numerical methods

  16. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  17. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essien, Marcelino (Albuquerque, NM); Keicher, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  18. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  19. Single Carrier Architecture for High Data Rate Wireless PAN Communications System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    amplifier and the high phase noise at 60 GHz, a simple /frame synchronization process is designed to provide a smaller value of the preamble missing detection and false alarm) conditions. A Tx-Rx distance greater than 30 meters was attained with low BER using high gain antennas

  20. Short pulse and high repetition rate diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 regenerative amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of high energy and ultra-short laser pulses. Many research efforts have been devoted to the generation-doped crystals. Within oscillators, ultra-short pulses (down to 47 fs with Yb:CALGO [1]) or high average powers and compact laser configurations. From this point of view, due to their favorable spectroscopic and thermal

  1. Prediction of Weld Penetration in FCAW of HSLA steel using Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asl, Y. Dadgar; Mostafa, N. B.; Panahizadeh, V. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedkashi, S. M. H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semiautomatic or automatic arc welding process that requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux. The main FCAW process parameters affecting the depth of penetration are welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed. Shallow depth of penetration may contribute to failure of a welded structure since penetration determines the stress-carrying capacity of a welded joint. To avoid such occurrences; the welding process parameters influencing the weld penetration must be properly selected to obtain an acceptable weld penetration and hence a high quality joint. Artificial neural networks (ANN), also called neural networks (NN), are computational models used to express complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) method is used to predict the effects of welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed on weld penetration depth in gas shielded FCAW of a grade of high strength low alloy steel. 32 experimental runs were carried out using the bead-on-plate welding technique. Weld penetrations were measured and on the basis of these 32 sets of experimental data, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network was created. 28 sets of the experiments were used as the training data and the remaining 4 sets were used for the testing phase of the network. The ANN has one hidden layer with eight neurons and is trained after 840 iterations. The comparison between the experimental results and ANN results showed that the trained network could predict the effects of the FCAW process parameters on weld penetration adequately.

  2. A High-Rate, Heterogeneous Data Set from the Darpa Urban Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Albert S.

    This paper describes a data set collected by MIT’s autonomous vehicle Talos during the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. Data from a high-precision navigation system, five cameras, 12 SICK planar laser range scanners, and a ...

  3. High-Rate Oxygen Reduction in Mixed Nonaqueous Electrolyte Containing Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng D.; Yang X.; Qu D.

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed nonaqueous electrolyte that contains acetonitrile and propylene carbonate (PC) was found to be suitable for a LiO2 battery with a metallic Li anode. Both the concentration and diffusion coefficient for the dissolved O2 are significantly higher in the mixed electrolyte than those in the pure PC electrolyte. A powder microelectrode was used to investigate the O2 solubility and diffusion coefficient. A 10 mA?cm-2 discharge rate on a gas-diffusion electrode is demonstrated by using the mixed electrolyte in a LiO2 cell.

  4. Method to grow pure nanocrystalline diamond films at low temperatures and high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Xiao, Xingcheng (Woodridge, IL)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate at a rate of not less than about 0.2 microns/hour at a substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. The method includes seeding the substrate surface with nanocrystalline diamond powder to an areal density of not less than about 10.sup.10sites/cm.sup.2, and contacting the seeded substrate surface with a gas of about 99% by volume of an inert gas other than helium and about 1% by volume of methane or hydrogen and one or more of acetylene, fullerene and anthracene in the presence of a microwave induced plasma while maintaining the substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. to deposit nanocrystalline diamond on the seeded substrate surface at a rate not less than about 0.2 microns/hour. Coatings of nanocrystalline diamond with average particle diameters of less than about 20 nanometers can be deposited with thermal budgets of 500.degree. C.-4 hours or less onto a variety of substrates such as MEMS devices.

  5. Impact of increased penetration of wind and PV solar resources on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the BES through a power electronic inverter · Residential roof top PV solar also has an inverter whichImpact of increased penetration of wind and PV solar resources on the bulk power system Vijay;Wind and PV solar grid interface · Modern wind turbine generators are typically rated between 1.5 MW

  6. The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

  7. Directions and Issues for High Data Rate Wide Area Network Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    -speed, network based, data intensive computing experiments between Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) facility. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of very high and congestion in the middleware and infrastructure, responding to human interaction, etc. The technologies

  8. Remotely-interrogated high data rate free space laser communications link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Anthony J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of remotely extracting information from a communications station by interrogation with a low power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low power beam results in a high power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity nondegenerate four wave mixing is used in a broad area semiconductor laser in the communications station to produce the return beam.

  9. High rate buffer layer for IBAD MgO coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an oriented material thereon, and, a layer of hafnium oxide upon the layer of an oriented material. The layer of hafnium oxide can further include a secondary oxide such as cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, lanthanum oxide, scandium oxide, calcium oxide and magnesium oxide. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of hafnium oxide or layer of hafnium oxide and secondary oxide.

  10. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, I.H.

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity. 5 figs.

  11. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, Ivar H. (Bangor, ME)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity.

  12. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  13. An investigation of penetrant techniques for detection of machining-induced surface-breaking cracks on monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, G.A.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this effort was to evaluate penetrant methods for their ability to detect surface-breaking cracks in monolithic ceramic materials with an emphasis on detection of cracks generated by machining. There are two basic penetrant types, visible and fluorescent. The visible penetrant method is usually augmented by powder developers and cracks detected can be seen in visible light. Cracks detected by fluorescent penetrant are visible only under ultraviolet light used with or without a developer. The developer is basically a powder that wicks up penetrant from a crack to make it more observable. Although fluorescent penetrants were recommended in the literature survey conducted early in this effort, visible penetrants and two non-standard techniques, a capillary gaseous diffusion method under development at the institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow, and the {open_quotes}statiflux{close_quotes} method which involves use of electrically charged particles, were also investigated. SiAlON ring specimens (1 in. diameter, 3/4 in. wide) which had been subjected to different thermal-shock cycles were used for these tests. The capillary gaseous diffusion method is based on ammonia; the detector is a specially impregnated paper much like litmus paper. As expected, visible dye penetrants offered no detection sensitivity for tight, surface-breaking cracks in ceramics. Although the non-standard statiflux method showed promise on high-crack-density specimens, it was ineffective on limited-crack-density specimens. The fluorescent penetrant method was superior for surface-breaking crack detection, but successful application of this procedure depends greatly on the skill of the user. Two presently available high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrants were then evaluated for detection of microcracks on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC from different suppliers. Although 50X optical magnification may be sufficient for many applications, 200X magnification provides excellent delectability.

  14. Imaging wave-penetrable objects in a finite depth ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Jun

    Imaging wave-penetrable objects in a finite depth ocean Keji Liu Yongzhi Xu Jun Zou Abstract. We- penetrable inhomogeneous medium in a 3D finite depth ocean. The method is based on a scat- tering analysis extend the direct sampling method proposed in [13] to image a wave- penetrable inhomogeneous medium

  15. Dose uncertainty due to computed tomography ,,CT... slice thickness in CT-based high dose rate brachytherapy of the prostate cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pouliot, Jean

    Dose uncertainty due to computed tomography ,,CT... slice thickness in CT-based high dose rate in Medicine. DOI: 10.1118/1.1785454 Key words: high dose rate brachytherapy, computed tomography, prostate at risk OARs by providing three-dimensional 3D anatomical information from computed tomography CT

  16. Experimental Study of the Effect of Beam Loading on RF Breakdown Rate in CLIC High-Gradient Accelerating Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tecker, F; Kelisani, M; Doebert, S; Grudiev, A; Quirante, J; Riddone, G; Syratchev, I; Wuensch, W; Kononenko, O; Solodko, A; Lebet, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RF breakdown is a key issue for the multi-TeV highluminosity e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Breakdowns in the high-gradient accelerator structures can deflect the beam and decrease the desired luminosity. The limitations of the accelerating structures due to breakdowns have been studied so far without a beam present in the structure. The presence of the beam modifies the distribution of the electrical and magnetic field distributions, which determine the breakdown rate. Therefore an experiment has been designed for high power testing a CLIC prototype accelerating structure with a beam present in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). A special beam line allows extracting a beam with nominal CLIC beam current and duration from the CTF3 linac. The paper describes the beam optics design for this experimental beam line and the commissioning of the experiment with beam.

  17. High dose rate /sup 60/Co remote afterloading irradiation in cancer of the cervix in Haiti, 1977-1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streeter, O.E. Jr.; Goldson, A.L.; Chevallier, C.; Nibhanupudy, J.R.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From 1977 through 1984, 293 previously untreated patients with biopsy proven carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated by whole pelvis irradiation and high intensity 60Co remote afterloading (RAL) intrauterine tandem techniques in Haiti. The treatment results were analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the therapeutic results and prognostic factors of a strict protocol involving 40 Gy to the whole pelvis (2 Gy/day, 5 days/week). In addition, on the 5th day of the 3rd week, the first outpatient 60Co remote afterloading intracavitary insertion, delivering 7.5 Gy to point A with each insertion, repeated 3 times by a week separation for a total of 4 times. The total TDF for external beam plus RAL was 158 and 175 for early and late effects respectively. One hundred-four patients were evaluable after 1 year or more follow-up, with a median of 26.5 months. No evidence of disease (NED) by Stage at 1 year was: Stage I of 100% (3/3), Stage II of 82% (9/11), Stage III of 80% (47/59), and Stage IV of 58% (18/31). The post-therapeutic complication rate was 7.7%, with no fistulas or requirement of surgical intervention. Those with documented follow-up of at least 2 years (74 patients) had comparable survival to other high dose rate and low dose rate studies. This study shows that outpatient brachytherapy can be carried out without sophisticated and expensive equipment with minimal staff trained in radiation therapy. A detailed description of this outpatient RAL technique and results are described so that this method can be adapted to other developing and industrialized nations where cost containment is becoming a key issue.

  18. Hydrates detection by cone penetration testing: cone penetration tests through ice layers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanjean, Philippe Henri

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for one Diatneter of Cone in Materials of Different Compactness. . . . . 124 . . . . , I 2 6 Fig. 6. 3. Failure Pattern Associated With Cone Penetration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Fig. 6. 4. Penetration of Fugro Type Cone Through Loose to Dense... strain gage cone designs have a layout simi- lar to the one shown in Fig. 3. 2. The cone load cell (c) is put in com- pression by the end bearing and the sleeve load cell (s) is put into tension by the friction. These penetrometers are called tension...

  19. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  20. Penetration through a wall: Is it reality?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Ivlev

    2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A tennis ball is not expected to penetrate through a brick wall since a motion under a barrier is impossible in classical mechanics. With quantum effects a motion of a particle through a barrier is allowed due to quantum tunneling. According to usual theories of tunneling, the particle density decays inside a classical barrier resulting in an extremely slow pentration process. However, there are no general laws forbidding fast motion through classical barriers. The problem addressed is investigation of unusual features o quantum tunneling through a classic static barrier which is at least two-dimensional. Here we show that penetration through such barrier can be not slow. When the barrier satisfies the certain conditions, a regime of quantum lens is possible with formation of caustics. De Broglie waves are reflected from the caustics, interfere, and result in a not small flux from under the barrier. This strongly contrasts to the usual scenario with a decaying under-barrier density. We construct a particular example of fast motion through a classical barrier. One can unexectedly conclude that, in principle, nature allows fast penetration through classical barriers which against common sense. The phenomenon may be responsible for a variety of processes in labs and nature. For example, tunneling in solids may occur with a different scenario, in biophysics and chemistry one can specify conditions for unusual reactions, and evanescent optical waves may strongly change their properties. In condensed matter and cosmic physics there are phenomena with misterious reasons of an energy emission, for instance, gamma-ray bursts. One can try to treat them in the context of fast escape from under some barriers.

  1. Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (PART 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Danilov; Yu. Gilitsky; T. Kvaratschellia; L. Laptin; I. Tichomirov; M. Titov; Yu. Zaitsev

    2001-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance $R$ from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradiation. The possible application of these results to the construction of a large area gaseous detectors for operation in high rate environments is presented.

  2. Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (Part 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Danilov; Yu. Gilitsky; T. Kvaratschellia; L. Laptin; I. Tichomirov; M. Titov; Yu. Zaitsev

    2001-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance R from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradiation. The possible application of these results to the construction of a large area gaseous detectors for operation in high rate environments is presented.

  3. Plasma penetration of the dayside magnetopause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunell, H.; Maggiolo, R. [Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Nilsson, H.; Stenberg, G.; Lundin, R. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, P.O. Box 812, SE-981 28 Kiruna (Sweden); Hamrin, M. [Department of Physics, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Karlsson, T. [Space and Plasma Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Andre, M. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 537, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Dandouras, I. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, UPS-CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from the Cluster spacecraft during their magnetopause crossing on 25 January 2002 are presented. The magnetopause was in a state of slow non-oscillatory motion during the observational period. Coherent structures of magnetosheath plasma, here typified as plasmoids, were seen on closed magnetic field lines on the inside of the magnetopause. Using simultaneous measurements on two spacecraft, the inward motion of the plasmoids is followed from one spacecraft to the next, and it is found to be in agreement with the measured ion velocity. The plasma characteristics and the direction of motion of the plasmoids show that they have penetrated the magnetopause, and the observations are consistent with the concept of impulsive penetration, as it is known from theory, simulations, and laboratory experiments. The mean flux across the magnetopause observed was 0.2%-0.5% of the solar wind flux at the time, and the peak values of the flux inside the plasmoids reached approximately 20% of the solar wind flux.

  4. NEUTRON SCATTERING SHOWS THAT CYTOCHROME b5 PENETRATES DEEPLY INTO THE LIPID BILAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NEUTRON SCATTERING SHOWS THAT CYTOCHROME b5 PENETRATES DEEPLY INTO THE LIPID BILAYER E. P. GOGOL to lipid vesicles using neutron small-angle scattering methods. To increase scat- tering contrast between of a highly deuterated phospholipid. Small-angle neutron diffraction patterns were collected in a series of H

  5. PULSAR: A High-Repetition-Rate, High-Power, CE Phase-Locked Laser for the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Itzhak, Itzik (Itzhak) [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Carnes, Kevin D. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Cocke, C. Lew [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Fehrenbach, Charles W. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Kumarappan, Vinod [PULSAR: A High-Repetition-Rate, High-Power, CE Phase-Locked Laser for the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University; Rudenko, Artem [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Trallero, Carlos [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This instrumentation grant funded the development and installation of a state-of-the-art laser system to be used for the DOE funded research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. Specifically, we purchased a laser based on the KMLABs Red-Dragon design, which has a high repetition rate of 10-20 kHz crucial for multi-parameter coincidence measurements conducted in our lab. This laser system is carrier-envelope phase (CEP) locked and provides pulses as short as 21 fs directly from the amplifier (see details below). In addition, we have developed a pulse compression setup that provides sub 5 fs pulses and a CEP tagging capability that allows for long measurements of CEP dependent processes.

  6. Open source intelligence (OSINT) has long been a valuable com-modity to ethical penetration testers and malicious hackers alike, but re-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Open source intelligence (OSINT) has long been a valuable com- modity to ethical penetration testers and malicious hackers alike, but re- cent high-profile attacks and breaches has moved OSINT even a penetration test and the goals of such an engagement. We will then focus on how OSINT about the target

  7. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  8. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} species to MnO during melter preprocessing. At the lower redox limit of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {approx} 0.09 about 99% of the Mn{sup +4}/Mn{sup +3} is converted to Mn{sup +2}. Therefore, the lower REDOX limits eliminates melter foaming from deoxygenation.

  9. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Shackelford, M.A.; Gambhir, V.K.; McLennan, G.L.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the survey work conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on the design and details of major penetrations in 22 nuclear power plants. The survey includes all containment types and materials in current use. It also includes details of all types of penetrations (except for electrical penetration assemblies and valves) and the seals and gaskets used in them. The report provides a test matrix for testing major penetrations and for testing seals and gaskets in order to evaluate their leakage potential under severe accident conditions.

  10. Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios given by Sigmund Gronich of DOE during the DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006.

  11. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Carlos E. (Livermore, CA); Zumstein, James E. (Livermore, CA); Chang, John T. (Danville, CA); Leach, Jr.. Richard R. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  12. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  13. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Gardner, Duane (Santa Maria, CA); Patrick, Douglas (Santa Maria, CA); Lewallen, Tricia A. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA); Painter, Kelly D. (Goleta, CA); Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Alexandria, VA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  14. High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Evolution and Mature Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Tselis, Nikolaos, E-mail: ntselis@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Buhleier, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Martin, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany); Milickovic, Natasa; Papaioannou, Sokratis [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Tunn, Ulf W. [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial (IRT) brachytherapy (BRT) as sole treatment (monotherapy) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 718 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided HDR monotherapy. Three treatment protocols were applied; 141 patients received 38.0 Gy using one implant in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy with computed tomography-based treatment planning; 351 patients received 38.0 Gy in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy, using 2 implants (2 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning; and 226 patients received 34.5 Gy, using 3 single-fraction implants of 11.5 Gy (3 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix consensus, and toxicity was evaluated using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. Results: The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. The 36-, 60-, and 96-month biochemical control and metastasis-free survival rates for the entire cohort were 97%, 94%, and 90% and 99%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. Toxicity was scored per event, with 5.4% acute grade 3 genitourinary and 0.2% acute grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Late grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 3.5% and 1.6%, respectively. Two patients developed grade 4 incontinence. No other instance of grade 4 or greater acute or late toxicity was reported. Conclusion: Our results confirm IRT-HDR-BRT is safe and effective as monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

  15. Redshift of photons penetrating a hot plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Brynjolfsson

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new interaction, plasma redshift, is derived, which is important only when photons penetrate a hot, sparse electron plasma. The derivation of plasma redshift is based entirely on conventional axioms of physics. When photons penetrate a cold and dense plasma, they lose energy through ionization and excitation, Compton scattering on the individual electrons, and Raman scattering on the plasma frequency. But in sparse hot plasma, such as in the solar corona, the photons lose energy also in plasma redshift. The energy loss per electron in the plasma redshift is about equal to the product of the photon's energy and one half of the Compton cross-section per electron. In quiescent solar corona, this heating starts in the transition zone to the corona and is a major fraction of the coronal heating. Plasma redshift contributes also to the heating of the interstellar plasma, the galactic corona, and the intergalactic plasma. Plasma redshift explains the solar redshifts, the redshifts of the galactic corona, the cosmological redshifts, the cosmic microwave background, and the X-ray background. The plasma redshift explains the observed magnitude-redshift relation for supernovae SNe Ia without the big bang, dark matter, or dark energy. There is no cosmic time dilation. The universe is not expanding. The plasma redshift, when compared with experiments, shows that the photons' classical gravitational redshifts are reversed as the photons move from the Sun to the Earth. This is a quantum mechanical effect. As seen from the Earth, a repulsion force acts on the photons. This means that there is no need for Einstein's Lambda term. The universe is quasi-static, infinite, and everlasting.

  16. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  17. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Kao Lu

    2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

  18. An explosive acoustic telemetry system for seabed penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, G.C.; Hickerson, J.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the design and past applications of an explosive acoustic telemetry system (EATS) for gathering and transmitting data from seabed penetrators. The system was first fielded in 1982 and has since been used to measure penetrator performance on three other occasions. Descriptions are given of the mechanical hardware, system electronics, and software.

  19. Primary and Secondary Control for High Penetration Renewables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Material This copyrighted document may be distributed electronically or in print form as long as it is done-static control action on slower time scales). When compared to traditional turbine-driven synchronous generators

  20. Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Gramlich, R.; Goggin, M.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attempts to evaluate which balancing area (BA) characteristics best accommodate wind energy.

  1. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  2. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hourly satellite solar radiation information is used to determine the amount of annual solar energy that can be pro- duced from PV for the designated area populated with PV....

  3. Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

  4. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helm, C.; Burman, K.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

  5. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the...

  6. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresentedGeneration FY13 Q1

  7. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresentedGeneration FY13

  8. High-Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist, Senior FellowDepartmentEnergyof

  9. Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly ...

  10. First laboratory perforating tests in coal show lower-than-expected penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snider, P.M.; Walton, I.C.; Skinner, T.K.; Atwood, D.C.; Grove, B.M.; Graham, C.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide Coal Bed Methane (CBM) resources are huge, estimated at 3,000 to 9,000 Tcf. The production rate from CBM reservoirs is low, perhaps 50-100 mcf/day. Various completion methods are being evaluated and new technologies are being developed with the aim of increasing production rates. Considering this interest and activity level, little attention has been paid to the CBM completion fundamentals. Perforating is a critical part of this process, especially considering the PRB development migration from single-coal, open-hole completions into multi-zone, cased-hole completions. This paper describes the first known laboratory-testing program to investigate shaped charge penetration in coal targets. We describe mechanical properties of the coals tested, and penetration results for different shaped charges (of different designs), shot at various stress conditions. CT scan and cutaway imaging of the perforation tunnels are also discussed. Tests were conducted under dry and saturated conditions. The preliminary experiments reported here indicate that shaped charge penetration in coal is significantly less than expected, considering the target's density and strength. The authors provide insight into what may be the reasons for these unexpected results and recommend a path forward for shaped charge testing, designs, predictive tools, and how to optimize CBM completions.

  11. The Influence of Prostate Volume on Outcome After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, Hien, E-mail: hien.le@health.sa.gov.au; Rojas, Ana; Alonzi, Roberto; Hughes, Robert; Ostler, Peter; Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Hoskin, Peter

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective: To determine whether late genitourinary toxicity, biochemical control of prostate cancer, and dosimetric parameters in patients with large prostate glands is different from those variables in men with smaller glands after treatment with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone (HDR-BT). Methods: From November 2003 to July 2009, 164 patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma were sequentially enrolled and treated with 34 or 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 31.5 Gy in 3 fractions of {sup 192}Ir HDR-BT alone. The median follow-up time was 71 months. Gland size was not considered in the selection criteria for this study. Estimates of freedom from biochemical relapse (FFbR) and late morbidity, stratified by median clinical target volume (CTV), were obtained, and differences were compared. Results: The median CTV volume was 60 cc (range, 15-208 cc). Dose–volume parameters D90 and V100 (ie, minimum dose to 90% of the prostate volume and volume receiving 100% of the prescribed isodose) achieved in patients with glands ?60 cc were not significantly different from those with glands <60 cc (P?.2). Nonetheless, biochemical control in patients with larger CTV was significantly higher (91% vs 78% at 6 years; P=.004). In univariate and multivariate analysis, CTV was a significant predictor for risk of biochemical relapse. This was not at the expense of an increase in either moderate (P=.6) or severe (P=.3) late genitourinary toxicity. The use of hormonal therapy was 17% lower in the large gland group (P=.01). Conclusions: Prostate gland size does not affect dosimetric parameters in HDR-BT assessed by D90 and V100. In patients with larger glands, a significantly higher biochemical control of disease was observed, with no difference in late toxicity. This improvement cannot be attributed to differences in dosimetry. Gland size should not be considered in the selection of patients for HDR-BT.

  12. Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, D

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

  13. Interfacial Microstructure Formed by Reactive Metal Penetration of Al into Mullite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, T.B.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Fahrenholtz, W.G.; Loehman, R.E.; Lu, P.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Microstructure in the reaction interface between molten Al and dense mullite have been studied by transmission electron microscopy to provide insight into mechanisms for forming ceramic-metal composites by reactive metal penetration. The reactions, which have the overall stoichiometry, 3Al#iz01~ + (8+ x)A1 + 13 AlzO~ + xA1 + 6Si, were carried out at temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1200oC for 5 minutes and 60 minutes, and 1400oC for 15 minutes. Observed phases generally were those given in the above reaction, although their proportions and interracial rnicrostructures differed strongly with reaction temperature. After reaction at 900oC, a thin Al layer separated unreacted mullite from the cx-AlzO~ and Al reaction products. No Si phase was found near the reaction front. After 5 minutes at 1100"C, the nxtction front contained Si, ct-A120~, and an aluminum oxide phase with a high concentration of Si. After 60 minutes at 11O(YC many of the cx-A120g particles were needle-shaped with a preferred orientation. After reaction at 1200oC, the reaction front contained a high density of Si particles that formed a continuous layer over many of the mullite grains. The sample reacted at 140VC for 15 minutes had a dense ct-A120J reaction layer less than 2~m thick. Some isolated Si particles were present between the a-AlzO~ layer and the unreacted mullite. Using previously measured reaction kinetics data, the observed temperature dependence of the interracial microstructure have been modeled as three sequential steps, each one of which is rate-limiting in a different temperature range.

  14. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  15. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  16. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

  17. Miniature penetrator (MinPen) acceleration recorder development test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, R.J.; Platzbecker, M.R.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories actively develops and tests acceleration recorders for penetrating weapons. This new acceleration recorder (MinPen) utilizes a microprocessor-based architecture for operational flexibility while maintaining electronics and packaging techniques developed over years of penetrator testing. MinPen has been demonstrated to function in shock environments up to 20,000 Gs. The MinPen instrumentation development has resulted in a rugged, versatile, miniature acceleration recorder and is a valuable tool for penetrator testing in a wide range of applications.

  18. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, Omar, E-mail: omar.chibani@fccc.edu; C-M Ma, Charlie [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.

  19. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  20. The high strain rate response of PVC foams and end-grain balsa wood V.L. Tagarielli, V.S. Deshpande, N.A. Fleck *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    The high strain rate response of PVC foams and end-grain balsa wood V.L. Tagarielli, V.S. Deshpande are adequately approximated by power-law fits. The compressive yield strength of the H250 PVC foam and balsa wood sÃ?1 . In contrast, the H100 PVC foam displays only a small elevation in uniaxial compressive

  1. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2011, 528(1-2): p. 7596 7605 High strain rate compressive response ofsyntactic foams: trends in mechanical properties and failure mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    comprising hollow particles dispersed in a matrix material. Available studies on high strain rate compressive with respect to the material composition. Syntactic foams reinforced with micro- and nano-sized fibers are a class of porous materials in which thin-walled hollow particles are dispersed in a matrix material

  2. The crucial role of doping for high repetition rate monolithic mode locking of multiple quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT, United Kingdom Received 28 of the active region to simulate the residual doping present in metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown mode have estimated a recovery time in the order of 300 fs for our high repetition rate MCPM devices

  3. adult optical penetrating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eva M. Sevick... Houston, Jessica Perea 2012-06-07 3 March 1, 2005 Vol. 30, No. 5 OPTICS LETTERS 507 Deeply penetrating photoacoustic tomography in biological Biology and...

  4. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  5. Penetration Studies for Deuterium Pellets in Wendelstein 7-AS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldzuhn, Juergen [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany); Baylor, Larry Robert [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Lyon, James F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep particle fueling into a fusion-relevant plasma can be performed by the injection of cryogenic hydrogen or deuterium pellets. However, the penetration depth and fueling efficiency can be greatly limited when enhanced pellet ablation by fast particles occurs. Only a limited database exists for the penetration depth of ice pellets into stellarators. The penetration depth is measured during pellet injection into purely electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. These data are compared with the International Pellet Ablation Database (IPADBASE). Good agreement is found, if the neutral gas shielding model is applied for the scaling law of the penetration depth. The experimental data from W7-AS are used as a basis for planning a new pellet injection system for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, which is now under construction.

  6. A spatial display for Ground-Penetrating Radar change detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quimby, Paul W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) enables the exploration and mapping of subterranean volumes for applications such as construction, humanitarian demining, archeology, and environmental science. In each of these applications, ...

  7. adjustable penetration depth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crystals of fully deuterated ??-(ET)2CuN(CN)2Br. This material separates into superconducting (SC) (more) Olheiser, Tyson A. 2010-01-01 3 Vortex-penetration field at a...

  8. An experimental investigation of mine burial penetration in soft sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munim, Mohammed Abdul

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted to study the penetration behavior of mines in soft sediment. Model tests were conducted on sediments collected from the Gulf of Mexico seabed. The size of the model mine was approximately one third...

  9. High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

  10. Direct measurement of isothermal flow stress of metals at elevated temperatures and high strain rates with application to Ta and Ta-W alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemat-Nasser, S.; Isaacs, J.B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is developed for measuring the flow stress of metals over a broad range of strains, strain rates, and temperatures, in uniaxial compression. It utilizes a recent, enhanced version of the classical (Kolsky) compression split Hopkinson bar, in which a sample is subjected to a single stress pulse of a predefined profile, and then recovered without being subjected to any other additional loading. For the present application, the UCSD`s split Hopkinson bar is further enhanced by the addition of a new mechanism by means of which the incident and transmission bars of the split Hopkinson construction are moved into a constant-temperature furnace containing the sample, and gently brought into contact with the sample, as the elastic stress pulse reaches and loads the sample. Using several samples of the same material and testing them at the same strain rate and temperature, but different incremental strains, an accurate estimate of the material`s isothermal flow stress can be obtained. Additionally, the modified Hopkinson technique allows the direct measurement of the change in the (high strain-rate) flow stress with a change of the strain rate, while the strain and temperature are kept constant, i.e., the strain rate can be increased or decreased during the high strain-rate test. The technique is applied to obtain both quasi-isothermal and adiabatic flow stresses of tantalum (Ta) and a tantalum-tungsten (Ta-W) alloy at elevated temperatures. These experimental results show the flow stress of these materials to be controlled by a simple long-range plastic-strain-dependent barrier, and a short-range thermally activated Peierls mechanism. For tantalum, a model which fits the experimental data over strains from a few to over 100%, strain rates from quasi-static to 40,000/s, and temperatures from {minus}200 to 1,000 C, is presented and discussed.

  11. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Schmidt, B. P. , 2003, in Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts,for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopicfor future high-statistics supernovae searches in which

  12. Small-bore (1. 8-mm), high-firing-rate (10-Hz) version of a repeating pneumatic hydrogen pellet injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States))

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repeating pneumatic pellet injectors developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were used for plasma fueling experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET). For plasma fueling on the DIII--D tokamak, a small-bore (1.8-mm) injector has been developed and tested in the laboratory at pellet rates of up to 10 Hz and speeds of [le]1 km/s (for pulse lengths of up to 15 s). This performance represents the smallest pellet size and highest repetition rate demonstrated with an ORNL repeating pneumatic pellet injector. The design has been incorporated in the three-barrel injector that was previously used on JET; the injection system, equipped with nominal pellet sizes of 1.8-, 2.7-, and 4.0-mm diameter, has been installed on DIII--D and will be used in future plasma fueling experiments.

  13. Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd,,WO4...2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -order nonlinear susceptibility, high ther- mal conductivity, and strong Raman conversion properties. KGW has potential for enhanced non- linear device performance through longer interaction lengths with high amorphous glasses8 and crystalline materials such as lithium niobate,9 quartz,10 Ti:sapphire,11 and KY WO4 2

  14. The Relationship Between Principal Ethnicity and Other Chosen Demographics and Student Achievement as Measured by the Texas Education Agency's Accountability Rating System in Predominantly Hispanic Public High Schools in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tresslar, Christopher A.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and student achievement as measured by the Texas Education Agency?s (TEA?s) accountability rating system in predominantly Hispanic public high schools in Texas. The study sought to identify causal factors in relation to campus accountability rating...

  15. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of an MR Imaging Probe by a Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide J. Engelmann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Engelmann1 , D. Jha1 , R. Mishra1 , K-H. Wiesmueller2 , and K. Ugurbil1,3 1 High Field MR Center, Max tested again, and MR analyses of cells labelled with this conjugate were performed in Eppendorf tubes (1Efficient Intracellular Delivery of an MR Imaging Probe by a Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide J

  16. Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Nano-structured Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon composite for high-rate lithium-ion batteries Anqiang Pan a in three dimensions. Three reversible lithium ions can be totally extracted from the lattice of Li3V2(PO4 structure and a curved one-dimensional channel for lithium-ion diffusion, monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 provides

  17. An Investigation of Enhanced Formability in AA5182-O Al During High-Rate Fre-Forming at Room-Temperature: Quantification of Deformation History

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Soulami, Ayoub; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the two prior publication of PNNL Pulse-Pressure research in the Journal of Materials Processing Technology, this manuscript continues to describe PNNL’s advances in getting a better understanding of sheet metal formability under high strain-rate conditions. Specifically, using a combination of numerical modeling and novel experiments, we quantitatively demonstrate the deformation history associated with enhanced formability (~2.5X) in Al under room temperature forming.

  18. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  19. Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases in melter operating temperature. Glass composition development was based on one of the HLW waste compositions specified by ORP that has a high concentration of aluminum. Small-scale tests were used to provide an initial screening of various glass formulations with respect to melt rates; more definitive screening was provided by the subsequent DM100 tests. Glass properties evaluated included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, gross glass phase separation and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (ASTM-1285). Glass property limits were based upon the reference properties for the WTP HLW melter. However, the WTP crystallinity limit (< 1 vol% at 950oC) was relaxed slightly as a waste loading constraint for the crucible melts.

  20. Thermoelastic study of nanolayered structures using time-resolved X-ray diffraction at high repetition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navirian, H. A.; Schick, D., E-mail: daniel.schick@uni-potsdam.de; Leitenberger, W.; Bargheer, M. [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gaal, P.; Shayduk, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen Campus, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermoelastic response of a nanolayered sample composed of a metallic SrRuO{sub 3} electrode sandwiched between a ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} film with negative thermal expansion and a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. SrRuO{sub 3} is rapidly heated by fs-laser pulses with 208?kHz repetition rate. Diffraction of X-ray pulses derived from a synchrotron measures the transient out-of-plane lattice constant c of all three materials simultaneously from 120?ps to 5??s with a relative accuracy up to ?c/c?=?10{sup ?6}. The in-plane propagation of sound is essential for understanding the delayed out-of-plane compression of Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}.

  1. Another short-burst host galaxy with an optically obscured high star formation rate: The case of GRB 071227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Rossi, A.; Schmidl, S. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Micha?owski, M. J.; McKenzie, M. R. G. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Savaglio, S.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Palazzi, E. [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on radio continuum observations of the host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst 071227 (z = 0.381) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect the galaxy in the 5.5 GHz band with an integrated flux density of F {sub ?} = 43 ± 11 ?Jy, corresponding to an unobscured star-formation rate of about 24 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, 40 times higher than what was found from optical emission lines. Among the ?30 well-identified and studied host galaxies of short bursts this is the third case where the host is found to undergo an episode of intense star formation. This suggests that a fraction of all short-burst progenitors hosted in star-forming galaxies could be physically related to recent star formation activity, implying a relatively short merger timescale.

  2. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    storage come into sight. Introduction Electrochemical energy storage devices with simultaneously high nanostructures.5 As a result, there has been fast growing interest in using ALD materials for energy storage energy storage3 Received 23rd November 2012, Accepted 21st January 2013 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra23031g www

  3. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  4. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek, A., E-mail: vivek.4@osu.edu; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041, College Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  5. High Catalytic Rates for Hydrogen Production Using Nickel Electrocatalysts with Seven-Membered Diphosphine Ligands Containing One Pendent Amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Michael P.; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Wiese, Stefan; Lindstrom, Mary L.; Thogerson, Colleen E.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of Ni-based electrocatalysts, [Ni(7PPh2NC6H4X)2](BF4)2, featuring seven-membered cyclic diphosphine ligands incorporating a single amine base, 1-para-X-phenyl-3,6-triphenyl-1-aza-3,6-diphosphacycloheptane (7PPh2NC6H4X where X = OMe, Me, Br, Cl or CF3), have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies have established that the [Ni(7PPh2NC6H4X)2]2+ complexes have a square planar geometry, with bonds to four phosphorus atoms of the two bidentate diphosphine ligands. Coordination of the bidentate phosphine ligands to Ni result in one six-membered ring containing a pendent amine, and one five membered ring. Each of the complexes is an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen production at the potential of the Ni(II/I) couple, with turnover frequencies ranging from 2,400 to 27,000 s-1 with [(DMF)H]+ in acetonitrile. Addition of water (up to 1.0 M) accelerates the catalysis, giving turnover frequencies ranging from 4,100 - 96,000 s-1. Computational studies carried out on the [Ni(7PPh2NC6H4X)2]2+ family indicate the catalytic rates reach a maximum when the electron-donating character of X results in the pKa of the pendent amine matching that of the acid used for proton delivery. Additionally, the fast catalytic rates for hydrogen production by the [Ni(7PPh2NC6H4X)2]2+ family relative to the analogous [Ni(PPh2NC6H4X2)2]2+ family are attributed to preferred formation of endo protonated isomers with respect to the metal center in the former, which is essential for the protons to attain suitable proximity to the reduced metal center to generate H2. The results of this work highlight the importance of the necessity for precise pKa matching with the acid for proton delivery to the metal center, and the mechanistic details described herein will be used to guide future catalyst design. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. A portion of the computing resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. SU-D-BRE-04: Evaluating the Dose Accuracy of a 2D Ion Chamber Array in High Dose Rate Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perles, L; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Lepage, R; Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Dong, L [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the absolute dose accuracy of the PTW Octavius 729 XDR 2D ion chamber array at a high dose rate pencil beam scanning proton therapy facility. Methods: A set of 18 plans were created in our treatment planning system, each of which comprising a unique combination of field sizes (FS), length of spread out of Bragg peaks (SOBP) and depths. The parameters used were: FS of 5×5cm{sup 2}, 10×10cm{sup 2} and 15×15cm{sup 2}; flat SOBP of 5cm and 10cm; and isocenter depths of 10cm, 15cm and 20cm, which coincides with the center of the SOBP. The 2D array detector was positioned at the machine isocenter and the appropriate amount of solid water was used to match the planned depths of 10, 15 and 20 cm water equivalent depth. Subsequently, we measured the absolute dose at isocenter using a CC04 ion chamber in a 1D water tank. Both 2D array and CC04 were previously cross calibrated. We also collected the MU rates used by our proton machine from the log files. Results: The relative differences between the CC04 and the 2D array can be summarized into two groups, one with 5 cm SOBP and another with 10 cm SOBP. Plotting these datasets against FS shows that the 2D array response for high dose rate fields (FS of 5×5cm{sup 2} and 5cm SOBP) can be up to 2% lower. Similarly, plotting them against isocenter depths reveals the detector's response can be up to 2% lower for higher energy beams (about 200MeV nominal). The MU rate found in the machine log files for 5cm SOBP's were as high as twice the MU rate for the 10cm SOBP. Conclusion: The 2D array dose response showed a dose rate effect in scanning pencil beam delivery, which needs to be corrected to achieve a better dose accuracy.

  7. Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (PART 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilov, M; Kvaratskheliia, T; Laptin, L; Tichomirov, I; Titov, M L; Zaitsev, Yu; Gilitsky, Yu.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance $R$ from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradi...

  8. Aging Studies of Large Area Proportional Chambers under High-Rate Irradiation with $CF_4$-based Mixtures (Part 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilov, M; Kvaratskheliia, T; Laptin, L; Tichomirov, I; Titov, M L; Zaitsev, Yu; Gilitsky, Yu.; Zaitsev, Yu.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental conditions at the HERA-B experiment impose very strong requirements for gaseous detectors. The charged particle fluxes through the HERA-B tracking system, varying with the radial distance R from the beam line, are about $2 \\times 10^{7}/R^{2}$ particles per second, and comparable to those that will be encountered by LHC experiments. The severe radiation environment of the HERA-B experiment leads to a maximum charge deposit on a wire, within the muon detector, of 200 mC/cm per year. We report recent results of aging studies performed by irradiating proportional wire chambers filled with $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (74:20:6), $Ar/CF_4/CH_4$ (67:30:3), $Ar/CF_4/CO_2$ (65:30:5), $Ar/CF_4$ (70:30), $CF_4/CH_4$ (90:10), $CF_4/CH_4$ (80:20) mixtures in a three different experimental setups. The size of the irradiation zone varied in the tests from 1 cm up to 500 cm. Our experience shows that the aging rate depends not only on the total collected charge, but, in addition, on the mode of operation and area of irradiat...

  9. Growth diagram of N-face GaN (0001{sup ¯}) grown at high rate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okumura, Hironori, E-mail: okumura@engineering.ucsb.edu; McSkimming, Brian M.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huault, Thomas; Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)] [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Perier, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    N-face GaN was grown on free-standing GaN (0001{sup ¯}) substrates at a growth rate of 1.5??m/h using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Difference in growth rate between (0001{sup ¯}) and (0001) oriented GaN depends on nitrogen plasma power, and the (0001{sup ¯}) oriented GaN had only 70% of the growth rate of the (0001) oriented GaN at 300?W. Unintentional impurity concentrations of silicon, carbon, and oxygen were 2?×?10{sup 15}, 2?×?10{sup 16}, and 7?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3}, respectively. A growth diagram was constructed that shows the dependence of the growth modes on the difference in the Ga and active nitrogen flux, ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}, and the growth temperature. At high ?{sub Ga}????{sub N*} (?{sub Ga}????{sub N*}), two-dimensional (step-flow and layer-by-layer) growth modes were realized. High growth temperature (780?°C) expanded the growth window of the two-dimensional growth modes, achieving a surface with rms roughness of 0.48?nm without Ga droplets.

  10. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  11. Cranial Drilling Tool with Retracting Drill Bit Upon Skull Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cranial Drilling Tool with Retracting Drill Bit Upon Skull Penetration Paul Loschak1 , Kechao Xiao1 is required to perform the drilling w devices on the market. Although frequent monitoring has been correlated of a sufficient number of neurosurgeons [3]. The cranial drilling device described in this paper designed to allow

  12. Clinical Studies MLH1 Founder Mutations with Moderate Penetrance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Clinical Studies MLH1 Founder Mutations with Moderate Penetrance in Spanish Lynch Syndrome Families>A and c.1865T>A (p.Leu622His) of the DNA repair gene MLH1 occur frequently in Spanish Lynch syndrome estimated for other path- ogenic Spanish MLH1 mutations. A common haplotype was associated with each

  13. Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    1 Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1 Ralph D. Lorenz, Lunar for electrical power generation for planetary exploration applications using thermoelectric conversion of the vehicle. Proof-of-concept experiments are described using off-the-shelf thermoelectric CPU cooling plates

  14. Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damast, Shari, E-mail: shari.damast@yale.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldfarb, Shari [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mosenkis, Jeffrey [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Bennett, Antonia [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Atkinson, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Basch, Ethan [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from <6 months to >5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean ({+-} standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 ({+-}2.0); orgasm, 2.5 ({+-}2.4); desire, 2.4 ({+-}1.3); arousal, 2.2 ({+-}2.0); dryness, 2.1 ({+-}2.1); and pain, 1.9 ({+-}2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, -7.1 points; 95% CI, -11.2 to -3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, -4.4 points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, -4.6 points; 95% CI, -9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

  15. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  16. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  17. Thermophoretically augmented mass-, momentum-, and energy-transfer rates in high particle mass-loaded laminar forced convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In all previous treatments of thermophoretically-modified aerosol particle transport, even those which attempt to allow for variable host-gas properties, it has been explicitly (or implicitly) assumed that the particle mass fraction is small enough to neglect the influence of the suspended particles on the host-gas momentum-density- and energy-density-fields. However, in high-intensity material-processing applications, particle mass loadings often exceed 1/3, and the thermophoretically enhanced particle mass-deposition flux itself modifies the local-mixture velocity and temperature fields in the vicinity of the deposition surface. A self-consistent pseudo- single-phase mixture (diffusion) approximation which exploits the fact that the volume fraction of suspended particles is negligible even when the particle mass fraction is quite near unity is introduced to calculate the fully coupled problem of mass-, energy- and momentum diffusion for laminar boundary (LBL) flow of a combustion-gas mixture containing submicron particles of appreciable thermophoretic diffusivity but negligible Brownian diffusion. It is shown that thigh particles mass loading systematically increase the wall fluxes of momentum (shear stress), heat and particle mass, much like those effects associated with massive suction in single-phase LBL-theory.

  18. Dynamics of a rigid non-rotating projectile penetrating the earth media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohani-Najafabadi, Behzad

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the terminal velocity, Vt, is given by 22 W 2 +1112PA A2 (3-14) where Cd' is the drag coefficient for the cylinder that must be found experimentally. If one considers the ratio of the deceleration to velocity of the penetrating body as it penetrates... into Semi-Infinite Targets III THEORETICAL STUDY OF PENETRATION PHENOMENA 3. 1 Impact and Penetration 3. 2 Hydrodynamic Impact and Penetration into Fluids 12 16 16 17 3. 3 Projectile Penetration into Earth Media 23 3. 4 Proposed Solution IV...

  19. Fast penetration of megagauss fields into metallic conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnitzer, Ory [Department of Mathematics, Technion — Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Megagauss magnetic-field penetration into a conducting material is studied via a simplified but representative model, wherein the magnetic-diffusion equation is coupled with a thermal-energy balance. The specific scenario considered is that of a prescribed magnetic field rising (in proportion to an arbitrary power r of time) at the surface of a conducting half-space whose electric conductivity is assumed proportional to an arbitrary inverse power ? of temperature. We employ a systematic asymptotic scheme in which the case of a strong surface field corresponds to a singular asymptotic limit. In this limit, the highly magnetized and hot “skin” terminates at a distinct propagating wave-front. Employing the method of matched asymptotic expansions, we find self-similar solutions of the magnetized region which match a narrow boundary-layer region about the advancing wave front. The rapidly decaying magnetic-field profile in the latter region is also self similar; when scaled by the instantaneous propagation speed, its shape is time-invariant, depending only on the parameter ?. The analysis furnishes a simple asymptotic formula for the skin-depth (i.e., the wave-front position), which substantially generalizes existing approximations. It scales with the power ?r + 1?2 of time and the power ? of field strength, and is much larger than the field-independent skin depth predicted by an athermal model. The formula further involves a dimensionless O(1) pre-factor which depends on r and ?. It is determined by solving a nonlinear eigenvalue problem governing the magnetized region. Another main result of the analysis, apparently unprecedented, is an asymptotic formula for the magnitude of the current-density peak characterizing the wave-front region. Complementary to these systematic results, we provide a closed-form but ad hoc generalization of the theory approximately applicable to arbitrary monotonically rising surface fields. Our results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of the model, and compare favourably with detailed magnetohydrodynamic simulations reported in the literature.

  20. DUST ATTENUATION IN UV-SELECTED STARBURSTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND THEIR LOCAL COUNTERPARTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE COSMIC STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Wang Jing [Max-Planck-Institut for Astrophysics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Armus, Lee; Howell, Justin [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Meurer, Gerhardt [ICRAR/University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siana, Brian; Goncalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Basu-Zych, Antara [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [PMC Univ Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Salim, Samir [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: overzier@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, MC 2457, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z < 0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate (SFR) measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high-redshift samples (LBGs, 'BzK', and submillimeter galaxies at z {approx} 2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z {approx} 2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high-redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on a much more solid ground. We illustrate the importance of this result by showing how the locally calibrated relation between UV measurements and extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z {approx_equal} 2-6.

  1. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  2. Penetration of plasma into the wafer-focus ring gap in capacitively coupled plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Penetration of plasma into the wafer-focus ring gap in capacitively coupled plasmas Natalia Y of capacitively coupled plasma reactors with a wafer-focus ring gap. The penetration of plasma generated species i.e., ions and radicals into the wafer-focus ring gap is discussed. We found that the penetration of plasma

  3. Impacts of Shortwave Penetration Depth on Large-Scale Ocean Circulation and Heat Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnanadesikan, Anand

    Impacts of Shortwave Penetration Depth on Large-Scale Ocean Circulation and Heat Transport COLM independent parameter- izations that use ocean color to estimate the penetration depth of shortwave radiation. This study offers a way to evaluate the changes in irradiance penetration depths in coupled ocean

  4. Long-term results of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the primary treatment of medically inoperable stage I-II endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niazi, Tamim M. [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Portelance, Lorraine [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bahoric, Boris [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gilbert, Lucy [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Stanimir, Gerald [Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Total-abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAHBSO) is the gold-standard therapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma. However, patients with high operative risks are usually treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone. The goal of this study was to update our experience of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB), with or without external-beam irradiation (EBRT), for such patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1984 and 2003, 38 patients with Stage I and Stage II adenocarcinoma of the endometrium considered high operative risk received RT as the primary treatment. The median age was 74.1 years. Before 1996, the local extent of the disease was assessed by an examination under anesthesia (EUA) and by EUA and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) thereafter. Eight patients (21%) were treated with combined HDRB and EBRT, and 30 patients (79%) were treated with with HDRB alone. The median HDRB dose was 23.9 Gy, typically delivered in 3 fractions in a weekly schedule. The median EBRT dose was 42 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up of 57.5 months for patients at risk, 11 patients (29%) have failed: 6 patients (16%) locally, 4 patients (10.5%) distantly, and 1 patient (3%) locally and distantly. Local failure was established by biopsy, and 4 patients were salvaged by TAHBSO. Higher stage and higher grade were both associated with increased failure rate. The 15-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 78% for all stages, 90% for Stage I, and 42% for Stage II (p < 0.0001). The 15-year DSS was 91% for Grade I and 67% for Grade II and III combined (p = 0.0254). Patients with Stage I disease established by MRI (11 patients) and who received a total HDRB dose of 30 Gy had a DSS rate of 100% at 10 years. Four patients experienced late toxicities: 1 Grade II and 3 Grade III or IV. Conclusion: Medically inoperable Stage I endometrial carcinoma may be safely and effectively treated with HDRB as the primary therapy. In selected Stage I patients, our results are equivalent to that of surgery. We believe that the alternative option of HDRB as the primary therapy for selected Stage I endometrial carcinoma, even in patients with low operative risks, needs further evaluation.

  5. Radiation protection instrumentation - ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation part 2: high range beta and photon dose and dose rate portable instruments for emergency radiation protection purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation protection instrumentation - ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation

  6. Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khor, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia) [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott, E-mail: Scott.Williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against an increased risk of urethral toxicity.

  7. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Beth A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Demanes, D. Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology , University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Radiological Physics Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hayes, John K. [Gamma West Brachytherapy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hsu, I-Chow J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Morris, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Tward, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  8. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels onof Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar EnergyImpact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on

  9. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on Electricity Bill Savings From Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels onEfficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar Energy TechnologiesImpact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetration Levels on

  10. Computer simulation of quenching uranium-0. 75% titanium penetrator blanks. Final report for FY 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llewellyn, G.H.; Aramayo, G.A.; Childs, K.W.; Ludtka, G.M.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The models developed can be used as a basis to understand, study, and optimize the process. Information obtained from these models can be used to analytically predict temperature distribution, cooling rates, stresses, deformation, phase composition, and possibly the prediction of void formations, all as functions of both position and time. It was demonstrated that nonsymmetrical boundary conditions can lead to bowing of the penetrator blanks and applicable techniques were developed to optimize the quenching process. Experiments for deriving physical and mechanical properties for the uranium-0.75% Ti alloy including data on the heats of transformation have been performed. It is concluded that the contribution of the transformation heat constitutes about 19% of the total heat transfer involved and is, therefore, a significant factor affecting the metallurgical behavior of the alloy during the quenching operation. This behavior is less sensitive to the dependence of the property data on temperature.

  11. Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Y. Sun, S. X. Du, H.-J. Gao, and S. B. Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Y of electrode nanomaterials in lithium-ion battery: The effects of surface stress J. Appl. Phys. 112, 103507://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang,1,2 Y

  12. Landau, Abrikosov, Hofstadter: Magnetic Flux Penetration in a Lattice Superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David J. E. Callaway

    1993-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic flux penetration in superconductors involves a rich variety of subtle phenomena, much of which is still poorly understood. Here these complexities are studied by formulating the Ginzburg-Landau equations as a lattice gauge theory. Their solutions are compared and contrasted with the (heuristic) Landau model of type I superconductivity, and the (perturbative) Abrikosov model for type II superconductors. Novelties arise as the continuum limit is approached, related to an effect discovered by Hofstadter. Various cautionary remarks pertinent to large-scale simulations are made.

  13. Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12–TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  14. High Rate Micron-Sized Ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Xiaohua Ma, Byoungwoo Kang, and Gerbrand Ceder*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    by a molten salt method, the ordered phase showed poor rate performance, while the disordered performed better

  15. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentino, L.; Valenzuela, V.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Conzelmann, G. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Univ. of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana); (Georgia Institute of Technology)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  16. Factors for Predicting Rectal Dose of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy After Pelvic Irradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study With Radiography-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Engyen, E-mail: huangengyen@giga.net.t [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang Chongjong; Lan Jenhong; Chen Huichun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Fang Fumin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Huang Yujie; Wang Changyu; Wang Yuming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD. Results: Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1) Conclusion: Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT.

  17. Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arman, Bedri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cagin, Tahir [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

  18. Analysis of high–dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudahar, H., E-mail: h.sudahar@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Mahadev, P. [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Velmurugan, J. [Department of Medical Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high–dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30 Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D{sub 5%} of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41 Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86 Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D{sub 98%}, was 27.93 ± 0.84 Gy. The V{sub 100%} of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V{sub 100%} of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D{sub 98%} to D{sub 80%}) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D{sub 10%} and D{sub 5%}. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

  19. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  20. Effect of equatorial line nodes on the upper critical field and London penetration depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V G [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, R [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper critical field Hc2 and its anisotropy are calculated for order parameters with line nodes at the equators, kz=0, of the Fermi surface of uniaxial superconductors. It is shown that characteristic features found in Fe-based materials (a nearly linear Hc2(T) in a broad T domain, a low and increasing on warming anisotropy ?H=Hc2,ab/Hc2,c) can be caused by competing effects of the equatorial nodes and of the Fermi surface anisotropy. For certain material parameters, ?H(T)?1 may change sign upon warming, in agreement with the recorded behavior of FeTeS systems. It is also shown that the anisotropy of the penetration depth ??=?c/?ab decreases upon warming to reach ?H at Tc, in agreement with data available. For some materials ??(T) may change upon warming, from ??>1 at low Ts to ??<1 at high Ts.

  1. Sensitivity Variation on Low Cycle Fatigue Cracks Using Level 4/Method B Penetrant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FULWOOD,HARRY; MOORE,DAVID G.

    1999-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently conducting experiments with Level 4, Method B penetrant on low cycle fatigue specimens. The main focus of these experiments is to document the affect on penetrant brightness readings by varying inspection parameters. This paper discusses the results of changing drying temperature, drying time, and dwell time of both penetrant and emulsifier on low cycle fatigue specimens.

  2. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  3. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  4. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    San Francisco, CA, 2010 (6) National Renewable EnergyLaboratory (NREL), Renewable Resource Data Center, Website:Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on

  5. The Potential Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations on Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA, 2010 (6) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),Impact of Increased Renewable Energy Penetrations onProceedings, for the World Renewable Energy Forum, Denver,

  6. A planning scheme for penetrating embedded generation in power distribution grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiankang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Penetrating Embedded Generation, or Distributed Generation (DG), in power distribution grids presents great benefits and substantial positive social impacts to utilities, system operators and electricity consumers. Existing ...

  7. Penetrative turbulence associated with mesoscale surface heat flux variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Jahrul M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article investigates penetrative turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. Using a large eddy simulation approach, we study characteristics of the mixed layer with respect to surface heat flux variations in the range from 231.48 W/m$^2$ to 925.92 W/m$^2$, and observe that the surface heterogeneity on a spatial scale of $20$ km leads to downscale turbulent kinetic energy cascade. Coherent fluctuations of mesoscale horizontal wind is observed at 100m above the ground. Such a surface induced temporal oscillations in the horizontal wind suggest a rapid jump in mesocale wind forecasts, which is difficult to parameterize using traditional one-dimensional ensemble-mean models. Although the present work is idealized at a typical scale (20km) of surface heterogeneity, the results help develop effective subgrid scale parameterization schemes for classical weather forecasting mesoscale models.

  8. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  9. The feasibility study and characterization of a two-dimensional diode array in “magic phantom” for high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, A.; Beeksma, B.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Porumb, C.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)] [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Corde, S.; Jackson, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales 2031 (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales 2031 (Australia)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a radiation treatment technique capable of delivering large dose rates to the tumor. Radiation is delivered using remote afterloaders to drive highly active sources (commonly {sup 192}Ir with an air KERMA strength range between 20 000 and 40 000 U, where 1 U = 1 ?Gy m{sup 2}/h in air) through applicators directly into the patient's prescribed region of treatment. Due to the obvious ramifications of incorrect treatment while using such an active source, it is essential that there are methods for quality assurance (QA) that can directly and accurately verify the treatment plan and the functionality of the remote afterloader. This paper describes the feasibility study of a QA system for HDR brachytherapy using a phantom based two-dimensional 11 × 11 epitaxial diode array, named “magic phantom.”Methods: The HDR brachytherapy treatment plan is translated to the phantom with two rows of 10 (20 in total) HDR source flexible catheters, arranged above and below the diode array “magic plate” (MP). Four-dimensional source tracking in each catheter is based upon a developed fast iterative algorithm, utilizing the response of the diodes in close proximity to the {sup 192}Ir source, sampled at 100 ms intervals by a fast data acquisition (DAQ) system. Using a {sup 192}Ir source in a solid water phantom, the angular response of the developed epitaxial diodes utilized in the MP and also the variation of the MP response as a function of the source-to-detector distance (SDD) were investigated. These response data are then used by an iterative algorithm for source dwelling position determination. A measurement of the average transit speed between dwell positions was performed using the diodes and a fast DAQ.Results: The angular response of the epitaxial diode showed a variation of 15% within 360°, with two flat regions above and below the detector face with less than 5% variation. For SDD distances of between 5 and 30 mm the relative response of the epitaxial diodes used in the MP is in good agreement (within 8%) with radial dose function measurements found within the TG-43 protocol, with SDD of up to 70 mm showing a 40% over response. A method for four-dimensional localization of the HDR source was developed, allowing the source dwell position to be derived within 0.50 mm of the expected position. An estimation of the average transit speed for varying step sizes was determined and was found to increase from (12.8 ± 0.3) up to (38.6 ± 0.4) cm/s for a step size of 2.5 and 50 mm, respectively.Conclusions: Our characterization of the designed QA “magic phantom” with MP in realistic HDR photon fields demonstrates the promising performance for real-time source position tracking in four dimensions and measurements of transit times. Further development of this system will allow a full suite for QA in HDR brachytherapy and analysis, and for future in vivo tracking.

  10. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naieve Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A 7-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aluwini, Shafak, E-mail: s.aluwini@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Peter H. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kirkels, Wim J. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, Peter P.; Praag, John O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bangma, Chris H. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report clinical outcomes and early and late complications in 264 hormone-naieve patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Between February 2000 and July 2007, 264 patients underwent HDR-BT in combination with EBRT as a treatment for their low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The HDR-BT was performed using ultrasound-based implantation. The total HDR-BT dose was 18 Gy in 3 fractions within 24 h, with a 6-h minimum interval. The EBRT started 2 weeks after HDR-BT and was delivered in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy to 45 Gy within 5 weeks. Results: After a mean follow-up of 74.5 months, 4 patients (1.5%) showed prostate-specific antigen progression according to the American Society for Radiation Oncology definition and 8 patients (3%) according to the Phoenix definition. A biopsy-proven local recurrence was registered in 1 patient (0.4%), and clinical progression (bone metastases) was documented in 2 patients (0.7%). Seven-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failure was 97%, and 7-year disease-specific survival and overall survival were 100% and 91%, respectively. Toxicities were comparable to other series. Conclusions: Treatment with interstitial HDR-BT plus EBRT shows a low incidence of late complications and a favorable oncologic outcome after 7 years follow-up.

  11. Determination of Prognostic Factors for Vaginal Mucosal Toxicity Associated With Intravaginal High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Patients With Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahng, Agnes Y.; Dagan, Avner [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lin, Lilie L., E-mail: lin@xrt.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the patient- and treatment-related prognostic factors associated with vaginal toxicity in patients who received intravaginal high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone as adjuvant treatment for endometrial cancer. Secondary goals of this study included a quantitative assessment of optimal dilator use frequency and a crude assessment of clinical predictors for compliant dilator use. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymph node dissection and adjuvant intravaginal brachytherapy between 1995 and 2009 at the Hospital of University of Pennsylvania. The most common treatment regimen used was 21 Gy in three fractions (71 patients). Symptoms of vaginal mucosal toxicity were taken from the history and physical exams noted in the patients' charts and were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v. 4.02. Results: The incidence of Grade 1 or asymptomatic vaginal toxicity was 33% and Grade 2-3 or symptomatic vaginal toxicity was 14%. Multivariate analysis of age, active length, and dilator use two to three times a week revealed odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.013), 3.96 (p = 0.008), and 0.17 (p = 0.032) respectively. Conclusion: Increasing age, vaginal dilator use of at least two to three times a week, and shorter active length were found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of vaginal stenosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to validate our findings.

  12. Feasibility of high-dose-rate brachytherapy salvage for local prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy: University of California-San Francisco experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hsu, I.-Chow [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: Hsu@radonc17.ucsf.edu

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of salvage high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 21 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDR brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT between November 1998 and December 2005. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, all patients were treated with 36 Gy in six fractions using two transrectal ultrasound-guided HDR prostate implants, separated by 1 week. Eleven patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy immediately presalvage, whereas none received adjuvant hormonal therapy postsalvage. Median follow-up time from recurrence was 18.7 months (range, 6-84 months). Determination of subsequent biochemical failure after brachytherapy was based on the definition by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Results: Based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3), 18 patients reported Grade 1 to 2 genitourinary symptoms by 3 months postsalvage. Three patients developed Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Maximum observed gastrointestinal toxicity was Grade 2; all cases spontaneously resolved. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of biochemical control after recurrence was 89%. Thirteen patients have achieved a PSA nadir {<=}0.1 ng/ml, but at the time of writing this endpoint has not yet been reached for all patients. All patients are alive; however 2 have experienced biochemical failure, both with PSA nadirs {>=}1, and have subsequently been found to have distant metastases. Conclusions: Salvage HDR prostate brachytherapy appears to be feasible and effective.

  13. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Deshields, Teresa L. [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E. [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Naughton, Michael [Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Aft, Rebecca [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Department of Surgery, John Cochran Veterans Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Zoberi, Imran, E-mail: izoberi@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ?3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.

  14. JOM, 2011, 61(2): 53-56 High strain rate compressive characterization of aluminum alloy/fly ash cenosphere composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    @poly.edu 2 Central Metallurgical Research and Development Laboratory, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt 3 Center strain rate sensitivity, the composite shows higher strength at higher strain rates. The energy with composite density [7, 9, 12], but the energy absorption ability increased when the cenosphere volume

  15. Studies of penetration of the magnetic field into electrically imploded loads in the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Sasorov, P. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from measurements of the distributions of the azimuthal magnetic field in aluminum, copper, molybdenum, tungsten and other wire arrays electrically imploded at currents of up to 3 MA in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is shown that the time during which the magnetic field of the current pulse reaches the array axis depends on the material of the wires or wire coating. The current of the precursor formed on the array axis before the implosion of the main load mass is measured. It is shown that the penetration of the load material with the frozen-in magnetic field into a polymer (agar-agar) foam liner is drastically different from that in the case of a wire array. It is found that the rate of current transfer to the array axis is maximum for tungsten wire arrays. The rates of plasma production during implosion of loads made of different materials are compared.

  16. Drift-magnetohydrodynamical model of error-field penetration in tokamak plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    Drift-magnetohydrodynamical model of error-field penetration in tokamak plasmas A. Cole and R published magnetohydrodynamical MHD model of error-field penetration in tokamak plasmas is extended to take in ohmic tokamak plasmas. © 2006 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2178167 I. INTRODUCTION

  17. Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Zhongping

    Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters in the upper ocean, the vertical distribution of solar radiation (ESR) in the shortwave domain plays (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal

  18. Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone Masanao, because it has, until now, been impossible to penetrate to such depths below the sea floor. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), scheduled to begin in ,**-, plans to drill boreholes beneath the ocean

  19. Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation B. E. Brooks1 , C the mould surface and entrain onto the surface of the mould. A method has been developed to predict likely, burn-on and penetration defects can be predicted. The method is validated through comparison

  20. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy Delivered in Two Fractions Within One Day for Favorable/Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Toxicity Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghilezan, Michel, E-mail: mghilezan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital and Rose Cancer Institute, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro; Gustason, Gary; Krauss, Daniel; Antonucci, J. Vito; Chen, Peter; Fontanesi, James; Wallace, Michelle; Ye Hong; Casey, Alyse; Sebastian, Evelyn; Kim, Leonard; Limbacher, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital and Rose Cancer Institute, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report the toxicity profile of high-dose-rate (HDR)-brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy in a Human Investigation Committee-approved study consisting of a single implant and two fractions (12 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) for a total dose of 24 Gy, delivered within 1 day. The dose was subsequently increased to 27 Gy (13.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) delivered in 1 day. We report the acute and early chronic genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 173 patients were treated between December 2005 and July 2010. However, only the first 100 were part of the IRB-approved study and out of these, only 94 had a minimal follow-up of 6 months, representing the study population for this preliminary report. All patients had clinical Stage T2b or less (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edition), Gleason score 6-7 (3+4), and prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}12 ng/mL. Ultrasound-guided HDR-BT with real-time dosimetry was used. The prescription dose was 24 Gy for the first 50 patients and 27 Gy thereafter. The dosimetric goals and constraints were the same for the two dose groups. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. The highest toxicity scores encountered at any point during follow-up are reported. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months (range, 6-40.5). Most patients had Grade 0-1 acute toxicity. The Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was mainly frequency/urgency (13%), dysuria (5%), hematuria, and dribbling/hesitancy (2%). None of the patients required a Foley catheter at any time; however, 8% of the patients experienced transient Grade 1 diarrhea. No other acute gastrointestinal toxicities were found. The most common chronic toxicity was Grade 2 urinary frequency/urgency in 16% of patients followed by dysuria in 4% of patients; 2 patients had Grade 2 rectal bleeding and 1 had Grade 4, requiring laser treatment. Conclusions: Favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated with a single implant HDR-BT to 24-27 Gy in two fractions within 1 day have excellent tolerance with minimal acute and chronic toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm these encouraging early results.

  1. Development and implementation of a remote audit tool for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy using optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Kevin E.; Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Alvarez, Paola; Lawyer, Ann [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to create a mailable phantom with measurement accuracy suitable for Radiological Physics Center (RPC) audits of high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources at institutions participating in National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative clinical trials. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) were chosen as the dosimeter to be used with the phantom.Methods: The authors designed and built an 8 × 8 × 10 cm{sup 3} prototype phantom that had two slots capable of holding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLDs (nanoDots; Landauer, Glenwood, IL) and a single channel capable of accepting all {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy sources in current clinical use in the United States. The authors irradiated the phantom with Nucletron and Varian {sup 192}Ir HDR sources in order to determine correction factors for linearity with dose and the combined effects of irradiation energy and phantom characteristics. The phantom was then sent to eight institutions which volunteered to perform trial remote audits.Results: The linearity correction factor was k{sub L}= (?9.43 × 10{sup ?5}× dose) + 1.009, where dose is in cGy, which differed from that determined by the RPC for the same batch of dosimeters using {sup 60}Co irradiation. Separate block correction factors were determined for current versions of both Nucletron and Varian {sup 192}Ir HDR sources and these vendor-specific correction factors differed by almost 2.6%. For the Nucletron source, the correction factor was 1.026 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.023–1.028], and for the Varian source, it was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.995–1.005). Variations in lateral source positioning up to 0.8 mm and distal/proximal source positioning up to 10 mm had minimal effect on dose measurement accuracy. The overall dose measurement uncertainty of the system was estimated to be 2.4% and 2.5% for the Nucletron and Varian sources, respectively (95% CI). This uncertainty was sufficient to establish a ±5% acceptance criterion for source strength audits under a formal RPC audit program. Trial audits of four Nucletron sources and four Varian sources revealed an average RPC-to-institution dose ratio of 1.000 (standard deviation = 0.011).Conclusions: The authors have created an OSLD-based {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source remote audit tool which offers sufficient dose measurement accuracy to allow the RPC to establish a remote audit program with a ±5% acceptance criterion. The feasibility of the system has been demonstrated with eight trial audits to date.

  2. High-rate and low-temperature synthesis of TiO2, TiN, and TiO2/TiN/TiO2 thin films and study of their optical and interfacial characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    High-rate and low-temperature synthesis of TiO2, TiN, and TiO2/TiN/TiO2 thin films and study with unbalanced magnetrons, we deposited advanced inorganic functional thin films such as TiO2, TiN, and TiO2/Ti sputtering. The TiO2 101 and TiN 100 thin films were stoichiometric and polycrystalline but highly oriented

  3. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  4. Very high strain-rate response of a NiTi shape-memory alloy Sia Nemat-Nasser *, Jeom-Yong Choi, Wei-Guo Guo, Jon B. Isaacs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Very high strain-rate response of a NiTi shape-memory alloy Sia Nemat-Nasser *, Jeom-Yong Choi, Wei Received 1 January 2004 Abstract The compressive response of a NiTi shape-memory alloy is investigated for the stress-induced martensite formation equals the yield stress of the austenite phase. Therefore, the shape-memory

  5. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  6. Penetration and scattering of lower hybrid waves by density fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Goniche, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lower Hybrid [LH] ray propagation in toroidal plasma is controlled by a combination of the azimuthal spectrum launched from the antenna, the poloidal variation of the magnetic field, and the scattering of the waves by the density fluctuations. The width of the poloidal and radial RF wave spectrum increases rapidly as the rays penetrate into higher density and scatter from the turbulence. The electron temperature gradient [ETG] spectrum is particularly effective in scattering the LH waves due to its comparable wavelengths and parallel phase velocities. ETG turbulence is also driven by the radial gradient of the electron current density giving rise to an anomalous viscosity spreading the LH-driven plasma currents. The scattered LH spectrum is derived from a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of the ray trajectories with a diffusivity proportional to the fluctuations. The LH ray diffusivity is large giving transport in the poloidal and radial wavenumber spectrum in one - or a few passes - of the rays through the core plasma.

  7. Conventional and synthetic aperature processing for airborne ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, R.M. [Airborne Environmental Surveys, Santa Maria, CA (United States); Simkins, W.L.; Brown, R.D. [MSB Technologies, Inc., Rome, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past four years Airborne Environmental Surveys (AES), a Division of Era Aviation, Inc. has used unique and patented airborne Frequency-Modulated, Continuous Wave (FM-CW) radars and processes for detecting and mapping subsurface phenomena. Primary application has focused on the detection of man-made objects in landfills, hazardous waste sites (some of which contain unexploded ordinance), and subsurface plumes of refined free-floating hydrocarbons. Recently, MSB Technologies, Inc. (MSB) has developed a form of synthetic aperture radar processing (SAR), called GPSAR{trademark}, that is tailored especially for the AES radars. Used as an adjunct to more conventional airborne ground-penetrating radar data processing techniques, GPSAR takes advantage of the radars` coherent transmission and produces imagery that is better focused and more accurate in determining an object`s range and true depth. This paper describes the iterative stages of data processing and analysis used with the radars and shows the added advantages that GPSAR processing offers.

  8. Potential market penetration of IGCC in the northeast United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; Hawk, E.; Maskew, J.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines IGCC market penetration potential for baseload power generation in the Northeast US, an important market area for IGCC because of the existing coal generation infrastructure and its proximity to coal producing regions. Three utility power pools supply most of the power for this region. They are the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland Power Pool (PJM), the New York Power Pool (NYPP), and the New England Power Exchange (NEPEX). The CONSOL Regional Compliance Model (RCM) was configured to evaluate the power market in the northeast region of the US IGCC was evaluated both as a replacement option for existing power plants and as a new capacity option to satisfy load growth requirements. Using the bus bar cost of electricity as the deciding factor, the RCM considers generation technologies and fuel options to supply power taking into account load projections, emission costs, fuel price projections, plant performance, and capital and operating cost estimates. The emission costs, in the form of a tax or allowance price (or another equivalent mechanism), consider CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions.

  9. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyunsoo [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti#12;cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s#6; superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  10. Relationships between inherent optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation in optically complex coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Relationships between inherent optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation optical properties and the depth of penetration of solar radiation in optically complex coastal waters, J

  11. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  12. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin (2013), Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans

  13. Sphere penetration by impact in a granular medium: A collisional process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine Seguin; Yann Bertho; Philippe Gondret; Jerome Crassous

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The penetration by a gravity driven impact of a solid sphere into a granular medium is studied by two-dimensional simulations. The scaling laws observed experimentally for both the final penetration depth and the stopping time with the relevant physical parameters are here recovered numerically without the consideration of any solid friction. Collisional processes are thus found as essential in explaining the physics of the qualitatively observed phenomena whereas frictional processes can only be considered as secondary effects in the granular penetration by impact.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF 90SR AND 137CS PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE (EXTENT OF 'DEEPENING') UNDER NATURAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures, and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mm. Both {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory and 70% of the total {sup 90}Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. {sup 90}Sr had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than {sup 137}Cs.

  15. Penetration of buoyancy driven current due to a wind forced river plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Seong-Ho

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The long term response of a plume associated with freshwater penetration into ambient, ocean water under upwelling favorable winds is studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in an idealized domain. Three different cases were examined...

  16. Ground penetrating radar technique to locate coal mining related features: case studies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Save, Neelambari R

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research project is to identify the efficacy of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique in locating underground coal mine related subsidence features at Malakoff and Bastrop, Texas. The work at Malakoff ...

  17. Forecasting the Market Penetration of Energy Conservation Technologies: The Decision Criteria for Choosing a Forecasting Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capital requirements and research and development programs in the alum inum industry. : CONCLUSIONS Forecasting the use of conservation techndlo gies with a market penetration model provides la more accountable method of projecting aggrega...

  18. Integration of Raman Spectroscopy and Cone Penetration Technology Characterize Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Contaminant Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.

    1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project was the development and integration of a Raman spectroscopy unit with a Cone Penetration Technologies (CPT) system for use in locating contamination below the ground surface.

  19. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  20. Estimating the Market Penetration of Residential Cool Storage Technology Using Economic Cost Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weijo, R. O.; and Brown, D. R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study estimated the market penetration for residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling. Residential cool storage units produce and store chill during off-peak periods of the day to be used during times of peak electric...

  1. Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

  2. Common Genetic Variants and Modification of Penetrance of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Todd

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors.1 To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we ...

  3. Ground penetrating radar technique to locate coal mining related features: case studies in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Save, Neelambari R

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research project is to identify the efficacy of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique in locating underground coal mine related subsidence features at Malakoff and Bastrop, Texas. The work at Malakoff has been done...

  4. Penetration of buoyancy driven current due to a wind forced river plume 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Seong-Ho

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The long term response of a plume associated with freshwater penetration into ambient, ocean water under upwelling favorable winds is studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in an idealized domain. Three different cases were examined...

  5. Thickness estimation of subsurface layers in asphalt pavement using monstatic ground penetrating radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Chun Lok

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Approved as to style and content by... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. LIST OF FIGURES. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. 1. 1 Importance of pavement profile data. 1. 2 Principle of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) . . . 1. 3 Subsurface layer thickness measurement method. . . . . . II GPR ANTENNA AND SYSTEM CALIBRATION...

  6. Penetration mechanism and distribution gradients of sodium tripolyphosphate in peeled and deveined shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenhet, Vickie Lynn

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PENETRATION MECHANISM AND DISTRIBUTION GRADIENTS OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE IN PEELED AND DEVEINED SHRIMP A Thesis by VICKIE LYNN TENHET Approved as to style...

  7. Final Report - Inspection Limit Confirmation for Upper Head Penetration Nozzle Cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Rudland, David L.; Zhang, Tao; Wilkowski, Gery M.

    2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASME Code Case N-729-1 defines alternative examination requirements for the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) upper head penetration nozzle welds. The basis for these examination requirements was developed as part of an Industry program conducted by the Materials Reliability Program (MRP) through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The results of this program were published in MRP-95 Rev. 1 and document a set of finite element weld residual stress analyses conducted on a variety of upper head penetration nozzles. The inspection zone selected by the industry was based on the stress where it was assumed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) would not initiate. As explained in MRP-95 Rev. 1, it has been illustrated that PWSCC does not occur in the Alloy 600 tube when the stresses are below the yield strength of that tube. Typical yield strengths at operating conditions for Alloy 600 range from 35 ksi to 65 ksi. A stress less than 20-ksi tension was chosen as a conservative range where PWSCC would not initiate. Over the last several years, Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2) has conducted welding residual stress analyses on upper head penetration J-welds made from Alloy 182 weld metal for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. These efforts were performed as a confirmatory evaluation of the industry’s analyses conducted as part of their MRP-95 Rev. 1 effort. To this point, the analyses conducted by Emc2 have not been compared to the MRP-95 Rev. 1 results or the examination zones defined in the Code Case. Therefore, this report summarizes the past Emc2 CRDM welding analyses and investigates the regions where the welding stresses may be sufficiently high to promote stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In all, 90 welding residual stress analyses were conducted by Emc2 and the largest distance below the weld where the stress drops below 20 ksi was 5 inches for the uphill weld of the 53-degree nozzle case. For the largest distance above the weld where stress drops below 20 ksi, the worst case was 1.5 inches above the downhill side of the 25-degree nozzle case. The inspection zones described in both MRP-95 Rev. 1 and Code Case N-729-1 were set at 1.0 inch for nozzle angles greater than 30 degrees or 1.5 inches for nozzle angles less than 30 degrees, above the highest or below the lowest point on the weld. In all cases analyzed by Emc2 in this effort, there was only one case where the stress was above 20 ksi outside of this inspection zone. For that case, the stresses were very close to 20 ksi at the inspection zone limit and were considered acceptable.

  8. High Pressure Shock Tube Studies of Fuel Combustion Engineering The high-pressure single-pulse shock tube is shown in Figure 8 (rated at 5 to 1000 atm,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    High Pressure Shock Tube Studies of Fuel Combustion Engineering The high-pressure single and oxidative degradation of various components in order to identify the products as guides to the combustion

  9. GTAW penetration based on electrode tip location versus weld joint center line. [Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daumeyer, G.J. III.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is often the chosen process for final enclosure welds of heat sensitive electrical and electronic product. GTAW is used to produce welds that satisfy design requirements (usually a penetration requirement) and not expose the product to such high heat that would cause unwanted damage. An important variable in the GTAW process is the location of the Electrode tip over the weld joint center line. This study shows the tolerance of positional location over a narrow scope. Using coupons which represent the W88 container weld joint geometry, penetration vs. electrode tip positional location (offset) is investigated. Results indicate a positional location tolerance of [plus minus] 0.008 in. is acceptable. Several different major components (MCS) supporting various weapons programs require low heat input GTA welds. The electrode tip positional location tolerance is determined by each MC's weld joint tolerances and heat sensitivity. For this short study, the weld joint geometry of a container weld was used. These coupons were welded with the specified weld schedule and one additional weld schedule in order to show the relationship based on both travel speed and gap. Multiple coupon welds were made to eliminate error in the results. Within the scope of this research, a positional tolerance of [plus minus] 0.008 in. of the electrode center over the weld joint center is required. For other MCs this tolerance may be tighter or more relaxed depending upon the specific considerations.

  10. High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems.

  11. Genetic models with reduced penetrance related to the Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    disease and congestive heart failure when taken to high altitudes. Data on 966 calves at a ranch correlation (-0.01) between sire PAP and female calf PAP; the dam to male calf and dam to female calf Alexander and Will (1963)), pulmonary heart disease and congestive heart failure when taken to high

  12. Microstructural Evolution of Alloy 718 at High Helium and Hydrogen Generation Rates during Irradiation with 600-800 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sencer, Bulent H. (PNNL); Bond, G M. (PNNL); Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Hamilton, M L. (PNNL); Oliver, Brian M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thomas, L E. (PNNL); Maloy, S A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Sommer, Walter F. (LOS ALAMOS NATL LAB); James, M R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ferguson, P D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When precipitation hardened Alloy 718 is irradiated with high-energy protons (600?800 MeV) and spallation neutrons at temperatures below > 60 C, it quickly hardens and loses almost all uniform elongation. It later softens somewhat at higher exposures but does not regain any elongation. This behavior is explained in terms of the evolution of Frank loop formation, disordering and eventual dissolution of the?? and?? strengthening phases, and the steady accumulation of very large levels of helium and hydrogen. These gases must be dispersed on a very fine scale in the matrix since no cavities could be found.

  13. Binder free three-dimensional sulphur/few-layer graphene foam cathode with enhanced high-rate capability for rechargeable lithium sulphur batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Kai; Kidambi, Piran R.; Chen, Renjie; Gao, Chenlong; Peng, Xiaoyu; Ducati, Caterina; Hofmann, Stephan; Kumar, R. Vasant

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    state and a short chain configuration inside the narrow micropores are unstable due to their high energy state (low potential difference versus metallic lithium) as compared to large molecules of elemental sulfur with crown rings, which leads to 60... Ducati,a Stephan Hofmannb* and R. Vasant Kumar a* 5 Received (in XXX, XXX) Xth XXXXXXXXX 20XX, Accepted Xth XXXXXXXXX 20XX DOI: 10.1039/b000000x A novel ultra-lightweight three-dimensional (3-D) cathode system for lithium sulphur (Li-S) batteries...

  14. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austin. ERCOT (2010b): Wind generation and load in 2008,common to subtract wind generation from total demand to formquantity of additional wind generation to demonstrate how

  15. Dynamic modelling of generation capacity investment in electricity markets with high wind penetration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eager, Daniel

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of liberalised electricity markets to trigger investment in the generation capacity required to maintain an acceptable level of security of supply risk has been - and will continue to be - a topic of much ...

  16. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of these dynamics, wholesale power prices tend to bedispatch patterns and wholesale power prices, however, alsoTab 2). Because it impacts wholesale power prices and wind

  17. Power system balancing with high renewable penetration : the potential of demand response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Critz, David Karl

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the ability of responsive demand to stabilize the electrical grid when intermittent renewable resources are present. The WILMAR stochastic unit commitment model was used to represent a version of ...

  18. Multi-Area Stochastic Unit Commitment for High Wind Penetration in a Transmission Constrained

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    in power systems with transmission constraints and system component failures. The model is formulated of renewable energy integration. Key words : unit commitment; stochastic programming; wind power; transmission power in power systems is limited by two adverse characteristics of renewable power supply. Renewable

  19. Real time grid congestion management in presence of high penetration of wind energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of wind generation [2]. In the literature, many methods have been reported for congestion management to element outage or random production as is wind generation. hal-00422160,version1-6Oct2009 Author related to wind generation [8]. This is due to the difficulties to predict exact congestion magnitude

  20. Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    of strategic trading in restructured wholesale power markets with congestion managed by locational marginal when coupled with increased price-sensitivity of demand as realized through demand response, demand dispatch, and/or price-sensitive demand bidding. Index Terms--Distributed power generation, multiagent sys

  1. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any com...

  2. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts wholesale power prices and wind energy curtailmentPrices and Incentives to Invest in Thermal Power Plants under Increasing Wind Energyprice discussion is the wholesale market value of wind energy,

  3. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  4. Appropriate storage for high-penetration grid-connected photovoltaic plants A.A. Solomon a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    % of the annual load requirements could have been achieved, albeit at the cost of having to dump approximately 5 be derived by detailed consideration of the three-way mutual interactions among storage, demand profile

  5. The Importance of High Temporal Resolution in Modeling Renewable Energy Penetration Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolosi, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind power in a carbon constrained world, Energy Policy,Wind Power in the Danish liberalized power market – Policy measures, price impact and investor incentives, Energy Policy,wind energy curtailment decisions, an assumption for the $-per-kWh level of policy

  6. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002RTC3 |JulianProjectKateri

  7. Impacts of High Penetration of PV with Energy Storage at Flagstaff Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOralGovernmentStandardsIdahoby4and Example |June 24,|

  8. Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingof EnhancedRestructuring our TransportationEnergy

  9. Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in Florida | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProducts | Department of|of EnergyEnergy

  10. R&D Efforts for Enabling High Penetration Photovoltaics in U.S. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITYResponses: Question 1: WouldPortalSHE RR

  11. Two regimes of vortex penetration into platelet-shaped type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, E. H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung (Germany); Mikitik, G. P., E-mail: mikitik@ilt.kharkov.ua [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (Ukraine); Zeldov, E. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Condensed Matter Physics (Israel)] [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Condensed Matter Physics (Israel)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Vortex penetration into a thin superconducting strip of a rectangular cross section is considered at an increasing applied magnetic field H{sub a}, taking an interplay between the Bean-Livingston and the geometric barriers in the sample into account. We calculate the magnetic field H{sub p} at which the penetration begins and show that two regimes of vortex penetration are possible. In the first regime, vortices appearing at the corners of the strip at H{sub a} = H{sub p} immediately move to its center, where a vortex dome starts to develop. In the second regime, the penetration occurs in two stages. In the first stage, at H{sub a} < H{sub p}, tilted vortices penetrate into the edge regions of the strip, where novel domes are shown to be formed at the top, bottom, and lateral surfaces. In the second stage, at H{sub a} = H{sub p}, the vortex propagation to the center becomes possible. The difference between the regimes manifests itself in slightly different dependences of the magnetic moment of the strip on H{sub a}.

  12. HIGH-ACCURACY MR-MP PERTURBATION THEORY ENERGY AND RADIATIVE RATES CALCULATIONS FOR CORE-EXCITED TRANSITIONS IN Fe XVI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, F.; Vilkas, M. J.; Ishikawa, Y. [Department of Chemistry and the Chemical Physics Program, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Beiersdorfer, P., E-mail: beiersdorfer1@llnl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate theoretical energy level, lifetime, and transition probability calculations of core-excited Fe XVI were performed employing the relativistic Multireference Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. In these computations the term energies of the highly excited n {<=} 5 states arising from the configuration 1s {sup 2}2s{sup k} 2p{sup m} 3l {sup p} nl' {sup q}, where k + m + p + q = 9, l {<=} 3 and p + q {<=} 2 are considered, including those of the autoionizing levels with a hole-state in the L-shell. All even and odd parity states of sodium-like iron ion were included for a total of 1784 levels. Comparison of the calculated L-shell transition wavelengths with those from laboratory measurements shows excellent agreement. Therefore, our calculation may be used to predict the wavelengths of as of yet unobserved Fe XVI, such as the second strongest 2p-3d Fe XVI line, which has not been directly observed in the laboratory and which blends with one of the prominent Fe XVII lines.

  13. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  14. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  15. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  16. The Central American cold surge: an observational analysis of the deep southward penetration of North American cold fronts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reding, Philip John

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , while the maximum southward penetration is approximately 7'N. Over 76% of CACS events penetrate south of 15'N and over 26% penetrate south of 10'N. CACS onset characteristics are described from Belize City, Belize surface observations. A wind shift..., or western boundary, stretching from nearly 70'N to 10'N. Atkinson (1971) and Hastenrath (1988) agree that this topography both provides a good setting for the generation of vast pools of cold air over North America and assists in the equatorward...

  17. Standard practice for fluorescent liquid penetrant testing using the Solvent-Removable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fluorescent penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface, such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a fluorescent penetrant examination solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the fluorescent solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement by...

  18. Standard practice for visible penetrant testing using the Water-Washable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice describes procedures for visible liquid penetrant examination utilizing the water-washable process. It is a nondestructive practice for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. This practice can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, and certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides the following references: 1.2.1 A reference by which visible penetrant examination procedures using the water-washable process can be reviewed to ascertain their applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, water-washable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement between the u...

  19. Standard practice for fluorescent liquid penetrant testing using the hydrophilic Post-Emulsification process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fluorescent penetrant examination utilizing the hydrophilic post-emulsification process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a fluorescent penetrant examination hydrophilic post-emulsification process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain their applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the fluorescent penetrant examination of materials and parts using the...

  20. Standard practice for visible penetrant testing using Solvent-Removable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for visible penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a visible penetrant examination method using the solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreeme...

  1. Use of Electrodeposition for Sample Preparation and Rejection Rate Prediction for Assay of Electroformed Ultra High Purity Copper for 232Th and 238U Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Seifert, Allen; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (<0.1µBq/kg). Although electrodeposition processes are almost sophisticated enough to produce copper of this purity, to date there are no methods sensitive enough to assay it. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) can detect thorium and uranium at femtogram levels, but in the past, this assay has been hindered by high copper concentrations in the sample. Electrodeposition of copper samples removes copper from the solution while selectively concentrating thorium and uranium contaminants to be assayed by ICP/MS. Spiking 232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry.

  2. Method to Reduce Molten Salt Penetration into Bulk Vitrification Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Hrma, P.R.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.; Matyas, J.; Rodriguez, C.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States); Witwer, K.S. [AMEC Nuclear Holdings Ltd., GeoMelt Division, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material consisting of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. However, the castable refractory block (CRB) portion of the refractory lining has sufficient porosity to allow the low-viscosity molten ionic salt (MIS), which contains technetium (Tc) in a soluble form, to penetrate the CRB. This limits the effectiveness of the final waste form. This paper describes tests conducted to develop a method aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the CRB. Tests showed that MIS formed in significant quantities at temperatures above 300 deg. C, remained stable until roughly 550 deg. C where it began to thermally decompose, and was completely decomposed by 800 deg. C. The estimated volume fraction of MIS in the feed was greater than 40%, and the CRB material contained 11 to 15% open porosity, a combination allowing a large quantity of MIS to migrate through the feed and penetrate the open porosity of the CRB. If the MIS is decomposed at temperatures below 300 deg. C or can be contained in the feed until it fully decomposes by 800 deg. C, MIS migration into the CRB can be avoided. Laboratory and crucible-scale experiments showed that a variety of methods, individually or in combination, can decrease MIS penetration into the CRB. Modifying the CRB to block MIS penetration was not deemed practical as a method to prevent the large quantities of MIS penetration seen in the full-scale tests, but it may be useful to reduce the impacts of lower levels of MIS penetration. Modifying the BV feed materials to better contain the MIS proved to be more successful. A series of qualitative and quantitative crucible tests were developed that allowed screening of feed modifications that might be used to reduce MIS penetration. These tests showed that increasing the specific surface area of the soil (used as the primary glass-forming solid in the baseline process) by grinding stopped MIS penetration nearly entirely for feeds that contained waste simulants with lower quantities of nitrate salts. Grinding soil significantly reduced MIS penetration in feeds with higher nitrate quantities, but it was necessary to add carbohydrates (sucrose or cellulose) to destroy a portion of the nitrate at low temperatures to reach the same low levels of MIS penetration seen for the lower nitrate feeds. Developing feeds to reduce MIS penetration in full-scale BV applications resulted in two additional refinements. Soil-grinding to the necessary levels proved to be difficult and expensive, so the fine soil was replaced with readily available fine-grained glass-forming minerals. Cellulose was shown to have less impact on dryer operation than sucrose and was chosen as the carbohydrate source to use in subsequent engineering- and full-scale tests. (authors)

  3. Method to Reduce Molten Salt Penetration into Bulk Vitrification Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Matyas, Josef; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Witwer, Keith S.

    2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. However, the castable refractory block (CRB) portion of the refractory lining has sufficient porosity to allow the low-viscosity molten ionic salt (MIS), which contains technetium (Tc) in a soluble form, to penetrate the CRB. This limits the effectiveness of the final waste form. This paper describes tests conducted to develop a method aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the CRB. Tests showed that MIS formed in significant quantities at temperatures above 300°C, remained stable until roughly 550°C where it began to thermally decompose, and was completely decomposed by 800°C. The estimated volume fraction of MIS in the feed was greater than 40%, and the CRB material contained 11 to 15% open porosity, a combination allowing a large quantity of MIS to migrate through the feed and penetrate the open porosity of the CRB. If the MIS is decomposed at temperatures below 300°C or can be contained in the feed until it fully decomposes by 800°C, MIS migration into the CRB can be avoided. Laboratory and crucible-scale experiments showed that a variety of methods, individually or in combination, can decrease MIS penetration into the CRB. Modifying the CRB to block MIS penetration was not deemed practical as a method to prevent the large quantities of MIS penetration seen in the full-scale tests, but it may be useful to reduce the impacts of lower levels of MIS penetration. Modifying the BV feed materials to better contain the MIS proved to be more successful. A series of qualitative and quantitative crucible tests were developed that allowed screening of feed modifications that might be used to reduce MIS penetration. These tests showed that increasing the specific surface area of the soil (used as the primary glass-forming solid in the baseline process) by grinding stopped MIS penetration nearly entirely for feeds that contained waste simulants with lower quantities of nitrate salts. Grinding soil significantly reduced MIS penetration in feeds with higher nitrate quantities, but it was necessary to add carbohydrates (sucrose or cellulose) to destroy a portion of the nitrate at low temperatures to reach the same low levels of MIS penetration seen for the lower nitrate feeds. Developing feeds to reduce MIS penetration in full-scale BV applications resulted in two additional refinements. Soil-grinding to the necessary levels proved to be difficult and expensive, so the fine soil was replaced with readily available fine-grained glass-forming minerals. Cellulose was shown to have less impact on dryer operation than sucrose and was chosen as the carbohydrate source to use in subsequent engineering- and full-scale tests.

  4. Heating and Ionization of the Primordial Intergalactic Medium by High Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knevitt, Gillian; Power, Chris; Bolton, James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the influence of High Mass X-ray Binaries on their high redshift environments. Using a one-dimensional radiative transfer code, we predict the ionization and temperature profiles surrounding a coeval stellar population, composed of main sequence stars and HMXBs, at various times after its formation. We consider both uniform density surroundings, and a cluster embedded in a 10^8 solar mass NFW halo. HMXBs in a constant density environment produce negligible enhanced ionization because of their high-energy SEDs and short lifetimes. In this case, HMXBs only marginally contribute to the local heating rate. For NFW profiles, radiation from main sequence stars cannot prevent the initially ionized volume from recombining since it is unable to penetrate the high density galactic core. However, HMXB photons stall recombinations behind the front, keeping it partially ionized for longer. The increased electron density in these partially ionized regions promotes further cooling, resulting in lower IGM temp...

  5. Penetrating radiation impact on NIF final optic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C.D.; Speth, J.A.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to achieve thermonuclear ignition in a laboratory environment in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This will enable NIF to service the DOE stockpile stewardship management program, inertial fusion energy goals, and advance scientific frontiers. All of these applications will make use of the extreme conditions that the facility will create in the target chamber. In the case of a prospected 20 MJ yield scenario, NIF will produce 10{sup 19} neutrons with DT fusion 14 MeV energy per neutron. There will also be high-energy x rays as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous target debris produced either directly or indirectly by the inertial confinement fusion process. A critical design issue is the protection of the final optical components as well as sophisticated target diagnostics in such a harsh environment.

  6. Energy-Based 6-DOF Penetration Depth Computation for Penalty-Based Haptic Rendering Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zefran, Milo?

    Energy-Based 6-DOF Penetration Depth Computation for Penalty-Based Haptic Rendering Algorithms Maxim Kolesnikov and Milos Zefran Abstract-- Existing penalty-based haptic rendering ap- proaches of rigid-body motions SE(3). We propose a penalty-based six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) haptic rendering

  7. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  8. Measured responses of internal enclosures and cables due to burnthrough penetration of weapon cases by lightning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinallo, M.A. [Quatro Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical effects of lightning penetration of the outer case of a weapon on internal structures, such as a firing set housing, and on samples of a flat, flexline detonator cable have been investigated experimentally. Maximum open-circuit voltages measured on either simulated structures (126 V) or the cable (46 V) located directly behind the point of penetration were well below any level that is foreseen to create a threat to nuclear safety. On the other hand, it was found that once full burnthrough of the barrier occurred, significant fractions of the incident continuing currents coupled to both the simulated internal structure (up to 300 A) or to the cable sample (69 A) when each was electrically connected internally to case ground. No occurrence was observed of the injection of large amplitude currents from return strokes occurring after barrier penetration. Under circumstances in which small volumes of trapped gases exist behind penetration sites, rapid heating of the gas by return strokes occurring after burnthrough has been shown to produced large mechanical impulses to the adjacent surfaces.

  9. On the Penetration of the 660 km Phase Change by Mantle Downflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in an upward force which resists the passage of the downwelling through the phase change. Cold material piles up and spreads lat- erally on the phase-change boundary. Eventu- ally, enough cold materialOn the Penetration of the 660 km Phase Change by Mantle Downflows David Bercovici Department

  10. 78 IAEI NEWS September.October 2006 www.iaei.org penetrating pv questions from inspectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    78 IAEI NEWS September.October 2006 www.iaei.org penetrating pv questions from inspectors B ased several calls and e-mails a week and sometimes several calls a day from inspectors looking at PV plans or inspecting PV systems. The questions that they pose are always challenging because most of the inspectors

  11. Impacts of Large-Scale Wind Generators Penetration on the Voltage Stability of Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    development of wind energy tech- nology and the current world-wide status of grid-connected as well as standImpacts of Large-Scale Wind Generators Penetration on the Voltage Stability of Power Systems M. J systems and their dynamic behaviours to identify critical issues that limit the large-scale integration

  12. Optimal Spacing in an Array of Fully Penetrating Ditches for Subsurface Drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    Optimal Spacing in an Array of Fully Penetrating Ditches for Subsurface Drainage Bhagu R. Chahar1 courses, race courses, parks, and other amenities Chahar and Vadodaria 2008 . Subsurface drainage system 1995 . An extensive solu- tion has been obtained by Chahar and Vadodaria 2008 for drain- age from

  13. Journal of Superconductivity, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1992 Magnetic Penetration Depth Measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    of superconductivity is the diamagnetic response of a superconductor below its transition temperature To. The abilityJournal of Superconductivity, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1992 Magnetic Penetration Depth Measurements in Cuprate Superconductors Steven M. AnlageI and Dong-Ho Wut Received 16 April 1992 We examine recent results

  14. Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems M. J School of S ~ao Carlos, Brazil. Email: ramos@sel.eese.usp.br Abstract--The complexity of power systems, such as wind generators. This changing nature of power systems has considerable effect on its dynamic behaviour

  15. Market penetration of wind turbine concepts over the years Anca D. Hansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Market penetration of wind turbine concepts over the years Anca D. Hansen1 , Lars H. Hansen2 1 Risø wind turbine concepts over the years (1995-2005). A detailed overview is performed based on suppliers market data and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the suppliers

  16. Bridge Deck Evaluation with Ground Penetrating Radar Dryver Huston, Jing Hu, Noel Pelczarski, and Brian Esser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huston, Dryver R.

    in a step-frequency mode. The system is used to test laboratory specimens and bridge decks in the field Health Monitoring Stanford University September 1999 ABSTRACT Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) uses electromagnetic (EM) waves to identify underlying features in solid structures. The typical technique uses

  17. Probabilistic Conic Mixture Model and its Applications to Mining Spatial Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leeds, University of

    to image data is a basic task in pattern recognition and spatial data mining and also is an important a reliable report after the inspection. The patterns appearing in the B-scans [5] of GPR data have shapesProbabilistic Conic Mixture Model and its Applications to Mining Spatial Ground Penetrating Radar

  18. London penetration depth and coherence length of SU(3) vacuum flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Francesca Cuteri; Alessandro Papa

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The transverse profile of the chromoelectric field generated by a quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum is analysed within the dual superconductor scenario, then the London penetration depth and coherence length are extracted. The color field is determined on the lattice through a connected correlator of two Polyakov loops measured on smeared configurations.

  19. London Penetration Length and String Tension in SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai

    1994-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the distribution of the color fields due to a static quark-antiquark pair in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We find evidence of dual Meissner effect. We put out a simple relation between the penetration length and the string tension.

  20. High frequency ultrasonic characterization of human skin In vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raju, Balasundara I. (Balasundara Iyyavu), 1972-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound has numerous potential applications in dermatology because of its ability to penetrate several millimeters into the skin and provide information at a spatial resolution of tens of microns. ...