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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

High-rate penetration of a striker into SiC ceramic with different void content  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of penetration of deformable striking rods into SiC ceramics with different void content is studied. The penetration may be viewed as a two-stage process. At the first stage, the penetration rate is ...

A. S. Vlasov; E. L. Zil’berbrand; A. A. Kozhushko; A. I. Kozachuk…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Definition: Penetration Rate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Penetration Rate Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Penetration Rate The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. Also known as penetration rate or drill rate. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.

3

Optimizing bit hydraulics increases penetration rate  

SciTech Connect

At some point, rate of penetration depends as much or more on hydraulics as on bit weight and rotary speed. An easy-to-follow graphical technique shows how to maximize ROP at the rig by finding the optimum pressure drop through the bit and the highest possible crossflow velocity.

Robinson, L.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Parameter Study on Prediction Methods for TBM Penetration Rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Penetration rate prediction of Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) ... research, influence of effective parameters on TBM penetration rate is investigated by sensitivity analysis of three...TBM.... Based on these analyse...

Mahdi Zoorabadi; Serkan Saydam…

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Solvent Penetration Rate in Tablet Measurement Using Video Image Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a simple technique for the measurement of solvent penetration rates into spray-dried lactose (DCL) tablets ... results of the experimental study show that the penetration rate in some cases appears to...

D. Braido; Y. Gulak; A. Cuitino

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a. Similarly, an increased weight on bit in downhole drilling does not improve the penetration rates when hard- tration rate is presented. The inherent nonlinearity of the discontinuous impact process is modelled

Krivtsov, Anton M.

7

Simple estimation of penetration rate of light in intertidal sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple estimation of light penetration in tidal flat sediments was developed using various sediment size fractions and their attenuation rate of irradiance. The attenuation coefficients of the...µm and 1000–200...

Kazuhiko Ichimi; Kuninao Tada; Shigeru Montani

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Penetration rates of osmium tetroxide with different fixation vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presence of any substance other than OsO4...in osmium tetroxide fixation mixtures causes a decrease in the penetration rate of the fixative. Fixation times should therefore...

L. Hagström; G. F. Bahr

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Sunshot Initiative High Penetration Solar Portal  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the installed cost of solar energy systems by about 75% will drive widespread large-scale adoption of this renewable energy and restore U.S. leadership in the global clean energy race. The High Penetration Solar Portal was created as a resource to aggregate the most relevant and timely information related to high penetration solar scenarios and integrating solar into the grid. The site is designed so that utilities, grant awardees, regulators, researchers, and other solar professionals can easily share data, case studies, lessons learned, and demonstration project findings. [from https://solarhighpen.energy.gov/about_the_high_penetration_solar_portal

10

Effect of antigen turnover rate and expression level on antibody penetration into tumor spheroids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...expression level and turnover rate significantly influence penetration. As intrinsic antigen...effect of internalization rate on penetration, we used antibodies...expression level and turnover rate significantly influence penetration. As intrinsic antigen...

Margaret E. Ackerman; David Pawlowski; and K. Dane Wittrup

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Population internet penetration rate and channel supply chain players' performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the rapid development of the internet, the population internet penetration rate plays a strategic importance in the dual-channel supply chain. In this research, we use a game-theoretic approach to examine the effect of the population internet penetration rate on the performances of the manufacturer and traditional retailer under the Stackelberg and Bertrand competitive models. Our results suggest that an increase in the population internet penetration rate always has a negative impact on the manufacturer and traditional retailer's profits. Furthermore, when the product is more suitable for the online market, the traditional retailer will be hurt more by the population internet penetration rate. For the manufacturer, although a larger product web fit can increase profits, the population internet penetration rate has a stronger impact on profitability, thus decreasing profits even as the product web fit increases. Our results also suggest that both the manufacturer and the retailer can adopt either of the Stackelberg and Bertrand competitive market structures in the dual-channel supply chain since their profits are unaffected by the two models. The managerial implications of our results are discussed and the probable paths of future research are identified.

Ruiliang Yan; John Wang; Sanjoy Ghose

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Penetration Solar Deployment High Penetration Solar Deployment to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: High Penetration Solar Deployment on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Research, Development, & Demonstration Competitive Awards Solar Utility Networks: Replicable Innovations in Solar Energy High Penetration Solar Deployment Grid Integration Advanced Concepts

13

Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

New model describing the dynamical behaviour of penetration rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behaviour of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

Tohru Tashiro; Hiroe Minagawa; Michiko Chiba

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Predicting penetration rate of hard rock tunnel boring machine using fuzzy logic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting the penetration rate of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) ... have been developed for the prediction of TBM penetration rates using traditional statistical analysis techniques. Soft computing ... fuzzy log...

Ebrahim Ghasemi; Saffet Yagiz…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Avoided emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the United States Title Avoided emissions from high penetration of photovoltaic electricity in the United States Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zhai, Pei, Peter H. Larsen, Dev Millstein, Surabi Menon, and Eric R. Masanet Journal Energy Volume 47 Start Page 443 Date Published 2012 Abstract This study evaluates avoided emissions potential of CO2, SO2 and NOx assuming a 10% penetration level of photovoltaics (PV) in ten selected U.S. states. We estimate avoided emissions using an hourly energy system simulation model, EnergyPLAN. Avoided emissions vary significantly across the country-mainly due to three state-specific factors: the existing resource mix of power plants (power grid fuel mix), the emission intensity of existing fossil fuel power plants and the PV capacity factor within each state. The avoided emissions per solar PV capacity (g/W) - for ten U.S. states -ranged from 670 to 1500 for CO2, 0.01e7.80 for SO2 and 0.25e2.40 for NOx. In general, avoided emissions are likely to be higher in locations with 1) higher share of coal plants; 2) higher emission of existing fossil fuel plants; and 3) higher PV capacity factor. To further illustrate the quantitative relationship between avoided emissions and the three state-specific factors, we conducted a sensitivity analysis. Finally, we estimated the change in avoided emissions in a coal-intensive state by varying the operational constraints of fossil-fuel power plants. At the 10% penetration level avoided emissions were not constrained by the ramp rate limitations, but the minimum capacity requirement significantly affected the avoided emission estimates.

17

A support vector regression model for predicting tunnel boring machine penetration rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract With widespread increasing applications of mechanized tunneling in almost all ground conditions, prediction of tunnel boring machine (TBM) performance is required for time planning, cost control and choice of excavation method in order to make tunneling economical. Penetration rate is a principal measure of full-face TBM performance and is used to evaluate the feasibility of the machine and predict advance rate of excavation. This research aims at developing a regression model to predict penetration rate of TBM in hard rock conditions based on a new artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm namely support vector regression (SVR). For this purpose, the Queens Water Tunnel, in New York City, was selected as a case study to test the proposed model. In order to find out the optimum values of the parameters and prevent over-fitting, 80% of the total data were selected randomly for training set and the rest were kept for testing the model. According to the results, it can be said that the proposed model is a useful and reliable means to predict TBM penetration rate provided that a suitable dataset exists. From the prediction results of training and testing samples, the squared correlation coefficient (R2) between the observed and predicted values of the proposed model was obtained 0.99 and 0.95, respectively, which shows a high conformity between predicted and actual penetration rate.

Satar Mahdevari; Kourosh Shahriar; Saffet Yagiz; Mohsen Akbarpour Shirazi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effect of penetration rate and filter location on piezocone test results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of penetration rate on the piezocone penetration and dissipation test results with filter element...K o...condition using a well-calibrated chamber system. The chamber tests were condu...

Dae Kyu Kim

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Penetrometer resistance, root penetration resistance and root elongation rate in two sandy loam soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Root penetration resistance and elongation of maize seedling roots ... of two sandy loam soils. Root elongation rate was negatively correlated with root penetration resistance, and was reduced to about 50 ... 7.5...

A. G. Bengough; C. E. Mullins

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Instrument for measuring the rate of penetration of oil and other liquids into paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of penetration of oil into paper is assessed from the decrease in opacity as oil penetrates into the sheet. This is measured photoelectrically and the design of a suitable instrument is described. The sheet is illuminated on the underside with diffuse light and that transmitted is measured on a photoelectric cell immediately above. The derivation of the formulae for the rate of penetration and depth penetrated at any time after oiling is given as well as curves showing typical results.

A C Poulter

1941-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy  

SciTech Connect

High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

Denholm, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Analytical and experimental studies on the strain rate effects in penetration of 10wt % ballistic gelatin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work concentrates on modeling the super-elastic behavior of 10wt% ballistic gelatin at 4°C and the mechanical responses at quasi-static and high-speed penetrations. Uniaxial compression and simple shearing experiments were carried out to determine the moduli in Mooney-Rivlin model describing the elastic behavior of gelatin at low strain rates. The failure mode is determined to be elastic fracture as the tensile stretch ratio exceeds a critical value. For high compression strain rates, the available results from the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments for 10wt% gelatin were carefully examined and assessed. Linear relationship between the moduli and the strain rate is established. Based on these material parameters, an analytic solution of stress for the quasi-static and quasi-dynamic expansion of spherical cavity in gelatin is derived. As a consequence, the work needed to open unit volume of cavity, Ps, which is the key parameter in studying penetration problems, is linearly increasing with the characteristic strain rate. The application of Ps to our quasi-static and high-speed penetration experiments is discussed and assessed.

L Liu; Z Jia; X L Ma; Y R Fan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Multiobjective Optimization of Renewable Energy Penetration Rate in Power Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, multi-source systems based on renewable energy technologies become the key to a sustainable energy supply infrastructure against the rising cost and the pollutant nature of fossil primary energy used in conventional power plant. However, the cost of renewable energy technologies and the reliability of a multi-sources generation system are generally conflicting with each other. This paper presents a multiobjective formulation to allow optimizing simultaneously both the annualized renewable energy cost the system reliability defined as the renewable energy - load disparity (RELD). This later takes into account the lack of energy as well as the exceed weighted by a penalty factor. The optimization is reach by acting on the penetration rate of each type of renewable generation technologies in order to satisfy a certain load curve. In order to solve this problem, this work suggests to use the fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. A case study shows that the use of diversified resources allows to handle the RELD and to decrease the exceed renewable energy (RERE) and load energy notsupplied (LENS).

Hasnae Bilil; Ghassane Aniba; Mohamed Maaroufi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Osseous penetration rate into implants pretreated with bone cement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The titanium bone growth chamber consists of two titanium disks held together by two screws. At the level of the intersection between the disks, a 1 mm wide canal penetrates the implant. After implantation, in e....

T. Albrektsson

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Simple model for accurate calculation of Coulomb-barrier penetration factors in molecular fusion rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a simple model that yields an approximate analytical expression for the Coulomb-barrier penetration factor in terms of the reduced mass M of the nucleon pair, the mass m of the particle that binds together the nuclei, the inner turning point ri for the state under consideration, and the variation in the electronic or muonic contribution Ee(r) to the total energy between r=0 and ri. In the case of muon-catalyzed d+t??+n fusion, our model yields fusion rates within 25% of those obtained from much more elaborate calculations. The remarkable accuracy of our simple model results from the fact that it is highly accurate for small r, the region that we demonstrate makes the predominant contribution to Coulomb-barrier penetration factors. Furthermore, we use this observation to explain the old puzzle of why the adiabatic approximation yields such accurate fusion rates.

John D. Morgan III and Hendrik J. Monkhorst

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report  

SciTech Connect

Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation provides information on the results of the second High Penetration Solar Forum that convened in February, including an overview of DOE's and CPUC's grid integration awards as well as future efforts.

28

Synergistic approaches to mobile intelligent transportation systems considering low penetration rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of low penetration rate on mobile phone-based traffic state estimation (M-TES) models. Synergistic approaches, including an appropriate genetic algorithm (GA) based velocity-density estimation model and a notable artificial ... Keywords: Low penetration rate, Mobile intelligent transportation systems (MIT), Mobile probe, Traffic state estimation

T. M. Quang; Muhammad Ariff Baharudin; Eiji Kamioka

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Rate dependent shear failure and the scaling effect in long rod penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long rod penetration tests show a scaling effect that cannot be explained by rate dependent strength. We propose here that this scaling effect may be explained by rate dependent failure. We start by revisiting the well known result that long rod penetration efficiency depends on strain to failure of both projectile and target materials. We then make the strain to failure depend on strain rate, using the overstress concept. In this way the effective strain to failure increases with strain rate. As strain rate increases with decreasing scale, we get that penetration efficiency decreases with decreasing scale, as observed in tests. In the paper we show results of hydrocode runs that demonstrate the relation between strain rate sensitivity of strain to failure and the scaling effect in long rod penetration.

Y Partom

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of High Solar Penetration Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-49667 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Prepared under Task No. SM101610

31

Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

PENETRATION OF COAL SLAGS INTO HIGH-CHROMIA REFRACTORIES  

SciTech Connect

Slagging coal gasifiers are used for the production of electricity and synthetic gases, as well as chemicals. High temperatures in the reaction chamber, typically between 1250ºC and 1600ºC, high pressure, generally greater than 400 psi, and corrosive slag place severe demands on the refractory materials. Slag produced during the combustion of coal flows over the refractory surface and penetrates the porous material. Slag penetration is typically followed by spalling of a brick that significantly decreases the service life of gasifier refractories. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the penetration depth of slags into high-chromia refractories as a function of time and temperature for various refractory-slag combinations.

Longanbach, Sara C.; Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

33

Angle Instability Detection in Power Systems with High Wind Penetration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Angle Instability Detection in Power Angle Instability Detection in Power Systems with High Wind Penetration Using PMUs YC Zhang National Renewable Energy Laboratory Yingchen.zhang@nrel.gov 27/28 June 2013 Washington, DC DOE/OE Transmission Reliability Program Angle Instability Detection in Power Systems with High Wind Penetration Using Synchrophasor Measurements  Project Objective * Utilize synchrophasor measurements to estimate the equivalent inertia of a power source such as synchronous generators or wind turbine generators * Develop angle instability detection method for a system with high wind penetration using the synchrophasor measurements 2 3 Background Submitted to IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics * In case of angular instability, some machines will have

34

A stochastic penetration rate model for rotary drilling in surface mines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to determine the most effective parameters on the rock mass penetrability by considering their variance ratio in the first principal component. A model is developed for the prediction of rotary drills penetration rate using non-linear multiple regression analysis. Distribution functions for the effective parameters are calculated using measured data from two case studies. Applying the developed penetration rate model, a stochastic analysis is carried out using the Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed method provides a simple and effective assessment of the variability of the penetration rate model and its dependent parameters. Results showed that the PCA and Monte Carlo are suitable techniques for modeling and assessing the variability of rock mass penetrability parameters. According to the developed distribution model, with 90% of confidence level the penetration rate values range 0.2–2.5 m/min, which shows the wide possible range of penetration rates for rotary drilling especially in sedimentary (limestone and sandstone bearing magnetite mineral of Golgohar mine) and Sarcheshmeh igneous porphyry rock masses.

Omid Saeidi; Seyed Rahman Torabi; Mohammad Ataei; Jamal Rostami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Evaluation of drill cuttings in prediction of penetration rate by using coarseness index and mean particle size in percussive drilling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Penetration rate of rocks is influenced by geological parameters,...CI) and mean particle size (d) to evaluate the penetration rate (PR) in percussive drilling in a limestone and in a marl quarry. The coarseness ...

Ra??t Altindag

36

Strain-rate effects on deflection/penetration of crack terminating perpendicular to bimaterial interface under dynamic loadings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strain-rate effects on the deflection/penetration behaviors of a crack terminating perpendicular to ... . The competition between the deflection and the penetration is found to depend markedly on the loading rate

L. G. Liu; Z. C. Ou; Z. P. Duan; A. G. Pi; F. L. Huang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Effect of the metal-semiconductor phase transition on the rate of hydrogen penetration into vanadium dioxide thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rates of hydrogen penetration from an aqueous solution of glycerin into ... compared. It has been found that the rate of hydrogen penetration into the metal phase of vanadium dioxide ... order of magnitude hi...

V. N. Andreev; V. A. Klimov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Evaluating Future Standards and Codes with a Focus on High Penetration Photovoltaic (HPPV) System Deployment (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Poster displaying solutions for evaluating future standards and codes for high penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) systems.

Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Multifinger Penetration Rate and ROC Variability for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AFIS system design and performance is heavily impacted by data correlations and error rate variability both within and across individual fingerprint ... and left hands, as well as experimental penetration and bin...

James L. Wayman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Synergistic approaches to mobile intelligent transportation systems considering low penetration rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of low penetration rate on mobile phone-based traffic state estimation (M-TES) models. Synergistic approaches, including an appropriate genetic algorithm (GA) based velocity–density estimation model and a notable artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction method for unacceptably low penetration rate, are proposed. The GA-based traffic state estimation model not only improves the effectiveness but also reduces the critical penetration rate required in the M-TES model. When the critical penetration rate is reduced the error-tolerance and the scalability of the estimation model can be significantly improved. The ANN-based prediction approach is introduced to overcome the weakness remaining in the GA-based traffic state estimation model when the penetration rate becomes unacceptably low or unknown. In addition, the effect of related road segments on the prediction effectiveness is thoroughly discussed. This work, therefore, provides practical instructions in narrowing the search space for finding prediction rules of the ANN model, thus improving the computational performance without compromising the prediction accuracy. The experimental evaluations confirm the effectiveness as well as the robustness of the proposed approaches. As a result, this research contributes to accelerating the realization of mobile phone-based intelligent transportation systems (M-ITS) or, of the M-TES systems in specific, since the essential issue of low penetration rate has been solved.

T.M. Quang; Muhammad Ariff Baharudin; Eiji Kamioka

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

Basso, T. S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Penetration rate prediction for diamond bit drilling by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and multiple regressions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In many mining, civil, and petroleum engineering applications diamond bit drilling is widely used due to high penetration rate, core recovery and its ability to drill with less deviation. Recently, many research have been conducted to estimate the penetration rate of diamond drilling which can be considered as one of the most important parameters in project planning and cost estimation of the operation. A database covering the rock properties and the machine operational parameters collected from seven different drilling sites in Turkey is constructed. Construction of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and the multiple regression models for predicting the penetration rate of diamond drilling is described. In the models, rock properties such as the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock quality designation, and the equipment operational parameters like bit load and bit rotation are considered. Although the prediction performance of multiple regression models is high, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference model exhibits better performance based on the comparison of performance indicators. By using the models, penetration rate of diamond bit drilling can be predicted effectively.

H. Basarir; L. Tutluoglu; C. Karpuz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

273 273 July 2009 Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential M. Milligan and B. Kirby National Renewable Energy Laboratory R. Gramlich and M. Goggin American Wind Energy Association National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-550-46273 July 2009 Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential M. Milligan and B. Kirby National Renewable Energy Laboratory R. Gramlich and M. Goggin American Wind Energy Association

44

Influence of rock mass fracturing on the net penetration rates of hard rock \\{TBMs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Penetration rates during excavation using hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs) are significantly influenced by the degree of fracturing of the rock mass. In the NTNU prediction model for hard rock TBM performance and costs, the rock mass fracturing factor (ks) is used to include the influence of rock mass fractures. The rock mass fracturing factor depends on the degree of fracturing, fracture type, fracture spacing, and the angle between fracture systems and the tunnel axis. In order to validate the relationship between the degree of fracturing and the net penetration rate of hard rock TBMs, field work has been carried out, consisting of geological back-mapping and analysis of performance data from a TBM tunnel. The rock mass influence on hard rock TBM performance prediction is taken into account in the NTNU model. Different correlations between net penetration rate and the fracturing factor (ks) have been identified for a variety of ks values.

F.J. Macias; P.D. Jakobsen; Y. Seo; A. Bruland

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Study of various models for estimation of penetration rate of hard rock \\{TBMs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various approaches for predicting penetration rate of hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBMs) have been studied by researchers since the early stages of TBM application in the 1950s. These studies resulted in the development of several penetration prediction models. For evaluation and validation of a model, it is important to test its predictive capability on new projects. A model should include parameters for machine specifications and ground conditions. The model validation process can reveal problems that an existing model may have in providing an accurate estimate for a given combination of specifications and conditions. This paper offers a brief review and discusses the capabilities of some of the more commonly used TBM performance prediction models. To evaluate the accuracy of these models, the predicted rates are compared with recorded TBM penetration rates in a database of recently completed tunnels. Comparison between predicted and recorded rates indicates that most of the existing models tend to overestimate TBM performance. This comparison highlights the on-going difficulties the industry continues to experience in estimating penetration rate. Even the use of normalized penetration rate indices has not been able to provide higher accuracy expected in related predictions. This paper discusses the development of new models to support an improved level of predictive accuracy in penetration rate estimating. These models are based on the analysis of a comprehensive database of more than 300 TBM projects records. Analyses of performance information within this database provided for the development of simpler models that are focused on quantifying the influence of primary factors, such as tunnel diameter, UCS, RPM, and rock type. These new models are introduced to provide alternative ways of penetration prediction. These models are especially useful at the planning stage of a tunneling project where \\{TBMs\\} can be used. These models also serve to provide secondary checks for other more in-depth analyses of TBM performance for an initial assessment of required boring time (inverse of penetration rate), and an estimate of utilization rate in an activity-based TBM model.

Ebrahim Farrokh; Jamal Rostami; Chris Laughton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Different Levels of Penetration, by Rate Structure Fromhigh levels of PV penetration, retail rates with high demandat high PV penetration levels compared to rates that are

Mills, Andrew D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Different Levels of Penetration, by Rate Structure Fromhigh levels of PV penetration, retail rates with high demandat high PV penetration levels compared to rates that are

Mills, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Study on Penetration Equation by Experimental Investigation on Penetration into Wax  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Penetration of a projectile into a target is ... where both materials deform with very high strain rate. Most of experiments on penetration were to obtain resultant quantities such as depth of penetration and res...

Hwun Park; Weinong Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Application of artificial neural networks to the prediction of tunnel boring machine penetration rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Rate of penetration of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) in a rock environment is generally a key parameter for the successful accomplishment of a tunneling project. This paper presents the results of a study into the application of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique for modeling the penetration rate of tunnel boring machines. A database, including actual, measured TBM penetration rates, uniaxial compressive strengths of the rock, the distance between planes of weakness in the rock mass and rock quality designation was established. Data collected from three different TBM projects (the Queens Water Tunnel, USA, the Karaj-Tehran water transfer tunnel, Iran, and the Gilgel Gibe II hydroelectric project, Ethiopia). A five-layer ANN was found to be optimum, with an architecture of three neurons in the input layer, 9, 7 and 3 neurons in the first, second and third hidden layers, respectively, and one neuron in the output layer. The correlation coefficient determined for penetration rate predicted by the ANN was 0.94.

Gholamnejad JAVAD; Tayarani NARGES

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Elastic–plastic modelling of shaped charge jet penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of shaped charge jet penetration Roman Novokshanov...modelling of high-rate penetration of a metal target by...best studied is that of penetration of an inviscid liquid...cavitating flow balancing the rate of change of momentum...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3, Stage 2: p.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel #3 and established geological causes for decreased TBM penetration rates. 1 #12;INTRODUCTION Our combined geological penetration rates in granulite facies terranes. The Queens Tunnel TBM experienced poor penetration rates

Merguerian, Charles

52

In silico prediction of dermal penetration rate of chemicals from their molecular structural descriptors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dermal penetration rate of some volatile and non-volatile organic compounds was estimated by quantitative structure–activity relationship approaches by using interpretable molecular descriptors. Linear and nonlinear models were developed using multiple linear regressions (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Robustness and reliability of the constructed MLR and ANN models were evaluated by using the leave-one-out cross-validation method, which produces the statistics of Q MLR 2 = 0.786 , Q ANN 2 = 0.833 for non-volatiles and Q MLR 2 = 0.639 , Q ANN 2 = 0.712 for volatile compounds. Furthermore, the chemical applicability domains of these models were determined via leverage approach. The results of this study indicated the ability of developed QSAR models in the prediction of dermal penetration rate of various chemicals from their calculated molecular descriptors.

Mohammad H. Fatemi; Hanieh Malekzadeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Hierarchical logistic equation to describe the dynamical behavior of penetration rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a hierarchical logistic equation as a model to describe the dynamical behavior of a penetration rate of a prevalent stuff. In this model, a memory, how many people who already possess it a person who does not process it yet met, is considered, which does not exist in the logistic model. As an application, we apply this model to iPod sales data, and find that this model can approximate the data much better than the logistic equation.

Tashiro, Tohru; Chiba, Michiko

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Development of a rock mass characteristics model for TBM penetration rate prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The TBM tunneling process in hard rock is actually a rock or rock mass breakage process, which determines the efficiency of tunnel boring machine (TBM). On the basis of the rock breakage process, a rock mass conceptual model that identifies the effect of rock mass properties on TBM penetration rate is proposed. During the construction of T05 and T06 tunnels of DTSS project in Singapore, a comprehensive program was performed to obtain the relevant rock mass properties and TBM performance data. A database, including rock mass properties, TBM specifications and the corresponding TBM performance, was established. Combining the rock mass conceptual model for evaluating rock mass boreability with the established database, a statistical prediction model of TBM penetration rate is set up by performing a nonlinear regression analysis. The parametric studies of the new model showed that the rock uniaxial compressive strength and the volumetric joint count have predominantly effects on the penetration rate. These results showed good agreement with the numerical simulations. The model limitations were also discussed.

Q.M. Gong; J. Zhao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Penetration of 90Sr and 137Cs in deep layers of the Pacific and vertical diffusion rate of deep water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......June 1962 research-article Article Penetration of 90Sr and 137Cs in deep layers of the Pacific and vertical diffusion rate of deep water Yasuo Miyake * Katsuko...Mabashi, Suginami, Tokyo Vertical penetration of Sr-90 and Cs-137 down to 5......

Yasuo Miyake; Katsuko Saruhashi; Yukio Katsuragi; Teruko Kanazawa

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Rates of cuticular penetration of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) as affected by adjuvants, temperature, humidity and water quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When NAA is used for fruit thinning, results can be unpredictable. Problemswith foliar penetration of NAA can contribute to this variability. ... ,temperature, hard water and selected adjvants on rates of cuticul...

J. Schönherr; P. Baur; B.A. Uhlig

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Effect of blow frequency and additional static force on the vibro-percussion pipe penetration rate in soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors describe and discuss experimental investigation of the effect exerted by blow frequency and additional static force on penetration rate of a pipe under vibration-percussion by ... Siberian Branch, Rus...

V. V. Chervov; I. V. Tishchenko; B. N. Smolyanitsky

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Prediction of TBM penetration rate using intact and mass rock properties (case study: Zagros long tunnel, Iran)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the correlations between the different measurements of rock brittleness (i.e., B 1, B 2, B 3, and BI) and the penetration rate (PR) of tunnel boring machin...

S. D. Mohammadi; M. Torabi-Kaveh; M. Bayati

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Evaluation of ketoprofen formulations via penetration rate and irritation in vivo study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of the present study was to design an optimal ketoprofen gel with appropriate penetration rate, shortened lag time and acceptable skin irritation. The combination of different mechanism enhancers including nonivamide, menthol and ethanol were used as multi-enhancers for producing a synergistic enhancement effect and reducing the skin irritation via diminishing the used amount of enhancers. The central composite design was applied to prepare a systemic formulation. The penetration rate (PR), lag time (LT) and skin irritation score (TIS) of a commercial product (Formax plus® gel containing 3% ketoprofen) were determined by in vivo study and used as a criterion for designed formulations. The PR, LT and TIS of commercial product were 462.2 ± 162.5 ?g/h, 0.6 ± 0.1 h and 12.7 ± 0.6, respectively. Among these designed experimental formulations, four formulations including F07 (code: ?1/+1/?1), F11 (code: +1/+1/?1), F13 (code: 0/0/?1.732) and F14 (code: 0/+1.732/0), their PR was not smaller and LT and TIS were not greater than that of commercial product, indicating that these experimental ketoprofen gels could be used in the clinical situation.

Yaw-Bin Huang; Ren-Jiunn Wang; Jui-Sheng Chang; Yi-Hung Tsai; Pao-Chu Wu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Survival rate and stylet penetration behavior of current Korean populations of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, on resistant rice varieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To understand the development of host plant resistance-breaking ability of the current BPH populations in Korea, we conducted nymphal survivorship tests and electrical penetration graph (EPG) studies on susceptible and resistant rice varieties with four different BPH populations, which were collected in the early 1980s (S-BPH) and in 2005, 2006, and 2007. The S-BPH had low survival rates on resistant rice varieties carrying either Bph1 or bph2. However, the current BPH populations have high resistance-breaking ability on the varieties with their elevated survival rates, whereas their survival rates were still low on the other resistant varieties, Gayabyeo (Bph1  the other unknown gene) and Rathu Heenati (Bph3). The EPG analysis also revealed that the ratio of BPH that could reach the phloem sap ingestion waveform (N4-b) within 15 h on the resistant rice varieties containing Bph1 or bph2 was higher in the current BPH populations (16.7–50%) than in the S-BPH population (0-4.2%). However, the pre-reaching time from the penetration start to the first N4-b waveform in the current BPH populations was significantly longer on resistant varieties (Bph1 or bph2) than on susceptible varieties. Furthermore, the total duration of N4-b waveform was significantly shorter on the resistant varieties. From these results, we suggest that, although the current \\{BPHs\\} collected in Korea have a high resistance-breaking ability through the increase of survival rate on resistant rice varieties carrying either Bph1 or bph2, they still have some difficulties feeding on the phloem sap of the resistant rice varieties.

Bo Yoon Seo; Jin Kyo Jung; Byeong-Reol Choi; Hyung-Man Park; Si-Woo Lee; Bong Hoon Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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61

An estimation of the penetration rate of rotary drills using the Specific Rock Mass Drillability index  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main purpose of the present study was to provide a practical, convenient drillability prediction model based on rock mass characteristics, geological sampling from blast holes, and drill operational factors. Empirical equations that predict drill penetration rate have been developed using statistical analyses of data from the Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine. Seven parameters of the rock or rock mass, including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of the rock, Schmidt hammer hardness value, quartz content, fragment size (d80), alteration, and joint dip, are included in the model along with two operational parameters of the rotary drill, bit rotational speed and thrust. These parameters were used to predict values of the newly developed Specific Rock Mass Drillability (SRMD) index. Comparing measured SRMD values to those predicted by the multi-parameter linear, or nonlinear, regression models showed good agreement. The correlation coefficients were 0.82 and 0.81, respectively.

Alireza Cheniany; Khoshrou Seyed Hasan; Kourosh Shahriar; Jafar Khademi Hamidi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Real time grid congestion management in presence of high penetration of wind energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real time grid congestion management in presence of high penetration of wind energy A. Vergnol1 , J », « Wind energy », « Variable speed drive » Abstract With the increased use of wind energy the power

Boyer, Edmond

63

Policies and Programs to Integrate High Penetrations of Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project are to highlight the diverse approaches for enabling high renewable energy penetration; synthesize lessons on effective policies and programs and present avenues for action to energy ministers and other stakeholders.

Cochran, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

Bebic, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a limited set of advanced inverter functions.

Mather, B.; Neal, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Application of the strain energy ratio and the equivalent thrust per cutter to predict the penetration rate of TBM, case study: Karaj-Tehran water conveyance tunnel of Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The penetration rate of tunnel boring machine (TBM) is ... new empirical method is proposed to predict the penetration rate of TBM using the actual data of ... that there is a direct relation between the penetration

M. Soleiman Dehkordi; H. A. Lazemi; K. Shahriar

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

High repetition rate fiber lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A dynamic viscoelastic contact problem with normal compliance, finite penetration and nonmonotone slip rate dependent friction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with normal compliance and unilateral constraint, associated to a rate slip-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. In order to approximate the contact conditions, we consider a regularized problem wherein the contact is modelled by a standard normal compliance condition without finite penetrations. For each problem, we derive a variational formulation and an existence result of the weak solution of the regularized problem is obtained. Next, we prove the convergence of the weak solution of the regularized problem to the weak solution of the initial nonregularized problem. Then, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on a second order time integration scheme. The solution of the resulting nonsmooth and nonconvex frictional contact problems is presented, based on approximation by a sequence of nonsmooth convex programming problems. Finally, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behaviour of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the convergence result.

Mikäel Barboteu; Krzysztof Bartosz; Piotr Kalita

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Paper 0069- INVESTIGATION OF NEW DISTRIBUTION GRID ARCHITECTURE FOR ACCOMODATING HIGHER DG PENETRATION RATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environment considerations combined to regulatory incentives and the opening of the energy markets has fostered the development of distributed generator (DG) in particular renewable ones. However, given the present operating modes and grid structures, a massive introduction of DG could deeply modify the behaviour of distribution networks. The two strategies used in France by the Distribution System Operator to anticipate the problems caused by DG are either reinforcement of the network or a dedicated feeder. The first strategy is acceptable as far as a marginal rate of DG is considered but could become too expensive in presence of a large amount of DG. The dedicated feeders strategy (direct connection of DGs to the HV/MV substation) could face a problem of local constraints. Inspired by the meshed operation of transmission network, a better way to integrate those generating units could be achieved through adding loops in the distribution network at appropriate locations. In order to compare the current architecture and operation mode with a meshed structure for better enabling more DG penetration, a stochastic algorithm based on Monte Carlo method was developed. This method was tested successfully on several networks which are parts of real urban and rural ones.

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A trade-off analysis between penetration rate and sampling frequency of mobile sensors in traffic state estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The rapid-growth of smartphones with embedded navigation systems such as GPS modules provides new ways of monitoring traffic. These devices can register and send a great amount of traffic related data, which can be used for traffic state estimation. In such a case, the amount of data collected depends on two variables: the penetration rate of devices in traffic flow (P) and their data sampling frequency (z). Referring to data composition as the way certain number of observations is collected, in terms of P and z, we need to understand the relation between the amount and composition of data collected, and the accuracy achieved in traffic state estimation. This was accomplished through an in-depth analysis of two datasets of vehicle trajectories on freeways. The first dataset consists of trajectories over a real freeway, while the second dataset is obtained through microsimulation. Hypothetical scenarios of data sent by equipped vehicles were created, based on the composition of data collected. Different values of P and z were used, and each unique combination defined a specific scenario. Traffic states were estimated through two simple methods, and a more advanced one that incorporates traffic flow theory. A measure to quantify data to be collected was proposed, based on travel time, number of vehicles, penetration rate and sampling frequency. The error was below 6% for every scenario in each dataset. Also, increasing data reduced variability in data count estimation. The performance of the different estimation methods varied through each dataset and scenario. Since the same number of observations can be gathered with different combinations of P and z, the effect of data composition was analyzed (a trade-off between penetration rate and sampling frequency). Different situations were found. In some, an increase in penetration rate is more effective to reduce estimation error than an increase in sampling frequency, considering an equal increase in observations. In other areas, the opposite relationship was found. Between these areas, an indifference curve was found. In fact, this curve is the solution to the optimization problem of minimizing the error given any fixed number of observations. As a general result, increasing sampling frequency (penetration rate) is more beneficial when the current sampling frequency (penetration rate) is low, independent of the penetration rate (sampling frequency).

Christopher Bucknell; Juan C. Herrera

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Cooling rate dependence of the in-plane magnetic penetration depth in N-type BEDT-TTF superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We performed dc magnetization measurements under the control of cooling-rate in the organic superconductors ?-(BEDT-TTF) 2X (X=Cu(NCS) 2 and Cu[N(CN) 2]Br). A distinct different cooling-rate dependence of the in-plane magnetic penetration depth (? //(0)) was observed between two salts, where ? //(0) was estimated from a linear extrapolation to 0 K. In the Cu(NCS) 2 salt, ? //(0) remains unchanged regardless of cooling-rate, while T c decreases slightly in fastercooling. On the other hand, ? //(0) in the Cu[N(CN) 2]Br salt becomes long significantly in fastercooling. We quantitatively explain the change of ? //(0) in the cooling-rate as an impurity effect by terminal ethylene disorder in BEDT-TTF molecules in terms of the local and clean limit approximation. Key words. Organic superconductor, magnetization, penetration depth, London model. 1.

N. Yoneyama; A. Higashihara; T. Sasaki; T. Nojima; N. Kobayashi

73

INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE DEPENDENCE OF LONG-ROD PENETRATION OF GRANULAR MEDIA USING AN IMPROVED DSR ALGORITHM  

SciTech Connect

Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR), a technique allowing measurement of the full field displacement maps in a plane within an opaque material, is used to follow the temporal progression of a long-rod (100 mm long, 10 mm diameter) penetrating a granular sample at a variety of rates. Quasi-static rates of 1.5 mm/min are achieved using an Instron machine, 5 m/s is achieved using a drop-weight and velocities between 10 and 200 m/s are achieved using a light gas gun. These experiments are carried out using a series of time delayed flash x-ray images analysed with an optimised Digital Image Cross Correlation algorithm (DICC). The subsequent data sheds considerable light on the response of granular materials to penetration at a variety of rates. Particularly, a large difference in the response of the material between quasi-static and dynamic rates is observed.

Addiss, John W.; Collins, Adam L.; Proud, William G. [Fracture and Shock Physics, SMF Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge, CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

74

Penetration of ac magnetic field into bulk high-temperature superconductors: Experiment and simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Penetration of ac magnetic field into bulk high-temperature superconductors: Experiment from these models for high-temperature superconductors are observed at the op- eration in ac fields condi- tions is very important for correct modeling magnetic prop- erties of high-temperature

Paperno, Eugene

75

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production plants due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes have been shown to operate in high temperature gaseous environments that are similar to those found in fossil fuel combustors. ECR probes are rarely used in energy production plants at the present time, but if they were more fully understood, corrosion could become a process variable at the control of plant operators. Research is being conducted to understand the nature of these probes. Factors being considered are values selected for the Stern-Geary constant, the effect of internal corrosion, and the presence of conductive corrosion scales and ash deposits. The nature of ECR probes will be explored in a number of different atmospheres and with different electrolytes (ash and corrosion product). Corrosion rates measured using an electrochemical multi-technique capabilities instrument will be compared to those measured using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. In future experiments, electrochemical corrosion rates will be compared to penetration corrosion rates determined using optical profilometry measurements.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.

Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Gao, Z.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The effect of electromagnetic forces on the penetrator formation during high-frequency electric resistance welding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During high-frequency electric resistance welding (HF-ERW), the electromagnetic force induced by the high-frequency electric current was studied to improve the understanding of penetrator formation mechanism. ERW melting zone behavior is investigated by the cinematography and the three-dimensional numerical analysis of electromagnetic field around molten metal bridge. Based on the results, the penetrator formation is mainly influenced by the narrow gap shape, the variation of electromagnetic forces along the narrow gap, the molten metal bridge traveling speed, and the second bridge formation frequency. Electromagnetic force acting on the molten metal bridge is rapidly decreasing as the bridge is traveling away from the apex point. The ‘comet’ shape narrow gap produced by the variation of Lorentz forces makes the bridge pushing pressure decrease. Due to the decrease of electromagnetic force and pushing pressure, the sweeping speed of molten metal bridge slows down until the bridge reaches the welding point. Previous molten metal bridge traveling is arrested when the next bridge is formed before the previous bridge arrives at the welding point. Thus, the molten metal and oxide are refilled into the narrow gap due to the capillary force and then remained as a penetrator. According to the analysis of penetrator formation mechanism, the new penetrator formation model is proposed.

Choong-Myeong Kim; Jung-Kyu Kim

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A Novel Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging Method for Measuring the Water Front Penetration Rate in Hydrophilic Polymer Matrix Capsule Plugs and Its Role in Drug Release  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An NMR imaging method was developed to estimate the rate of water movement in slow-release capsule ... transverse plane of each plug. The water penetration rate was determined by comparison of the cut ... the plu...

Muhammad Ashraf; Virginia L. luorno; David Coffin-Beach…

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009  

SciTech Connect

Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

Not Available

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conventional power plants and wind power. IEEE Transactionsplanning with significant wind power generation. IEEEmix with high level of wind power penetration. Applied

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

82

Study on rock-drilling using PDC bits for the prediction of torque and rate of penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents mathematical models for estimating torque, Rate of Penetration (ROP) as functions of cutting speed, flow rate, weight on bit and type of formation using factorial design of experiment technique for rock-drilling using Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits. The four factors corresponding to design parameters have been analysed simultaneously by main effects with two factor interactions. The developed model is tested for its adequacy using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The predicted results and trends of the factor interactions between the variables are presented, and found to be in good agreement with the results reported earlier.

R.S. Jadoun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Impact of High Wind Power Penetrations on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Wind Power High Wind Power Penetrations on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS Bri-Mathias Hodge, Debra Lew, and Michael Milligan Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52251 July 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 The Impact of High Wind Power Penetrations on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS Bri-Mathias Hodge, Debra Lew, and Michael Milligan Prepared under Task No. WE110810 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52251 July 2011 NOTICE

84

Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1  

SciTech Connect

Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

956 956 April 2010 Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential Chris Helm and Kari Burman National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-47956 April 2010 Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential Chris Helm and Kari Burman Prepared under Task No. IDHW.9170 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

86

Sub-Hourly Impacts of High Solar Penetrations in the Western United States: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2. Extreme event analysis showed that most large ramps were due to sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher in the high-solar versus high-wind scenario. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hummon, M.; Hodge, B. M.; Heaney, M.; King, J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

value of PV at higher PV penetration rates is driven almosta result, at high PV penetration rates, the value of PV isof PV at higher PV penetration rates is therefore driven

Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Utilising of linear and non-linear prediction tools for evaluation of penetration rate of Tunnel Boring Machine in hard rock condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) penetration rate is a crucial issue for the successful fulfilment of a mechanical tunnel project. Penetration rate depends on many factors such as intact rock properties, rock mass conditions and machine specifications. In this paper, linear and non-linear multiple regression as well as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques were applied to predict the penetration rate of TBM. In developing of the proposed models, five parameters, which include Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS), Brazilian Tensile Strength (BTS), peak slope index (punch penetration), spacing of discontinuities (of weakness planes) and orientation of discontinuities with respect to the tunnel axis (? angle), were incorporated. For this study, 46 datasets were collected. Performance of these models was assessed through the R², RMSE and MAPE. As a result, these indices revealed that the prediction performance of the ANN model is higher than that of the non-linear and linear multiple regression models.

Alireaza Salimi; Mohammad Esmaeili

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Procedure for determining the rate of penetration of melts into materials of capillary porosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure is proposed for determining the rate of infiltration of melts into porous materials from the change in the electrical resistance of the latter.

M. A. Sherstobitov; S. I. Popel'…

1965-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Wind and Solar Power in California. Doctor of Philosophy,high-quality solar resource hubs in California with someCSP at low solar penetration levels in California is found

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

The Biological Activity of Phenolic Compounds. The Effect of Surface Active Substances upon the Penetration of Hexyl Resorcinol into Ascaris lumbricoides var. suis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...present in high concentration the penetration was completely inhibited. The...giving maximum hexyl resorcinol penetration into Ascaris, and was in the...resorcinol (as measured by its rate of penetration) is determined by the interfacial...

1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures  

SciTech Connect

The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Design and Performance of Solar Decathlon 2011 High-Penetration Microgrid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The Solar Decathlon 2011 was held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 to October 2, 2011 . A high-penetration microgrid was designed, installed, and operated for the Solar Decathlon 2011 to grid-connect 19 highly energy-efficient, solar-powered competition houses to a single utility connection point. The capacity penetration of this microgrid (defined as maximum PV generation divided by maximum system load over a two-week period) was 74% based on 1-minute averaged data. Temporary, ground-laid conductors and electrical distribution equipment were installed to grid-connect the Solar Decathlon village, which included the houses as well as other electrical loads used by the event organizers. While 16 of the houses were connected to the 60 Hz microgrid, three houses from Belgium, China, and New Zealand were supplied with 50 Hz power. The design of the microgrid, including the connection of the houses powered by 50 Hz and a standby diesel generator, is discussed in this paper. In addition to the utility-supplied net energy meters at each house, a microgrid monitoring system was installed to measure and record energy consumption and PV energy production at 1-second intervals at each house. Bidirectional electronic voltage regulators were installed for groups of competition houses, which held the service voltage at each house to acceptable levels. The design and successful performance of this high-penetration microgrid is presented from the house, microgrid operator, and utility perspectives.

Stafford, B.; Coddington, M.; Butt, R.; Solomon, S.; Wiegand, G.; Wagner, C.; Gonzalez, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Bit cutter-on-rock tribometry: Analyzing friction and rate-of-penetration for deep well drilling substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, techniques for studying the tribology of rock cutting were developed using bit cutter-on-rock tribometry (B-CORT). Tribological testing was carried out on water-jet fabricated rock disks representative of those found during deep well drilling. The tribometer was also retrofitted with a variable radius cutter assembly, and a system for the capture of in situ rate-of-penetration (ROP). Results include in situ coefficient of friction (COF) and ROP for O1 tool steel cutters on Carthage Marble rock disks. Additionally, this work includes validation of the DOC measurement system with optical interferometry. The interdependence of interfacial cutting friction, ROP, and disk speed are discussed and qualitatively validated against existing studies.

Patrick S.M. Dougherty; Randyka Pudjoprawoto; C. Fred Higgs III

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Economic evaluation of demand response in power systems with high wind power penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The penetration of wind power generation is expected to increase in power systems dramatically. The unpredictable nature of the wind generation poses an obstacle to high penetration of wind energy in the electric power systems. Demand response (DR) may be considered as an efficient approach to cope with the energy unbalances caused by the wind power intermittency. Fair mechanism for pricing of the DR may increase the demand-side participation which consequently facilitates wind power integration in the power systems. This paper focuses on the economic evaluation of the DR according to its potential for mitigating the wind power forecast error in the power system operation. Demand increase similar to the demand curtailment is considered as a DR resource and evaluated in this paper. For this purpose first an insight is provided into the power system operation under the high wind power penetration with the aim of extracting the DR benefits. Based on the DR benefits a mathematical model is developed to find the maximum monetary incentive for the DR that the system operator is willing to pay to the DR providers. In the proposed model DR's potential in reducing the cost of supplying load as well as its capability in reducing the cost of system reserve start up and shut down of units load shedding and wind power spillage are considered. The results of the proposed evaluation method provide valuable information for both the system operator and demand response providers. The proposed method is implemented on an example and a realistic case study and discussions on results are presented.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

Schauder, C.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

On the impact and penetration of transparent targets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...frames per second framing rate and a maximum of 24 frames...independently. The framing rate was adjusted through...15 frames showing the penetration phase in detail. The...1990 High strain-rate shear response of PC...investigation and analysis of penetration in oblique impact. In...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators  

SciTech Connect

The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Methods of integrating a high penetration photovoltaic power plant into a micro grid.  

SciTech Connect

The island of Lanai is currently one of the highest penetration PV micro grids in the world, with the 1.2 MWAC La Ola Solar Farm operating on a grid with a peak net load of 4.7 MW. This facility interconnects to one of Lanai's three 12.47 kV distribution circuits. An initial interconnection requirements study (IRS) determined that several control and performance features are necessary to ensure safe and reliable operation of the island grid. These include power curtailment, power factor control, over/under voltage and frequency ride through, and power ramp rate limiting. While deemed necessary for stable grid operation, many of these features contradict the current IEEE 1547 interconnection requirements governing distributed generators. These controls have been successfully implemented, tested, and operated since January 2009. Currently, the system is producing power in a curtailed mode according to the requirements of a power purchase agreement (PPA).

Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA); Nelson, Lauren (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA); Lenox, Carl (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA); Johnson, Robert. (SunPower Corporation, Richmond, CA)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Thermocline penetration by buoyant plumes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...generate thermals with the same penetration scale H. The associated heat...Lond. A (1997) Thermocline penetration by buoyant plumes 445 Table...obtain such heat transfer rates. Whether or not these conditions...F the ratio of line source penetration to point source penetration...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Penetration of Mitomycin C in Human Bladder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...comparison of the tissue penetration data in the presence...in urine production rate and, consequently...increase in paclitaxel penetration across bladder urothelium...in urine production rate and, consequently...increase in paclitaxel penetration across bladder urothelium...

M. Guillaume Wientjes; Robert A. Badalament; Robert C. Wang; Faiqa Hassan; and Jessie L-S. Au

1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

High Wind Penetration Impact on U.S. Wind Manufacturing Capacity and Critical Resources  

SciTech Connect

This study used two different models to analyze a number of alternative scenarios of annual wind power capacity expansion to better understand the impacts of high levels of wind generated electricity production on wind energy manufacturing and installation rates.

Laxson, A.; Hand, M. M.; Blair, N.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Capacity allocation of a hybrid energy storage system for power system peak shaving at high wind power penetration level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High wind power penetration in power system leads to a significant challenge in balancing power production and consumption due to the intermittence of wind. Introducing energy storage system in wind energy system can help offset the negative effects, and make the wind power controllable. However, the power spectrum density of wind power outputs shows that the fluctuations of wind energy include various components with different frequencies and amplitudes. This implies that the hybrid energy storage system is more suitable for smoothing out the wind power fluctuations effectively rather than the independent energy storage system. In this paper, we proposed a preliminary scheme for capacity allocation of hybrid energy storage system for power system peak shaving by using spectral analysis method. The unbalance power generated from load dispatch plan and wind power outputs is decomposed into four components, which are outer-day, intra-day, short-term and very short-term components, by using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and spectral decomposition method. The capacity allocation can be quantified according to the information in these components. The simulation results show that the power rating and energy rating of hybrid energy storage system in partial smoothing mode decrease significantly in comparison with those in fully smoothing mode.

Pan Zhao; Jiangfeng Wang; Yiping Dai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Limited Penetration of Anticancer Drugs through Tumor Tissue: A Potential Cause of Resistance of Solid Tumors to Chemotherapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...category. FIO colonies. The penetration rate continued at a high level...This was scored as a 30% penetration rate occurring during the first 18...exposure to B16-F10 cells. This penetration rate is less than the 5/12 or 42...

Ian F. Tannock; Carol M. Lee; Jonathon K. Tunggal; David S. M. Cowan; and Merrill J. Egorin

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DATES COVERED (From - To) Renewable Energy and EfficiencyModels Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy PenetrationWood (OnLocation) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617

Blair, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COVERED (From - To) Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modelinga Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025OnLocation) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

Blair, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

Mather, B.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Richard Perez-shore wind and PV generation using the city of New York as a test case. While wind generation is not known the source of the energy that can meet the demand. While the peak-time availability of wind generation

Perez, Richard R.

109

NT113, a Pan-ERBB Inhibitor with High Brain Penetrance, Inhibits the Growth of Glioblastoma Xenografts with EGFR Amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...NT113, a Pan-ERBB Inhibitor with High Brain Penetrance, Inhibits the Growth of Glioblastoma...revealed significantly higher NT113 normal brain-to-plasma and intracranial tumor-to-plasma...most common and malignant form of primary brain tumor in adults (1). EGFR is amplified...

Yasuyuki Yoshida; Tomoko Ozawa; Tsun-Wen Yao; Wang Shen; Dennis Brown; Andrew T. Parsa; Jeffrey J. Raizer; Shi-Yuan Cheng; Alexander H. Stegh; Andrew P. Mazar; Francis J. Giles; Jann N. Sarkaria; Nicholas Butowski; Theodore Nicolaides; C. David James

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A High Resolution Ultrawideband Wall Penetrating Erman Engin, Berkehan iftiolu, Meri zcan and brahim Tekin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for underground mine detection [1], [2], through the wall imaging [3], cancerous tissue detection applications [4 respiratory activity of a human behind a 23 cm thick brick wall. Keywords: UWB Radar, Wall penetrating Radar

Yanikoglu, Berrin

113

Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration  

SciTech Connect

We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

RLOPF (risk-limiting optimal power flow) for systems with high penetration of wind power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we formulate a RLOPF (risk-limiting optimal power flow) problem for systems with high penetration of wind power to address the issue of possibly violating the security constraints in power systems due to the volatility of wind power generations. To cope with the computational complexity of the proposed RLOPF problem, we propose a computationally efficient RLOPF algorithm assisted by the off-line constructed probability distribution models for bus voltage magnitudes and transmission line real power flows. We apply the proposed RLOPF algorithm to the RLOPF problems on a 26-bus power system for two cases of significantly different re-dispatching percentage share for non-renewable power generations to compensate the volatility of wind power generations. The test results reveal that the performance of all solutions obtained by the proposed RLOPF algorithm of various step-sizes in both cases meet the required probability 0.95 on satisfying the security constraints in the presence of variable wind power generations, and the CPU time consumption are mostly within 1 s. We also test the performance of conventional OPF (optimal power flow) solution on both cases, and the resulted probability are all smaller than 0.783. These test results demonstrate the merit and the computational efficiency of the proposed RLOPF algorithm.

Shin-Yeu Lin; Ai-Chih Lin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Effect of suppression of the inelastic scattering rate on the penetration depth and conductivity in a dx2-y2 superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use a separable d-wave model to describe the momentum dependence of the pairing interaction in the gap channel. We include the inelastic scattering through a spectral density which describes the fluctuation spectrum responsible for superconductivity. The collapse of the scattering rate observed in microwave experiments is modeled through a low-frequency cutoff on the fluctuation spectrum. The effect of this cutoff on the temperature dependence of the magnetic-field penetration depth and on the infrared conductivity and associated scattering rates is calculated.

E. Schachinger; J. P. Carbotte; F. Marsiglio

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Penetration of Benzo[?]pyrene into the Skin of Mice with Inherited Cutaneous Abnormalities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...achieve little to no brain penetration, making them ineffective against...ANG4043 demonstrates a high rate of entry into the brain, consistent...peptide-drug-antibody-conjugate demonstrates a high rate of entry into the brain when...ADCs) can improve their brain penetration. These results extend the...

Fred G. Bock and Stanley J. Mann

1967-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Oscillatory stability analysis with high penetrations of large-scale photovoltaic generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prompted by the need for clean energy sources, increasing amounts of photovoltaic (PV) generator is connected to the power system around the world, hence, affects many aspects the dynamic and operational characteristics of synchronous generator dominated power system. In this paper, the impact of large-scale PV generation on power system oscillation, especially the inter-area oscillation is studied. The effect of PV on inter-area mode is investigated in New England–New York test system for different level of penetrations and operating conditions. Analysis in the paper reveals that increased PV penetration could affect the critical inter-area mode detrimentally. A trajectory sensitivity based rotor angle norm is evaluated to explore the reason why PV generators are interacting negatively on critical inter-area mode. The primary basis of the method is to convert the PV generator with equivalent sized synchronous generator and evaluate the sensitivity by real power perturbation. The analysis reveals that integration of PV to the system creates higher angular separation among synchronous generators, results inter-area oscillations. A generator ranking based operating point adjustment method is proposed in this paper to minimize the angular separation. The results obtained indicate that the proposed method can effectively minimize the angular separation, hence, enhance the damping of inter-area mode.

Rakibuzzaman Shah; N. Mithulananthan; R.C. Bansal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Overview - Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect

The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling Organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

Dunn, James C.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

120

Overview: Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect

The Hard Rock Penetration program is developing technology to reduce the costs of drilling and completing geothermal wells. Current projects include: lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, instrumentation, and industry/DOE cost shared projects of the Geothermal Drilling organization. Last year, a number of accomplishments were achieved in each of these areas. A new flow meter being developed to accurately measure drilling fluid outflow was tested extensively during Long Valley drilling. Results show that this meter is rugged, reliable, and can provide useful measurements of small differences in fluid inflow and outflow rates. By providing early indications of fluid gain or loss, improved control of blow-out and lost circulation problems during geothermal drilling can be expected. In the area of downhole tools for lost circulation control, the concept of a downhole injector for injecting a two-component, fast-setting cementitious mud was developed. DOE filed a patent application for this concept during FY 91. The design criteria for a high-temperature potassium, uranium, thorium logging tool featuring a downhole data storage computer were established, and a request for proposals was submitted to tool development companies. The fundamental theory of acoustic telemetry in drill strings was significantly advanced through field experimentation and analysis. A new understanding of energy loss mechanisms was developed.

Dunn, J.C.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Ice in Clouds Experiment—Layer Clouds. Part I: Ice Growth Rates Derived from Lenticular Wave Cloud Penetrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lenticular wave clouds are used as a natural laboratory to estimate the linear and mass growth rates of ice particles at temperatures from ?20° to ?32°C and to characterize the apparent rate of ice nucleation at water saturation at a nearly ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Paul R. Field; Matt Bailey; Dave Rogers; Jeffrey Stith; Cynthia Twohy; Zhien Wang; Samuel Haimov

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials highmetalremovalprocessfactsheet.pdf More...

123

Water penetration into surfactant micelles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water penetration into surfactant micelles ... The cross-relaxation rates for fluorines in the different moieties along the surfactant vary ... ... An oxidant, periodate, was added to the system, and the subsequent rate of thioether oxidation to ... ...

Haakan. Wennerstroem; Bjoern. Lindman

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

In vitro screening of anticancer drug penetration into tumor tissue: taxanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...distinct BBB transmigration rates, and to discover that BCM1...control breast cancer cell penetration of the blood brain barrier...high BBB trans-migration rate seen in BCM1 cells, we generated...promote breast cancer cell penetration of the blood brain barrier...

Alastair H. Kyle; Lynsey A. Huxham; Devon M. Yeoman; and Andrew I. Minchinton

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles charging loads on the thermal ageing of power transformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper develops a methodology to determine the impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles (FEVs) charging loads on the thermal ageing of power distribution transformers. The method proposed in this paper is stochastically formulated by modelling the transformer life consumption due to \\{FEVs\\} charging loads as a function of ambient temperature, start time of \\{FEVs\\} charging, initial state-of-charge and charging modes. \\{FEVs\\} loads are modelled using the results from an analytical solution that predicts a cluster of \\{FEVs\\} chargers. A UK generic LV distribution network model and real load demand data are used to simulate FEVs’ impacts on the thermal ageing of LV power distribution transformers. Results show that the ambient temperature, \\{FEVs\\} penetration level, and start time of charging are the main factors that affect the transformer life expectancy. It was concluded that the smart charging scenario generally shows the best outcome from the loss of life reduction perspective. Meanwhile, public charging which shifts a large percentage of charging load to commercial and industrial areas can significantly alleviate the residential transformer loading thus has little impact on the loss of life of transformers. The proposed method in this paper can be easily applied to the determination of the optimum charging time as a function of existing loads, and ambient temperature.

Kejun Qian; Chengke Zhou; Yue Yuan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

High-Frame-Rate Oil Film Interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluid dynamics video to which this abstract relates contains visualization of the response of a laminar boundary layer to a sudden puff from a small hole. The boundary layer develops on a flat plate in a wind tunnel; the hole is located at a streamwise Reynolds number of 100,000. The visualization of the boundary layer response is accomplished using interferometry of a transparent, thin film of oil placed on the surface immediately downstream of the hole and with its leading edge perpendicular to the direction of flow. Through lubrication theory, it is understood that the rate of change of the spacing of the interference fringes is proportional to the skin friction at any instant. For reference, a small disk-shaped protrusion of the type often used to trip the boundary layer in wind model tunnel testing is also shown. Three cases with different puff strengths are included. Using a high-speed commercial camera, frame rates in excess of 1000/sec have been recorded; the video shown here was taken at 24 frame...

White, Jonathan C; Chen, John

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage. Technical Reportwith and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added onewith or without thermal energy storage at low penetration,

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

129

Equipment and technique for improving penetration rate by the transformation of drill string vibration to hydraulic pulsating jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To improve the down-hole drilling fluid energy and its utilization efficiency, a drilling string absorption and hydraulic pulsed jet generator was designed, its simulation model was established and simulation analysis was conducted, and its performance was tested in field application. Based on the idea of translating the energy of the drill string vibration into high pressure hydraulic pulsating jet energy, the structure of the device was designed and its working principle was analyzed, and then its simulation model was established. The simulation analysis results demonstrate that the device can produce the jet pressure 2 to 6 \\{MPa\\} higher than the nozzle pressure drop in conventional drilling. Field test results show that the device can improve the drilling speed significantly and extend the service life of the bit effectively; the device itself has steady performance and long service life, and can satisfy the drilling requirements.

Zhichuan GUAN; Hongning ZHANG; Wei ZHANG; Yongwang LIU; Deyang LIANG

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Optimal Operation of Independent Storage Systems in Energy and Reserve Markets with High Wind Penetration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Operation of Independent Storage Systems in Energy and Reserve Markets with High Wind to offer energy and reserve in the day-ahead market and energy in the hour-ahead market. We, energy and reserve markets, wind power integration, stochastic optimization. NOMENCLATURE h, t Indices

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

131

Optimal Inverter VAR Control in Distribution Systems with High PV Penetration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and massive integration of renewable energy sources. California has embarked on several initiatives to reach its ambitious goals in increasing the share of renewable energy in its total energy mix. One systems. Solar energy is highly intermittent and this introduces several challenges to existing utility

Low, Steven H.

132

High-K barrier penetration in Hf174: A challenge to K selection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A sensitive study of the decay of the deformation-aligned K=14, 4-?s isomer in Hf174 has revealed a multitude of the K-forbidden branches to the ground-state rotational band and other low-K bands, in competition with the known decays to high-K bands. The isomeric transitions have consistently low hindrance factors. These anomalous findings in an axially symmetric deformed nucleus severely test our understanding of the K-selection rule. The isomeric decay to an I=12 rotation-aligned state, and its mixing with the I=12 yrast state, provide a partial explanation.

P. M. Walker; G. Sletten; N. L. Gjrup; M. A. Bentley; J. Borggreen; B. Fabricius; A. Holm; D. Howe; J. Pedersen; J. W. Roberts; J. F. Sharpey-Schafer

1990-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

133

Penetration and Binding of Antibodies in Experimental Human Solid Tumors Grown in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...method for evaluation of CP-868,596 penetration in glioblastoma murine models using a...events. To characterize CP-868,596 penetration in murine high grade glioma, we used...including retrodialysis and Zero-Flow Rate (ZFR) methods. The ZFR method estimated...

Gaik Lin Ong and M. Jules Mattes

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Abstract 3578: New Angiochem-modified doxorubicin with increased brain penetration and efficacy against brain tumors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...method for evaluation of CP-868,596 penetration in glioblastoma murine models using a...events. To characterize CP-868,596 penetration in murine high grade glioma, we used...including retrodialysis and Zero-Flow Rate (ZFR) methods. The ZFR method estimated...

Michel Demeule; Anthony Régina; Goagiang Yang; Christian Ché; Richard Béliveau; and Jean-Paul Castaigne

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Consolidation and high strain rate mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline tantalum powder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High ductility and strength exhibited in nanograined materials can potentially be exploited in explosively formed penetrator liner applications. Both coarse and nanocrystalline tantalum powder were consolidated by Plasma Pressure Compaction (P2C) to study the effect of grain size on dynamic compression properties. The powders were consolidated rapidly with 1 minute of isothermal holding time to retain initial microstructure. The P2C consolidated specimens were cut by electric discharge machining (EDM), polished for SEM characterization, and tested in dynamic compression using a Kolsky apparatus. The effect of grain size on yield stress and strain was investigated at various strain rates for a coarse grained and a nanograined specimen. Especially, the high strain rate response of nanocrystalline tantalum is discussed in this paper.

Sang H. Yoo; T.S. Sudarshan; Krupa Sethuram; Ghatu Subhash; R.J. Dowding

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

High Penetration Solar Deployment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In October 2009, DOE announced $24.7 million to fund six projects to increase the growth of grid-tied solar photovoltaic systems. Part of the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, the goal of the...

137

Penetration models in Real Estate Market Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Although the concept of real estate market analysis are more widely used in real estate industry but penetration rate seem to be misunderstood by… (more)

Kooakachai, Sunchai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Oxygen penetration into the bulk of palladium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxygen penetration into the bulk of palladium ... During heating, the reaction rate exhibited an activity maximum at 650 K, whereas no activity maximum was found during the ... ...

C. T. Campbell; D. C. Foyt; J. M. White

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Localized Amorphism after High-Strain-Rate Deformation in TWIP Steel  

SciTech Connect

The microstructural features of shear localization, generated by a high strain rate (~105 s-1) deformation, of a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel containing about 17.5 wt. % Mn were well characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron back scatter diffraction. The high deformation rate was obtained by a ballistic impact penetration test on a TWIP steel sheet. In addition to the deformation twins observed as the domain microstructural characterization of high-strain-rate deformation outside shear bands, some shear bands consisting of complex microstructures were also evidenced in the highly-deformed area. Inside the shear band, there exist a large region of amorphous phase and a smooth transition zone containing nano-crystalline (NC) phase. The grain size decreased gradually in the transition zone, changing from coarse-scale (> 100 nm) next to the fully amorphous zone to fine-scale (<10nm) adjacent to the amorphous region. The coexistence of amorphous state and fine-grained nano-crystalline phase obviously suggests that melting occurred inside the shear bands, which is corroborated by calculations showing a very high temperature rise due to the localized plastic deformation and the extremely rapid cooling rate through heat dissipation to the rest of the specimen.

Li, Nan; Wang, Y. D.; Peng, R. Lin; Sun, Xin; Liaw, Peter K.; Wu, G. L.; Wang, L.; Cai, H. N.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-rate counting efficiency of VLPC  

SciTech Connect

A simple model is applied to describe dependencies of Visible Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics on temperature and operating voltage. Observed counting efficiency losses at high illumination, improved by operating at higher temperature, are seen to be a consequence of de-biasing within the VLPC structure. A design improvement to minimize internal de-biasing for future VLPC generations is considered. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Hogue, H.H. [Research and Technology Center, Boeing Electronic Systems and Missile Defense, 3370 Miraloma Ave M/S HB17, Anaheim, California 92803 (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems. Thanks to implementation of a high-repetition-rate (54 kHz-6.5 MHz), high-power (>10 W) laser system at the X-ray Science Division 7-ID-D beamline at the Advanced...

142

Evaluation of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Ground Penetrating Radar for Field-Based High-Throughput Phenotyping in Wheat Breeding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

laser scanning (TLS) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) have the potential to fill this gap by non-invasively estimating biomass and mapping three-dimensional above- and below-ground vegetation. The research objective was to evaluate the use of TLS...

Thompson, Sean M

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Cone penetration testing in polar snow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of polar snow via CPT is affected by numerous factors including penetration rate, cone size/shape and snow material properties, particularly compaction of the snow undergoing penetration. A density-dependant relationship between CPT resistance and snow... Penetration Testing. Creep Ductile deformation of ice (and thus snow) primarily through the movement of crystallographic basal planes due to load applied at low strain rates . Effective Area The extended end-bearing area of the cone or plate during penetra...

McCallum, Adrian Bruce

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

144

In vitro dermal penetration study of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the dermal penetration rate of carbofuran, carbosulfan, and furathiocarb has ... with time and applied dose. The skin penetration rate increased with the water solubility of insecticides. The derma...

Kwang-Hyeon Liu; Jeong-Han Kim

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

On the Penetration of Water into Hot Rock  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that maximizes the penetration rate can be found from...lower bound to the rate of water penetration, but, since there...one-dimensional model of water penetration so far derived has...it is the rapid rate of advance of the......

C. R. B. Lister

1974-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Nanoclay syntactic foam composites—High strain rate properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of nanoclay on the high strain rate mechanical properties of syntactic foam composites is studied. Nanoclay syntactic foam composites are fabricated with 10, 30 and 60% microballoon volume fractions, each having 0, 1, 2 and 5% volume fraction of nanoclay. High strain rate tests using split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus are performed on all types of composites. Quasi-static tests are also carried out on MTS-810 machine to compare the results with the dynamic SHPB results. It is found that inclusion of 1% nanoclay volume fraction gives the optimum enhancement in peak stress and modulus of nanoclay syntactic foam composites. In addition, specimens tested at high strain rate are shown to exhibit higher stress and modulus compared to those tested at low strain rate. Scanning electron microscopy is performed to study the fracture behavior under different loading rates.

Sameer Peter; Eyassu Woldesenbet

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme  

SciTech Connect

The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

Halim Meco

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

148

Theoretical Analysis of Antibody Targeting of Tumor Spheroids: Importance of Dosage for Penetration, and Affinity for Retention  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes determine tumor penetration rate and subsequent retention...incrementally affect the rate of tumor penetration. The moving reaction front...different parameters affect the rate of tumor penetration. R, Ag t , and describe...

Christilyn P. Graff and K. Dane Wittrup

2003-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Influence of Affinity and Antigen Internalization on the Uptake and Penetration of Anti-HER2 Antibodies in Solid Tumors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the extent of penetration into tissue, and...depends on the rate of drug elimination...increase tissue penetration by synthesizing...MTX dissociation rates. MATERIALS AND...slower diffu sion rate, its penetration distance increased...

Stephen I. Rudnick; Jianlong Lou; Calvin C. Shaller; Yong Tang; Andres J.P. Klein-Szanto; Louis M. Weiner; James D. Marks; and Gregory P. Adams

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Penetration Factor for Nuclear Fusion Reaction in Nonthermal Astrophysical Plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......enhances the fusion penetration factor. In addition...nonthermal effect on the penetration factor is found to be...the fusion reaction rates of the - chain and the...effect on the fusion penetration factor decreases with...the energy generation rate (Choudhuri 2010) by......

Dai-Han Ki; Young-Dae Jung

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

151

JBS Protein Transduction Kit Cell Penetration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Manual JBS Protein Transduction Kit Cell Penetration Jena Bioscience GmbH | Löbstedter Str. 80-Proteoducin Cocktail of Cell Penetrating Peptides and proteins for internalization of peptides and proteins (CPP-C01S to transport a cargo into the nucleus. The Kit further contains compounds for increasing rate and efficiency

Lebendiker, Mario

152

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

SciTech Connect

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The penetration rate of laser pulses transmitted from a small-footprint airborne LiDAR: a case study in closed canopy, middle-aged pure sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) stands in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Penetration rates of laser pulses transmitted from a small-...Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) and sugi (Cryptomeria japonica...D. Don) plantations that had similar levels of canopy openness were studied. The...

Tomoaki Takahashi; Kazukiyo Yamamoto; Yosuke Miyachi…

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...high strain-rate environment Christian Knipprath...of consideration by engineers. For example, high...high strain-rate environment. A finite-element...high strain-rate environment. | Biological materials...of consideration by engineers. For example, high...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter  

SciTech Connect

A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Mechanisms that control breast cancer cell penetration of the blood brain barrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Receptor occupancy and tumor penetration by antibodies, peptides...Background: Non-uniform tumor penetration by antibodies may contribute...density, and internalization rate. Results were plotted as...Receptor occupancy and tumor penetration by antibodies, peptides...

Mihaela Lorger and Brunhilde Felding-Habermann

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Percutaneous penetration of uranium in rats after a contamination on intact or wounded skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......hairless rats. Percutaneous penetration through wounded skin towards...1157-1165. Percutaneous penetration of uranium in rats after a...hairless rats. Percutaneous penetration through wounded skin towards...Kinetics Male Metabolic Clearance Rate Models, Biological Radiometry......

F. Petitot; C. Gautier; A. M. Moreels; S. Frelon; F. Paquet

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Use of phosphates to reduce slag penetration in Cr2O3-based refractories  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Use Of Phosphates To Reduce Slag Penetration In Cr203-Based Refractories  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

Kwong, Kyei-Sing (Albany, OR); Dogan, Cynthia P. (Albany, OR); Bennett, James P. (Albany, OR); Chinn, Richard E. (Albany, OR); Petty, Arthur V. (Albany, OR)

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments.

Borot, A.; Douillet, D.; Iaquaniello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Lopez-Martens, R. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.-P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hydrocortisone butyrate penetration through epidermis in vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of measurements of the penetration rate of14C-labelled hydrocortisone butyrate (HCB) under varying conditions (cream or alcoholic solution as a vehicle, variation of the concentration and/or amount applie...

M. Ponec; M. K. Polano

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

High Repetition Rate, High Energy Fiber CPA System for Material Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a fiber based CPA system generating 100 µJ of ultra-short pulses at high repetition rates (56 kHz). In a first application, the pulses are used for high speed hole...

Schreiber, Thomas; Röser, Fabian; Limpert, Jens; Liem, Andreas; Höfer, Sven; Zellmer, Holger; Will, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

164

Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the results obtained from crographics. generation of high repetition rate, high peak power output pulses using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two configurations were employed. The first setup used a linear cavity...

Hinson, Brett Darren

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

SciTech Connect

High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

166

Failure Rate Data Analysis for High Technology Components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators.

L. C. Cadwallader

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wettability and resistance to liquid penetration Siddarth Srinivasan 1 Shreerang...liquid droplets that retard the rate of drying of the wet plumage...repellency and resistance to water penetration. Wilson J. Ornithol. 122...WA Jesser. 2011 The water penetration and repellency of feathers...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

New Devise for Penetration of Embedding Media into Specimens  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......MICROSCOPY New Devise for Penetration of Embedding Media into Specimens...been devised to enhance the penetration of embedding media into specimens...the size of the hole and the rate of gas flow. E - H Fig...Apparatus for enhancing penetration of embedding media (A) and......

Hiroshi KUSHIDA; Kunio FUJITA

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Avalanche Photo-Detection for High Data Rate Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Avalanche photo detection is commonly used in applications which require single photon sensitivity. We examine the limits of using avalanche photo diodes (APD) for characterising photon statistics at high data rates. To identify the regime of linear APD operation we employ a ps-pulsed diode laser with variable repetition rates between 0.5MHz and 80MHz. We modify the mean optical power of the coherent pulses by applying different levels of well-calibrated attenuation. The linearity at high repetition rates is limited by the APD dead time and a non-linear response arises at higher photon-numbers due to multiphoton events. Assuming Poissonian input light statistics we ascertain the effective mean photon-number of the incident light with high accuracy. Time multiplexed detectors (TMD) allow to accomplish photon- number resolution by photon chopping. This detection setup extends the linear response function to higher photon-numbers and statistical methods may be used to compensate for non-linearity. We investigated this effect, compare it to the single APD case and show the validity of the convolution treatment in the TMD data analysis.

H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; C. Silberhorn

2007-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

170

Session: Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Figure 3-1 IV curve of a UT fabricated triple cell, showing 12.7% initial, active-area efficiency. Figure1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High

Deng, Xunming

172

High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing  

SciTech Connect

High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

J. O. Marston; I. U. Vakarelski; S. T. Thoroddsen

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Effects of variable renewable power on a country-scale electricity system: High penetration of hydro power plants and wind farms in electricity generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present article analyses the effects caused by variable power. The analysis concerns a country-scale electricity system with a relatively high penetration of seasonally variable hydro power plants and wind farms in the total electricity generation in 2030. For this purpose, the Latvian electricity system was chosen as an appropriate case study, as around half of its electricity is already generated from hydro power and numerous wind farm installations are planned for 2030. Results indicate that in such systems high renewable power variations occur between seasons causing a high probability of power deficit in the winter and power surplus in the spring. Based on the results, the wind farms' influence on the power deficit and surplus occurrences are discussed in detail. Wind farm generation decreases the probability of the electricity system being in power deficit, but increases the probability of the system being in power surplus. In the latter situation, the maximum value of power surplus increases since it is enhanced by the wind farm generation. Probability equations to express these changes are provided.

Arturs Purvins; Ioulia T. Papaioannou; Irina Oleinikova; Evangelos Tzimas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

177

Optimization of aerosol penetration through transport lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, F is the numerical reading from the fluorometer , L is the liquid volume of the measured (23) solution, 8 is the testing time for each filter, and V is the filter flow rate during the sample period. Penetration, P, of aerosol through... defined maxima on the penetration versus Reynolds number (or flow rate, since the diameter is constant for a given tube) curves for each tube size. Also, in order to observe an optimum tube diameter , a (10) fixed flow rate of 86 L/min was tested for a...

Wong Luque, Fermin Samuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

The strain-rate sensitivity of high-strength high-toughness steels.  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines the strain-rate sensitivity of four high strength, high-toughness alloys at strain rates ranging from 0.0002 s-1 to 200 s-1: Aermet 100, a modified 4340, modified HP9-4-20, and a recently developed Eglin AFB steel alloy, ES-1c. A refined dynamic servohydraulic method was used to perform tensile tests over this entire range. Each of these alloys exhibit only modest strain-rate sensitivity. Specifically, the strain-rate sensitivity exponent m, is found to be in the range of 0.004-0.007 depending on the alloy. This corresponds to a {approx}10% increase in the yield strength over the 7-orders of magnitude change in strain-rate. Interestingly, while three of the alloys showed a concominant {approx}3-10% drop in their ductility with increasing strain-rate, the ES1-c alloy actually exhibited a 25% increase in ductility with increasing strain-rate. Fractography suggests the possibility that at higher strain-rates ES-1c evolves towards a more ductile dimple fracture mode associated with microvoid coalescence.

Dilmore, M.F. (AFRL/MNMW, Eglin AFB, FL); Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Covalent Coupling of Methotrexate to Dextran Enhances the Penetration of Cytotoxicity into a Tissue-like Matrix  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...correlation between tumor packing density and drug penetration. Penetration of radiolabeled drugs across the MCLs was assessed...thus, this provides an upper limit for the rate of penetration of the parent compound through the MCLs. Visualization...

Wenbin Dang; O. Michael Colvin; Henry Brem; and W. Mark Saltzman

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Market penetration: How to predict the future  

SciTech Connect

One of the biggest challenges in evaluating energy efficiency programs if predicting how customers will react to future changes in incentives and technology. This is especially true within a competitive energy market. This paper presents a market penetration model based on states preference experiments that is designed to address this issue. This model can be used to predict customer purchases under alternative market conditions such as changes in technology, program rebates, and program qualifying equipment. The states preference experiments elicit ratings from residential customers on program and equipment attributes such as price, rebate, and annual energy savings. The data were collected and the model estimated using information from Florida Power and Light's Residential HVAC Program. Once the data are gathered, a logic model is estimated to determine the probability that each program and equipment option is chosen. The model is calibrated to actual customer purchases and then used to predict future equipment purchases and program participation. When values for very high efficiency equipment are included in the experiment, the model can be used to forecast future purchases even when purchases of these units are not currently widespread. This market penetration model provides a method to forecast equipment purchases, while taking into account future changes in technology, and, as a result, will be valuable to any utility seeking to continue energy efficiency programs in a competitive market.

Grover, S.; Ikenze-Bates, I.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Rapid Tumor Penetration of a Single-Chain Fv and Comparison with Other Immunoglobulin Forms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in vivo tumor penetration. Furthermore...antibodies possessed rates of monovalent...SEM) of IgG penetration from randomly...relative to the rate of antigen internalization...antigen turnover rate and expression level on antibody penetration into tumor spheroids...

Takashi Yokota; Diane E. Milenic; Marc Whitlow; and Jeffrey Schlom

1992-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Mechanisms of deep penetration of soft solids, with application to the injection and wounding of skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and N. A. Fleck rate. Wright et al...the case of deep penetration of polymers, and...plane-strain energy release rate at the crack tip...in steady-state penetration The finite-element...during steady-state penetration. At the tip of...plane-strain energy release rate JPS for crack advance...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Topotecan Central Nervous System Penetration Is Altered by a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...vinblastine showed a slower rate of penetration through MCLs (20%) than...etoposide (30-50%). The rate of penetration of vinblastine and paclitaxel...provides a barrier such that the rate of penetration is at most 50% of that through...

Yanli Zhuang; Charles H. Fraga; K. Elaine Hubbard; Nikolaus Hagedorn; John C. Panetta; Christopher M. Waters; and Clinton F. Stewart

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

ON THE PENETRATION OF AN ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIAL BY A SLENDER BODY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......yield condition. PENETRATION OF AN ELASTIC-PLASTIC...make the stress-rate measure independent...controlled by the strain rate, and formalizes...with a slender neck PENETRATION OF AN ELASTIC-PLASTIC...Jaumann terms. PENETRATION OF AN ELASTIC-PLASTIC...which the stress rates are neglected and......

J. NORBURY; A. A. WHEELER

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Penetration of Magneto-Rotationally Unstable Perturbations in SSD into ADAF through a Transition Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......is the growth rate of the pertur...System No. 6] Penetration of Magneto-Rotationally...where the growth rate n and the penetration amplitude R are...when the growth rate of perturbations...resulting from penetration of the MHD turbulence......

Shoji Kato

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Penetration of Convective Envelope into Stellar Core and Existence of Neutrino Loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the products of Penetration of Convective Envelope...convective mixing for any rate of the neutrino...superadiabaticity is determined Penetration of Convective Envelope...used.15> 459 the rate of Since the main...energy generation rate is sensitive to...smaller mass stars, penetration of convective envelope......

Ken'ichi Nomoto

1974-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

High-k (k=30) amorphous hafnium oxide films from high rate room temperature deposition  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) is deposited by sputtering while achieving a very high k{approx}30. Structural characterization suggests that the high k is a consequence of a previously unreported cubiclike short range order in the amorphous HfO{sub x} (cubic k{approx}30). The films also possess a high electrical resistivity of 10{sup 14} {Omega} cm, a breakdown strength of 3 MV cm{sup -1}, and an optical gap of 6.0 eV. Deposition at room temperature and a high deposition rate ({approx}25 nm min{sup -1}) makes these high-k amorphous HfO{sub x} films highly advantageous for plastic electronics and high throughput manufacturing.

Li, Flora M.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Dutson, James D.; Wakeham, Steve J.; Thwaites, Mike J. [Plasma Quest Ltd., Unit 1B, Rose Estate, Osborn Way, Hook, Hampshire RG27 9UT (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors  

SciTech Connect

We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

Conical-Indenter Penetration Viscometry on Thin Glass Plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is proposed for calculating the viscosity of glasses from the rate of penetration of a conical indenter into thin samples ... mm under conditions of continuous heating at a rate ranging from 1 to 10 K/mi...

V. P. Klyuev

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes for combustion environments  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes have been constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in an air plus water vapor and a N2/O2/CO2 plus water vapor environment. Temperatures ranged from 200? to 700?C. Results show that electrochemical corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel are a function of time, temperature and process environment. Correlation between the electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was poor.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Eden, David A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications  

SciTech Connect

Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

Dillon, A. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

RATES  

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195

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

196

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

197

Versatile high rate plasma deposition and processing with very high frequency excitation  

SciTech Connect

The interest in plasma deposition using very high frequency (VHF) excitation arose after the preparation of a-Si:H at high growth rates was demonstrated. Subsequently the improved process flexibility and the control of material properties offered by the variation of the plasma excitation frequency was recognized. The preparation of amorphous and microcrystalline thin films in a VHF-plasma is described. The increased growth rates have been attributed to an enhancement of film precursor formation at VHF, to the decreased sheath thickness as well as to an enhancement of the surface reactivity by positive ions. Plasma diagnostic investigations show that the parameters mainly affected by the excitation frequency are the ion flux to the electrodes as well as the sheaths potentials and widths, rather than the plasma density. 55 refs., 13 figs.

Heintze, M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect cement penetration Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: of carbonation of cement-based products. The process of carbonation and the rate of carbonation penetration... were very important factors that affect rate of...

199

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes for high temperature energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes were constructed and exposed along with mass loss coupons in a N2/O2/CO2/H2O environment to determine ECR probe operating characteristics. Temperatures ranged from 450 to 800 C and both ECR probes and mass loss coupons were coated with ash. Results are presented in terms of the probe response to temperature, the measured zero baseline, and the quantitative nature of the probes. The effect of Stern-Geary constant and the choice of electrochemical technique used to measure the corrosion rate are also discussed. ECR probe corrosion rates were a function of time, temperature, and process environment and were found to be quantitative for some test conditions. Measured Stern-Geary constants averaged 0.0141 V/decade and the linear polarization technique was found to be more quantitative than the electrochemical noise technique.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, M.S. (InterCorr International Inc.); Eden, D.A. (InterCorr International Inc.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Bladder Tissue Penetration of Intravesical Paclitaxel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...v/v) and the flow rate was 32 muL/min. Automatic...topotecan ventricular CSF penetration and the probe was noted...extent of topotecan brain penetration, we used an AUC ratio...based on the preset flow rate (0.5 muL/min...in calculating brain penetration. The results of the...

Danny Chen; Di Song; M. Guillaume Wientjes; and Jessie L-S. Au

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium  

SciTech Connect

The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Optimization of Weld Bead Penetration in Pulsed Gas Metal Arc Welding using Genetic Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — The weld quality is highly influenced by various process parameters involved in the process. This can be achieved by meeting quality requirements of bead geometry. Inadequate depth of penetration will contribute to failure of the welded structure. This paper presents the development of genetic algorithm model for the optimization of depth of penetration of weld bead geometry in pulsed gas metal arc welding process. The model is based on experimental data. The thickness of the plate, pulse frequency, wire feed rate, wire feed rate/travel speed ratio, and peak current have been considered as the process parameters to maximize the bead penetration depth. Optimization of process parameters was done using GA. The developed model is then compared with experimental results and it is found that the results obtained from genetic algorithm model are accurate. The optimal process parameters gave a value of 5.314 for depth of penetration which demonstrates an accuracy of 1.33 % and thus the effectiveness of the model presented. The obtained results help in selecting quickly the process parameters to achieve the desired quality. Keywords—Genetic algorithm, Pulsed GMA welding, Welding parameters, Depth of penetration, Regression mode I.

K. Manikya Kanti; P. Srinivasa Rao; G. Ranga Janardhana

203

The study of 14C penetration into filters in primary productivity ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mar 5, 1974 ... ganic matter penetrates into filters when pri- ... To study the possible penetration of 14C into the fil- ... counting rate to the first is called the back-.

2000-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

204

High-repetition-rate CF/sub 4/ laser  

SciTech Connect

A 16 ..mu..m CF/sub 4/ laser oscillator has operated at 1 kHz in a cooled static cell. Threshold pump energies required from the low pressure, Q-switched, cw discharge CO/sub 2/ laser were as low as 60 ..mu..J. The laser cavity employed the multiple-pass off-axis path resonator in a ring configuration. CF/sub 4/ laser power at 615 cm/sup -1/ and a 1 kHz repetition rate exceeded 300 ..mu..W.

Telle, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hydrates detection by cone penetration testing: cone penetration tests through ice layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Classification System. . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Log-Log Plot of the Point Resistance vs Penetration Rate. Fig. 3. 8. Piezometer-Friction Cone Sounding No. 8, Brenda . . . 33 Fig. 4. 1. Fig. 4. 2. Fig. 4. 3. Fig. 4. 4. Mines Tailings Dam... PENETROMETER TEST (CPT). 3. 1 Introduction The standard CPT consists of pushing into the soil at a rate of 2 cm/sec a penetrometer, which is a set of cylindrical rods with a cone at the end. The penetration resistance on the cone tip and the friction...

Jeanjean, Philippe Henri

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Study of comet nucleus gamma-ray spectrometer penetration system  

SciTech Connect

A penetrator system has been suggested as an approach for making in situ measurements of the composition and physical properties of the nucleus of a comet. This study has examined in detail the feasibility of implementing the penetrator concept. The penetrator system and mission designs have been developed and iterated in sufficient detail to provide a high level of confidence that the concept can be implemented within the constraints of the Mariner Mark 2 spacecraft.

Adams, G.L.; Amundsen, R.J.; Beardsley, R.W.; Cash, R.H.; Clark, B.C.; Knight, T.C.D.; Martin, J.P.; Monti, P.; Outteridge, D.A.; Plaster, W.D.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Study of microvoids in high-rate a-Si:H using positron annihilation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors have carried out the positron annihilation measurement on high-rate and low-rate a-Si:H thin films deposited by PECVD. By means of the slow positron beam Doppler-broadening technique, the depth profiles of microvoids in a-Si:H have been determined. They have also studied the vacancy-type defect in the surface region in high-rate grown a-Si:H, making comparison between high-rate and low-rate a-Si:H. By plotting S and W parameters in the (S, W) plane, they have shown that the vacancies in all of the high-rate and low-rate deposited intrinsic samples, and in differently doped low-rate samples are of the same nature.

Zou, X.; Webb, D.P.; Lin, S.H.; Lam, Y.W.; Chan, Y.C.; Hu, Y.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Algae/Bacteria Ratio in High-Rate Ponds Used for Waste Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ALGAE/BACTERIAL RATIO IN HIGH-RATE PONDS 573 1140 1120...ALGAE/BACTERIAL RATIO IN HIGH-RATE PONDS 575 and N is the...favorable operating conditions with high algal productivity, the algae...utilization in converted oil- fired boiler. Resource Recov. Conserv...

Gideon Oron; Gedaliah Shelef; Anna Levi; Arie Meydan; Yossef Azov

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios Presentation on Transition Strategies:...

210

High rate heating driven decomposition of energetic materials: Diagnostics evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of energetic materials involves processes in both gas and condensed phases and is governed by coupled thermal, physical, and chemical phenomena. Development of reliable models for design, performance, stability, and hazard analyses requires detailed understanding of three general chemical reaction regimes: (1) initial condensed-phase decomposition, (2) subsequent interaction of decomposition products with the remaining condensed phase, and (3) gas-phase reaction of decomposition products to form the ultimate combustion products. The first two regimes are the least understood and most difficult to study, particularly the initial condensed-phase decomposition. The basic difficulty in studying condensed phase phenomena has been the inability to probe directly chemistry in the condensed phase under isothermal condition and with the spatial and temporal resolution needed at higher temperatures and reaction rates. Thin-film samples provide a means to study condensed-phase chemistry at isothermal conditions and with microsecond temporal resolution. We are developing an experiment system that employs rapidly heated thin- film samples and multiple diagnostics to examine condensed-phase chemistry and monitor evolved gas species. Results from our initial work have been encouraging. Thin-film samples of several energetic materials have been prepared and appear to be representative of bulk materials. Furthermore, preliminary experiments indicate that all the use of these samples with two chemical diagnostic techniques, time-of- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and time-resolved infrared spectral photography (TRISP), is viable. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Skocypec, R.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

High rate heating driven decomposition of energetic materials: Diagnostics evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of energetic materials involves processes in both gas and condensed phases and is governed by coupled thermal, physical, and chemical phenomena. Development of reliable models for design, performance, stability, and hazard analyses requires detailed understanding of three general chemical reaction regimes: (1) initial condensed-phase decomposition, (2) subsequent interaction of decomposition products with the remaining condensed phase, and (3) gas-phase reaction of decomposition products to form the ultimate combustion products. The first two regimes are the least understood and most difficult to study, particularly the initial condensed-phase decomposition. The basic difficulty in studying condensed phase phenomena has been the inability to probe directly chemistry in the condensed phase under isothermal condition and with the spatial and temporal resolution needed at higher temperatures and reaction rates. Thin-film samples provide a means to study condensed-phase chemistry at isothermal conditions and with microsecond temporal resolution. We are developing an experiment system that employs rapidly heated thin- film samples and multiple diagnostics to examine condensed-phase chemistry and monitor evolved gas species. Results from our initial work have been encouraging. Thin-film samples of several energetic materials have been prepared and appear to be representative of bulk materials. Furthermore, preliminary experiments indicate that all the use of these samples with two chemical diagnostic techniques, time-of- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and time-resolved infrared spectral photography (TRISP), is viable. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Skocypec, R.D.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Reconfigurable fuzzy logic system for high-frame rate stereovision object tracking.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??his study investigates the applicability of fuzzy logic control to high-frame rate stereovision object tracking. The technology developed in this work is based on utilizing… (more)

Samarin, Oleg

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Enhancing harvestable algal biomass production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds by recycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) are an efficient and cost-effective system for wastewater treatment and produce algal biomass which could be converted to biofuels. However,… (more)

Park, Byung Kwan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Application of the microwave technique for burning-rate measurement in high-energy composite materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A facility designed to determine the current burning rate of high-energy composite materials is described. Methodical aspects of processing the...

A. S. Zharkov; M. G. Potapov; V. P. Lushev…

215

The Penetration of Anticancer Drugs through Tumor Tissue as a Function of Cellular Adhesion and Packing Density of Tumor Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and very slow (10% of the rate of penetration through the Teflon membrane...more rapid (30-50% of the rate of penetration through the Teflon membrane...against proximal cells. The rate of penetration of 5-FU through MCLs is comparable...

Rama Grantab; Shankar Sivananthan; and Ian F. Tannock

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Gamma-ray burst rate: high-redshift excess and its possible origins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Gamma-ray burst rate: high-redshift...E-mail: virgilif@physics.unlv.edu (FJV...USA 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University...gamma-ray burst (GRB) rates and their relationship...an increase in GRB rate as (1 +z)delta...models are able to pass the L and z constraints......

Francisco J. Virgili; Bing Zhang; Kentaro Nagamine; Jun-Hwan Choi

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

The emerging role of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Follow-up PSA control rate/ Late toxicity Grade...HDR = high-dose-rate, PSA = prostate-specific...EQUIPMENT AND RADIATION PHYSICS Because the dose-rate of the radioactive source...holes for the needles to pass through, and their positions......

Yasuo Yoshioka; Ken Yoshida; Hideya Yamazaki; Norio Nonomura; Kazuhiko Ogawa

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and LowRechargeable lithium batteries are known for their highBecause lithium ion batteries are especially susceptible to

Chen, Guoying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Discovery and preclinical profiling of 3-[4-(morpholin-4-yl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl]benzonitrile (PF-06447475), a highly potent, selective, brain penetrant, and in vivo active LRRK2 kinase inhibitor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discovery and preclinical profiling of 3-[4-(morpholin-4-yl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl]benzonitrile (PF-06447475), a highly potent, selective, brain penetrant, and in vivo active LRRK2 kinase inhibitor ... This resulted in identification of 14 (PF-06447475), a highly potent, brain penetrant and selective LRRK2 inhibitor which has been further profiled in in vivo safety and pharmacodynamic studies. ...

Jaclyn Louise Henderson; Bethany L Kormos; Matthew M Hayward; Karen J Coffman; Jayasankar Jasti; Ravi G. Kurumbail; Travis T Wager; Patrick R. Verhoest; G Stephen Noell; Yi Chen; Elie Needle; Zdenek Berger; Stefanus J. Steyn; Christopher Houle; Warren D Hirst; Paul Galatsis

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Opportunities and Challenges for Higher Renewable Penetration in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to unsustainable levels for solar PV #12;11 Capacity Value Declines Significantly at High Penetration Peak net loadOpportunities and Challenges for Higher Renewable Penetration in California Beyond 33%: UC Davis Policy Forum Series Sacramento, California October 17, 2014 Arne Olson, Partner, E3 #12;2 California

California at Davis, University of

222

Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

223

Short Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these methods so far shown sufficient promise for economical production of hydrogen (Miyake et al., 1999; WoodShort Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced cells (MECs) require high hydrogen production rates and a compact reactor. These goals can be achieved

224

Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Brain Penetrant LRRK2 Inhibitor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brain Penetrant LRRK2 Inhibitor ... ?M in cells and is the first compound reported to be capable of inhibiting Ser910 and Ser935 phosphorylation in mouse brain following intraperitoneal delivery of doses as low as 50 mg/kg. ... LRRK2; blood?brain barrier; brain penetrant inhibitor; 2,4-diaminopyrimidine ...

Hwan Geun Choi; Jinwei Zhang; Xianming Deng; John M. Hatcher; Matthew P. Patricelli; Zheng Zhao; Dario R. Alessi; Nathanael S. Gray

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne ground penetrating Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In case of opaque human- made features like buildings, only one return pulse... the penetration rate of a lidar beam within the canopy. In urban areas, buildings totally...

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - antibody tumor penetration Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in physiologic and cytotoxic Summary: at the tumor base could exacerbate fluence rate heterogeneities because the penetration of 630 nm light... ) regional differences in...

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - analyzing deep penetration Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

48 Merguerian, Charles; and Ozdemir, Levent, 2003, Rock Mass Properties and Hard Rock TBM Penetration Rate Investigations, Queens Tunnel Complex, NYC Water Tunnel 3, Stage 2: p....

229

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

SciTech Connect

In high-rate deposition of a-Si:H films, the effect of deposition parameters on material properties are examined when silane and disilane are the feed gases. The emphasis is on RF glow discharge, but other deposition methods are also covered. The problems of gas-phase polymerization and power formation at high rates have been overcome by modified reactor designs. Deposition rates of 1-3 nm/s are adequate for economically fabricating the intrinsic layer. Laboratory-size a-Si:H cells with greater than 10% efficiency have been achieved with both silane and disilane at rates in the 1- to 2-nm/s range.

Luft, W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the status of high-rate deposition technologies associated with amorphous silicon thin films for photovoltaic applications. The report lists (1) deposition rates for a-Si:H films according to source and method and (2) efficiencies and other parameters of a-Si:H solar cells. Two main deposition source materials, silane and disilane, are discussed, as well as effects of boron doping. The effects of various deposition parameters on film characteristics and on deposition rate are presented, as well as the effects of annealing on high-deposition-rate films. Light-induced effects are also discussed. Finally, progress and problems in this field of study are summarized.

Luft, W.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Neoclassical toroidal viscosity and error-field penetration in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

A model for field error penetration is developed that includes nonresonant as well as the usual resonant field error effects. The nonresonant components cause a neoclassical toroidal viscous torque that tries to keep the plasma rotating at a rate comparable to the ion diamagnetic frequency. The new theory is used to examine resonant error-field penetration threshold scaling in ohmic tokamak plasmas. Compared to previous theoretical results, the plasma is found to be less susceptible to error-field penetration and locking, by a factor that depends on the nonresonant error-field amplitude.

Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1609 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Spontaneous penetration of a non-wetting drop into an exposed pore Pengtao Yue and Yuriko Renardy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and entry flow, the modified Lucas-Washburn equation greatly overesti- mates the penetration rate drop (S penetration rate is higher than that fSpontaneous penetration of a non-wetting drop into an exposed pore Pengtao Yue and Yuriko Renardy

Renardy, Yuriko

233

Evaluation of methods, instrumentation and materials pertinent to quality assurance filter penetration testing  

SciTech Connect

Every high efficiency aerosol filter used in the Unites States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is quality assurance (QA) tested at one of the DOE filter test facilities prior to installation. This testing presently includes measurement of filter penetration at rated airflow using a hot DOP aerosol generator, an Owl aerosol size analyzer, and a scattered-light photometer aerosol concentration monitor. Alternative penetration measurement methods for testing size 5 high efficiency aerosol filters which have rated airflow capacities of 1000 cubic feet/min (cfm, approx. 28 m/sup 3//min) are being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These methods are intended to take advantage of commercially available aerosol instrumentation. A penetration test using a polydisperse aerosol produced with a modified Laskin nozzle aerosol generator was found to have promise as an alternative to the present test method. Such a test eliminates the difficulty in producing a monodisperse challenge aerosol, and takes advantage of state-of-the-art aerosol sizing instruments. Aerosol sizing and concentration measuring capabilities of a laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were evaluated with respect to the needs of QA filter penetration testing. An aerosol diluter was selected and evaluated for use with the LAS in making filter penetration measurements. Potential alternative test materials were scrutinized with respect to certain toxicological and physical criteria. Certain of these alternative materials were selected for further evaluation. Results of this evaluation and findings cited in the literature indicate that the selected materials could be easily adapted for use with the modified Laskin aerosol generator.

Scripsick, R.C.; Soderholm, S.C.; Tillery, M.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Penetration of 6-Mev Gamma Rays in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The penetration of 6-Mev gamma rays has been studied out to 190 cm in water. The dose rate has been measured with an anthracene scintillation detector as a function of the distance from the N16 source. The results agree closely out to 160 cm with the distribution calculated according to the theory of gamma-ray penetration as developed by Spencer and Fano.

P. A. Roys; K. Shure; J. J. Taylor

1954-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Workshop: Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate | Stanford  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Saturday, October 22, 2011 - 8:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 In conjunction with the 2011 LCLS/SSRL User Meeting, SSRL and the APS will jointly host a two-day workshop focused on opportunities with short-pulse, high-repetition rate X-ray Science. The workshop will feature international speakers and panel experts presenting the scientific basis, preliminary results and future potential of high rep-rate picosecond x-rays beams from storage rings. The workshop will be broadly focused on topics in materials science, chemistry, biology and catalysis. The workshop agenda will also include presentations on accelerator operational modes, precision timing issues, detector challenges and the relation of storage ring science with

236

High-strain-rate nanoindentation behavior of fine-grained magnesium alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of temperature and alloying elements on deformation in the high-strain-rate regime were investigated by testing fine-grained magnesium alloys with an average grain size of 2 ? 3 ?m by a nanoindentation technique. ...

Somekawa, Hidetoshi

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-optical high-bit-rate digital Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OCTOBER 2005 3321 All-Optical Variable Buffering Strategies Summary: - parison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks......

238

Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Abstract 5474: Optimization of a microdialysis method for evaluation of CP-868,596 penetration in glioblastoma murine models using a sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...we have compared the tissue penetration of the microtubule targeting...Paclitaxel exhibited better tissue penetration, exerting a more equal effect...consistent with its higher rate of cellular uptake relative...which exhibit desirable penetration properties. This research...

Mohamed Elmeliegy; Feng Bai; Stephen Juel; Stacy Throm; Abhijit Ramachandran; and Clinton Stewart

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2 3 replaced by18 chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine replacement19 between olivine and chrysotile-brucite minerals. Coupled dissolution-precipitation21 led to the alteration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain grains were replaced by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine at the interface between olivine and chrysotile­brucite minerals. Coupled dissolution­precipitation led

Montes-Hernandez, German

242

High performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells made at a high deposition rate by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The deposition rate, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared from rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) diluted in helium have been measured. These films show excellent electrical and optical properties and, most importantly, a high deposition rate coupled with satisfactory solar cell application was realized for the first time. At a deposition rate of 11 A/s, 5.47% and 6.5% conversion efficiencies were obtained with a first trial of n-i-p type solar cells deposited on SnO/sub 2//ITO glass and metal substrates, respectively.

Ohashi, Y.; Kenne, J.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetration and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetration and A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment Title A concentration rebound method for measuring particle penetration and deposition in the indoor environment Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-51631 Year of Publication 2003 Authors Thatcher, Tracy L., Melissa M. Lunden, Kenneth L. Revzan, Richard G. Sextro, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 847-864 Abstract Continuous, size resolved particle measurements were performed in two houses in order to determine size- dependent particle penetration into and deposition in the indoor environment. The experiments consisted of three parts: measurement of the particle loss rate following artificial elevation of indoor particle concentrations,

244

High deposition rate preparation of amorphous silicon solar cells by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane diluted in helium (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6//He = 1/9) have been studied while systematically varying the film deposition rate. The properties and composition of the films were monitored by measuring the optical band gap, IR vibrational spectrum, dark conductivity, and the photoconductivity as a function of the deposition rate. The photoluminescence of the high deposition rate films gave a peak at 1.33 eV. These films, whose properties are rather similar to those of the conventional a-Si:H films prepared from monosilane, have been used to fabricate nip-type a-Si:H solar cells. At a deposition rate of 11 A/sec, a conversion efficiency of 6.86% was obtained. This high efficiency shows that disilane is applicable for mass production fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells.

Kenne, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Matsushita, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dislocation mechanics of high rate deformations Ron Armstrong* (and Qizhen Li**)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dislocation mechanics of high rate deformations Ron Armstrong* (and Qizhen Li**) *University/dt) = (1/m)b (1/m)(d/dt)bxd 8 charts 1.a. TASRA, Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) and Johnson-Cook relations 1.b) (Hall-Petch) Twinning: T = 0T + kT-1/2 ; kT > k R.W. Armstrong, "Thermal Activation ­ Strain Rate

Maryland at College Park, University of

246

Effect of Tight Junctional Resistance on Penetration of LLC-PK1 Epithelial Cell Layers by Metastatic B16-F10 Melanoma Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...were used to define the rate and degree of penetration of the various Ig forms...were used to define the rate and degree of penetration of the various Ig forms...were used to define the rate and degree of penetration of the various Ig forms...

Kathleen G. Conn and Karen A. Knudsen

1989-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Abstract 2657: Utilization of the Angiopep platform to enable brain penetration of therapeutic mAbs or Antibody-Drug Conjugates for treatment of brain tumors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...leads to a deeper penetration of molecules into...improved survival rates in tumor-bearing...responsible for the deeper penetration of albumin. Fluid...states that the rate of fluid movement...leads to a deeper penetration of molecules into...improved survival rates in tumor-bearing...

Michel Demeule; Jean E. Lachowicz; Sasmita Tripathy; Giogang Yang; Sanjoy Das; Christian Che; Jean-Christophe Currie; Simon Lord-Dufour; Anthony Regina; and Jean-Paul Castaigne

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Vascular Normalization by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Blockade Induces a Pressure Gradient Across the Vasculature and Improves Drug Penetration in Tumors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tumor recurrence rate (1-3). The...The ease of drug penetration in the superficial...9). The flow rate was 1.5 ml/min...parameters of MMC penetration in human bladders...parameters of MMC penetration in the human bladder...depth; and (g) rate of equilibrium between...

Ricky T. Tong; Yves Boucher; Sergey V. Kozin; Frank Winkler; Daniel J. Hicklin; and Rakesh K. Jain

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Development and Construction of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) Bridge Decks: Construction Methods, Specifications, and Resistance to Chloride Ion Penetration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development, construction, and evaluation of Low-Cracking High-Performance Concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained through the construction of 14 LC-HPC ...

McLeod, Heather Anne Kirkvold

2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

250

Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 /Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries. Nano-Structured Li3V2(PO4)3 Carbon Composite for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries. Abstract:...

251

A High Count Rate Neutron Beam Monitor for Neutron Scattering Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Beam monitors are an important diagnostic tool in neutron science facilities. Present beam monitors use either ionization chambers in integration mode, which are slow and have no timing information, or pulse counters which can easily be saturated by high beam intensities. At high flux neutron scattering facilities, neutron beam monitors with very low intrinsic efficiency (10-5) are presently selected to keep the counting rate within a feasible range, even when a higher efficiency would improve the counting statistics and yield a better measurement of the incident beam. In this work, we report on a high count rate neutron beam monitor. This beam monitor offers good timing with an intrinsic efficiency of 10-3 and a counting rate capability of over 1,000,000 cps without saturation.

Barnett, Amanda [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Diawara, Yacouba [ORNL; Hayward, J P [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hayward, Jason P [ORNL; Menhard, Kocsis [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF); Sedov, Vladislav N [ORNL; Funk, Loren L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition system for high-rate deposition of functional materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure plasmachemical vapor deposition(CVD) system has been developed to fabricate functional thin films at very high deposition rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma in which high-density radicals are created has been effectively used to depositthin films. Combination of the newly designed rotary electrode and the 150 MHz very high frequency power supply makes it possible not only to generate the high-density atmospheric pressure plasma but also to avoid ion bombardment against the film. By virtue of these noble characteristics of the system high quality films can be fabricated at an unprecedented high deposition rate. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric pressure plasmaCVD system hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H ) films were prepared in gas mixtures containing He H 2 and SiH 4 . The results showed that homogeneous a- Si:H films grew when substrates were heated at 200?°C. Extremely high deposition rate which was more than 100 times faster than that of the conventional low-pressure plasma CVD technique was realized.

Y. Mori; K. Yoshii; H. Kakiuchi; K. Yasutake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R. [Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA-Bage, 96413-170 (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, 13086-100 (Brazil)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

254

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency thermal plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency Semiconductor, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Received 10 July 2002; accepted 14 July 2002 Abstract Silicon carbide films; Nanomaterials; Silicon carbide; Thermal plasmas; Thin films; Si tetrachlorine precursor Silicon carbide has

Zachariah, Michael R.

255

System Design Considerations for High data Rate Communications Over Multi-wire Overhead Power-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System Design Considerations for High data Rate Communications Over Multi-wire Overhead Power communications, multi-wire overhead lines, capacity, OFDM, coding. I. INTRODUCTION The increasing interest, and severe narrowband interference [1]. The channel characteristics of medium voltage overhead power-line

Kavehrad, Mohsen

256

In vivo super-penetration microscopy for noninvasive imaging of mouse brain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed a super-penetration microscope that effectively compensates the wavefront distortion encountered in scattering biological systems. We report high-resolution in vivo...

Cui, Meng

257

The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determines reporting criteria and validity. School Facilities: Defined through the use of the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA), developed for a prior study of Texas public schools (O’Neill, 2000). It is an instrument that rates facility..., discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal’s designee on high school campuses...

McGowen, Robert Scott

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

258

High-Purity Germanium Spectroscopy at Rates in Excess of 10^{6} Events/s  

SciTech Connect

Abstract—In gamma spectroscopy, a compromise must be made between energy resolution and event-rate capability. Some foreseen nuclear material safeguards applications require a spectrometer with energy resolution typical of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, operated at rates up to and exceeding 106 events per second. We report the performance of an HPGe spectrometer adapted to run at such rates. Our system consists of a commercial semi-coaxial HPGe detector, a modified high-voltagerail, resistive-feedback, charge-sensitive preamplifier and a continuous waveform digitizer. Digitized waveforms are analyzed offline with a novel time-variant trapezoidal filter algorithm. Several time-invariant trapezoidal filters are run in parallel and the slowest one not rejected by instantaneous pileup conditions is used to measure each pulse height. We have attained full-widthat- half-maximum energy resolution of less than 8 keV measured at 662 keV with 1:08*106 per second incoming event rate and 38% throughput. An additional constraint on the width of the fast trigger filter removes a significant amount of edge pileup that passes the first pileup cut, reducing throughput to 26%. While better resolution has been reported by other authors, our throughput is over an order of magnitude higher than any other reported HPGe system operated at such an event rate.

VanDevender, Brent A.; Dion, Michael P.; Fast, James E.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Wilen, Christopher D.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wright, Michael E.

2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multi-criteria Operation Strategies of Power-to-Heat-Systems in Virtual Power Plants with a High Penetration of Renewable Energies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The integration of renewable energy into the existing energy supply system is a core challenge regarding the successful realization of the German “Energiewende”. One concept to integrate decentralized regenerative power generators is a virtual power plant that operates many small facilities as one power plant. Essential parts of the concept are controllable loads and generators to reduce the impact of volatile energy resource – like wind power stations – on operational planning. Power-to-Heat-Systems (P2H) are one possible technology that can be used to a limited extent as a controllable load. The P2H-system as a component of virtual power plants is capable of supplying flexibility due to various possible operation strategies. This flexibility can either be used for ancillary services (primary, secondary and tertiary ancillary services), to provide schedule energy or for balancing group management. This paper presents a modeling approach for P2H systems as a component of virtual power plants with a high share of renewable energies. The operation strategies are evaluated with respect to economic and technical aspects and uncertainties in generation and load. The operation strategies of P2H systems are shown with regard to market integration of renewable energies within a virtual power plant and the provision of ancillary services.

Torsten Sowa; Stefan Krengel; Simon Koopmann; Johannes Nowak

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Compact X-ray Source using a High Repetition Rate Laser and Copper Linac  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The accelerator is a novel high-efficiency standing-wave linac and RF photoinjector powered by a single ultrastable RF transmitter at x-band RF frequency. The high efficiency permits operation at repetition rates up to 1 kHz, which is further boosted to 100 kHz by operating with trains of 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns. The 100 kHz repetition rate is orders of magnitude beyond existing high brightness copper linacs. The entire accelerator is approximately 1 meter long and produces hard x-rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The colliding laser is a Yb:YAG solid-state amplifier producing 1030 nm, 100 mJ pulses at the same 1 kHz repetition rate as the accelerator. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and stored for m...

Graves, W S; Brown, P; Carbajo, S; Dolgashev, V; Hong, K -H; Ihloff, E; Khaykovich, B; Lin, H; Murari, K; Nanni, E A; Resta, G; Tantawi, S; Zapata, L E; Kärtner, F X; Moncton, D E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} (LM-1) has been extensively characterized under quasistatic loading conditions; however, its mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions is currently not well understood. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a single-stage gas gun are employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LM-1 in the strain-rate regime of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5}/s. The SHPB experiments are conducted with a tapered insert design to mitigate the effects of stress concentrations and preferential failure at the specimen-insert interface. The higher strain-rate plate-impact compression-and-shear experiments are conducted by impacting a thick tungsten carbide (WC) flyer plate with a sandwich sample comprising a thin bulk metallic glass specimen between two thicker WC target plates. Specimens employed in the SHPB experiments failed in the gage-section at a peak stress of approximately 1.8 GPa. Specimens in the high strain-rate plate-impact experiments exhibited a flow stress in shear of approximately 0.9 GPa, regardless of the shear strain-rate. The flow stress under the plate-impact conditions was converted to an equivalent flow stress under uniaxial compression by assuming a von Mises-like material behavior and accounting for the plane strain conditions. The results of these experiments, when compared to the previous work conducted at quasistatic loading rates, indicate that the peak stress of LM-1 is essentially strain rate independent over the strain-rate range up to 10{sup 5}/s.

Sunny, George; Yuan Fuping; Prakash, Vikas [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222 (United States); Lewandowski, John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222 (United States)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

High-rate HMDSO-based coatings in open air using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work deals with the high-rate and dust-free formation of carbon-containing silicon oxide (SiOC) coatings in open air without substrate heating using an atmospheric-pressure (AP) plasma jet. The AP plasma was excited by a 13.56-MHz radio frequency (RF) power. Hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen (O2) were used as the source gases. By optimizing the O2 flow rate and RF power, SiOC films were readily fabricated at deposition rates higher than 100 nm/s without suffering from particulate contaminations of the film surface. Additionally, an inorganic SiO2-like film exhibiting O/Si atomic ratio of approximately 2 was obtained at a deposition rate of ~ 13 nm/s, the value of which is still greater than those obtained in other AP plasma sources. Further systematic studies are needed to see if good-quality inorganic SiO2-like films can be obtained with higher rates.

H. Kakiuchi; K. Higashida; T. Shibata; H. Ohmi; T. Yamada; K. Yasutake

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

The effect of soil parameters on earth penetration of projectiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constitutive Relationship for Earth Materials; 2& A Dynamic Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Pro- jectile Penetration of a Half-Space; 3) The Dynamic Shearing Resistance of Clay as a Function of the Rate of Shear Deformation; 4) The Dynam...THE EFFECT OF SOIL PARAMETERS ON EARTH PENETRATION OF PROJECTILES A Thesis by George Harley Ferguson, I I I Submitted to the Graduate Col lege of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

Ferguson, George Harley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Nuclear reaction rates and energy in stellar plasmas : The effect of highly damped modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of the highly damped modes in the energy and reaction rates in a plasma are discussed. These modes, with wavenumbers $k \\gg k_{D}$, even being only weakly excited, with less than $k_{B}T$ per mode, make a significant contribution to the energy and screening in a plasma. When the de Broglie wavelength is much less than the distance of closest approach of thermal electrons, a classical analysis of the plasma can

Merav Opher; Luis O. Silva; Dean E. Dauger; Viktor K. Decyk; John M. Dawson

2001-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

yet · Plasma jet ­ Similar to supersonic gas, bulk fueling at present ­ Penetration into large cross / toroidal fields and about 10% beta ­ Technology easily adaptable to high rep-rate operation ­ Electrode to achieve deep fueling CT Penetration time: few µs CT Dissociation time:

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

268

Device for testing closure disks at high rates of change of pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A means is also disclosed for transmitting a tensile load from a piston to a hollow notched plug and for sealing the means for transmitting load within a hole in a piston. 5 figures.

Merten, C.W. Jr.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

269

PHM 8100 November 8, 2012 Strategies to enhance tumor penetration and cellular uptake of nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHM 8100 November 8, 2012 1 Strategies to enhance tumor penetration and cellular uptake through fibrin gels in vitro and found that activated SK significantly improves the rate of drug delivery to simultaneously improve their tumor penetration and cellular uptake. Future studies will focus on developing

Thomas, David D.

270

STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

271

Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries A. Jaiswal 1 , C. R. Hornenext generation of Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics

Jaiswal, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Turbulent Compressible Convection with Rotation - Penetration above a Convection Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform Large eddy simulations of turbulent compressible convection in stellar-type convection zones by solving the Navi\\'{e}r-Stokes equations in three dimensions. We estimate the extent of penetration into the stable layer above a stellar-type convection zone by varying the rotation rate ({\\boldmath$\\rm\\Omega$}), the inclination of the rotation vector ($\\theta$) and the relative stability ($S$) of the upper stable layer. The computational domain is a rectangular box in an f-plane configuration and is divided into two regions of unstable and stable stratification with the stable layer placed above the convectively unstable layer. Several models have been computed and the penetration distance into the stable layer above the convection zone is estimated by determining the position where time averaged kinetic energy flux has the first zero in the upper stable layer. The vertical grid spacing in all the model is non-uniform, and is less in the upper region so that the flows are better resolved in the region of interest. We find that the penetration distance increases as the rotation rate increases for the case when the rotation vector is aligned with the vertical axis. However, with the increase in the stability of the upper stable layer, the upward penetration distance decreases. Since we are not able to afford computations with finer resolution for all the models, we compute a number of models to see the effect of increased resolution on the upward penetration. In addition, we estimate the upper limit on the upward convective penetration from stellar convective cores.

Partha S. Pal; Harinder P. Singh; Kwing L. Chan; M. P. Srivastava

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Numerical method to predict projectile penetration  

SciTech Connect

The Simplified Analytical Model of Penetration with Lateral Loading (SAMPLL) computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories has been modified to allow additional penetration capabilities. The new capabilities include the ability to model penetration by other than cylindrical penetrators (flares, tapers, and boattails) and the ability to calculate penetration/perforation of multiple layers of different materials. Additionally, updated soil and rock empirical equations have been added to the model. A broader range of problems can now be modeled more accurately with the modified SAMPLL. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Schoof, L.A.; Maestas, F.A.; Young, C.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High Repetition Rate, LINAC-Based Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence FY 2008 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This summarizes the first year of a multi-laboratory/university, multi-year effort focusing on high repetition rate, pulsed LINAC-based nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements. Specifically, this FY2008 effort centered on experimentally assessing NRF measurements using pulsed linear electron accelerators, operated at various repetition rates, and identifying specific detection requirements to optimize such measurements. Traditionally, interest in NRF as a detection technology, which continues to receive funding from DHS and DOE/NA-22, has been driven by continuous-wave (CW), Van de Graff-based bremsstrahlung sources. However, in addition to the relatively sparse present-day use of Van de Graff sources, only limited NRF data from special nuclear materials has been presented; there is even less data available regarding shielding effects and photon source optimization for NRF measurements on selected nuclear materials.

Scott M Watson; Mathew T Kinlaw; James L Jones; Alan W. Hunt; Glen A. Warren

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Improving Switching Performance of Power MOSFETs Used in High Rep-Rate, Short Pulse, High-Power Pulsers  

SciTech Connect

As their switching and power handling characteristics improve, solid-state devices are finding new applications in pulsed power. This is particularly true of applications that require fast trains of short duration pulses. High voltage (600-1200V) MOSFETs are especially well suited for use in these systems, as they can switch at significant peak power levels and are easily gated on and off very quickly. MOSFET operation at the shortest pulse durations is not constrained by the intrinsic capabilities of the MOSFET, but rather by the capabilities of the gate drive circuit and the system physical layout. This project sought to improve MOSFET operation in a pulsed power context by addressing these issues. The primary goal of this project is to improve the switching performance of power MOSFETs for use in high rep-rate, short pulse, high-power applications by improving the design of the gate drive circuits and the circuit layouts used in these systems. This requires evaluation of new commercial gate drive circuits and upgrading the designs of LLNL-developed circuits. In addition, these circuits must be tested with the fastest available high-voltage power MOSFETs.

Cook, E G

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

276

ICON, a current model preamplifier in CMOS technology for use with high rate particle detectors  

SciTech Connect

The ICON current mode preamplifier is intended for use in experiments at high rate hadron colliders. The transient response and noise performance have been analyzed. One chip has been made using an ICON circuit with resistive feedback to produce a preamplifier with a peaking time of below 10 ns. This fast preamplifier has a gain of 870 mV/pC and a power dissipation of around 1 mW. Another chip was made which uses the ICON circuit as the front-end to a dual port analog memory. The noise measured is between 2,400 e[sup [minus

Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Campbell, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Meddeler, G.; Santiard, J.C.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Comment on ``High Temperature Fermion Propagator -- Resummation and Gauge Dependence of the Damping Rate''  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baier et al. have reported the damping rate of long-wavelength fermionic excitations in high-temperature QED and QCD to be gauge-fixing-dependent even within the resummation scheme due to Braaten and Pisarski. It is shown that this problem is caused by the singular nature of the on-shell expansion of the fermion self-energy in the infra-red. Its regularization reveals that the alleged gauge dependence pertains to the residue rather than the pole of the fermion propagator, so that in particular the damping constant comes out gauge-independent, as it should.

Anton Rebhan

1992-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

The compressive response of porcine adipose tissue from low to high strain rate Kerstyn Comley, Norman Fleck*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engi- neering models for tissue damage due to dynamic loading, such as air blast and sand blast, sports pressure bar Constitutive testing Ogden model a b s t r a c t Subcutaneous adipose tissue has been tested injury and high rate needle-free drug delivery, there is a need to measure the high strain rate response

Fleck, Norman A.

279

High Growth Rate of Epitaxial Silicon-Carbon Alloys by High-Order Silane Precursor and Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates typically achieved by disilane and silane, respectively, at 575o C. The rate at present is limited precursor HOS than disilane in CVD, even at lower temperatures. Our current growth rates of Si1-yCy alloys

280

Characterization of penetration induced thermal runaway propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the mechanisms of penetration induced thermal runaway (TR) propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery pack. A 6-battery module is built with 47 thermocouples installed at critical positions to record the temperature profiles. The first battery of the module is penetrated to trigger a TR propagation process. The temperature responses, the voltage responses and the heat transfer through different paths are analyzed and discussed to characterize the underlying physical behavior. The temperature responses show that: 1) Compared with the results of TR tests using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) with uniform heating, a lower onset temperature and a shorter TR triggering time are observed in a penetration induced TR propagation test due to side heating. 2) The maximum temperature difference within a battery can be as high as 791.8 °C in a penetration induced TR propagation test. The voltage responses have a 5-stage feature, indicating that the TR happens in sequence for the two pouch cells packed inside a battery. The heat transfer analysis shows that: 1) 12% of the total heat released in TR of a battery is enough to trigger the adjacent battery to TR. 2) The heat transferred through the pole connector is only about 1/10 of that through the battery shell. 3) The fire has little influence on the TR propagation, but may cause significant damage on the accessories located above the battery. The results can enhance our understandings of the mechanisms of TR propagation, and provide important guidelines in pack design for large format lithium ion battery.

Xuning Feng; Jing Sun; Minggao Ouyang; Fang Wang; Xiangming He; Languang Lu; Huei Peng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

VEGETATION SUCCESSION AND ROOT PENETRATION ON THE LORRAINE COVER USED TO LIMIT ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 VEGETATION SUCCESSION AND ROOT PENETRATION ON THE LORRAINE COVER USED TO LIMIT ACID MINE DRAINAGE as a fine-grained soil) can be low enough to limit the influx of oxygen, hence reducing the rate

Aubertin, Michel

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable penetration depth Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2002; 54:365398 (DOI: 10.1002nme.427) Summary: data with the help of ash X-ray, e.g. penetration depth, rate of rod consumption, mass e ciency... conguration is the depth of...

283

Numerical simulations and predictive models of undrained penetration in soft soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of rateindependent finite element analyses of pre-embedded penetration depths, and validate the results by upper and lower bound solutions from classical plasticity theory. Furthermore, strain rate effects are modeled by finite element simulations within a framework...

Shi, Han

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Root elongation of seedling peas through layered soil of different penetration resistances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field soils contain localized zones of larger penetration resistance within peds and compacted layers, while ... study examined what happens to the root elongation rate when roots grew through a layer of...

A. G. Bengough; I. M. Young

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Ray Penetration Window Technology of Mining Explosion-Proof Instrument for Measuring Ash Content of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve the extraction rate and reduce the gangue content in coal ... control the top-coal caving. The ray penetration window technology breaks through the rules of ... and effectively solves the prob...

Wen-qing Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Regulatory effects on the market penetration and capacity of reliability differentiated service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effects of alternative forms of regulation on the market penetration and capacity that are determined by a ... service to consumers. Both price cap and rate of return regulation lead t...

Isamu Matsukawa

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Penetration of Anticancer Drugs through Solid Tissue: A Factor That Limits the Effectiveness of Chemotherapy for Solid Tumors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...drives convective fluid flow, the rate of which can be varied by increasing...When CFF was 0.19 ml/min, the penetration of gefitinib, imatinib and doxorubicin...CFF was zero. The enhancement of penetration rates was 75 fold for doxorubicin, 53...

Jonathan K. Tunggal; David S. M. Cowan; Hafsa Shaikh; and Ian F. Tannock

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Abstract 4455: Influence of convective fluid flow on the penetration of anti-cancer drugs through multicell layers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...drives convective fluid flow, the rate of which can be varied by increasing...When CFF was 0.19 ml/min, the penetration of gefitinib, imatinib and doxorubicin...CFF was zero. The enhancement of penetration rates was 75 fold for doxorubicin, 53...

Roger M. Phillips; Hafiz Makeen; Raj Periasamy; Paul M. Loadman; Pamela F. Jones; Brian D. Sleeman; Stephen W. Smye; and Chris Twelves

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Enhancing DNA binding rate using optical trapping of high-density gold nanodisks  

SciTech Connect

We present the dynamic study of optical trapping of fluorescent molecules using high-density gold nanodisk arrays. The gold nanodisks were fabricated by electron beam lithography with a diameter of 500 nm and a period of 1 ?m. Dark-field illumination showed ?15 times enhancement of fluorescence near edges of nanodisks. Such enhanced near-field generated an optical trapping force of ?10 fN under 3.58 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2} illumination intensity as calculated from the Brownian motions of 590 nm polystyrene beads. Kinetic observation of thiolated DNA modified with Cy5 dye showed different binding rates of DNA under different illumination intensity. The binding rate increased from 2.14 × 10{sup 3} s{sup ?1} (I = 0.7 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2}) to 1.15 × 10{sup 5} s{sup ?1} (I = 3.58 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2}). Both enhanced fluorescence and binding rate indicate that gold nanodisks efficiently improve both detection limit and interaction time for microarrays.

Lin, En-Hung; Pan, Ming-Yang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China) [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Lee, Ming-Chang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China)] [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Wei, Pei-Kuen, E-mail: pkwei@sinica.edu.tw [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China) [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Cavity-enhanced field-free molecular alignment at high repetition rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme ultraviolet frequency combs are a versatile tool with applications including precision measurement, strong-field physics, and solid-state physics. Here we report on an application of extreme ultraviolet frequency combs and their driving lasers to studying strong-field effects in molecular systems. We perform field-free molecular alignment and high-order hamonic generation with aligned molecules in a gas jet at 154 MHz repetition rate using a high-powered optical frequency comb inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity. The cavity-enhanced system provides means to reach suitable intensities to study field-free molecular alignment and enhance the observable effects of the molecule-field interaction. We observe modulations of the driving field, arising from the nature of impulsive stimulated Raman scattering responsible for coherent molecular rotations. We foresee impact of this work on the study of molecule-based strong-field physics, with improved precision and a more fundamental understanding of the int...

Benko, Craig; Allison, Thomas K; Labaye, François; Ye, Jun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The influence of a surfactant upon the foliar penetration of DEF (S, S, S-tributylphosphorotrithioate) in cotton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that Buffer-X did not increase the rate of penetration of DEF into the epidermal cells of young leaves to a 19 great extent. In the older leaves it appeared that DEF without Buffer-X penetrated the palisade cells to a greater extent than did DEF plus... Buffer-X. The leaf age could not be correlated with the rate of penetration of the DEF or the DEF plus Buffer-X into the epidermal cells, but in most cases the DEF penetrated more rapidly than the DEF plus Buffer-X. In 1966 the field tests showed...

Baker, Richard Darrell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)  

SciTech Connect

The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

Knight, Earl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zubelewicz, Aleksander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

VOLUME 83, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 SEPTEMBER 1999 Kinetic Roughening of Penetrating Flux Fronts in High-Tc Thin Film Superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VOLUME 83, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 SEPTEMBER 1999 Kinetic Roughening) Kinetic roughening of flux fronts penetrating in superconducting thin films are studied by means of a high resolution magneto-optic technique. The roughening exponent a 0.64 and growth exponent b 0.65 obtained from

Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

294

Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

295

High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Ground-penetrating-radar-assisted saturation and permeability estimation in bimodal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to subsequently design an efficient and reliable remediation plan. Soil water content monitoring is importantGround-penetrating-radar-assisted saturation and permeability estimation in bimodal systems Susan S from ground penetrating radar (GPR), a noninvasive, high-resolution geophysical method. The procedures

Hubbard, Susan

297

Slag Penetration into Refractory Lining of Slagging Coal Gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The impurities in coal are converted into molten slag typically containing SiO2, FeO, CaO, and Al2O3 when coal feedstock is burned in slagging gasifiers. The slag flows down the gasifier sidewalls, dissolves, and penetrates and reacts with the refractory lining that protects the stainless steel shell of the gasifier from elevated temperatures (1300–1600°C). Refractories composed primarily of Cr2O3 have been found most resistant to slag corrosion, but they continue to fail performance requirements because of low resistance to spalling. Post-mortem analysis of high-chromia refractory bricks collected from commercial gasifiers suggests that the spalling is affected by the depth of slag penetration that is in turn affected by the wettability and interconnected porosity of the refractory as well as the slag viscosity. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of slags (Wyoming Powder River Basin [PRB], Pocahontas #3, and Pittsburgh #8), their contact angle on refractories (chromia-alumina [Aurex 75SR] and high-chromia [Serv 95 and Aurex 95P]), and the apparent porosity of selected refractories. In addition, the depth of slag penetration as a function of time and temperature was determined for various refractory-slag combinations. The results of laboratory tests were used to develop a refractory material that has high resistance to penetration by molten slag and thus has a potential to have a substantially longer service life than the materials currently being used.

Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

298

New PDC bit design increased penetration rate in slim wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes slim hole bit design developed at the Paris School of Mines and Security DBS. The design is a compromise between several criteria such as drilling efficiency, uniform wear distribution around the bit face and low level of vibration of the bit, according to the hole diameter and the formation characteristics. Two new bits were manufactured and run successfully in a full scale drilling test bench and in field test in Gabon. The result show improvement of the drilling performances in slimhole application.

Gerbaud, L.; Sellami, H. [Paris School of Mines (France); Lamine, E.; Sagot, A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one major alteration reaction of oceanic hydrothermalism. In the present experimental study, olivine grains were replaced by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine replacement implied a spatial and temporal coupling of dissolution and precipitation reactions at the interface between olivine and chrysotile–brucite minerals. Coupled dissolution–precipitation led to the alteration of starting olivine grains (so-called primary or parent mineral) to a porous mineral assemblage of chrysotile and brucite with preservation of the initial olivine morphology. This mineral replacement reaction of olivine (serpentinization) has been characterized using XRD, FESEM and FTIR measurements. Moreover, a simple and novel method is here proposed to quantify the mineral replacement rate (or serpentinization rate) of olivine using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential TG (DTG) analyses. Serpentinization extent depends on the grain size: it is complete after 30 days of reaction for the smallest olivine grains (<30 ?m), after 90 days of reaction for the intermediate olivine grains (30 ?m–56 ?m). For the largest fraction (56–150 ?m), 55% of serpentinization extent was reached after 90 days. Based on the fitting of the serpentinization extent (?t) versus time (t) using a kinetic pseudo-second-order model, the serpentinization rates vary from 3.6×10?6 s?1 to 1.4×10?7 s?1 depending on the olivine grain size. An additional correlation between FTIR spectra analysis and TG measurements is proposed. The mineral replacement reactions frequently observed in natural alteration processes could be a powerful synthesis route to design new porous and/or nanostructured materials.

Romain Lafay; German Montes-Hernandez; Emilie Janots; Rodica Chiriac; Nathaniel Findling; Francois Toche

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Quantifying fatigue generated in high strain rate cyclic loading of Norway spruce  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Papermaking especially mechanical pulping consumes much energy. To reduce this energy consumption one has to understand and exploit the phenomena present during the pulping. An important phenomenon to understand is wood fatigue. We quantitatively measure the fatigue generated during high strain rate cyclic loading of spruce wood performed under conditions resembling those present during mechanical pulping. We impacted the samples with 5% strain pulses at 500 Hz. The radial direction stiffness drop in the samples was quantified by 500 kHz ultrasonic through-transmission postimpacting. The depth profile of the generated fatigue was also determined. A dependency of the amount of fatigue generated during cyclic straining on the moisture content was detected. A hypothesis about the temporal and spatial evolution of the fatigue during the process is presented. The results supporting the hypothesis provide insight into wood behavior under mechanical pulping conditions.

Ari Salmi; Lauri Salminen; Edward Hæggström

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Z .Mechanics of Materials 28 1998 227236 Adiabatic shearband in WHA in high-strain-rate compression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the deformation of a Z .conventional depleted uranium DU penetrator quickly localizes into intense adiabatic of the impacting face of the penetra- tor. Therefore, the uranium projectile is an efficient penetrator. The DU however, causes health hazards. There is, therefore, a need to replace the DU penetra- Ztors

Nemat-Nasser, Sia

302

Optimal Information Security Investment with Penetration Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gathering prior to investing into protection against so-identified threats. Penetration testing is alsoOptimal Information Security Investment with Penetration Testing Rainer B¨ohme and M´ark F´elegyh´azi International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, California {rainer.boehme|mark}@icsi.berkeley.edu Abstract

Bencsáth, Boldizsár

303

Crystal Orientation Tuning of LiFePO4 Nanoplates for High Rate Lithium Battery Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For an electrochemical cell to deliver capacity at high rate, all parts of the Li+-electron path between the anode and the cathode active material have to be capable of sustaining this rate. ... Materials with the olivine LixMPO4 structure form an important class of rechargeable battery cathodes. ...

Li Wang; Xiangming He; Wenting Sun; Jianlong Wang; Yadong Li; Shoushan Fan

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

304

Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Effect Of False Alarm Rate On Pilot Use And Trust Of Automation Under Conditions Of Simulated High Risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the relationships between automation false alarm rate, human trust in automation, and human use of automation, specifically under conditions of simulated high risk. The ...

Cafarelli, Deborah

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

306

Room-Temperature Silicon Nitrides Prepared with Very High Rates (>50 nm/s) in Atmospheric-Pressure Very High-Frequency Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure and stability of SiN x ...films deposited with very high rates (>50 nm/s) in atmospheric-pressure (AP) He-based plasma excited by a 150 MHz ver...

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Kei Nakamura…

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Effect of Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity on Error-Field Penetration Thresholds in Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A model for field-error penetration is developed that includes nonresonant as well as the usual resonant field-error effects. The nonresonant components cause a neoclassical toroidal viscous torque that keeps the plasma rotating at a rate comparable to the ion diamagnetic frequency. The new theory is used to examine resonant error-field penetration threshold scaling in Ohmic tokamak plasmas. Compared to previous theoretical results, we find the plasma is less susceptible to error-field penetration and locking, by a factor that depends on the nonresonant error-field amplitude.

Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.; Callen, J. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1609 (United States)

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

308

Flux expulsion and penetration in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A large difference in the rate of flux flow in YBa2Cu3O7-? superconductors is observed between flux expulsion (field cooling then removing the field) and flux penetration (zero-field cooling then switching on a field). The mean activation energy and the width of its distribution for flux expulsion are 14 and 28 meV and for flux penetration are 34 and 67 meV. The smaller activation barrier for flux expulsion relative to flux penetration can be explained quantitatively in terms of flux pinning at the surface image potential and is also consistent with a model of randomly coupled superconducting grains.

M. Foldeaki; M. E. McHenry; R. C. O'Handley

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Deshpande, B., H.C. Frey, Y. Cao, and Z. Liu, "Modeling of the Penetration of Ambient PM2.5 to Indoor Residential Microenvironment," Paper 2009-A-86-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-PM residential indoor model indicates that air exchange rate, deposition rate and penetration factor affectDeshpande, B., H.C. Frey, Y. Cao, and Z. Liu, "Modeling of the Penetration of Ambient PM2 of the Penetration of Ambient PM2.5 to Indoor Residential Microenvironment Paper: 2009-A-86-AWMA Bela K. Deshpande, H

Frey, H. Christopher

310

An intelligent approach to non-constant feed rate determination for high-performance 2D CNC milling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimal machining parameters (spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) are crucial to high-performance CNC pocketing and profiling, which is concerned with shorter machining time, higher surface quality, and longer tool life. However, the feed rates are often conservatively fixed, obviously un-optimised, for different geometries of a curved profile. In this work, an intelligent approach to determining non-constant feed rates is proposed. First, the geometric features of this profile are identified, and the corresponding effective radial depths of cut are calculated. Second, based on a database of these machining parameters, a fuzzy rule-based system is established to predict various cutting forces along this profile. Then the feed rates are adjusted so that the cutting forces always remain high and chatter is still prevented. Thus the high-performance machining can be realised by using this approach, which can also be readily implemented in production process planning to benefit the manufacturing industry.

Zezhong C. Chen; Zhibin Miao

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Monte Carlo method for estimating backflashover rates on high voltage transmission lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a novel Monte-Carlo based model for the analysis of backflashover rate (BFOR) on high voltage transmission lines. The proposed model aims to take into the account following aspects of the BFOR phenomenon: transmission line (TL) route keraunic level(s), statistical depiction of lightning-current parameters (including statistical correlation), electrogeometric model of lightning attachment, frequency-dependence of TL parameters and electromagnetic coupling effects, tower geometry and surge impedance, tower grounding impulse impedance (with soil ionization), lightning-surge reflections from adjacent towers, non-linearity of the insulator strings flashover characteristic, distribution of lightning strokes along the TL span and power frequency voltage. In the analysis of the BFOR, special attention is given to the influences emanating from the insulator strings flashover characteristic and lightning statistics. The model could be applied to the transmission line as a whole or some of its portions, e.g. first several towers emanating from the substation or several towers crossing a mountain ridge.

Petar Sarajcev

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Design and implementation of a high data rate wireless system using Low-Density Parity-Check codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this research is to design a high performance, high data rate, low cost wireless communications system for use in a typical outdoor environment. The use of Low-Density Parity-check (LDPC) codes as the forward error correction scheme...

Bhatt, Tejas Maheshbhai

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effect of Ambipolar Plasma Flow on the Penetration of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in a Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Effect of Ambipolar Plasma Flow on the Penetration of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in a Quasi been varied and their penetration threshold determined.[3,4,5] This paper considers the flow code[7], as well as the DEGAS code for #12;2 estimating the momentum transfer rate to neutrals

Hudson, Stuart

314

Understanding the operation and use of high temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes were constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in a N2/O2/CO2 plus water vapor environment. Temperatures ranged from 450 to 600 C. Corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel, 304L SS, and 316L SS probes using electrochemical techniques were a function of time, temperature, and process environment. Correlation between electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was good.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, Michael S. (InterCorr International Inc.); Eden, David A. (InterCorr International Inc.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermodynamic Characteristic Study of a High-temperature Flow-rate Control Valve for Fuel Supply of Scramjet Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic characteristics are of great importance for the performance of a high-temperature flow-rate control valve, as high-temperature environment may bring problems, such as blocking of spool and increasing of leakage, to the valve. In this paper, a high-temperature flow-rate control valve, pilot-controlled by a pneumatic servo system is developed to control the fuel supply for scramjet engines. After introducing the construction and working principle, the thermodynamic mathematical models of the valve are built based on the heat transfer methods inside the valve. By using different boundary conditions, different methods of simulations are carried out and compared. The steady-state and transient temperature field distribution inside the valve body are predicted and temperatures at five interested points are measured. By comparing the simulation and experimental results, a reasonable 3D finite element analysis method is suggested to predict the thermodynamic characteristics of the high-temperature flow-rate control valve.

Wen ZENG; Zhizhong TONG; Songjing LI; Hongzhou LI; Liang ZHANG

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Triggering, front-end electronics, and data acquisition for high-rate beauty experiments  

SciTech Connect

The working group explored the feasibility of building a trigger and an electronics data acquisition system for both collider and fixed target experiments. There appears to be no fundamental technical limitation arising from either the rate or the amount of data for a collider experiment. The fixed target experiments will likely require a much higher rate because of the smaller cross section. Rates up to one event per RF bucket (50 MHz) appear to be feasible. Higher rates depend on the details of the particular experiment and trigger. Several ideas were presented on multiplicity jump and impact parameter triggers for fixed target experiments. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Johnson, M.; Lankford, A.J.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Rapid micromachining of high aspect ratio holes in fused silica glass by high repetition rate picosecond laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 2 shows examples of top and side view images of a series of laser modification tracks formed for the case of dynamic up scanning at various scan speeds, v s, and repetition rates, R..., (...

Samira Karimelahi; Ladan Abolghasemi; Peter R. Herman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Pulsed Helium Ion Beam Induced Deposition: A Means to High Growth Rates  

SciTech Connect

The sub-nanometer beam of a helium ion microscope was used to study and optimize helium-ion beam induced deposition of PtC nanopillars with the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Pt(CPCH{sub 3}) precursor. The beam current, beam dwell time, precursor refresh time, and beam focus have been independently varied. Continuous beam exposure resulted in narrow but short pillars, while pulsed exposure resulted in thinner and higher ones. Furthermore, at short dwell times the deposition efficiency was very high, especially for a defocused beam. Efficiencies were measured up to 20 times the value for continuous exposure conditions. The interpretation of the experimental data was aided by a Monte Carlo simulation of the deposition. The results indicate that two regimes are operational in ion beam induced deposition (IBID). In the first one, the adsorbed precursor molecules originally present in the beam interaction region decompose. After the original precursor layer is consumed, further depletion is averted and growth continues by the supply of molecules via adsorption and surface diffusion. Depletion around the beam impact site can be distinguished from depletion on the flanges of the growing pillars. The Monte Carlo simulations for low precursor surface coverage reproduce measured growth rates, but predict considerably narrower pillars, especially at short dwell times. Both the experiments and the simulations show that the pillar width rapidly increases with increasing beam diameter. Optimal writing strategy, good beam focusing, and rapid beam positioning are needed for efficient and precise fabrication of extended and complex nanostructures by He-IBID.

Alkemade, Paul F. A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Miro, Hozanna [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Van Veldhoven, Emile [TNO Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory; Maas, Diederick [TNO Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory; Smith, Daryl [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Catheter Movement in High-Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of interfraction catheter movement on dosimetry in prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients were treated with fractionated HDR brachytherapy. Implants were performed on day 1 under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed. Inverse planning simulated annealing was used for treatment planning. The first fraction was delivered on day 1. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed on day 2 before the second fraction was given. A fusion of the CBCT and CT was performed using intraprostatic gold markers as landmarks. Initial prostate and urethra contours were transferred to the CBCT images. Bladder and rectum contours were drawn, and catheters were digitized on the CBCT. The planned treatment was applied to the CBCT dataset, and dosimetry was analyzed and compared to the initial dose distribution. This process was repeated after a reoptimization was performed, using the same constraints used on day 1. Results: Mean interfraction catheter displacement was 5.1 mm. When we used the initial plan on day 2, the mean prostate V100 (volume receiving 100 Gy or more) decreased from 93.8% to 76.2% (p < 0.01). Rectal V75 went from 0.75 cm{sup 3} to 1.49 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.01). A reoptimization resulted in a mean prostate V100 of 88.1%, closer to the initial plan (p = 0.05). Mean rectal V75 was also improved with a value of 0.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no significant change in bladder and urethra dose on day 2. Conclusions: A mean interfraction catheter displacement of 5.1 mm results in a significant decrease in prostate V100 and an increase in rectum dose. A reoptimization before the second treatment improves dose distribution.

Foster, William, E-mail: fosterw@radonc.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cunha, J. Adam M.; Hsu, I.-Chow; Weinberg, Vivan; Krishnamurthy, Devan; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Dosimetric evaluation of two treatment planning systems for high dose rate brachytherapy applications  

SciTech Connect

Various treatment planning systems are used to design plans for the treatment of cervical cancer using high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to make a dosimetric comparison of the 2 treatment planning systems from Varian medical systems, namely ABACUS and BrachyVision. The dose distribution of Ir-192 source generated with a single dwell position was compared using ABACUS (version 3.1) and BrachyVision (version 6.5) planning systems. Ten patients with intracavitary applications were planned on both systems using orthogonal radiographs. Doses were calculated at the prescription points (point A, right and left) and reference points RU, LU, RM, LM, bladder, and rectum. For single dwell position, little difference was observed in the doses to points along the perpendicular bisector. The mean difference between ABACUS and BrachyVision for these points was 1.88%. The mean difference in the dose calculated toward the distal end of the cable by ABACUS and BrachyVision was 3.78%, whereas along the proximal end the difference was 19.82%. For the patient case there was approximately 2% difference between ABACUS and BrachyVision planning for dose to the prescription points. The dose difference for the reference points ranged from 0.4-1.5%. For bladder and rectum, the differences were 5.2% and 13.5%, respectively. The dose difference between the rectum points was statistically significant. There is considerable difference between the dose calculations performed by the 2 treatment planning systems. It is seen that these discrepancies are caused by the differences in the calculation methodology adopted by the 2 systems.

Shwetha, Bondel [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Ravikumar, Manickam, E-mail: drravikumarm@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Supe, Sanjay S.; Sathiyan, Saminathan [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Lokesh, Vishwanath [Department of Radiotherapy, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India); Keshava, Subbarao L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai, Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore (India)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fact #805: November 25, 2013 Vehicle Technology Penetration ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

25, 2013 Vehicle Technology Penetration Fact 805: November 25, 2013 Vehicle Technology Penetration As new vehicle technologies are introduced into the market their initial and...

323

Herd immunity to filarial infection is a function of vector biting rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ingestion or dermal penetration, exposure to infection...mosquito biting rates, thereby also allowing...ingestion or dermal penetration, exposure to infection...mosquito biting rates, thereby also allowing...ingestion or dermal penetration, exposure to infection...mosquito biting rates, thereby also allowing...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Dual-chamber plasma deposition of A-Si:H solar cells at high rates using disilane  

SciTech Connect

The use of a separated chamber deposition system for the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells from disilane at high deposition rates results in a substantial improvement in short circuit current compared to that obtained from a single-chamber system. The spectral responses of cells fabricated in the dual-chamber mode are compared to those made in the single-chamber mode. The results are interpreted by assuming that the rate of removal of boron contaminants from the chamber is independent of deposition rate.

Rajeswaran, G.; Vanier, P.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Laterally confined graphene nanosheets and graphene/SnO2 composites as high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are desirable for applications that require high ... demonstrate the advantageous rate capability of few-layered graphene nanosheets, with widths of 100–200 nm,...

Zhiyong Wang; Hao Zhang; Nan Li; Zujin Shi; Zhennan Gu; Gaoping Cao

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Stabilization techniques and silicon-germanium saturable absorbers for high repetition rate mode-locked lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The monolithic integration of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers at highest repetition rates has been prevented by Q-switching instabilities and the lack of integrable saturable absorbers to date. In this thesis we ...

Grawert, Felix Jan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Observation of Solvent Penetration during Cold Denaturation of E. coli Phosphofructokinase-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observation of Solvent Penetration during Cold Denaturation of E. coli Phosphofructokinase-2 Ce; unexpectedly, amide exchange increased throughout the protein over time at 3 C. The rate of increase in amide exchange over time at 3 C was the same for each region and equaled the rate of dimer dissociation measured

Komives, Elizabeth A.

328

The Impact of Star Formation and Gamma-Ray Burst Rates at High Redshift on Cosmic Chemical Evolution and Reionization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations in the total luminosity density have led to significant progress in establishing the star formation rate (SFR) at high redshift. Concurrently observed gamma-ray burst rates have also been used to extract the SFR at high redshift. The SFR in turn can be used to make a host of predictions concerning the ionization history of the Universe, the chemical abundances, and supernova rates. We compare the predictions made using a hierarchical model of cosmic chemical evolution based on three recently proposed SFRs: two based on extracting the SFR from the observed gamma-ray burst rate at high redshift, and one based on the observed galaxy luminosity function at high redshift. Using the WMAP/Planck data on the optical depth and epoch of reionization, we find that only the SFR inferred from gamma-ray burst data at high redshift suffices to allow a single mode (in the initial mass function) of star formation which extends from z = 0 to redshifts > 10. For the case of the more conservative SFR based on...

Vangioni, E; Prestegard, T; Silk, J; Petitjean, P; Mandic, V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Value of Storage with Increased Penetration of Renewable Generation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Storage with of Storage with Increased Renewable Penetration Presenter: Jim Brainard Jesse Roach Sandia National Laboratories Energy Infrastructure and DER John Boyes (Manager) Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Funded in part by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department Of Energy through Sandia National Laboratories Problem Statement  Renewable energy portfolio standards - High penetration of intermittent and variable renewable generation on the grid - Utilities constrained by NERC Control Performance Standards - Requires additional resources to match

330

THE ESTIMATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES AND STELLAR POPULATION AGES OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES FROM BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY  

SciTech Connect

We explore methods to improve the estimates of star formation rates and mean stellar population ages from broadband photometry of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We use synthetic spectral templates with a variety of simple parametric star formation histories to fit broadband spectral energy distributions. These parametric models are used to infer ages, star formation rates, and stellar masses for a mock data set drawn from a hierarchical semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution. Traditional parametric models generally assume an exponentially declining rate of star formation after an initial instantaneous rise. Our results show that star formation histories with a much more gradual rise in the star formation rate are likely to be better templates, and are likely to give better overall estimates of the age distribution and star formation rate distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). For B- and V-dropouts, we find the best simple parametric model to be one where the star formation rate increases linearly with time. The exponentially declining model overpredicts the age by 100% and 120% for B- and V-dropouts, on average, while for a linearly increasing model, the age is overpredicted by 9% and 16%, respectively. Similarly, the exponential model underpredicts star formation rates by 56% and 60%, while the linearly increasing model underpredicts by 15% and 22%, respectively. For U-dropouts, the models where the star formation rate has a peak (near z {approx} 3) provide the best match for age-overprediction is reduced from 110% to 26%-and star formation rate-underprediction is reduced from 58% to 22%. We classify different types of star formation histories in the semi-analytic models and show how the biases behave for the different classes. We also provide two-band calibration formulae for stellar mass and star formation rate estimations.

Lee, Seong-Kook [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wiklind, Tommy [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro, E-mail: joshua@pha.jhu.ed [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

331

Experimental observation of silver and gold penetration into dental ceramic by means of a radiotracer technique  

SciTech Connect

A radiotracer technique was used to study silver and gold diffusion into dental porcelain under experimental conditions close to the real conditions in prosthetic laboratories for porcelain bakes. It was clearly shown that these non-oxidizable elements were able to diffuse into the ceramic as well as oxidizable ones. The penetration depth varied widely according to the element. The ratio DAg/DAu was about 10(3) around 850 degrees C. In contrast to gold, the silver diffusion rate was high enough to allow silver, from the metallic alloy, to be present at the external ceramic surface after diffusion into the ceramic. Hence, the greening of dental porcelains baked on silver-rich alloys could be explained mainly by a solid-state diffusion mechanism.

Moya, F.; Payan, J.; Bernardini, J.; Moya, E.G.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Variable firing rate power burner for high efficiency gas furnaces. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One method for increasing the efficiency of residential furnaces and boilers is to retrofit a burner capable of firing rate (FR) modulation. While maximum FR is still attainable, the average FR is significantly lower, resulting in more effective heat exchanger performance. Equally important is the capability for continuous firing at a very low rate (simmering) which eliminates off-cycle loss, a heavy contributor to inefficiency. Additional performance can be gained by reducing the excess air required by a burner. Based on its previous experience, Foster-Miller Associates, Inc. has designed and tested a low excess air (about 15%) variable firing rate (VFR) burner. The theory of operation and the construction of the test burner are described. Test results are given along with a conclusion/recommendation. A Phase II plan is outlined which suggests methods and steps for fabrication and field testing of a number of prototype units.

Fuller, H.H.; Demler, R.L.; Poulin, E.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Influence of the dynamic behavior of materials on the penetration of long rods at elevated velocities. Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a brief survey of the influence of the dynamic behavior of materials on the stationary penetration of long rods into thick plates at ... of the material to plastic flow, strain rate, temperature effect...

G. V. Stepanov; V. V. Kharchenko

334

High-Shear-Rate Behavior of Radial Hydrogenated Styrene-Isoprene and Block Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Shear-Rate Behavior of Radial Hydrogenated Styrene-Isoprene and Block Ethylene additives (an ethylene-propylene block copolymer and a radial hydrogenated styrene-isoprene copolymer-isoprene copolymer and 1.5% for the ethylene-propylene additive, the viscosity was measured over a range of shear

Erickson, David

335

Adaptation of the CVT algorithm for catheter optimization in high dose rate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An innovative, simple, and fast method to optimize the number and position of catheters is presented for prostate and breast high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, both for arbitrary templates or template-free implants (such as robotic templates).Methods: Eight clinical cases were chosen randomly from a bank of patients, previously treated in our clinic to test our method. The 2D Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (CVT) algorithm was adapted to distribute catheters uniformly in space, within the maximum external contour of the planning target volume. The catheters optimization procedure includes the inverse planning simulated annealing algorithm (IPSA). Complete treatment plans can then be generated from the algorithm for different number of catheters. The best plan is chosen from different dosimetry criteria and will automatically provide the number of catheters and their positions. After the CVT algorithm parameters were optimized for speed and dosimetric results, it was validated against prostate clinical cases, using clinically relevant dose parameters. The robustness to implantation error was also evaluated. Finally, the efficiency of the method was tested in breast interstitial HDR brachytherapy cases.Results: The effect of the number and locations of the catheters on prostate cancer patients was studied. Treatment plans with a better or equivalent dose distributions could be obtained with fewer catheters. A better or equal prostate V100 was obtained down to 12 catheters. Plans with nine or less catheters would not be clinically acceptable in terms of prostate V100 and D90. Implantation errors up to 3 mm were acceptable since no statistical difference was found when compared to 0 mm error (p > 0.05). No significant difference in dosimetric indices was observed for the different combination of parameters within the CVT algorithm. A linear relation was found between the number of random points and the optimization time of the CVT algorithm. Because the computation time decrease with the number of points and that no effects were observed on the dosimetric indices when varying the number of sampling points and the number of iterations, they were respectively fixed to 2500 and to 100. The computation time to obtain ten complete treatments plans ranging from 9 to 18 catheters, with the corresponding dosimetric indices, was 90 s. However, 93% of the computation time is used by a research version of IPSA. For the breast, on average, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations would be satisfied down to 12 catheters. Plans with nine or less catheters would not be clinically acceptable in terms of V100, dose homogeneity index, and D90.Conclusions: The authors have devised a simple, fast and efficient method to optimize the number and position of catheters in interstitial HDR brachytherapy. The method was shown to be robust for both prostate and breast HDR brachytherapy. More importantly, the computation time of the algorithm is acceptable for clinical use. Ultimately, this catheter optimization algorithm could be coupled with a 3D ultrasound system to allow real-time guidance and planning in HDR brachytherapy.

Poulin, Eric; Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Beaulieu, Luc [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Axe oncologie du Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada)] [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Axe oncologie du Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Létourneau, Mélanie [Département de Radio-Oncologie, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada)] [Département de Radio-Oncologie, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (United Kingdom)] [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (United Kingdom); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Feasibility analysis of ultra high frame rate visual servoing on FPGA and SIMD processor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Visual servoing has been proven to obtain better performance than mechanical encoders for position acquisition. However, the often computationally intensive vision algorithms and the ever growing demands for higher frame rate make its realization very ... Keywords: FPGA, reconfiguration, visual servoing, wide SIMD

Yifan He; Zhenyu Ye; Dongrui She; Bart Mesman; Henk Corporaal

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

This work addresses the high-rate session scheduling problem in Fractional Lambda Switching (FS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiplexing (such as SONET/SDH) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Yet, Non-Immediate Forwarding (NIF-rate NIF session. An efficient scheduling algorithm, eSSM, is proposed to explore all possibilities in two modes: (1) immediate forwarding (IF) or (2) non-immediate forwarding (NIF). NIF is more

Baldi, Mario

338

High rate deposition of microcrystalline silicon films by high-pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) thin films were prepared by high-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) with a screened plasma. The deposition ra...

BingQing Zhou; MeiFang Zhu; FengZhen Liu…

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Benthic nutrient regeneration and high rate of primary production in continental shelf waters (reply)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... bottom regeneration is important. Also we have had the opportunity of studying the New York Bight, the area from which our original data were obtained, on two more recent occasions6 ... on KNORR cruise 68 in August, 1977.) In a silty clay of the Christiaensen Basin we measured a regeneration rate of 24mgNm2d1 (ref. 6), whereas in the coarse ...

G. T. ROWE

1978-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation experiments. We have also developed 4.3 mm diameter ion chambers with both tissue equivalent and carbon walls for the purpose of measuring dose mean lineal energy due to all radiations and due to all radiations except neutrons, respectively. By adjusting the gas pressure in the ion chamber, it can be made to simulate tissue volumes from a few nanometers to a few millimeters in diameter. The charge is integrated for 0.1 seconds, and the resulting pulse height is recorded by a multi channel analyzer. The system has been used in a variety of photon and neutron radiation fields, and measured values of dose and dose mean lineal energy are consistent with values extrapolated from measurements made by other techniques at much lower dose rates. It is expected that this technique will prove to be much more reliable than extrapolations from measurements made at low dose rates because these low dose rate exposures generally do not accurately reproduce the attenuation and scattering environment of the actual radiation exposure.

L. A. Braby; W. D. Reece; W. H. Hsu

2003-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

342

Declining Rates of High-Grade Cervical Lesions in Young Women in Connecticut, 2008–2011  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...High-Grade Cervical Lesions in Young Women in Connecticut, 2008-2011 Linda M. Niccolai 1 Pamela...1 Yale School of Public Health and Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, New Haven; and 2 Connecticut Department of Public Health, Hartford...

Linda M. Niccolai; Pamela J. Julian; James I. Meek; Vanessa McBride; James L. Hadler; Lynn E. Sosa

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

High-repetition Rate Wakefield Electron Source Driven by Few-millijoule Ultrashort Laser Pulses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

10 mJ ultrafast laser pulses acting on gas flow from capillary nozzles generate stable 100 keV electron beams at 500 Hz. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that slow high amplitude...

He, Zhaohan; Hou, Bixue; Easter, James; Krushelnick, Karl; Nees, John A; Thomas, Alexander

344

The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility...

McGowen, Robert Scott

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

F1 - An Eight Channel Time-to-Digital Converter Chip for High Rate Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new TDC chip has been developed for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The resulting ASIC offers an unprecedented degree of flexibility and functionality. Its capability to handle highest hit and trigger input rates as well as its low power consumption makes it an ideal tool for future collider and fixed target experiments. First front-end boards equipped with the F1 chip have been used recently at testbeam experiments at CERN. A functional description and specification for this new TDC chip is presented.

G. Braun; H. Fischer; J. Franz; A. Grunemaier; F. H. Heinsius; L. Hennig; K. Konigsmann; M. Niebuhr; M. Schierloh; T. Schmidt; H. Schmitt; H. J. Urban

1999-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

346

Assessing the Energy Efficiency Potential of Industrial Motor Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approaching a high penetration rate would only be possibleby assuming different penetration rates for the energy

McKane, Aimee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Electrospun carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) nanofiber for high rate lithium-ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cellulose derivative CMCAB was synthesized, and nanometer fiber composite material was obtained from lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP)/CMCAB by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified LFP/carbon nanofibers (CNF) nanometer material was obtained by carbonization in 600 °C. IR, TG-DSC, SEM and EDS were performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. LFP/CNF composite materials were assembled into lithium-ion battery and tested their performance. Specific capacity was increased from 147.6 mAh g?1 before modification to 160.8 mAh g?1 after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2 C. After 200 charge–discharge cycles, when discharge rate was increased from 2 C to 5 C to 10 C, modified battery capacity was reduced from 152.4 mAh g?1 to 127.9 mAh g?1 to 106 mAh g?1. When the ratio was reduced from 10 C to 5 C to 2 C, battery capacity can be quickly approximate to the original level. Cellulose materials that were applied to lithium battery can improve battery performance by electrospinning.

Lei Qiu; Ziqiang Shao; Mingshan Yang; Wenjun Wang; Feijun Wang; Long Xie; Shaoyi Lv; Yunhua Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water  

SciTech Connect

Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

2003-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

349

Bertram Hopkinson's pioneering work and the dislocation mechanics of high rate deformations and mechanically induced detonations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...line is a (1/4) power relationship developed...obtained in quasi-ICE gas gun tests performed...39] where n is a power exponent for the...shock-induced dislocation generation as compared with...dimensional scale by generation of a high dislocation...into explosively fired projectiles. Agreement...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Bertram Hopkinson's pioneering work and the dislocation mechanics of high rate deformations and mechanically induced detonations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...information was employed by Pappu Murr [50] to model the...05.002 ) 4 Gerlach, R , C Kettenbeil, and N...high-striking velocities. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 194...explosive by impact. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 338...1063/1.346636 ) 50 Pappu, S , and LE Murr. 2002...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Microstructure and nanohardness distribution in a polycrystalline Zn deformed by high strain rate impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Munitions, 7 route de Guerry, 18023 Bourges Cedex, France c Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd grain size of 20 m surrounded by a fine-grained rim with an average grain size of 6 m. Transmission in high purity polycrystal- line Zn. The evolution of the microstructure due to the impact loading

Gubicza, Jenõ

352

Modeling and optimization of single-pass laser amplifiers for high-repetition-rate laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We propose a model for a continuously pumped single-pass amplifier for continuous and pulsed laser beams. The model takes into account Gaussian shape and focusing geometry of pump and seed beam. As the full-wave simulation is complex we have developed a largely simplified numerical method that can be applied to rotationally symmetric geometries. With the tapered-shell model we treat (focused) propagation and amplification of an initially Gaussian beam in a gain crystal. The implementation can be done with a few lines of code that are given in this paper. With this code, a numerical parameter optimization is straightforward and example results are shown. We compare the results of our simple model with those of a full-wave simulation and show that they agree well. A comparison of model and experimental data also shows good agreement. We investigate in detail different regimes of amplification, namely the unsaturated, the fully saturated, and the intermediate regime. Because the amplification process is affected by spatially varying saturation and exhibits a nonlinear response against pump and seed power, no analytical expression for the expected output is available. For modeling of the amplification we employ a four-level system and show that if the fluorescence lifetime of the gain medium is larger than the inverse repetition rate of the seed beam, continuous-wave amplification can be employed to describe the amplification process of ultrashort pulse trains. We limit ourselves to this regime, which implies that if titanium:sapphire is chosen as gain medium the laser repetition rate has to be larger than a few megahertz. We show detailed simulation results for titanium:sapphire for a large parameter set.

Ozawa, Akira; Udem, Thomas; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Haensch, Theodor W.; Hommelhoff, Peter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik IOF, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Spinel LiMn(2)O(4)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

A well-crystallized and nano-sized spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide hybrid cathode material for high rate lithium-ion batteries has been successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 200 C for 30 min without any post heat-treatment. The nano-sized LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles were evenly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide template without agglomeration, which allows the inherent high active surface area of individual LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the hybrid. These unique structural and morphological properties of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} on the highly conductive reduced graphene oxide sheets in the hybrid enable achieving the high specific capacity, an excellent high rate capability and stable cycling performance. An analysis of the cyclic voltammogram data revealed that a large surface charge storage contribution of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide hybrid plays an important role in achieving faster charge/discharge.

Bak, S.M.; Nam, K.; Lee, C.-W.; Kim, K.-H.; Jung, H.-C.; Yang, X-Q.; Kim, K.-B.

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

354

Prediction of Weld Penetration in FCAW of HSLA steel using Artificial Neural Networks  

SciTech Connect

Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semiautomatic or automatic arc welding process that requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux. The main FCAW process parameters affecting the depth of penetration are welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed. Shallow depth of penetration may contribute to failure of a welded structure since penetration determines the stress-carrying capacity of a welded joint. To avoid such occurrences; the welding process parameters influencing the weld penetration must be properly selected to obtain an acceptable weld penetration and hence a high quality joint. Artificial neural networks (ANN), also called neural networks (NN), are computational models used to express complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) method is used to predict the effects of welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed on weld penetration depth in gas shielded FCAW of a grade of high strength low alloy steel. 32 experimental runs were carried out using the bead-on-plate welding technique. Weld penetrations were measured and on the basis of these 32 sets of experimental data, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network was created. 28 sets of the experiments were used as the training data and the remaining 4 sets were used for the testing phase of the network. The ANN has one hidden layer with eight neurons and is trained after 840 iterations. The comparison between the experimental results and ANN results showed that the trained network could predict the effects of the FCAW process parameters on weld penetration adequately.

Asl, Y. Dadgar; Mostafa, N. B.; Panahizadeh, V. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedkashi, S. M. H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

355

High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity.

Stockel, Ivar H. (Bangor, ME)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Facile synthesis of mesoporous lithium titanate spheres for high rate lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lithium titanate is synthesized from titanium isopropoxide and lithium acetate solution under hydrothermal environment and calcinations. Introducing acidized carbon black during synthesis can produce mesoporous Li4Ti5O12. The crystalline structure and morphological observation of the as-synthesized mesoporous Li4Ti5O12 are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The mesoporous structure can be directly observed through BEI images of the cross-section sample. Besides, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm also displays a hysteresis loop, implying the beneficial evidence of mesoporous structure. The pore size distribution of mesoporous lithium titanate evaluated by BJH model is narrow, and the average size of voids is around 4 nm. It is demonstrated that the electrochemical performance is significantly improved by the mesoporous structure. The mesoporous lithium titanate exhibits a stable capacity of 140 mAhg?1 at 0.5 C. Besides, the reversible capacity at 30 C remains over half of that at 0.5 C. The superior C-rate performance is associated with the mesoporous structure, facilitating lithium transportation ability during cycling.

Yu-Sheng Lin; Jenq-Gong Duh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity. 5 figs.

Stockel, I.H.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

358

Limitations on High Data Rate Optical Fiber Transmission Systems Due to Transmission Impairment  

SciTech Connect

This project supplemented our regular DOE grant from the Basic Energy Sciences organization with the goal of fostering industrial partnerships and student internships. During the project period, we have interacted with between 15 and 20 companies in the optical fiber telecommunications equipment industry, and our students have participated in a number of highly visible projects with companies such as Ciena, Science Applications International Corporation, KDD, ATT, Virtual Photonics, Inc., Phaethon Telecommunications, PhotonEx, and others. The project led to many successful interactions and numerous job offers for our students.

Menyuk, Curtis R.

2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Cathodes manufacturing processes for high-rate Li/SOCl/sub 2/ batteries  

SciTech Connect

Influence of type of carbon black, wetting agent, teflon content (up to 50 %), and carbon paste processing on cathodes characteristics and performances were evaluated. Single cell tests at 30 mA/cm/sup 2/ indicated that high cathode efficiencies could be achieved with various cathode formulations, even with a teflon content of 50 %. Discharge performances on glassy carbon cathodes and analysis of pores size distribution in the porous cathode provided baselines for the interpretation of the above-mentioned results as well as a better understanding of carbon cathode behaviour in Li/SOCl/sub 2/ cells.

Danel, V.; Descroix, J.P.; Petit, A.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on the indoor concentration of pm2.5 sulfate, nitrate, and carbon Title The effect of penetration factor, deposition, and environmental factors on the indoor concentration of pm2.5 sulfate, nitrate, and carbon Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Thatcher, Tracy L., Melissa M. Lunden, Richard G. Sextro, Susanne V. Hering, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 846-851 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract Indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin constitutes an important exposure pathway. We conducted an intensive set of indoor particle measurements in an unoccupied house under differing operating conditions. Real-time measurements were conducted both indoors and outdoors, including PM2.5 nitrate, sulfate, and carbon. Because the time-scale of the fluctuations in outdoor particle concentrations and meteorological conditions are often similar to the time constant for building air exchange, a steady state concentration may never be reached. The time-series experimental data were used to determine the effect of changes in air exchange rate and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity differences on indoor particle concentrations. A multivariate regression was performed to investigate the difference between measured indoor concentrations and results from a simple time-dependent physical model. Environmental conditions had a significant effect on indoor concentrations of all three PM2.5 species, but did not explain all of the model variation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

High-Rate Seafood Consumers near Sellafield: Comparison of Conventional Assessments of 137Cs Intakes with the Results of Whole-Body Monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article High-Rate Seafood Consumers near Sellafield: Comparison of Conventional Assessments of 137Cs Intakes with the Results of Whole-Body Monitoring......

G.J. Hunt; D.R.P. Leonard; F.A. Fry

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Possible evidence for penetration of interstellar dust into the Solar System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of impacts as a function of time is shown in Fig. 3. The count rate (slope of the curve) presents a sharp increase (by a factor of 5) ... after the second instrument turn-on, which occured 2 yr. after launch. An initial penetration ...

J. L. Bertaux; J. E. Blamont

1976-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

363

High Strain-Rate Mechanical Behaviour of a Copper Matrix Composite for Nuclear Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aim of this work is the investigation of mechanical behaviour of an alumina dispersion strengthened copper, known by the trade name GLIDCOP®, subjected to dynamic loads: it is a composite material with a copper matrix strengthened with aluminium oxide ceramic particles. Since the particle content is quite small the material keeps the OFE copper physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, but with a higher yield strength, like a mild-carbon steel. Besides, with the addition of aluminium oxide, the good mechanical properties are retained also at high temperatures and the resistance to thermal softening is increased: the second phase blocks the dislocation movement preventing the grain growth. Thanks to these properties GLIDCOP® finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collim...

Peroni, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Binder-free Ge-three dimensional graphene electrodes for high-rate capacity Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A binder-free, high-rate Ge-three dimensional (3D) graphene composite was synthesized by directly depositing Ge film atop 3D graphene grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Ni substrate. The Ge-3D graphene structure demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode with a reversible capacity of 1140 mAh g{sup ?1} at 1/3C over 100 cycles and 835 mAh g{sup ?1} at 8C after 60 cycles, and significantly a discharge capacity of 186 mAh g{sup ?1} was still achieved at 32C. The high capacity and outstanding stability of the Ge-3D graphene composite propose it as a promising electrode in high-performance thin film LIBs.

Wang, C. D.; Chui, Y. S.; Chen, X. F., E-mail: xianfeng.chen@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Zhang, W. J., E-mail: xianfeng.chen@cityu.edu.hk, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y. [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

365

Binder-free Ge-three dimensional graphene electrodes for high-rate capacity Li-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A binder-free high-rate Ge-three dimensional (3D) graphene composite was synthesized by directly depositing Ge film atop 3D graphene grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Ni substrate. The Ge-3D graphene structure demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium ion battery (LIB) anode with a reversible capacity of 1140 mAh g?1 at 1/3C over 100 cycles and 835 mAh g?1 at 8C after 60 cycles and significantly a discharge capacity of 186 mAh g?1 was still achieved at 32C. The high capacity and outstanding stability of the Ge-3D graphene composite propose it as a promising electrode in high-performance thin film LIBs.

C. D. Wang; Y. S. Chui; Y. Li; X. F. Chen; W. J. Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Market penetration of new energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

Packey, D.J.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The effects of grain moisture content and grain temperature on the penetration of hydrogen cyanide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the post fumigation time increased (fig. 12). The greatest rate of 24 Figure 7z Penetration of HCN in interstitial air at concentrations of 5G ppm as effected by moisture and temperature at 4 hours. 17 15 65o Rpo 95' 13 lyon j-57 Figure 8... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (Mionth) 1262 (Year) Mayor Subject ghtdlggllQJLK THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT JBD GRAIN TEMPERATURE ON THE PENETRATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE A Thesis SIDNEY EDNUND KUNZ Approved as to style...

Kunz, Sidney E

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

Detecting Cellulase Penetration Into Corn Stover Cell Walls by Immuno-Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

In general, pretreatments are designed to enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes, allowing for more efficient conversion. In this study, we have detected the penetration of major cellulases present in a commercial enzyme preparation (Spezyme CP) into corn stem cell walls following mild-, moderate- and high-severity dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments. The Trichoderma reesei enzymes, Cel7A (CBH I) and Cel7B (EG I), as well as the cell wall matrix components xylan and lignin were visualized within digested corn stover cell walls by immuno transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using enzyme- and polymer-specific antibodies. Low severity dilute-acid pretreatment (20 min at 100 C) enabled <1% of the thickness of secondary cell walls to be penetrated by enzyme, moderate severity pretreatment at (20 min at 120 C) allowed the enzymes to penetrate {approx}20% of the cell wall, and the high severity (20 min pretreatment at 150 C) allowed 100% penetration of even the thickest cell walls. These data allow direct visualization of the dramatic effect dilute-acid pretreatment has on altering the condensed ultrastructure of biomass cell walls. Loosening of plant cell wall structure due to pretreatment and the subsequently improved access by cellulases has been hypothesized by the biomass conversion community for over two decades, and for the first time, this study provides direct visual evidence to verify this hypothesis. Further, the high-resolution enzyme penetration studies presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of cell wall deconstruction by cellulolytic enzymes.

Donohoe, B. S.; Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Determination of simple constitutive models for borosilicate glass using penetration-velocity data from ballistic experiments  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models for brittle materials such as glass can be very complex as they are dependent on strains, strain rates, pressures, temperatures, damage and other parameters. There may also be significant (pressure-dependent) strength after failure such that the constitutive response is much different for intact material and failed material. A large number of laboratory tests is required to develop a comprehensive constitutive model. Another approach is to develop simple models by using penetration-velocity data obtained from ballistic experiments. Here various functional forms of simple models (with a limited number of constants) can be used to (computationally) match the penetration velocity over a range of impact velocities. This allows for the determination of the most important parameters and it provides an approximation of the stresses that occur during penetration. This article presents several simple computational models for borosilicate glass, including single-state models and dual-state models (that include an intact strength and a failed strength)

Johnson, G. R.; Holmquist, T. J. [Southwest Research Institute, 5353 Wayzata Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55416 (United States)

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

370

High rate (?3 nm/s) deposition of dense silicon nitride films at low substrate temperatures (plasma and substrate biasing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The deposition of amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films at high deposition rates (?3 nm/s) and at low substrate temperatures (plasma technique operated on an Ar–NH3–SiH4 reactant mixture. To increase the atomic density of the films by ion bombardment, low frequency (lf, 400 kHz) and radio-frequency (rf, 13.6 MHz) substrate biasing has been employed during deposition such that the ions are accelerated towards the substrate up to energies of ?250 eV. From spectroscopic ellipsometry and Rutherford backscattering measurements, it is demonstrated that the film density increases with increasing substrate bias even under these high deposition rate conditions. An increase in film atomic density from 7.6×1022 cm?3 to 8.8×1022 cm?3 has been observed for rf biasing when going from almost zero substrate bias to a bias voltage of ?250 V. It is shown that this increased film density reduces the oxygen content in the a-SiNx:H caused by post-deposition oxygen and/or moisture permeation by more than 50%.

F.J.H. van Assche; W.M.M. Kessels; R. Vangheluwe; W.S. Mischke; M. Evers; M.C.M. van de Sanden

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Dose-Rate Dependence of High-Dose Health Effects in Humans from Photon Radiation with Application to Radiological Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, as part of a symposium entitled ''The Control of Exposure of the Public to Ionizing Radiation in the Event of Accident or Attack,'' Lushbaugh, H?bner, and Fry published a paper examining ''radiation tolerance'' of various human health endpoints as a function of dose rate. This paper may not have received the notice it warrants. The health endpoints examined by Lushbaugh et al. were the lethal dose that will kill 50% of people within 60 days of exposure without medical care (LD50/60); severe bone marrow damage in healthy men; severe bone marrow damage in leukemia patients; temporary sterility (azoospermia); reduced male fertility; and late effects such as cancer. Their analysis was grounded in extensive clinical experience and anchored to a few selected data points, and based on the 1968 dose-rate dependence theory of J.L. Bateman. The Lushbaugh et al. paper did not give predictive equations for the relationships, although they were implied in the text, and the relationships were presented in a non-intuitive way. This work derives the parameters needed in Bateman's equation for each health endpoint, tabulates the results, and plots them in a more conventional manner on logarithmic scales. The results give a quantitative indication of how the human organism can tolerate more radiation dose when it is delivered at lower dose rates. For example, the LD50/60 increases from about 3 grays (300 rads) when given at very high dose rates to over 10 grays (1,000 rads) when given at much lower dose rates over periods of several months. The latter figure is borne out by the case of an individual who survived for at least 19 years after receiving doses in the range of 9 to 17 grays (900-1700 rads) over 106 days. The Lushbaugh et al. work shows the importance of sheltering when confronted with long-term exposure to radiological contamination such as would be expected from a radiological dispersion event, reactor accident, or ground-level nuclear explosion.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H{sub 2}, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are reduced; (3) surface hydrogen removal--heavier and more energetic helium ions break the Si-H much easier than hydrogen ions. The preferential attachment of Si-H to Ge-H is reduced. They also found that with the small amount of hydrogen put into the plasma, the superior properties of a-(Si,Ge):H made from pure hydrogen dilution plasma were still maintained. These hydrogen ions help to remove the subsurface weakly bonded hydrogen and buried hydrogen. They also help to passivate the Ge-dangling bond.

Yong Liu

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

High-precision (p,t) reaction to determine {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction rates  

SciTech Connect

Since the identification of ongoing {sup 26}Al production in the universe, the reaction sequence {sup 24}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 25}Al({beta}{sup +{nu}}){sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al has been studied intensively. At temperatures where the radiative capture on {sup 25}Al (t{sub 1/2}=7.2 s) becomes faster than the {beta}{sup +} decay, the production of {sup 26}Al can be reduced due to the depletion of {sup 25}Al. To determine the resonances relevant for the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si bypass reaction, we measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with high-energy precision using the Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka. Several new energy levels were found above the p threshold and for known states excitation energies were determined with smaller uncertainties. The calculated stellar rates of the bypass reaction agree well with previous results, suggesting that these rates are well established.

Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Physics and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 560-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety, Efficacy, and Effect on Survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the saftety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Results: Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, {>=}3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Conclusion: Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy.

Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany); Wust, Peter [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Martin-Luther-Krankenhaus, Berlin (Germany); Gademann, Guenther; Peters, Nils [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany); Berg, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepato-Gastroenterologie, Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Malfertheiner, Peter [Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany); Ricke, Jens, E-mail: ricke@med.ovgu.d [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Numerical simulations of thermomagnetic instability in high-Tc superconductors: Dependence on sweep rate and ambient temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the results of numerical simulations of flux jumps on the basis of dynamic process of thermomagnetic interaction to the nonisothermal and nonadiabatic high-Tc superconductors in the regime of thermally activated flux creep when an applied magnetic field is parallel to a slab of the high-Tc superconductors. The simulations for the samples of BiSrCaCuO show that the flux jumps may occur only in the region of low ambient temperature, which is dependent upon the heat contact, and the sweep rate is greater than a lower critical value of about 20G?s and lesser than a large one up to the order of 1–10T?s. It is found that the predictions of the first flux-jump field Bfj1 are quantitatively in good agreement with the existing experimental data, and the temperature jumps are observed in the superconductors, corresponding to each flux jump in the magnetization loop. When the field sweep rate exceeds the large critical value for the case of the superconductor at 4.2K, the phenomenon of experimental observations without flux jump is successfully predicted by the theoretical simulation, where the thermomagnetic interaction is smoothly circulated at a new dynamic equilibrium state in the temperature region of about 10.6–16.4K higher than the ambient one, which is mainly dependent on the tradeoff of speeds of the dissipation energy in the slab and the heat removed into the coolant. After that, the sensitivity of the thermomagnetic instability to the parameters, such as critical current density, heat conductivity, heat transfer coefficient, critical geometrical scale, etc. is also discussed.

You-He Zhou and Xiaobin Yang

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Gas Phase Diagnosis of Disilane/Hydrogen RF Glow Discharge Plasma and Its Application to High Rate Growth of High Quality Amorphous Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas phase diagnosis of disilane/hydrogen plasma was carried out using mass spectrometry. At high growth rate (20 Å/s) conditions using pure disilane as a source gas, the partial pressure of disilane molecules measured by mass spectrometry was more than one order of magnitude higher than in the case when mono-silane was used as a source gas. The stability of amorphous silicon films prepared from disilane was improved by the hydrogen dilution technique, although the disilane partial pressure in this condition was much higher than in the case when mono-silane was used as a source gas for device quality films. The relation between the gas phase species and the stability of the resulting films is studied. It was found that increase in disilane related signal intensity do not decrease film stability directly.

Wataru Futako; Tomoko Takagi; Tomonori Nishimoto; Michio Kondo; Isamu Shimizu; Akihisa Matsuda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Relationship between formation water rate, equivalent penetration rate and volume flow rate of air in air drilling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation water invasion is the most troublesome problem associated with air drilling. However, it is not economical to apply mist drilling when only a small amount of water flows into wellbore from formation dur...

Wang Kexiong; Zhang Laibin; Jiang Hongwei

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

NEUTRON SCATTERING SHOWS THAT CYTOCHROME b5 PENETRATES DEEPLY INTO THE LIPID BILAYER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEUTRON SCATTERING SHOWS THAT CYTOCHROME b5 PENETRATES DEEPLY INTO THE LIPID BILAYER E. P. GOGOL to lipid vesicles using neutron small-angle scattering methods. To increase scat- tering contrast between of a highly deuterated phospholipid. Small-angle neutron diffraction patterns were collected in a series of H

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381

Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors  

SciTech Connect

A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

Prommapan, Plegchart

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

383

SPUTTERING FROM A POROUS MATERIAL BY PENETRATING IONS  

SciTech Connect

Porous materials are ubiquitous in the universe and weathering of porous surfaces plays an important role in the evolution of planetary and interstellar materials. Sputtering of porous solids in particular can influence atmosphere formation, surface reflectivity, and the production of the ambient gas around materials in space. Several previous studies and models have shown a large reduction in the sputtering of a porous solid compared to the sputtering of the non-porous solid. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the sputtering of a nanoporous solid with 55% of the solid density. We calculate the electronic sputtering induced by a fast, penetrating ion, using a thermal spike representation of the deposited energy. We find that sputtering for this porous solid is, surprisingly, the same as that for a full-density solid, even though the sticking coefficient is high.

Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F. [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Bringa, E. M. [CONICET and Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Cassidy, T. A. [CalTech/JPL, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Johnson, R. E.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A. [Laboratory for Atomic and Surface Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Caro, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 94551 (United States); Loeffler, M. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrochemistry Branch, Code 691, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Farkas, D. [Department of Materials Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

Romero, Carlos E. (Livermore, CA); Zumstein, James E. (Livermore, CA); Chang, John T. (Danville, CA); Leach, Jr.. Richard R. (Castro Valley, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

385

Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

Bashforth, Michael B. (Buellton, CA); Gardner, Duane (Santa Maria, CA); Patrick, Douglas (Santa Maria, CA); Lewallen, Tricia A. (Ventura, CA); Nammath, Sharyn R. (Santa Barbara, CA); Painter, Kelly D. (Goleta, CA); Vadnais, Kenneth G. (Alexandria, VA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Processing depleted uranium quad alloy penetrator rods  

SciTech Connect

Two depleted uranium (DU) quad alloys were cast, extruded and rolled to produce penetrator rods. The two alloy combinations were (1) 1 wt % molybdenum (Mo), 1 wt % niobium (Nb), and 0.75 wt % titanium (Ti); and (2) 1 wt % tantalum (Ta), 1 wt % Nb, and 0.75 wt % Ti. This report covers the processing and results with limited metallographic information available. The two alloys were each vacuum induction melted (VIM) into an 8-in. log, extruded into a 3-in. log, then cut into 4 logs and extruded at 4 different temperatures into 0.8-in. bars. From the 8 conditions (2 alloys, 4 extrusion temperatures each), 10 to 13 16-in. rods were cut for rolling and swaging. Due to cracking problems, the final processing changed from rolling and swaging to limited rolling and heat treating. The contracted work was completed with the delivery of 88 rods to Dr. Zabielski. 28 figs.

Bokan, S.L.

1987-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

387

High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Evolution and Mature Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial (IRT) brachytherapy (BRT) as sole treatment (monotherapy) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 718 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided HDR monotherapy. Three treatment protocols were applied; 141 patients received 38.0 Gy using one implant in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy with computed tomography-based treatment planning; 351 patients received 38.0 Gy in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy, using 2 implants (2 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning; and 226 patients received 34.5 Gy, using 3 single-fraction implants of 11.5 Gy (3 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix consensus, and toxicity was evaluated using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. Results: The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. The 36-, 60-, and 96-month biochemical control and metastasis-free survival rates for the entire cohort were 97%, 94%, and 90% and 99%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. Toxicity was scored per event, with 5.4% acute grade 3 genitourinary and 0.2% acute grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Late grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 3.5% and 1.6%, respectively. Two patients developed grade 4 incontinence. No other instance of grade 4 or greater acute or late toxicity was reported. Conclusion: Our results confirm IRT-HDR-BRT is safe and effective as monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Tselis, Nikolaos, E-mail: ntselis@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Buhleier, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Martin, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany); Milickovic, Natasa; Papaioannou, Sokratis [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Tunn, Ulf W. [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation on Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios given by Sigmund Gronich of DOE during the DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006.

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity exposure rate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential sources contributed to variability in total PM2.5 exposures... rates and penetration factors were applied to estimate the exposure. Modeling with multiple zones...

390

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute disintegration rate Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the swelling, hydration and rupturing properties of the Summary: controlled by the medium penetration rate. The swelling of the embedded super- disintegrants could... -controlled...

391

Traffic flow reconstruction using mobile sensors and loop detector data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sector). Given the high penetration rate of cellular phonesassuming different penetration rates and sampling rates).1 and 3. For low penetration rates (cases 1 and 2), the

Herrera, Juan C; Bayen, Alexandre M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Jet penetration into a riser operated in dense suspension upflow: experimental and model comparisons  

SciTech Connect

Solids tracers were used to characterize the penetration of a gas-solids jet directed toward the center of the 0.3-m diameter, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser. The penetration was measured by tracking phosphorescent particles illuminated immediately prior to injection into the riser. Photosensors and piezoelectric detectors were traversed across the radius of the riser at various axial positions to detect the phosphorescent jet material and particles traveling in the radial direction. Local particle velocities were measured at various radial positions, riser heights, and azimuthal angles using an optical fiber probe. Four (4) variables were tested including the jet velocity, solids feed rate into the jet, the riser velocity, and overall CFB circulation rate over 8 distinct test cases with the central, or base case, repeated each time the test series was conducted. In addition to the experimental measurements made, the entire riser with a side feed jet of solids was simulated using the Eulerian-Eulerian computer model MFIX.

Shadle, L.J.; Ludlow, C.J.; Spenik, J.L.; Seachman, S.M.; Guenther, C.P.

2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

393

A real-time in vivo dosimetric verification method for high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A real-time in vivo dosimetric verification method using metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters has been developed for patient dosimetry in high-dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The necessary calibration and correction factors for MOSFET measurements in {sup 192}Iridium source were determined in a water phantom. With the detector placed inside a custom-made nasopharyngeal applicator, the actual dose delivered to the tumor was measured in vivo and compared to the calculated values using a commercial brachytherapy planning system. Results: Five MOSFETs were independently calibrated with the HDR source, yielding calibration factors of 0.48 {+-} 0.007 cGy/mV. The maximum sensitivity variation was no more than 7% in the clinically relevant distance range of 1-5 cm from the source. A total of 70 in vivo measurements in 11 NPC patients demonstrated good agreement with the treatment planning. The mean differences between the planned and the actually delivered dose within a single treatment fraction were -0.1%{+-} 3.8% and -0.1%{+-} 3.7%, respectively, for right and left side assessments. The maximum dose deviation was less than 8.5%. Conclusions: In vivo measurement using the real-time MOSFET dosimetry system is possible to evaluate the actual dose to the tumor received by the patient during a treatment fraction and thus can offer another line of security to detect and prevent large errors.

Qi Zhenyu; Deng Xiaowu; Cao Xinping; Huang Shaomin; Lerch, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060 (China) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

The B61-based "Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator:" Clever retrofit or headway towards fourth-generation nuclear weapons?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is scientifically and technically possible to build an earth penetrating device that could bury a B61-7 warhead 30 meters into concrete, or 150 meters into earth, before detonating it. The device (based on knowledge and technology that is available since 50 years) would however by large and cumbersome. Better penetrator materials, components able to withstand larger stresses, higher impact velocities, and/or high-explosive driven penetration aids, can only marginally improve the device. It is conclude that the robust nuclear earth penetrator (RNEP) program may be as much motivated by the development of new technology directly applicable to next generation nuclear weapons, and by the political necessity to periodically reasses the role and utility of nuclear weapons, then by the perceived military need of a weapon able to destroy deeply buried targets.

Gsponer, A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential  

SciTech Connect

Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

Helm, C.; Burman, K.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

currently accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum consumption and 33% of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. If the nation seeks to address the associated economic, environmental, and...

398

Highly penetrative, drug-loaded nanocarriers improve treatment of glioblastoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...New Haven, CT 06511; andcDiagnostic Radiology, andDepartments of aBiomedical Engineering,cDiagnostic Radiology, andeW. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular...secured to the surface of the skull with dental cement (Henry Schein) and surgical...

Jiangbing Zhou; Toral R. Patel; Rachael W. Sirianni; Garth Strohbehn; Ming-Qiang Zheng; Nha Duong; Thomas Schafbauer; Anita J. Huttner; Yiyun Huang; Richard E. Carson; Ying Zhang; David J. Sullivan; Jr.; Joseph M. Piepmeier; W. Mark Saltzman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Cell Penetration Properties of a Highly Efficient Mini Maurocalcine Peptide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These receptors are calcium channels located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. They control Ca2 into the fact that there is an intriguing sequence homology with a domain of the L-type voltage-gated calcium A is found underneath the membrane in the cytoplasm within a loop that has been recognized as extremely

Boyer, Edmond

400

Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Brain-Penetrant LSD1 Inhibitors Can Block Memory Consolidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brain-Penetrant LSD1 Inhibitors Can Block Memory Consolidation ... Modulation of histone modifications in the brain may represent a new mechanism for brain disorder therapy. ... The two most potent and selective inhibitors were used to demonstrate brain penetration when administered systemically to rodents. ...

Ramesh Neelamegam; Emily L. Ricq; Melissa Malvaez; Debasis Patnaik; Stephanie Norton; Stephen M. Carlin; Ian T. Hill; Marcelo A. Wood; Stephen J. Haggarty; Jacob M. Hooker

2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

402

Better practices and synthetic fluid improve drilling rates  

SciTech Connect

Improved drilling practices, combined with the use of olefin-based synthetic drilling fluids, have dramatically reduced drilling time and costs in a difficult drilling area in the Gulf of Mexico. In the South Pass area, Marathon Oil Co. and other operators have had wells with long drilling times and high costs. In addition to the two wells with record penetration rates, routine drilling rates have also increased from the use of synthetic mud and careful drilling practices. Through application of these improved drilling practices, 2,000--3,000 ft/day can be drilled routinely. Marathon achieves this goal by applying the experience gained on previous wells, properly training and involving the crews, and using innovative drilling systems. Improved drilling practices and systems are just one part of successful, efficient drilling. Rig site personnel are major contributors to safely and successfully drilling at high penetration rates for extended periods. The on site personnel must act as a team and have the confidence and proper mental attitude about what is going on downhole. The paper describes the drilling history in the South Pass area, the synthetic drilling fluid used, cuttings handling, hole cleaning, drilling practices, bottom hole assemblies, and lost circulation.

White, W. (Marathon Oil Co., Lafayette, LA (United States)); McLean, A.; Park, S. (M-I Drilling Fluids, Houston, TX (United States))

1995-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

403

Dosimetric Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy as a Boost to the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We compared the dose conformity of two radiation modalities: high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to deliver a boost to the prostate after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Ten successive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with a single 10-Gy HDR BT boost after EBRT were investigated. Four theoretical IMRT plans were computed: (a) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (b) 26 Gy IMRT with CTV-PTV expansions, doses corresponding to the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) of one 10-Gy fraction calculated with a prostate alpha/beta ratio of respectively 1.5 and 3 Gy; and (c) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (d) 26 Gy IMRT without CTV-PTV expansions. The dose-volume histogram values converted in EQD2 with an alpha/beta ratio of 3 Gy for the organs at risk were compared. Results: The HDR BT plan delivered higher mean doses to the PTV compared with IMRT plans. In all, 33% of the rectal volume received a mean dose of 5.32 +- 0.65 Gy and 20% of bladder volume received 4.61 +- 1.24 Gy with HDR BT. In comparison, doses delivered with IMRT were respectively 13.4 +- 1.49 Gy and 10.81 +- 4 Gy, even if only 26 Gy was prescribed to the PTV with no CTV-PTV expansion (p < 0.0001). The hot spots inside the urethra were greater with HDR BT but acceptable. Conclusions: Use of HDR BT produced a more conformal plan for the boost to the prostate than IMRT even without CTV-PTV expansions.

Hermesse, Johanne, E-mail: jhermesse@chu.ulg.ac.b [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Biver, Sylvie; Jansen, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Lenaerts, Eric [Department of Medical Physics, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Nickers, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Implications of the UHECRs penetration depth measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The simple interpretation of PAO's UHECRs' penetration depth measurements suggests a transition at the energy range $1.1 - 35 \\cdot 10^{18} $ eV from protons to heavier nuclei. A detailed comparison of this data with air shower simulations reveals strong restrictions on the amount of light nuclei (protons and He) in the observed flux. We find a robust upper bound on the observed proton fraction of the UHECRs flux and we rule out a composition dominated by protons and He. Acceleration and propagation effects lead to an observed composition that is different from the one at the source. Using a simple toy model that take into account these effects, we show that the observations requires an extreme metallicity at the sources with metals to protons mass ratio of 1:1, a ratio that is larger by a factor of a hundred than the solar abundance. This composition imposes an almost impossible constraint on all current astrophysical models for UHECRs accelerators. This may provide a first hint towards new physics that emerges at $\\sim 100$ TeV and leads to a larger proton cross section at these energies.

Nimrod Shaham; Tsvi Piran

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

405

Characteristics of High-Power Diode-Laser Welds for Industrial Assembly C.A. Walsh*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rate and nozzle angle (with workpiece) on welding speed and penetration. They found flow rate. An optimum flow rate existed at which the penetration depth was maximised (2.3 mm with a 2 k that the penetration depth tended to increase slightly with increasing nozzle angle and was also sensitive to the gas

Cambridge, University of

406

The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing: Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Made Easy, 1st edition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing serves as an introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test or perform an ethical hack. You learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern day hacking tools; which ...

Patrick Engebretson

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Penetration of a Fluid into a Porous Medium or Hele-Shaw Cell Containing a More Viscous Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

24 June 1958 research-article The Penetration of a Fluid into a Porous Medium or Hele-Shaw Cell Containing...modes of small disturbances from a plane interface and their rate of growth, it is necessary to know, or to assume one knows...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

detonation rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation rate, detonation velocity, velocity of detonation, V.O.D., detonating velocity, rate of detonation, detonating rate ? Detonationsgeschwindigkeit f

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

First laboratory perforating tests in coal show lower-than-expected penetration  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide Coal Bed Methane (CBM) resources are huge, estimated at 3,000 to 9,000 Tcf. The production rate from CBM reservoirs is low, perhaps 50-100 mcf/day. Various completion methods are being evaluated and new technologies are being developed with the aim of increasing production rates. Considering this interest and activity level, little attention has been paid to the CBM completion fundamentals. Perforating is a critical part of this process, especially considering the PRB development migration from single-coal, open-hole completions into multi-zone, cased-hole completions. This paper describes the first known laboratory-testing program to investigate shaped charge penetration in coal targets. We describe mechanical properties of the coals tested, and penetration results for different shaped charges (of different designs), shot at various stress conditions. CT scan and cutaway imaging of the perforation tunnels are also discussed. Tests were conducted under dry and saturated conditions. The preliminary experiments reported here indicate that shaped charge penetration in coal is significantly less than expected, considering the target's density and strength. The authors provide insight into what may be the reasons for these unexpected results and recommend a path forward for shaped charge testing, designs, predictive tools, and how to optimize CBM completions.

Snider, P.M.; Walton, I.C.; Skinner, T.K.; Atwood, D.C.; Grove, B.M.; Graham, C.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for high-rate application of lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite has been synthesized by a...2 nanoparticle homogenously dispersed onto the reduced graphene oxide sheets. The electrochemistry performance has been...?1 at the rate of 10...

Chuchun Zheng; Chunhua He; Haiyan Zhang; Wenguang Wang; Xinling Lei

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.

Chibani, Omar, E-mail: omar.chibani@fccc.edu; C-M Ma, Charlie [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)] [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Magnetic field dependence of the coherence length and penetration depth of MgB2 single crystals T. Klein,1,2 L. Lyard,1 J. Marcus,1 Z. Holanova,1 and C. Marcenat3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic field dependence of the coherence length and penetration depth of MgB2 single crystals T with a phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau model introducing field dependent parameters i.e., penetration depth and which scattering form factor, and muon spin relaxation rate. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.184513 PACS number s : 74

Boyer, Edmond

413

Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plausible future penetration rates for residential PVefficiencies and penetration rates. A subset of outputs areof localized high penetration rates, but the lack of a sound

Garbesi, Karina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Construction and Preliminary HVS Tests of Pre-Cast Concrete Pavement Slabs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

had a relatively high penetration rate of approximately 30200 mm depth, the penetration rate decreased to between 2subgrade. These low penetration rates, combined with the

Kohler, Erwin R.; du Plessis, Louw; Theyse, Hechter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reference case penetration rate for high-efficiencyan LBNL estimate of the Energy Star market penetration rate.The initial penetration rate estimate of 15% was assumed,

Sanchez, Marla

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variability. For higher penetration rate (30% by energy),curtailment even at high penetration rates. Moreover, iffor various wind penetration rates in this study establishes

Phadke, Amol

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was ¼ inch (6. 25 mm) thick copper disk. The diameter of thevery high power de nsity. Copper was selected for this studythe high stability of HIPIMS copper discharges ( copper can

Horwat, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability ... Ge Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries ...

Jingshan Luo; Jilei Liu; Zhiyuan Zeng; Chi Fan Ng; Lingjie Ma; Hua Zhang; Jianyi Lin; Zexiang Shen; Hong Jin Fan

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

419

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Power System Operation with Large Penetrations of Wind Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The characteristics of wind power result in unique challenges for system operators when integrating large penetrations of wind generation into power systems. This chapter discusses some of the power system ope...

Eleanor Denny

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High Average Power, 100 Hz Repetition Rate, Table-top EUV/Soft X-ray Lasers  

SciTech Connect

Compact =13.9 nm and =18.9 nm lasers with >0.1 mW average power at 100 Hz repetition rate driven by a diode-pumped, 1 J, CPA laser were demonstrated. Wavelength scaling to =10.9 nm will be discussed.

Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Durivage, Leon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Salsbury, Chase [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Warming reduces metabolic rate in marine snails: adaptation to fluctuating high temperatures challenges the metabolic theory of ecology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...under acutely changing temperature conditions (heating...the lower vertical distribution of these snails were...exposed to laboratory temperatures (22C) during manipulation...and maximum rate of temperature change recorded on...and orienting to the sun, this was not observed...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sex education in Connecticut high schools| Teachers' reports of content and importance ratings according to the SIECUS Guidelines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The purpose of this study was to examine Connecticut teachers’ reports of the sex education content taught to high school students as well as… (more)

Wallace Obloj, Donna Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Use of very-high-frequency plasmas to prepare a-Si:H-based triple-junction solar cells at high deposition rates: Annual technical status report, 11 March 1998--11 March 1999  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed by Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) during this phase of this subcontract. ECD researchers have made significant progress in advancing the very high frequency (VHF), high-rate technology. They demonstrated that 8.0% stable efficiencies can be achieved for a-Si:H cells whose i-layers are prepared at rates near 10 {angstrom}/s using the VHF technique. Presently, there is not a great difference in the performance of a-Si:H cells made using the VHF technique and i-layer deposition rates near 10 {angstrom}/s and that for cells made using the standard 13.56 MHz technique and rates near 1 {angstrom}/s in the same deposition system. In terms of the a-SiGe:H cells, researchers have completed a number of studies of devices with properties appropriate for middle-junction cells-that is, cells without Ag/ZnO back-reflectors having Voc values near 0.75V and Jsc values near 8.0 mA/cm{sup 2} when measured using AM1.5 light filtered using a 530-nm, low-band-pass filter. The stabilized proper ties for these cells prepared at i-layer rates near 10 {angstrom}/s are again similar to a-SiGe:H cells made using the same deposition hardware and the low-rate 13.56 MHz method. Establishing an initial 10.5% for a triple-junction cell whose i-layers are prepared at the high rates sets the baseline for ECD's future studies. The triple-junction cell degradation (10%--13%) with prolonged light soaking is similar to that regularly obtained for cells prepared at low i-layer deposition rates (1 {angstrom}/s). This is important because the use of high-rate methods to prepare i-layers typically leads to less-stable materials and cells. Increasing the buffer-layer deposition rate to 6 {angstrom}/s leads to nearly a 15-min decrease in the total deposition time, whereas the increase in the n-layer and p-layer deposition rates both decrease the total time by 5 and 5.8 min, respectively. Thus, besides the i-layer growth rates, increasing the buffer layer growth rate has the strongest effect on the deposition time of the triple-junction semiconductor structures.

Jones, S.J.; Liu, T.; Tsu, D.; Izu, M.

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure as an x-ray source with high pulse repetition rates  

SciTech Connect

The properties of x-ray radiation and runaway electrons produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. X-ray radiation at a pulse repetition rate of 3 kHz was obtained time in a gas diode filled with air at atmospheric pressure. The current pulse width (FWHM) for runaway electrons generated in the gas diode was {approx}100 ps. A prepulse was observed on an oscilloscope trace of the main runaway electron beam current.

Tarasenko, Victor F. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634021, pr. Akademicheskii 2/3 (Russian Federation)

2006-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

427

Flow rate and duty cycle effects in lysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using high-energy pulsed focused ultrasound  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To consider microalgae lipid biofuel as a viable energy source it is a necessity to maximize algal cell lysis lipid harvest and thus biofuel production versus the energy used to lyse the cells. Previous techniques have been to use energy consumptive ultrasound waves in the 10–40?kHz range in a stationary exposure environment. This study evaluated the potential of using 1.1?MHz ultrasound pulses in a new flow through type chamber on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism for cell breakage. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34?cm and an active diameter of 6.36?cm driven by 20 cycle sine-wave tone bursts at varied pulse repetition frequencies. First variations in flow rate were examined at a constant duty cycle of 3.6%. After assessing flow rates the duty cycle was varied to further explore the dependence on the tone burst parameters. Cell lysis was assessed by quantifying protein and chlorophyll release into the supernatant as well as by lipid extractability. Appropriate flow rates with higher duty cycles led to statistically significant increases in cell lysis relative to controls and other exposure conditions.

Timothy A. Bigelow; Jin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

E-Print Network 3.0 - accident rates Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

limiting the egress rate and causing a pile... increases. No Accidents - Effect of Penetration Rate 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 80 100... :...

429

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid oxidation rate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rates but also by the degree of graphite oxidation. We show that the edge-to-center penetration rate... Propagation during the Cross-Planar ... Source: Aksay, Ilhan A. -...

430

AVOIDED ELECTRICITY SUBSIDY PAYMENTS CAN FINANCE SUBSTANTIAL APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: CASE STUDY OF MEXICO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have high residential penetration rates of 93% and 83%wealthier households (penetration rate of 39%) and their use

Leventis, Greg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

An integrated approach to fire penetration seal program management  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the utilization of a P.C. based program to facilitate the management of Entergy Operations Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO) fire barrier penetration seal program. The computer program was developed as part of a streamlining process to consolidate all aspects of the ANO Penetration Seal Program under one system. The program tracks historical information related to each seal such as maintenance activities, design modifications and evaluations. The program is integrated with approved penetration seal design details which have been substantiated by full scale fire tests. This control feature is intended to prevent the inadvertent utilization of an unacceptable penetration detail in a field application which may exceed the parameters tested. The system is also capable of controlling the scope of the periodic surveillance of penetration seals by randomly selecting the inspection population and generating associated inspection forms. Inputs to the data base are required throughout the modification and maintenance process to ensure configuration control and maintain accurate data base information. These inputs are verified and procedurally controlled by Fire Protection Engineering (FPE) personnel. The implementation of this system has resulted in significant cost savings and has minimized the allocation of resources necessary to ensure long term program viability.

Rispoli, R.D. [Entergy Operations, Russellville, AR (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

DEMONSTRATION OF COMET SAMPLE COLLECTION BY PENETRATOR Ralph D. Lorenz(1)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEMONSTRATION OF COMET SAMPLE COLLECTION BY PENETRATOR Ralph D. Lorenz(1) , William V. Boynton(1 sample from a comet analogue using a coring penetrator. The penetrator imbeds itself in the target spacecraft, which thus need not perform a landing. We describe the penetrator vehicle, sample preparation

Lorenz, Ralph D.

433

Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

passivation layers and more recently active storage material. Here we report a detailed study of ALD V2O5 as a high capacity cathode material, using vanadium tri-isopropoxide (VTOP) precursor with both O3 and H2O in electrochemical energy storage by Li-ion batteries, materials which actively store the ionic charge must

Ghodssi, Reza

434

High-precision {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction to determine {sup 22}Mg({alpha},p){sup 25}Al reaction rates  

SciTech Connect

The rise time of stellar x-ray bursts is a signature of thermonuclear runaway processes in the atmosphere of neutron stars and is highly sensitive to a series of ({alpha},p) reactions via high-lying resonances in sd-shell nuclei. Lacking data for the relevant resonance levels, the stellar reaction rates have been calculated using statistical, Hauser-Feshbach models, assuming a high-level density. This assumption may not be correct in view of the selectivity of the ({alpha},p) reaction to natural parity states. We measured the {sup 28}Si(p,t){sup 26}Si reaction with a high-resolution spectrometer to identify resonance levels in {sup 26}Si above the {alpha}-emission threshold at 9.164 MeV excitation energy. These resonance levels are used to calculate the stellar reaction rate of the {sup 22}Mg({alpha},p){sup 25}Al reaction and to test the validity of the statistical assumption.

Matic, A.; Berg, A. M. van den; Harakeh, M. N.; Woertche, H. J.; Beard, M.; Berg, G. P. A.; Goerres, J.; LeBlanc, P.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Physics and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 560-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass. Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Efficient Intracellular Delivery of an MR Imaging Probe by a Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide J. Engelmann1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Engelmann1 , D. Jha1 , R. Mishra1 , K-H. Wiesmueller2 , and K. Ugurbil1,3 1 High Field MR Center, Max tested again, and MR analyses of cells labelled with this conjugate were performed in Eppendorf tubes (1Efficient Intracellular Delivery of an MR Imaging Probe by a Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide J

436

Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but that penetration depths into saturated packings tend to be smaller. This result suggests that, for the range of impact energies observed, the stopping force is set by static contact forces between grains within the bed, and that the presence of liquid serves, primarily, to enhance these contact forces. The enhancement to the stopping force has a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

Theodore A. Brzinski III; Jorin Schug; Kelly Mao; Douglas J. Durian

2015-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Increasing the penetration of renewable energy resources in S. Vicente, Cape Verde  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article different scenarios are analysed with the objective of increasing the penetration of renewable energies in the energy system of S. Vicente Island in Cape Verde. An integrated approach is used to analyse the electricity and water supply systems. The H2RES model, a tool designed to simulate the integration of renewable sources and hydrogen in the energy systems of islands or other isolated locations, is applied. There is no other source of fresh water available to supply the population of S. Vicente, apart from desalinated seawater. The electricity supply system of this Island is based on fossil fuel and wind. S. Vicente has important wind resources that are not fully used because of its intermittent nature. The topography of this Island is relatively uniform, with the exception of Mont Verde, a 774 m high mountain located in its centre, which could be suitable for pumped hydro storage. The present analysis incorporates the possibility of using pumped hydro as a storage technique to increase the penetration of renewable energy sources, using desalinated seawater. The results show that is possible to have more than 30% of yearly penetration of renewable energy sources in the electricity supply system, together with more than 50% of the water supplied to the population produced from wind electricity.

Raquel Segurado; Goran Kraja?i?; Neven Dui?; Luís Alves

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Prospective Cohort Study to Compare Treatment Results Between 2 Fractionation Schedules of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in Patients With Cervical Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the treatment results of 2 fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2001 through January 2008, 267 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 4-field pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT. The median central and parametrial doses were 39.6 Gy and 45 Gy, respectively. Patient underwent either 6 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 (HDR-4) (n=144) or 4.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 6 (HDR-6) (n=123) to point A of ICBT using {sup 192}Ir isotope twice weekly. The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, proctitis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were compared between HDR-4 and HDR-6. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic data between HDR-4 and HDR-6 except for total treatment time. The 5-year proctitis rates were 23.0% and 21.5% in HDR-4 and HDR-6 (P=.399), respectively. The corresponding rates of grade 2-4 proctitis were 18.7% and 9.6% (P=.060). The corresponding rates of grades 3-4 proctitis were 5.2% and 1.3% (P=.231). Subgroup analysis revealed that HDR-4 significantly increased grade 2-4 proctitis in patients aged {>=}62 years old (P=.012) but not in patients aged <62 years (P=.976). The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were not significantly different between HDR-4 and HDR-6 schedules. Conclusion: The small fraction size of HDR-ICBT is associated with grade 2 proctitis without compromise of prognosis in elderly patients. This schedule is suggested for patients who tolerate an additional 2 applications of HDR-ICBT.

Huang, Eng-Yen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Sun, Li-Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hao [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lan, Jen-Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chanchien, Chan-Chao [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chong-Jong, E-mail: cjw1010@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells at high rates by glow discharge of disilane. Final subcontract report, January 1985-July 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of recent a-Si:H thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials research. The work reported here concerned the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells at high deposition rates using disilane. This task required the construction of a new, dual-chamber deposition system to control the dopant profile between the heavily doped p-type layer and the undoped (intrinsic) layer in the solar cell structure. Conditions were sought that would produce high-quality films at a high deposition rate. Complete photovoltaic devices were fabricated. In disilane-deposited material, the optimum substrate temperature is much higher than in silane material, presumably because it is harder to eliminate the excess hydrogen in the former. The efficiency of the best disilane cell was about 7%, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.80 V, a short-circuit current density of 14.7 mA cm/sup -2/ and a fill factor of 0.59. The most likely area for improvement is in the voltage, where values as high as 0.9 V should be possible with careful adjustment of the cell structure.

Vanier, P.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Microcrystalline Si films grown at low temperatures (90-220 deg. C) with high rates in atmospheric-pressure VHF plasma  

SciTech Connect

This work deals with the structural properties of microcrystalline silicon (muc-Si:H) films grown at low temperatures (90-220 deg. C) with high rates in atmospheric-pressure He/H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} plasma, which is excited by a 150 MHz very high frequency power using a porous carbon electrode. This plasma permits to enhance the chemical reactions both in gas phase and on the film-growing surface, while suppressing ion impingement upon the surface. Raman crystalline volume fractions of the muc-Si:H films are studied in detail as functions of film thickness and substrate temperature (T{sub sub}). The results show that the muc-Si:H film deposited with 50 (SCCM) (SCCM denotes standard cubic centimeters per minute at STP) SiH{sub 4} has no amorphous transition layers at the film/substrate interface in spite of the high deposition rate of 6.4 nm/s, which is verified by the cross sectional observations with a transmission electron microscope. In addition, the T{sub sub} dependence of Raman crystallinity of the muc-Si:H films indicates that a highly crystallized muc-Si:H film grows even when T{sub sub} is reduced to 90 deg. C. Further systematic studies are needed for both device applications and deposition on thermally sensitive plastic materials.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Ouchi, Kentaro; Tabuchi, Keita; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

443

High-Resolution Neutron Capture and Total Cross-Section Measurements, and the Astrophysical 95Mo(n,gamma) Reaction Rate at s-process Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abundances of Mo isotopes predicted by stellar models of the s process are, except for 95Mo, in good agreement with data from single grains of mainstream presolar SiC. Because the meteorite data seemed sound and no reasonable modification to stellar theory resulted in good agreement for 95Mo, it has been suggested that the recommended neutron capture reaction rate for this nuclide is 30% too low. Therefore, we have made a new determination of the 95Mo(n,gamma) reaction rate via high-resolution measurements of the neutron-capture and total cross sections of 95Mo at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. These data were analyzed with the R-matrix code SAMMY to obtain parameters for resonances up to En = 10 keV. Also, a small change to our capture apparatus allowed us to employ a new technique to vastly improve resonance spin and parity assignments. These new resonance parameters, together with our data in the unresolved range, were used to calculate the 95Mo(n,gamma) reaction rate at s-process temperatures. We compare the currently recommended rate to our new results and discuss their astrophysical impact.

P. E. Koehler; J. A. Harvey; K. H. Guber; D. Wiarda

2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

444

Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from <6 months to >5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean ({+-} standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 ({+-}2.0); orgasm, 2.5 ({+-}2.4); desire, 2.4 ({+-}1.3); arousal, 2.2 ({+-}2.0); dryness, 2.1 ({+-}2.1); and pain, 1.9 ({+-}2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, -7.1 points; 95% CI, -11.2 to -3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, -4.4 points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, -4.6 points; 95% CI, -9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

Damast, Shari, E-mail: shari.damast@yale.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldfarb, Shari [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mosenkis, Jeffrey [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Bennett, Antonia [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Atkinson, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Basch, Ethan [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Correlation of Sperm Chromatin Decondensation Following In Vitro Exposure to Heparin and Sperm Penetration Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods: Twenty-two donors of known fertility and 105 patients undergoing evaluation at an andrology laboratory were evaluated by standard World Health Organization semen analysis...

Douglas T. Carrell; Benjamin R. Emery…

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Prediction of penetration rate of sheet pile installed in sand by vibratory pile driver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A few full scale field tests were conducted on instrumented steel sheet piles under vibro-driving to find out the characteristics of the dynamic behavior of a sheet pile. These sheet piles were tested for situ...

Seung-Hyun Lee; Byoung-Il Kim; Jin-Tae Han

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Effect of external and phase hardening on the hydrogen penetration rate in ferrite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. The plastic deformation of nickel ferrite (6.24% Ni) increases the activation energy of hydrogen permeation. ...

V. A. Gol'tsov; P. V. Gel'd; M. M. Steinberg

1965-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Rate of Penetration of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Hydroxy-?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol to the Brain of Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During investigations designed to study the clinical pharmacology and metabolism of cannabinoids, tritium-labeled ?9-tetra-hydrocannabinol (?9-THC) and 11-OH-?9-THC were intravenously infused to normal control vo...

Mario Perez-Reyes; Jane Simmons; Delores Brine; Gary I. Kimmel…

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Evaluation on penetration rate of cloud for incoming solar radiation using geostationary satellite data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar surface insolation (SSI) represents how much solar radiance reaches the Earth’s surface in a specified area and is an important parameter in various fields such as surface energy research, meteorology, a...

Jong-Min Yeom; Kyung-Soo Han; Jae-Jin Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

USING THE CHLORIDE MIGRATION RATE TO PREDICT THE CHLORIDE PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental investigation is conducted to study the relationship between the chloride diffusion coefficient and charge passed. In this study, the concrete specimens made with different w/c (ranging from 0....

S.W. Cho; S.C. Chiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Penetration and Growth Rates of Mobile Phones in Developing Countries: An Analytical Classification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This brief paper uses a simple arithmetic framework to classify and explain the performance of developing countries in closing the absolute digital divide. Four categories are created on the basis of two variable...

Jeffrey James

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Development of a rock mass characteristics model for TBM penetration rate prediction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the advances of technology, TBMs are becoming more versatile and TBM tunneling has become a common tunneling method. During project planning, the prediction of… (more)

Gong, Qiuming.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of thermal energies by highly repeated irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses inside a glass induces the heat-modification whose volume is much larger than that of the photoexcited region. It has been proposed that the heat-modification occurs in the region in which the temperature had overcome a threshold temperature during exposure of laser pulses. In order to understand the mechanism of the heat-modification, we investigated the temperature distribution during laser exposure and the threshold temperature by analyzing the volume of the modification based on a thermal diffusion model. We found that the threshold temperature becomes lower with increasing laser exposure time. The dependence of the threshold temperature on the laser exposure time was explained by the deformation mechanism based on the temperature-dependent viscosity and viscoelastic behavior of a glass under a stress loading by thermal expansion. The deformation mechanism also could simulate a tear-drop shape of a heat-modification by simultaneous double-beams' irradiation and the distribution of birefringence in a heat-modification. The mechanism proposed in this study means that the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of a glass should be essential for predicting and controlling the heat-modification.

Shimizu, Masahiro; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko [Innovative Collaboration Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Ohnishi, Masatoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd., 4-230 Sanbocho, Sakai-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Nakaya, Takayuki [NJC Institute of Technology, Namiki Precision Jewel Co., Ltd., 8-22 Shinden 3-Chome, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 123-8511 (Japan)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Multi-vendor Penetration Testing in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrastructure (AMI) is changing the way electric energy is produced, priced, and consumed. The introduction,mcdaniel}@cse.psu.edu Abstract - The advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is revolutionizing electrical grids. Intelligent AMI we develop an archetypal attack tree approach to guide penetration testing across multiple

McDaniel, Patrick Drew

455

System-Wide Emissions Implications of Increased Wind Power Penetration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and ramifications of wind power providing 20% of U.S. electricity by 2030.1 Wind energy is advantageous becauseSystem-Wide Emissions Implications of Increased Wind Power Penetration Lauren Valentino,, Viviana of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based

Kemner, Ken

456

Dynamic mechanical behavior of multilayer graphene via supersonic projectile penetration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...are highlighted by green backlight. (D...accompanying the kinetic energy loss of a {mu...smaller penetration energy is measured. Fig...red) and zigzag (green) directions. The circles in...the impact area to energy absorption (27...for MLG (see green squares in Fig. 4C...

Jae-Hwang Lee; Phillip E. Loya; Jun Lou; Edwin L. Thomas

2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

457

Cell-Penetrating Peptides DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704444  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell-Penetrating Peptides DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704444 HIV TAT Forms Pores in Membranes by Inducing, Lihua Yang, Robert Coridan, and Gerard C. L. Wong* The TAT protein transduction domain (PTD) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) can cross cell membranes with unusual efficiency[1] and has many

Texas at Austin. University of

458

High rates of police detention among recently released HIV-infected prisoners in Ukraine: Implications for health outcomes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Ukraine's HIV epidemic, primarily affecting people who inject drugs (PWID), is expanding and transitioning despite free opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), two effective ways to reduce HIV transmission. Police detention of PWID not resulting in a formal charge or imprisonment is common, but its prevalence and impact on health are not known. Method HIV-infected individuals (N = 97) released from prison within one year were recruited and surveyed in two HIV-endemic Ukrainian cities about post-release police detention experiences. Data on the frequency of police detention, related adverse events, and impact on OST and ART continuity were collected, and correlates of detention were examined using logistic regression. Results Detention responses were available for 94 (96.9%) participants, of which 55 (58.5%) reported police detentions (mean = 9.4 per person-year). For those detained while prescribed OST (N = 28) and ART (N = 27), medication interruption was common (67.9% and 70.4%, respectively); 23 of 27 participants prescribed OST (85.2%) were detained en route to/from OST treatment. Significant independent correlates of detention without charges included post-release ART prescription (AOR 4.98, p = 0.021), current high-risk injection practices (AOR 5.03, p = 0.011), male gender (AOR 10.88, p = 0.010), and lower lifetime months of imprisonment (AOR 0.99, p = 0.031). Conclusions HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison in Ukraine experience frequent police detentions, resulting in withdrawal symptoms, confiscation of syringes, and interruptions of essential medications, including ART and OST. Structural changes are urgently needed to reduce police detentions in order to control HIV transmission and improve both individual and public health.

Jacob M. Izenberg; Chethan Bachireddy; Michael Soule; Tetiana Kiriazova; Sergey Dvoryak; Frederick L. Altice

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Wide scale penetration of renewable electricity in the Greek energy system in view of the European decarbonization targets for 2050  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The key policy analyzed in this paper, is the achievement of a significant decarbonization of the Greek Energy System by the year 2050 through the decarbonization of the two sectors presently responsible for the highest levels of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions, namely power and transport. The objective is to reduce GHG emissions by 2050, through the maximization of renewable energy sources (RES) penetration in electricity, with a simultaneous intensive electrification of the transport sector and the electrical interconnection of non-connected islands. An important parameter considered in the present work is that expansion planning of power systems under environmental constraints leads to a rather complex techno-economic analysis involving large scale penetration of Renewable Energy Sources. The penetration level of variable renewable electricity is subject to a number of restrictions implied by the need for (a) storage capacity to decrease the energy curtailment which can occur when the customer load is low and RES electricity generation is high (b) fast reserve capacity to deal with variations of variable RES or combined heat and power (CHP) electricity generation (c) transmission system expansion related to the penetration of areas with high RES potential. New methodologies are developed and a number of novel scenarios are formulated in conformity with the European energy strategy towards 2050.

K. Tigas; G. Giannakidis; J. Mantzaris; D. Lalas; N. Sakellaridis; C. Nakos; Y. Vougiouklakis; M. Theofilidi; E. Pyrgioti; A.T. Alexandridis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high penetration rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Slepian-Wolf coded nested quantization (SEC-NQ) for Wyner-Ziv coding: high-rate performance analysis, code design, and application to cooperative networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exploits the correlation between two signals (one is the source and the other is the side information) and thus makes it possible to encode the source signal alone and to decode it jointly with the help of the side information at the decoder. Nested lattice... quantization provides a practical scheme for Wyner-Ziv cod- ing. We examine the high-rate performance of nested lattice quantizers and give the theoretical performance for general continuous sources. Based on our analysis, a new practical Wyner-Ziv coding...

Liu, Zhixin

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Impact penetrometry on a comet nucleus — interpretation of laboratory data using penetration models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first — and possibly deepest — in situ science measurements on the 46P/Wirtanen nucleus will be made by two sensors of the Rosetta Lander's MUPUS experiment. A piezoelectric shock accelerometer (ANC-M) and a resistance temperature sensor (ANC-T) will be mounted in the Lander's harpoon anchor. This will be shot into the surface at about 60 m s?1 on touchdown, reaching a final depth of between a few centimetres and about 2.5 m, depending on the hardness of the ground and the maximum available cable length. Early indications of the strength of the surface material and any distinct layers should prove valuable to subsequent depth-sensitive investigations, including the MUPUS thermal probe, seismic sounding experiments, the sampling drill and composition analyses of the extracted material. Interpretation of the ANC-M data will help to constrain models of the formation and evolution of the material found at the landing site and document the mechanical and structural context of nearby sampled material. We report on the results of recent test shots performed with a prototype anchor into several porous materials: two types of glass foam, H2O ice and CO2 ice. With the help of data from direct shear tests and quasi-static penetration tests, we interpret the processed deceleration data using a cavity-expansion penetration model. Layers of distinctly different strengths can be detected and located, and the deceleration profiles are in reasonable agreement with the profiles obtained by quasi-static tests. The anchor projectile's long sharp tip tends to smear out the boundaries, however. In applying the penetration model we found that the coefficient of sliding friction and the target's volumetric strain have a much stronger influence on the deceleration profile than the initial target density and angle of internal friction. Very small values of volumetric strain (corresponding to high ‘drag coefficient’) were required to fit deceleration profiles to the measured data for the glass foam, contrary to what we initially expected by inspecting the thin layer of crushed material around the walls of the penetrated channel. We interpret this to mean that such brittle, porous materials as the glass foam (and perhaps highly porous, brittle, cryogenic ice) do not exhibit plastic deformation before failing completely by the crushing of cell walls. The decelerating forces are thus thought to be dominated by momentum transfer to the crushed material and by the crushing strength of the cellular microstructure, rather than by the force required to deform the target plastically. The cavity-expansion model seems to be well-suited to the ice shots, but for the brittle, cellular glass foam, alternative approaches, taking into account the material's microstructure, are needed. As a first step in this direction, a microstructural model linking textural properties of the material (pore and grain size, and relative contact area between grains) is applied to the glass foam data, obtained from quasi-static penetration tests and from direct shear strength tests. It is demonstrated that the dependence of strength on porosity can be well represented by the model suggested. A microstructural model for sintered ices, relating strength properties to porosity and thermal properties, would be useful for interpretation of MUPUS ANC-M data in the context of other physical properties measurements. The work presented here may also have some relevance to the design of future comet landers or penetrators. The harpoon anchor/penetrometer approach could be employed on other minor body landing missions, while the modelling technique is similar in many ways to that appropriate for other penetrometers/penetrators.

Norbert I Kömle; Andrew J Ball; Günter Kargl; Thomas Keller; Wolfgang Macher; Markus Thiel; Jakob Stöcker; Christian Rohe

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review  

SciTech Connect

As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Transition Strategies: Government Options and Market Penetration Scenarios  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition Strategies Transition Strategies Possible Range of Government Support Options * Hydrogen Fuel Initiative - 2015 commercialization decision * 2015 commercialization decision - 1000s of cars by 2015, and 10,000s of cars by 2018 * 2015 commercialization decision, 100,000s of cars by 2018 * 2010 commercialization decision, 10,000s of cars by 2015 and 100,000s of cars by 2018 * 2010 commercialization decision, 100,000s of cars by 2016 and millions by 2021. These scenarios are provided for transition analyses as recommended by the National Research Council to evaluate the transition phase and do not represent any specific policy recommendation. 3 Market Penetration Scenarios The following scenarios represent the estimated penetration of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCV) given different government incentives:

467

Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in Determining the Adequate Level of Distributed Generation Penetration in Future Grids Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: March 18, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Kristina LaCommare In this talk, Johan will discuss the technical barriers met while deploying distributed generation (DG) technology in the grid. These are related to voltage quality, reliability, stability of the grid, but also safety, environmental and economic issues are important. Eventually, the question 'how far can you go ?' is addressed. The range from small-scale local DG such as photovoltaics to large-scale (off-shore) wind farms are dealt with, each with their specific issues. The talk is illustrated with examples from research projects at the KULeuven financied by national and European

468

Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

An Optimized Adaptive Protection Scheme for Distribution Systems Penetrated with Distributed Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An intelligent adaptive protection scheme for distribution systems penetrated with distributed generators is proposed in this chapter. The scheme...

Ahmed H. Osman; Mohamed S. Hassan…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

471

Penetration of plasma into the wafer-focus ring gap in capacitively coupled plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Penetration of plasma into the wafer-focus ring gap in capacitively coupled plasmas Natalia Y of capacitively coupled plasma reactors with a wafer-focus ring gap. The penetration of plasma generated species i.e., ions and radicals into the wafer-focus ring gap is discussed. We found that the penetration of plasma

Kushner, Mark

472

Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Long-life and high-rate LiVPO4F/C nanocrystals modified with graphene as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Graphene modified LiVPO4F/C nanocomposite has been firstly investigated as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The LiVPO4F/C nanocrystals embedded on reduced graphene oxide sheets are synthesized via a sol–gel method. The obtained sample of graphene modified LiVPO4F/C is studied comparatively with LiVPO4F/C by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectra and various electrochemical tests. The results reveal that the modification of LiVPO4F/C nanocrystals with graphene can form an effective conducting network, which can greatly improve the electronic conductivity and lithium ion transport. Thus, the as-synthesized nanocomposite exhibits excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.5 V, the graphene modified LiVPO4F/C delivers a reversible discharge capacity of 151.6 (nearly to its theoretical capability of 156 mAhg? 1) and 147.8 mAhg? 1 at 0.1 and 0.5 C, respectively. It also achieves an improved cyclability with capacity retention ratio of 91.4% after 300 cycles at a higher rate of 10 C. Therefore, it is of great potential use as a cathode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles and electric vehicles.

Yongli Wang; Haixiang Zhao; Yongfeng Ji; Lihua Wang; Zhen Wei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

On the use of a single-fiber multipoint plastic scintillation detector for {sup 192}Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The goal of this study was to prove the feasibility of using a single-fiber multipoint plastic scintillation detector (mPSD) as an in vivo verification tool during {sup 192}Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments.Methods: A three-point detector was built and inserted inside a catheter-positioning template placed in a water phantom. A hyperspectral approach was implemented to discriminate the different optical signals composing the light output at the exit of the single collection optical fiber. The mPSD was tested with different source-to-detector positions, ranging from 1 to 5 cm radially and over 10.5 cm along the longitudinal axis of the detector, and with various integration times. Several strategies for improving the accuracy of the detector were investigated. The device's accuracy in detecting source position was also tested.Results: Good agreement with the expected doses was obtained for all of the scintillating elements, with average relative differences from the expected values of 3.4 {+-} 2.1%, 3.0 {+-} 0.7%, and 4.5 {+-} 1.0% for scintillating elements from the distal to the proximal. A dose threshold of 3 cGy improved the general accuracy of the detector. An integration time of 3 s offered a good trade-off between precision and temporal resolution. Finally, the mPSD measured the radioactive source positioning uncertainty to be no more than 0.32 {+-} 0.06 mm. The accuracy and precision of the detector were improved by a dose-weighted function combining the three measurement points and known details about the geometry of the detector construction.Conclusions: The use of a mPSD for high-dose-rate brachytherapy dosimetry is feasible. This detector shows great promise for development of in vivo applications for real-time verification of treatment delivery.

Therriault-Proulx, Francois [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique and Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique and Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6, Canada and Departement de Radio-Oncologie and Centre de Recherche du CHU de Quebec, CHU de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

The effect of TDC temperature and density on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a D.I. Diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a directinjection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m{sup 3} and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities. The corresponding apparent heat release rate plots are presented and the results of the liquid-phase fuel penetration are discussed with respect to the ignition delay and premixed bum fraction.

Espey, C. [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476