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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Octane number requirements of vehicles at high altitude  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Past tests of vehicles show that their octane number requirements decrease with altitude. As a result, gasoline marketers sell lower-octane-number(ON) gasoline in the mountain states and other high-altitude areas. The current ASTM specifications, which allow reduction of gasoline octane of 1.0 to 1.5 ON per thousand feet, are based on CRC test programs run on 1967 to 1972 model vehicles. However, many new vehicles are now equipped with sophisticated electronic engine systems for control of emissions and improvement of performance and fuel economy at all altitudes. Because these new systems could minimize the altitude effect on octane requirement, Amoco Oil tested twelve 1984-1986 model cars and light trucks. The authors found their ON requirements were reduced on average about 0.2 ON per thousand feet on an (R+M)/2 basis (RMON/1,000 feet). The authors expect octane demand on gasoline suppliers in high-altitude areas to increase as these new cars make up a larger part of the vehicle population, and this could raise the cost of gasoline.

Callison, J.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

3

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Comparison of iso-octane burning rates between single-phase and two-phase combustion for small droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase combustion is a widespread mechanism of energy conversion that is of practical importance in gas turbines, diesel and spark ignition engines, furnaces, and hazardous environments. However, the exploration of important parameters in combustion systems of practical application is difficult, due to the multiplicity of dependent variables. In the present work, combustion rates of well-defined droplet suspensions of iso-octane have been measured using techniques employed for gaseous combustion. This required a full characterization of the aerosols produced in the combustion apparatus, which determined that the maximum droplet size produced was around 30 {mu}m. Comparisons of two-phase with single-phase laminar mixtures suggest that there were negligible differences in the burning velocity of an aerosol and a gaseous mixture at the same overall equivalence ratio and similar conditions for iso-octane. At high stretch rates, flames remained smooth and droplet enhancement was negligible. However, at lower rates of stretch, both gaseous and aerosol flames became unstable and cellular, and this cellularity, in some cases, increased the burning rate. The values of Markstein length measured for aerosol flames had trends similar to those for gaseous-phase mixtures (Markstein length decreased with equivalence ratio), but were lower than in gaseous combustion. The values of Markstein length in aerosol flames also decreased with liquid equivalence ratio and/or Sauter mean diameter. All this indicates a higher tendency to instabilities in aerosol flames compared to gaseous combustion. A qualitative explanation for the lower values of Markstein length in aerosol combustion is given. It is suggested in the present work that aerosol flames became unstable, and hence had faster burning rates, under conditions that would not result in unstable gaseous flames. Comparisons, qualitative and in terms of dimensionless groups, of two-phase with single-phase turbulent combustion also suggest no enhancement. (author)

Lawes, M.; Lee, Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Marquez, N. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo 4011 Apto. 526 (Venezuela)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

High Redshift Supernova Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a sample of 42 supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to measure the rate of core collapse supernovae to z~0.7 and type Ia supernovae to z~1.6. This significantly increases the redshift range where supernova rates have been estimated from observations. The rate of core collapse supernovae can be used as an independent probe of the cosmic star formation rate. Based on the observations of 17 core collapse supernovae, we measure an increase in the core collapse supernova rate by a factor of 1.6 in the range 0.3rate. The increase in the rate in this redshift range in consistent with recent measurements of the star formation rate derived from UV-luminosity densities and IR datasets. Based on 25 type Ia supernovae, we find a SN Ia rate that is a factor 3-5 higher at z~1 compared to earlier estimates at lower redshifts (zrate traces a higher star formation rate at redshifts z>1 compared to low redshift. At higher redshift (z>1), we find a suggested decrease in the type Ia rate with redshift. This evolution of the Ia rate with redshift is consistent with a type Ia progenitor model where there is a substantial delay between the formation of the progenitor star and the explosion of the supernova. Assuming that the type Ia progenitor stars have initial main sequence masses 3-8 M_Sun, we find that 5-7% of the available progenitors explode as type Ia supernovae.

Tomas Dahlen; Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Bahram Mobasher; Ranga-Ram Chary; Christopher J. Conselice; Henry C. Ferguson; Andrew S. Fruchter; Mauro Giavalisco; Mario Livio; Piero Madau; Nino Panagia; John L. Tonry

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

BiOctane | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name BiOctane Place Worcester, Massachusetts Product Biofuel start-up planning to design and develop a biodiesel and ethanol refinery. References...

8

High compression rate text summarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for the oxidation of iso-octane and n-heptane over an extended temperature range and its application to analysis of engine knock  

SciTech Connect

A detailed chemical kinetic reaction is developed to describe the oxidation of n-heptane, iso-octane, and their mixtures over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition to a high temperature submechanism, reaction paths are included to describe the lower temperature regimes in which the rate and intermediate products of oxidation are controlled by addition of molecular oxygen to alkyl and isomerized alkylperoxy radicals, internal H atom abstractions, and reactions involving O-heterocyclic species. The mechanism is then used to study the influence of fuel composition on knocking in internal combustion engines. Autoignition of mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane is examined. The computations reproduce the variations of autoignition delay time with octane number and these variations are interpreted in terms of detailed differences in the structure of the two primary reference fuels. Sensitivity analyses of the computations are also presented. 30 refs., 2 figs.

Westbrook, C.K.; Warnatz, J.; Pitz, W.J.

1988-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

10

Auto-ignition of toluene-doped n-heptane and iso-octane/air mixtures: High-pressure shock-tube experiments and kinetics modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Toluene is often used as a fluorescent tracer for fuel concentration measurements, but without considering whether it affects the auto-ignition properties of the base fuel. We investigate the auto-ignition of pure toluene and its influence on the auto-ignition of n-heptane and iso-octane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions at typical tracer concentrations. Ignition delay times {tau}{sub ign} were measured behind reflected shock waves in mixtures with air at {phi}=1.0 and 0.5 at p=40 bar, over a temperature range of T=700-1200 K and compared to numerical results using two different mechanisms. Based on the models, information is derived about the relative influence of toluene on {tau}{sub ign} on the base fuels as function of temperature. For typical toluene tracer concentrations {<=}10%, the ignition delay time {tau}{sub ign} changes by less than 10% in the relevant pressure and temperature range. (author)

Hartmann, M.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C. [Institute for Combustion and Gasdynamics (IVG), University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Gushterova, I.; Schiessl, R.; Maas, U. [Institute for Technical Thermodynamics (ITT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Octane Number Prediction in a Reforming Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work a neural network for the prediction of the complex and non-linear behavior of a Catalytic Reforming of a refinery has been developed. In a fuel, refinery reforming is a conversion process to increase octane number (RON) of the desulphurated ...

E. Chibaro

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Available Technologies: Super High Rate Sputter Deposition  

Andre’ Anders of Berkeley Lab has developed a very high deposition rate magnetron sputtering wherein the surface of a target and the race track zone area of the ...

13

The lean oxidation of iso-octane at elevated pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF), n-heptane and iso-octane belong. In this study experiments were performed using iso-octane in a high pressure flow reactor at a temperature of 925 K, at 3, 6 and 9 atm pressure and with a fuel/air equivalence ratio of approximately 0.05. Many hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon intermediates were identified and quantified as a function of time. These experimental results provide a strin- gent test of the low temperature chemistry portion of a kinetic model as they emphasise the importance of alkyl radical addition to molecular oxygen and internal H-atom isomerization reactions relative to alkyl radical decomposition reactions. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments. We provide comparisons of model predictions with experimentally measured species profiles and describe how each species is formed as predicted by the detailed model.

Chen, J S; Curran, H J; Litzinger, T A

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operators, especially those managing production from deepwater reservoirs, are striving to produce hydrocarbons at higher and higher rates without exposing the wells to completion failure risk. To avoid screen failures, recent studies have favored gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does not stop formation fines migration, and, over time, fines accumulation in the GP will lead to increasing completion skin. Although, and not always, the skin can be removed by acidizing, it is not practical to perform repeated acid treatments on deepwater wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful HPF is not a trivial exercise, and frequently, there is a steep learning curve for such a practice. This work explains the importance to HPF completions of the well trajectory through the interval to be hydraulically fractured, for production, not execution, reasons. A new model quantifies the effect of the well inclination on the connectivity between the fracture and the well via perforations. Guidelines based on the maximum target production rate, including forecasts of multiphase flow, are provided to size the HPF completion to avoid common completion failures that may result from high fluid rate and/or fines movement. Skin model will be developed for both vertical and deviated wells. Once the HPF is properly designed and executed, the operators should end up with a long term low skin good completion quality well. The well will be safely produced at the maximum flow rates, with no need for well surveillance and monitoring.

Tosic, Slavko

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable batteries Title High-rate capable organic radical cathodes for lithium rechargeable batteries Publication Type...

16

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature Title Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature...

17

Overcharge Protection for Lihium Batteries at High Rates and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overcharge Protection for Lihium Batteries at High Rates and Low Termperatures Title Overcharge Protection for Lihium Batteries at High Rates and Low Termperatures Publication Type...

18

Filters for High Rate Pulse Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a filter-construction method for pulse processing that differs in two respects from that in standard optimal filtering, in which the average pulse shape and noise-power spectral density are combined to create a convolution filter for estimating pulse heights. First, the proposed filters are computed in the time domain, to avoid periodicity artifacts of the discrete Fourier transform, and second, orthogonality constraints are imposed on the filters, to reduce the filtering procedure's sensitivity to unknown baseline height and pulse tails. We analyze the proposed filters, predicting energy resolution under several scenarios, and apply the filters to high-rate pulse data from gamma-rays measured by a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter.

B. K. Alpert; R. D. Horansky; D. A. Bennett; W. B. Doriese; J. W. Fowler; A. S. Hoover; M. W. Rabin; J. N. Ullom

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

19

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

1983-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

22

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

23

Dynamic Behavior of Polymer at High Strain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Measurement and Modeling of High Strain-rate Deformation. Presentation Title ...

24

High Rate Performing lithium-ion Batteries - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Rechargeable Batteries and for Supercapacitors, II. Presentation Title, High Rate Performing lithium-ion Batteries.

25

High Heating Rate Thermal Desorption for Molecular Surface ...  

High Heating Rate Thermal Desorption for Molecular Surface Sampling Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

26

Intermediate-to-High-Rate Material Behavior - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2011 ... High-Strain-Rate & Shock Response of Lightweight Materials: How Dynamic Properties Influence the Future Design Landscape for ...

27

Multidimensional Signal Modulation Method for High Data-Rate ...  

Multidimensional Signal Modulation Method for High Data-Rate Transmission Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

28

Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights rss feed Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate LaserX-ray Methodologies FEBRUARY 11, 2012 Bookmark and Share X-ray absorption, emission...

29

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates ...  

Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates ... chloroform and casting the solution onto a stainless steel mesh cur- ... Thermotron Industries, Inc. .

30

High data-rate atom interferometer for measuring acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate a high data-rate light-pulse atom interferometer for measuring acceleration. The device is optimized to operate at rates between 50 Hz to 330 Hz with sensitivities of 0.57{mu}g/{radical}(Hz) to 36.7{mu}g/{radical}(Hz), respectively. Our method offers a dramatic increase in data rate and demonstrates a path to applications in highly dynamic environments. The performance of the device can largely be attributed to the high recapture efficiency of atoms from one interferometer measurement cycle to another.

McGuinness, Hayden J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Rakholia, Akash V.; Biedermann, Grant W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 (United States)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

31

Exploring the use of a higher octane gasoline for the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the possible benefits that can be achieved if U.S. oil companies produced and offered a grade of higher-octane gasoline to the consumer market. The octane number of a fuel represents how resistant the ...

Chow, Eric W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

GM sees octane surplus; wants improved diesel fuel in future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the subject of fuels, both gasoline and diesel fuel are discussed. A primary gasoline issue is that of the satisfaction of vehicle octane number requirements. Secondary issues are the compatibility of gasolines and vehicular fuel systems, and the plugging of exhaust gas recirculation systems with deposits. The important diesel fuel issues are water in the fuel, low temperature fuel properties, fuel effects on particulate emissions, and fuel specifications. Other matters are those concerning fuel demand in the future, and alternate fuels. Lubricants are also discussed. 9 refs.

Route, W.D.; Amann, C.A.; Gallopoulos, N.E.

1982-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

34

Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate Since FY2012, SSRL is now scheduling three to four three-day periods each year dedicated to running SPEAR3 in hybrid...

35

Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for Highly Supercooled Cirrus Cloud Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mixed-phase hydrometer growth model has been applied to determining the nucleation mode and rate responsible for the glaciation of a highly supercooled liquid cloud studied jointly by ground-based polarization lidar and aircraft in situ probes. ...

Kenneth Sassen; Gregory C. Dodd

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

High Rate Resistive Plate Chamber for LHC detector upgrades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPC) used as muon detectors in the LHC experiments has prevented the use of such detectors in the high rate regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. One alternative to these detectors are RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates ($10^{10} {\\rm \\Omega .cm}$), a beam test at DESY has shown that such detectors can operate at few thousand Hz/cm$^2$ with high efficiency(> 90%)

Y. Haddad; G. Grenier; I. Laktineh; N. Lumb; S. Cauwenbergh

2012-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Evolution of Massive Protostars with High Accretion Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of massive stars by accretion requires a high accretion rate of > 10^-4 M_sun/yr to overcome the radiation pressure barrier of the forming stars. Here, we study evolution of protostars accreting at such high rates, by solving the structure of the central star and the inner accreting envelope simultaneously. The protostellar evolution is followed starting from small initial cores until their arrival at the stage of the Zero-Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) stars. An emphasis is put on evolutionary features different from those with a low accretion rate of 10^-5 M_sun/yr, which is presumed in the standard scenario for low-mass star formation. With the high accretion rate of 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the protostellar radius becomes very large and exceeds 100 R_sun. It is not until the stellar mass reaches 40 M_sun that hydrogen burning begins and the protostar reaches the ZAMS phase, and this ZAMS arrival mass increases with the accretion rate. At a very high accretion rate of > 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr, the total luminosity of the protostar becomes so high that the resultant radiation pressure inhibits the growth of the protostars under steady accretion before reaching the ZAMS stage. Therefore, the evolution under the critical accretion rate 3 x 10^-3 M_sun/yr gives the upper mass limit of possible pre-main-sequence stars at 60 M_sun. The upper mass limit of MS stars is also set by the radiation pressure onto the dusty envelope under the same accretion rate at 250 M_sun. We also propose that the central source enshrouded in the Orion KL/BN nebula has effective temperature and luminosity consistent with our model, and is a possible candidate for such protostars growing under the high accretion rate. (abridged)

Takashi Hosokawa; Kazuyuki Omukai

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

High-speed real-time multi-rate simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research has focused on developing techniques that use digital signal processors (DSPs) and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to support real-time simulation with frame times of a few microseconds or less. These techniques can be used ... Keywords: FPGA, distributed, high-speed, multi-rate, real-time

Roy Crosbie; Dale Word; John Zenor; Richard Bednar; Wilfred Ghonsalves; Narain Hingorani

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Design considerations for high-data-rate chip interconnect systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, data rates for electrical interconnects in interchip communications systems have experienced a dramatic increase from <1 Gb/s to 10 Gb/s and beyond to keep up with ever increasing demands for more I/O bandwidth from modern high-capacity ...

Troy Beukema

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a triple cell showing 10.7% stable efficiency. Figure 4-1 Schematic diagram of the Hot Wire CVD deposition. Task 7: High-rate deposition of a-Si based solar cells We have conducted extensive research using a hot1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE I Annual

Deng, Xunming

45

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007). R. Chistyakov, “High deposition rate sputtering,” USD. M. Mihut, and S. L. Rohde, Rate enhancement in high powerand often reduced normalized rates, it will find application

Anders, Andre

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining | U.S. DOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » July 2013 Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) efficiently separates higher octane components from the low value ones, offering great potential for significant cost reduction in gasoline production. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page

48

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

49

Failure Rate Data Analysis for High Technology Components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators.

L. C. Cadwallader

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS/sub 2/ and NiS/sub 2/ in about equal molar amounts along with about 2 to 20 mole % of the reaction product Li/sub 2/S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

Redey, L.

1986-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Gamma Ray Burst Rate at High Photon Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra exhibit high energy tails with the highest photon energy detected at 18 GeV. The spectral slope of the high-energy tails is sufficiently flat in nu F_nu to consider the possibility of their detection at still higher energies. We calculate how many bursts can reasonably be expected above a given energy threshold for a cosmological distribution of bursts satisfying the observed apparent brightness distribution. The crucial point is that the gamma-ray absorption by pair production in the intergalactic diffuse radiation field eliminates bursts from beyond the gamma-ray horizon tau ~ 1, thus drastically reducing the number of bursts at high energies. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of bursts by current experiments in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. For the earth-bound detector array MILAGRO, we predict a maximal GRB rate of ~ 10 events per year. The Whipple Observatory can detect, under favorable conditions, ~1 event per year. The event rate for the HEGRA array is ~ 0.01 per year. Detection of significantly higher rates of bursts would severely challenge cosmological burst scenarios.

Karl Mannheim; Dieter Hartmann; Burkhardt Funk

1996-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Bojaxhiu, Beat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Simcock, Mathew [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

High rate 4. pi. beta. -. gamma. coincidence counting system  

SciTech Connect

A high count rate 4..pi.. ..beta..-..gamma.. coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The equations used to correct for the ..beta.., ..gamma.., and coincidence channel dead times and for accidental coincidences are presented but not rigorously developed. Experimental results are presented for a decaying source of /sup 56/Mn initially at 2 x 10/sup 6/ d/s and a set of /sup 60/Co sources of accurately known source strengths varying from 10/sup 3/ to 2 x 10/sup 6/ d/s. A check of the accidental coincidence equation for the case of two independent sources with varying source strengths is presented.

Johnson, L.O.; Gehrke, R.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

56

High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing  

SciTech Connect

High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

57

The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly.

Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P.J.; Fontanesi, J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C.; McMahon, R.R.; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

59

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

60

ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

62

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

63

The Effect of High Cooling Rate and Powder Composition on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coatings were deposited by applying different types of thermal spray systems. Influence of the heating and cooling rates on coating microstructure and ...

64

Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North ...

65

Predicting Crack Growth Rate of Pipeline Steel in High Ph ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling Internal Corrosion Rates of Pipelines which Carry Wet or Dry Natural Gas · Modeling Oxidation-Limited Lifetime of Alumina- and Chromia-Forming ...

66

Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

67

High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

Dillon, A. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North Slope fig7.jpg (43335 bytes) Source...

69

Studies of the CMS tracker at high trigger rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the latter months of 2006 and the first half of 2007, the CMS Tracker was assembled and operated at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During this period the performance of the tracker at trigger rates up to ...

Chan, M.

70

Design and analysis of a high-rate acoustic link for underwater video transmission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high bit rate acoustic link for underwater video transmission is examined. Currently, encoding standards support video transmission at bit rates as low as 64 kbps. While this rate is still above the limit of commercially ...

Pelekanakis, Konstantinos

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the rates of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) over a wide range of redshifts using a complete sample from the IfA Deep Survey. This sample of more than 100 SNIa is the largest set ever collected from a single survey, and therefore uniquely powerful for a detailed supernova rate (SNR) calculation. Measurements of the SNR as a function of cosmological time offer a glimpse into the relationship between the star formation rate (SFR) and Type Ia SNR, and may provide evidence for the progenitor pathway. We observe a progressively increasing Type Ia SNR between redshifts z~0.3-0.8. The Type Ia SNR measurements are consistent with a short time delay (t~1 Gyr) with respect to the SFR, indicating a fairly prompt evolution of SNIa progenitor systems. We derive a best-fit value of SFR/SNR 580 h_70^(-2) M_solar/SNIa for the conversion factor between star formation and SNIa rates, as determined for a delay time of t~1 Gyr between the SFR and the Type Ia SNR. More complete measurements of the Type Ia SNR at z>1 are necessary to conclusively determine the SFR--SNR relationship and constrain SNIa evolutionary pathways.

Brian J. Barris; John L. Tonry

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Impact of High School Curriculum on College Enrollment Rates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines how the mandated curriculum, specifically, "rigorous" curriculum, is associated with the percentage of a high school's graduating class that chooses to enroll… (more)

Blosveren, Kate R.

74

A study of the physics and chemistry of knock in modern SI engines and their relationship to the octane tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Avoiding knock is the major design constraint for spark ignition engines because of the unacceptable noise and engine damage associated with it. Hence, the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests were established ...

Mittal, Vikram

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate Capability for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Author(s), Jiguo Tu, Shuqiang Jiao, ...

77

A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on our previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction class mechanism construction first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and these mechanisms will be refined further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available for download from our web page.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

78

Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

SciTech Connect

In high-rate deposition of a-Si:H films, the effect of deposition parameters on material properties are examined when silane and disilane are the feed gases. The emphasis is on RF glow discharge, but other deposition methods are also covered. The problems of gas-phase polymerization and power formation at high rates have been overcome by modified reactor designs. Deposition rates of 1-3 nm/s are adequate for economically fabricating the intrinsic layer. Laboratory-size a-Si:H cells with greater than 10% efficiency have been achieved with both silane and disilane at rates in the 1- to 2-nm/s range.

Luft, W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the status of high-rate deposition technologies associated with amorphous silicon thin films for photovoltaic applications. The report lists (1) deposition rates for a-Si:H films according to source and method and (2) efficiencies and other parameters of a-Si:H solar cells. Two main deposition source materials, silane and disilane, are discussed, as well as effects of boron doping. The effects of various deposition parameters on film characteristics and on deposition rate are presented, as well as the effects of annealing on high-deposition-rate films. Light-induced effects are also discussed. Finally, progress and problems in this field of study are summarized.

Luft, W.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Competition among Life Insurance Companies: The Driving Force of High Policy Rates?,” Working Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the effect competition has on the decisions of life insurance companies. In particular, we are interested in the companies ’ choices of policy rates and investment strategies given that they have issued contracts with a minimum rate of return guarantee. Our modeling framework is a one-period Cournot model of duopoly. We find policy rates and investment strategies that sustain a Nash equilibrium. We compare the results to the cooperative solution, that is, the case where the companies operate as a monopoly company and share the profits. Our model illustrates how competition between companies drives companies to offer relatively high policy rates, in particular rates above the risk free rate of return. Special thanks to Peter Ove Christensen and Kristian Miltersen. Claus Munk, and Martin Skovgaard Hansen were highly appreciated.

Mette Hansen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Workshop: Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate | Stanford  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Time Resolved X-Ray Science at High Repetition Rate Saturday, October 22, 2011 - 8:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 In conjunction with the 2011 LCLS/SSRL User Meeting, SSRL and the APS will jointly host a two-day workshop focused on opportunities with short-pulse, high-repetition rate X-ray Science. The workshop will feature international speakers and panel experts presenting the scientific basis, preliminary results and future potential of high rep-rate picosecond x-rays beams from storage rings. The workshop will be broadly focused on topics in materials science, chemistry, biology and catalysis. The workshop agenda will also include presentations on accelerator operational modes, precision timing issues, detector challenges and the relation of storage ring science with

83

An implementation of a 5.25 GHz transceiver for high data rate wireless applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The desire for transmission of high data rate information across wireless channels has grown immensely over the past decade. Wireless devices available today including mobile phones, wireless local area networks (WLANs) ...

Matalon, Nir

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

High repetition rate mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with complete electric field control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in fully-stabilized mode-locked laser systems are enabling many applications, including optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG). In this thesis work, we describe the development of high repetition-rate ...

Sickler, Jason William, 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFePO4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image particles of a high-rate LiFePO4 sample containing a small amount of in situ carbon. The particle morphology is highly irregular, with a wide size distribution. Nevertheless, coatings, varying from about 5-10 nm in thickness, could readily be detected on surfaces of particles as well as on edges of agglomerates. Elemental mapping using Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) indicates that these very thin surface layers are composed of carbon. These observations have important implications for the design of high-rate LiFePO4 materials in which, ideally, a minimal amount of carbon coating is used.

Gabrisch, Heike; Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

86

High performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells made at a high deposition rate by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The deposition rate, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared from rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) diluted in helium have been measured. These films show excellent electrical and optical properties and, most importantly, a high deposition rate coupled with satisfactory solar cell application was realized for the first time. At a deposition rate of 11 A/s, 5.47% and 6.5% conversion efficiencies were obtained with a first trial of n-i-p type solar cells deposited on SnO/sub 2//ITO glass and metal substrates, respectively.

Ohashi, Y.; Kenne, J.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hydrogen generation rates in Savannah River Site high-level nuclear waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-level nuclear waste (HLW) is stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as alkaline, high-nitrate slurries in underground carbon steel tanks. Hydrogen is continuously generated in the waste tanks as a result of the radiolysis of water. Hydrogen generation rates have recently been measured in several waste tanks containing different types of waste. The measured rates ranged from 1.1 to 6.7 cubic feet per million Btu of decay heat. The measured rates are consistent with laboratory data which show that the hydrogen generation rate depends on the nitrate concentration and the decay heat content of the waste. Sampling at different locations indicated that the hydrogen is uniformly distributed radially within the tank.

Hobbs, D.T.; Norris, P.W.; Pucko, S.A.; Bibler, N.E.; Walker, D.D.; d'Entremont, P.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

High deposition rate preparation of amorphous silicon solar cells by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane diluted in helium (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6//He = 1/9) have been studied while systematically varying the film deposition rate. The properties and composition of the films were monitored by measuring the optical band gap, IR vibrational spectrum, dark conductivity, and the photoconductivity as a function of the deposition rate. The photoluminescence of the high deposition rate films gave a peak at 1.33 eV. These films, whose properties are rather similar to those of the conventional a-Si:H films prepared from monosilane, have been used to fabricate nip-type a-Si:H solar cells. At a deposition rate of 11 A/sec, a conversion efficiency of 6.86% was obtained. This high efficiency shows that disilane is applicable for mass production fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells.

Kenne, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Matsushita, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for combustion of n-alkane hydrocarbons from n-octane to n-hexadecane  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction classes first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, is available for download from our web page. (author)

Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Herbinet, Olivier; Silke, Emma J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Curran, Henry J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); University College of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF  

SciTech Connect

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

Plasmon-enhanced photocathode for high brightness and high repetition rate x-ray sources  

SciTech Connect

High brightness electron sources are at the heart of anew generation of x-ray sources based on the Free ElectronLaser (FEL) as well as in Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) sources.The source of electrons consists of a photoinjector, comprised of a laser-driven photocathode in a high gradient electric field produced by an rf cavity. The function of the rf cavity is to provide a field sufficient for acceleration of electrons to relativistic velocity over a small distance, thus minimizing effects of the space-charge. Even so, the dense electron beam required for high brightness suffers from a space charge field that chirps and reshapes the electron pulse increasing beam emittance and thus reducing the overall brightness. This emittance growth can be avoided if the initial distribution of electrons is pancake shaped, with a semicircular transverse intensity profile. In this case, the electron distribution develops under its space charge field from a pancake into a uniformly filled ellipsoidal beam. This condition, referred to as the blowout regime, requires ultrashort pulses less than 100 fs long and has been successfully demonstrated recently in a high gradient photoinjector.

Polyakov, Aleksandr; Senft, Christoph; Thompson, K. F.; Feng, J.; Cabrini, S.; Schuck, P. J.; Padmore, Howard; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Hess, Wayne P.

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

Catalytic partial oxidation of iso-octane over rhodium catalysts: An experimental, modeling, and simulation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic partial oxidation of iso-octane over a rhodium/alumina coated honeycomb monolith is experimentally and numerically studied at short-contact times for varying fuel-to-oxygen ratios. A new experimental set-up with well-defined inlet and boundary conditions is presented. The conversion on the catalyst and in the gas-phase is modeled by detailed reaction mechanisms including 857 gas-phase and 17 adsorbed species. Elementary-step based heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction mechanisms are implemented into two-dimensional flow field description of a single monolith channel. Experiment and simulation provide new insights into the complex reaction network leading to varying product distribution as function of fuel-to-oxygen ratio. At fuel rich conditions, the formation of by-products that can serve as coke precursors is observed and interpreted. (author)

Hartmann, M.; Minh, H.D. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Maier, L. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutschmann, O. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

High rate chemical vapor deposition of carbon films using fluorinated gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high rate, low temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be 5 performed at less than 100C, including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 at% fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of 10 refraction, mass density, optical clarity, and chemical resistance are within 15% of those characteristics for pure amorphous carbon films, but the deposition rates are high.

Stafford, B.L.; Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Nelson, A.J.

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

High rate chemical vapor deposition of carbon films using fluorinated gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high rate, low-temperature deposition of amorphous carbon films is produced by PE-CVD in the presence of a fluorinated or other halide gas. The deposition can be performed at less than 100.degree. C., including ambient room temperature, with a radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition process. With less than 6.5 atomic percent fluorine incorporated into the amorphous carbon film, the characteristics of the carbon film, including index of refraction, mass density, optical clarity, and chemical resistance are within fifteen percent (15%) of those characteristics for pure amorphous carbon films, but the deposition rates are high.

Stafford, Byron L. (Arvada, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Nelson, Arthur J. (Longmont, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

High-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator–amplifier system near 3 mm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ultrafast laser system for the chemically important 3-mm spectral region has been constructed by means of noncritically phased-matched KTiOPO4 optical parametric gain elements. An optical parametric oscillator, synchronously pumped by a mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator, generates high-quality seed pulses for an optical parametric amplifier. The optical parametric amplifier, pumped by a high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier, amplifies the seed pulses by a factor of 520. Pulses with an energy of 550 nJ and a pulse width of 160 fs are produced at a 250-kHz repetition rate in the 3-mm region. 1.

Gary R. Holtom; Robert A. Crowell; X. Sunney Xie

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A flexible high-rate USB2 data acquisition system for PET and SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect

A new flexible data acquisition system has been developed to instrument gamma-ray imaging detectors designed by the Jefferson Lab Detector and Imaging Group. Hardware consists of 16-channel data acquisition modules installed on USB2 carrier boards. Carriers have been designed to accept one, two, and four modules. Application trigger rate and channel density determines the number of acquisition boards and readout computers used. Each channel has an independent trigger, gated integrator and a 2.5 MHz 12-bit ADC. Each module has an FPGA for analog control and signal processing. Processing includes a 5 ns 40-bit trigger time stamp and programmable triggering, gating, ADC timing, offset and gain correction, charge and pulse-width discrimination, sparsification, event counting, and event assembly. The carrier manages global triggering and transfers module data to a USB buffer. High-granularity time-stamped triggering is suitable for modular detectors. Time stamped events permit dynamic studies, complex offline event assembly, and high-rate distributed data acquisition. A sustained USB data rate of 20 Mbytes/s, a sustained trigger rate of 300 kHz for 32 channels, and a peak trigger rate of 2.5 MHz to FIFO memory were achieved. Different trigger, gating, processing, and event assembly techniques were explored. Target applications include >100 kHz coincidence rate PET detectors, dynamic SPECT detectors, miniature and portable gamma detectors for small-animal and clinical use.

J. Proffitt, W. Hammond, S. Majewski, V. Popov, R.R. Raylman, A.G. Weisenberger, R. Wojcik

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

High-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium periodically poled lithium niobate is described. This optical parametric oscillator is continuously tunable American Institute of Physics. S0003-6951 97 04325-8 Periodically poled lithium niobate PPLN has emerged

Fejer, Martin M.

98

Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications Donghwa Shin, Younghyun layer capacitors, or simply supercapacitors, have extremely low internal resistance, and a battery-supercapacitor architecture comprising a simple parallel connection does not perform well when the supercapacitor capacity

Pedram, Massoud

99

Progress towards a low-cost high-speed real-time multi-rate simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research has focused on developing techniques that use field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to support real-time simulation with frame times of a few microseconds or less. These techniques can be used to simulate, for example, modern power electronic ... Keywords: FPGA, distributed, high-speed, multi-rate, real-time

John Zenor; Dale Word; Richard Bednar; Roy Crosbie; Narain Hingorani

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A method to quench and recharge avalanche photo diodes for use in high rate situations  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method of using Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDS) for low level light detection in Geiger mode in high rate situations such as those encountered at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The new technique is readily adaptable to implementation in CMOS VLSI.

Regan, T.O.; Fenker, H.C.; Thomas, J. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Oliver, J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). High Energy Physics Lab.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A ?/4-shifted differential 8PSSK modulation for high data rate WBAN system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new modulation scheme for high data rate WBAN in-body communication systems. We propose a ?/4-shifted differential 8-PSSK scheme that includes its architectures for the transmitter and receiver. Simulation results are presented ... Keywords: PSSK, QPSK, WBAN, component

Jung-Yeol Oh; Jae-Hwan Kim; Hyung-Soo Lee; Jae-Young Kim

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R. [Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA-Bage, 96413-170 (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, 13086-100 (Brazil)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

103

Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nano-structured vanadium oxide (V2O5) is fabricated via facile thermal-decomposition of a vanadium precursor and vanadyl oxalate produced by reacting micro-sized V2O5 with oxalic acid. The V2O5 nanorods produced by this method exhibit much better electrochemical performance than commercial micro-sized V2O5. The optimized-nanorod electrodes with a high density of (001) planar defects give the best specific discharge capacities of 270 mAh g-1 at C/2 (147 mA g-1) coupled with good cycle stability with only 0.32% fading per cycle. Even at a high rate of 4C (1176 mA g-1), the nanorod electrode still delivers 198 mAh g-1. These results suggest that the nanostructured V2O5 is a good cathode for high-rate, lithium-ion battery applications.

Pan, Anqiang; Zhang, Jiguang; Nie, Zimin; Cao, Guozhong H.; Arey, Bruce W.; Li, Guosheng; Liang, Shu-quan; Liu, Jun

2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

104

High-Strain-Rate Forming of Aluminum and Steel Sheets for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

The formability of aluminum alloy AA5182-O and DP600 steel sheets at high-strain-rates was investigated using an electrohydraulic forming (EHF) setup. Test sheets, ~150 mm diameter x 1 mm thick, were clamped around their circumference and subjected to a pressure-pulse (several 100 ?s duration) generated by a high-energy (up to ~34 kJ) under-water electrical discharge. The real-time strain and strain-rate of the deforming sheets were quantified by the digital image correlation (DIC) technique using a pair of high-speed cameras (~15 ?s per frame). Strain-rate amplification was observed when the sheets were deformed into a conical die, with the maximum in-plane strain-rate and strain for aluminum measured as ~1200 /s and ~0.2, respectively. The deformation behavior of the sheets was modeled using ABAQUS/finite element explicit code and better correlation, between the predicted and the experimental sheet deformation behavior, was observed when an alternate pressure-profile was used instead of the one available from the literature.

Rohatgi, Aashish; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Soulami, Ayoub; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment.

Neev, Joseph (Laguna Beach, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Glinsky, Michael E. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Identifying the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rates using high-frequency data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new approach to identifying the effects of monetary policy shocks in an international vector autoregression.Using high-frequency data on the prices of Fed Funds futures contracts,we measure the impact of the surprise component of the FOMC-day Federal Reserve policy decision on financial variables, such as the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate. We show how this information can be used to achieve identification without having to make the usual strong assumption of a recursive ordering.

Jon Faust; John H. Rogers; Eric Swanson; Jonathan H. Wright

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport  

SciTech Connect

It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field.

Lei, X. L. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

TWINNING AND DYNAMIC STRENGTH OF COPPER DURING HIGH?RATE STRAIN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented of a study of the conditions under which microstructural changes involving the formation of complex bi?periodic twin structures occurs in copper during shock wave and high strain rate (??>10 7 ? s ?1 ) shock?less loading. We have observed that the formation of these bi?periodic twin structures results in an initial loss of shear strength that is significant over a time period of about 0.2 to 0.4 ?s.

O. N. Aprelkov; O. N. Ignatova; V. V. Igonin; A. I. Lebedev; S. S. Nadezhin; A. M. Podurets; V. A. Raevsky; V. P. Solovyev; G. A. Salishchev; M. A. Zocher; A. M. Kaul; J. M. McNaney; B. A. Remington

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

112

Nuclear reaction rates and energy in stellar plasmas : The effect of highly damped modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of the highly damped modes in the energy and reaction rates in a plasma are discussed. These modes, with wavenumbers $k \\gg k_{D}$, even being only weakly excited, with less than $k_{B}T$ per mode, make a significant contribution to the energy and screening in a plasma. When the de Broglie wavelength is much less than the distance of closest approach of thermal electrons, a classical analysis of the plasma can

Merav Opher; Luis O. Silva; Dean E. Dauger; Viktor K. Decyk; John M. Dawson

2001-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

Grain growth behavior and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of iridium alloy DOP-26  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the new-process iridium-based DOP-26 alloy used for the Cassini space mission. This alloy was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the early 1980`s and is currently used by NASA for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. Included within this report are data generated on grain growth in vacuum or low-pressure oxygen environments; a comparison of grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material with sheet material; effect of grain size, test temperature, and oxygen exposure on high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility; and grain growth in vacuum and high-temperature high-strain-rate tensile ductility of welded DOP-26. The data for the new-process material is compared to available old-process data.

McKamey, C.G.; Gubbi, A.N.; Lin, Y.; Cohron, J.W.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

115

STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

Dynamic compressive behavior of Pr-Nd alloy at high strain rates and temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on compressive tests, static on 810 material test system and dynamic on the first compressive loading in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens at high strain rates and temperatures, this study determined a J-C type [G. R. Johnson and W. H. Cook, in Proceedings of Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics (The Hague, The Netherlands, 1983), pp. 541-547] compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. It was recorded by a high speed camera that the Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens fractured during the first compressive loading in SHPB tests at high strain rates and temperatures. From high speed camera images, the critical strains of the dynamic shearing instability for Pr-Nd alloy in SHPB tests were determined, which were consistent with that estimated by using Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion [R. C. Batra and Z. G. Wei, Int. J. Impact Eng. 34, 448 (2007)] and the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy. The transmitted and reflected pulses of SHPB tests for Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens computed with the determined compressive constitutive equation of Pr-Nd alloy and Batra and Wei's dynamic shearing instability criterion could be consistent with the experimental data. The fractured Pr-Nd alloy cylinder specimens of compressive tests were investigated by using 3D supper depth digital microscope and scanning electron microscope.

Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian [Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Ma Dongfang [Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Effect of reaction pressure on octane number and reformate and hydrogen yields in catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of reaction pressure in catalytic reforming was studied in a pilot reactor with a commercial Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst and a hydrotreated naphtha from a North Sea crude. Reformate and hydrogen yields, research octane numbers (RON), and reformate composition at reactor pressures in the range of 12--25 bar were measured as a function of temperature in the range of 95--105 RON. Reformate and hydrogen yields increased as the pressure range. For the lower reaction pressures the hydrogen yields increased with increasing severity, but for the higher pressures the hydrogen yields started to decline above certain severities. RON was linearly dependent on the concentration of aromatics in the reformate, although the selectivity toward aromatics depends on both pressure and temperature. Less hydro dealkylation of C{sub 8} and heavier aromatics to benzene and toluene resulted in a shift toward xylenes and heavier aromatic components when pressure was lowered. Variations in the degree of paraffin isomerization did not influence RON significantly at those severities.

Moljord, K.; Hellenes, H.G.; Hoff, A.; Tanem, I. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Grande, K. [Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Holmen, A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway). Dept. Industrial Chemistry

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Implementation of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate outcome (overall survival [OS], the actuarial 5-year cancer-specific survival [CSS], disease-free survival [DFS], biochemical failure-free survival [BFS]), complications and morbidity in patients treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost and hormonal treatment with curative aims. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 275 prospectively followed pN0/N0M0 patients were included: 19 patients (7%) with T2, Gleason score 7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <10 and 256 patients (93%) with T3 or Gleason score 8-10 or PSA >20 received multimodal treatment with conformal four-field radiotherapy (prostate/vesiculae 2 Gy Multiplication-Sign 25) combined with HDR-BT (iridium 192; prostate 10 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Results: After a median observation time of 44.2 months (range, 10.4-90.5 months) 12 patients had relapsed clinically and/or biochemically and 10 patients were dead, of which 2 patients died from prostate cancer. Five-year estimates of BFS, CSS, DFS, and OS rates were 98.5%, 99.3%, 95.6%, and 96.3%, respectively. None of the patients with either Gleason score <8 or with intermediate risk profile had relapsed. The number of HDR-BT treatments was not related to outcome. Despite of age (median, 65.7 years; range, 45.7-77 years) and considerable pretreatment comorbidity in 39 of 275 patients, Genitourinary treatment-related morbidity was moderate with long-lasting Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 voiding problems in 26 patients (9.5%) and occasionally mucous discharge in 20 patients (7%), none with Grade >2 for gastrointestinal at follow-up. Complications during implantations were related to pubic arch interference (4 patients) and lithotomy time, causing 2 patients to develop compartment syndrome. Conclusion: Despite still preliminary observations, our 5-year outcome estimates favor the implementation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in high-risk patients combined with conformal external radiotherapy and long-term ADT. High-quality implants can be achieved by a trained specialized team at a high-turnover center using transrectal ultrasound-based treatment plans with acceptable morbidity and complication rates.

Lilleby, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.lilleby@ous-hf.no [Cancer Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radiumhospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Tafjord, Gunnar; Raabe, Nils K. [Cancer Clinic, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radiumhospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Oslo (Norway)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons from n-Octane to n-Hexadecane  

SciTech Connect

Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of the n-alkanes, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for n-heptane, using the same reaction class mechanism construction developed initially for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and there is an intent to develop these mechanisms further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. Several of these areas for improvement are identified and explained in detail. These mechanisms are validated through comparisons between computed and experimental data from as many different sources as possible. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare processes in all of the n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available on our web page when the paper is accepted for publication.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Silke, E J; Curran, H J

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

120

Laser driven quasi-isentropic compression experiments (ICE) for dynamically loading materials at high strain rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate the recently developed technique of laser driven isentropic compression (ICE) for dynamically compressing Al samples at high loading rates close to the room temperature isentrope and up to peak stresses above 100GPa. Upon analysis of the unloading profiles from a multi-stepped Al/LiF target a continuous path through Stress-Density space may be calculated. For materials with phase transformations ramp compression techniques reveals the location of equilibrium phase boundaries and provide information on the kinetics of the lattice re-ordering.

Smith, R; Eggert, J; Celliers, P; Jankowski, A; Lorenz, T; Moon, S; Edwards, M J; Collins, G

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High Rate Plasticity under Pressure using a Windowed Pressure-Shear Impact Experiment  

SciTech Connect

An experimental technique has been developed to study the strength of materials under conditions of moderate pressures and high shear strain rates. The technique is similar to the traditional pressure-shear plate-impact experiments except that window interferometry is used to measure both the normal and transverse particle velocities at a sample-window interface. Experimental and simulation results on vanadium samples backed with a sapphire window show the utility of the technique to measure the flow strength under dynamic loading conditions. The results show that the strength of the vanadium is 600 MPa at a pressure of 4.5 GPa and a plastic strain of 1.7%.

Florando, J N; Jiao, T; Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Ferranti, L; Becker, R C; Minich, R W; Bazan, G

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

122

High Growth Rate of Epitaxial Silicon-Carbon Alloys by High-Order Silane Precursor and Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates typically achieved by disilane and silane, respectively, at 575o C. The rate at present is limited precursor HOS than disilane in CVD, even at lower temperatures. Our current growth rates of Si1-yCy alloys

123

Characteristics of the high-rate discharge capability of a nickel/metal hydride battery electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high rate discharge capability of the negative electrode in a Ni/MH battery is mainly determined by the charge transfer process at the interface between the metal hydride (MH) alloy powder and the electrolyte, and the mass transfer process in the bulk MH alloy powder. In this study, the anodic polarization curves of a MH electrode were measured and analyzed. An alloy of nominal composition Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85}Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35} was used as the negative electrode material. With increasing number of charge/discharge cycles, the MH alloy powders microcrack into particles several micrometers in diameter. The decrease in the MH alloy particle size results in an increase in both the activation surface area and the exchange current density of the MH alloy electrode. The electrode overpotentials of the MH electrode decreases with increasing number of cycles at a large value of anodic polarization current. The decrease in electrode overpotential leads to an increase in the high rate discharge capability of the MH electrode. By using the limiting current, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the MH alloy was estimated to be 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}11}cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1} assuming an average particle radius of 5 {micro}m.

Geng, M.; Han, J.; Feng, F.; Northwood, D.O.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Design philosophy for high-resolution rate and throughput spectroscopy systems  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the philosophy behind the design of a pulse processing system used in a semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometer to be used for plasma diagnostics at the Princeton TFTR facility. This application presents the unusual problems of very high counting rates and a high-energy neutron background while still requiring excellent resolution. To meet these requirements three specific new advances are included in the design: (i) A symmetrical triangular pulse shape is employed in the main pulse-processing channel. A new simple method of generating a close approximation to the symmetrical triangle has been developed. (ii) To cope with the very wide dynamic range of signals while maintaining a constant fast resolving time, approximately symmetical triangular pulse shaping is also used in the fast pulse pile-up inspection channel. (iii) The demand for high throughput has resulted in a re-examination of the operation of pile-up rejectors and pulse stretchers. As a result a technique has been developed that, for a given total pulse shaping time, permits approximately a 40% increase in throughput in the system. Performance results obtained using the new techniques are presented.

Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

Microstructural evolution in adiabatic shear bands of copper at high strain rates: Electron backscatter diffraction characterization  

SciTech Connect

The microstructural evolution of adiabatic shear bands in annealed copper with different large strains at high strain rates has been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show that mechanical twinning can occur with minimal contribution to shear localization under dynamic loading. Elongated ultrafine grains with widths of 100-300 nm are observed during the evolution of the adiabatic shear bands. A rotational dynamic recrystallization mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the elongated ultrafine grains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructural evolution of ASB is studied by electron backscatter diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twinning can occur in ASB while the contribution to shear localization is slight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elongated ultrafine grains are observed during the evolution process of ASB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the microstructure evolution of ASB.

Tang Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen Zhiyong, E-mail: czysh@netease.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhan Congkun; Yang Xuyue; Liu Chuming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Cai Hongnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Producing ultrashort Terahertz to UV photons at high repetition rates for research into materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on a Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power (see G. P. Williams, this conference). The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser vapor deposition, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the opportunities provided by this unique light source for modifying and studying materials.

G. R. Neil; C. Behre; S. V. Benson; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H. F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M. J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; N. Nishimori; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; R. Walker; G. P. Williams; and S. Zhang

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Relationships between Radar Properties at High Elevations and Surface Rain Rate: Potential Use for Spaceborne Rainfall Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based radar data have been used to investigate the relationship between reflectivity at high elevations and surface rain rates. Such relations are useful for rainfall measurements by spaceborne radars at attenuating wavelength such as the ...

Eyal Amitai

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A Comparative Study of the Rates of Development of Potential Graupel and Hail Embryos in High Plains Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rates of development of graupel and hail in High Plains storms are calculated based on mechanisms for the growth of particles of various types. In the first part of this study, planar crystals, aggregates, graupel particles and frozen drops ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Molten Salt Synthesis and High Rate Performance of the ‘‘Desert-Rose’’ form of LiCoO2  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of a novel nanostructure of LiCoO{sub 2}, and its performance as a cathode for a high-rate lithium ion battery, is described. The LiCoO{sub 2} nanostructure resembles the morphology of a known natural mineral: 'desert rose' gypsum. A range of measurement techniques are used to investigate the growth mechanism of this structure and the origin of its high rate charge/discharge properties.

H Chen; C Grey

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal's designee on high school campuses in Texas with enrollments between 1,000 and 2000 and economically disadvantaged enrollments less than 40%. Each school in the study population was organized by grades nine through twelve. Data for achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate were collected through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) managed by the Texas Education Agency. Student achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate and their relation to school facilities were investigated using multiple regression models to compare sections and subsections of the TLEA with each of the five dependent variables. Major research findings of this study included the following: first, student achievement, attendance and completion rate measures were not found to be statistically significant in relation to school facility conditions as measured by the TLEA at the 0.05 level; second, discipline, or behavior, was found to be significantly related to the TLEA. This indicates that the subsections of the TLEA could be used to predict discipline factors for schools in the study population; third, teacher turnover rate was found to be related to the TLEA subsections of Specialized Learning Space and Support Space, with the correlation to Support Space being indirect. Literature from prior studies infers that relationships do exist between all five of the study's dependent variables. However, this study only yielded significant findings in the areas of student discipline and teacher turnover. The researchers recommendations based upon this study include the following: administrators and designers should take into account factors such as interior environment and academic learning space when planning schools to positively impact student discipline; school design and construction should focus on specialized learning spaces and other academic areas more than administrative support spaces when striving to increase teacher satisfaction with physical working conditions.

McGowen, Robert Scott

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility condition for the participating schools was determined by the Total Learning Environment Assessment (TLEA) as completed by the principal or principal’s designee on high school campuses in Texas with enrollments between 1,000 and 2000 and economically disadvantaged enrollments less than 40%. Each school in the study population was organized by grades nine through twelve. Data for achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate were collected through the Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) managed by the Texas Education Agency. Student achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate and their relation to school facilities were investigated using multiple regression models to compare sections and subsections of the TLEA with each of the five dependent variables. Major research findings of this study included the following: first, student achievement, attendance and completion rate measures were not found to be statistically significant in relation to school facility conditions as measured by the TLEA at the 0.05 level; second, discipline, or behavior, was found to be significantly related to the TLEA. This indicates that the subsections of the TLEA could be used to predict discipline factors for schools in the study population; third, teacher turnover rate was found to be related to the TLEA subsections of Specialized Learning Space and Support Space, with the correlation to Support Space being indirect. Literature from prior studies infers that relationships do exist between all five of the study’s dependent variables. However, this study only yielded significant findings in the areas of student discipline and teacher turnover. The researchers recommendations based upon this study include the following: administrators and designers should take into account factors such as interior environment and academic learning space when planning schools to positively impact student discipline; school design and construction should focus on specialized learning spaces and other academic areas more than administrative support spaces when striving to increase teacher satisfaction with physical working conditions.

McGowen, Robert Scott

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

WATER ICE IN HIGH MASS-LOSS RATE OH/IR STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate water-ice features in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars. We use a radiative transfer code which can consider multiple components of dust shells to make model calculations for various dust species including water ice in the OH/IR stars. We find that the model SEDs are sensitively dependent on the location of the water-ice dust shell. For two sample stars (OH 127.8+0.0 and OH 26.5+0.6), we compare the detailed model results with the infrared observational data including the spectral data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For the two sample stars, we reproduce the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 3.1 {mu}m and 11.5 {mu}m; emission at 44 and 62 {mu}m) observed by ISO using a separate component of the water-ice dust shell that condensed at about 84-87 K (r {approx} 1500-1800 AU) as well as the silicate dust shell that condensed at about 1000 K (r {approx} 19-25 AU). For a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars, we present infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and AKARI data compared with theoretical model results. We find that the theoretical models clearly show the effects of the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 11.5 {mu}m and emission at 62 {mu}m) on the 2CDs.

Suh, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Young-Joo, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

High-Rate Quantum Key Distribution with Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the potential for 1.85 Mbit/s secure key rates over 101 km of fiber, >100 times faster than previously demonstrated, using the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol and superconducting ...

Spellmeyer, Neal W.

138

a-Si:H Grown by Hot-Wire CVD at Ultra-High Deposition Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We increase the deposition rate of growing hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) by the hot-wire chemical vapor depositon (HWCVD) technique by adding filaments (two) and decreasing the filament(s) to substrate distance.

Xu, Y.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Williamson, D. L.; Crandall, R. S.; Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dual-chamber plasma deposition of A-Si:H solar cells at high rates using disilane  

SciTech Connect

The use of a separated chamber deposition system for the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells from disilane at high deposition rates results in a substantial improvement in short circuit current compared to that obtained from a single-chamber system. The spectral responses of cells fabricated in the dual-chamber mode are compared to those made in the single-chamber mode. The results are interpreted by assuming that the rate of removal of boron contaminants from the chamber is independent of deposition rate.

Rajeswaran, G.; Vanier, P.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Molecular dynamics simulation of high strain-rate void nucleation and growth in copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isotropic tension is simulated in nanoscale polycrystalline copper with 10 nm grain size using large-scale molecular dynamics. The nanocrystalline copper is fabricated on the computer by growing randomly oriented grains from seed sites in simulations cell. Constant volume strain rates of 10-8 to 10-10 are considered for systems ranging from 10-5 to 10-6 atoms using EAM interatomic potential for copper. The spacing between voids for room temperature single crystal simulations is found to scale approximately as l{approximately}0. 005 Cs/gamma, where Cs is the sound speed and gamma is the strain rate. Below strain rates of about 10-9, only one void is observed to nucleate and grow in the 10 nm polycrystalline simulation cell. The growth of small voids is simulated by cutting a void out of the simulation cell and repeating the isotropic expansion.

Belak, J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Delta-Sigma digital-RF modulation for high data rate transmitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low power, wideband wireless transmitter utilizing [Delta]-[Sigma] direct digital modulation of an RF carrier is presented. The transmitter architecture replaces high dynamic range analog circuits with high speed digital ...

Jerng, Albert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Applications and source development for high-repetition rate x-ray lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many applications in material science, chemistry, and atomic physics require an x-ray source that has a repetition rate of 1 Hz to a few kHz. In these fields, a very wide range of photon energies is of interest. One application is time-resolved surface photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy where low energy (energies below 100 eV are very good with higher energy capabilities expected in the future. In addition, prospects of table-top size x-ray lasers with kHz repetition rates are presented.

Eder, D.C.; Amendt, P.; Bolton, P.R. [and others

1993-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STAR FORMATION RATE, SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, AND THE PRESENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FOR HIGH STELLAR MASS AND LOW STELLAR MASS GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Using two volume-limited main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (SDSS DR8), we explore the environmental dependence of the star formation rate (SFR), specific star formation rate (SSFR), and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for high stellar mass (HSM) and low stellar mass (LSM) galaxies. It is found that the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous HSM galaxies and faint LSM ones remains very strong: galaxies in the lowest density regime preferentially have higher SFR and SSFR than galaxies in the densest regime, while the environmental dependence of the SFR and SSFR for luminous LSM galaxies is substantially reduced. Our result also shows that the fraction of AGNs in HSM galaxies decreases as a function of density, while the one in LSM galaxies depends very little on local density. In the faint LSM galaxy sample, the SFR and SSFR of galaxies strongly decrease with increasing density, but the fraction of AGNs depends very little on local density. Such a result can rule out that AGNs are fueled by the cold gas in the disk component of galaxies that is also driving the star formation of those galaxies.

Deng Xinfa; Song Jun; Chen Yiqing; Jiang Peng; Ding Yingping [School of Science, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330031 (China)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

144

This work addresses the high-rate session scheduling problem in Fractional Lambda Switching (FS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiplexing (such as SONET/SDH) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Yet, Non-Immediate Forwarding (NIF-rate NIF session. An efficient scheduling algorithm, eSSM, is proposed to explore all possibilities in two modes: (1) immediate forwarding (IF) or (2) non-immediate forwarding (NIF). NIF is more

Baldi, Mario

145

Self-Constructive High-Rate System Energy Modeling for Battery-Powered Mobile Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Lin Zhong Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University 6100 Main St., TX 77005 for the great diversity in the hardware and usage of mobile systems. Moreover, existing system energy models intervals of at least 10 ms, or at a rate no lower than 100 Hz. Per-application energy accounting is useful

Zhong, Lin

146

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

147

High Strain Rate Shear Zone Properties in an Inertia Friction Weld  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Explosive Bonding of 316L to C18150 CuCrZr Alloy for ITER Applications · Failure Mechanisms of Dissimilar Metal Welds During High Temperature Service.

148

High Rate Oxygen Reduction in Non-aqueous Electrolytes with the Addition of Perfluorinated Additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discharge rate capability of Li-air batteries is substantially increased by using perfluorinated compounds as oxygen carriers. The solubility of oxygen in a non-aqueous electrolyte can be significantly increased by the introduction of such compounds, which leads to the increase in the diffusion-limited current of oxygen reduction on the gas diffusion electrode in a Li-air battery. The perfluorinated compound is found to be stable within the electrochemical window of the electrolyte. A powder microelectrode and a rotating disk electrode were used to study the gas diffusion-limited current together with a rotating disk electrode. A 5 mA cm{sup -2} discharge rate is demonstrated in a lab Li-O{sub 2} cell.

Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; Zheng, D.; Qu, D.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

149

Relativistic calculation of the two-photon decay rate of highly-excited ionic states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on quantum electrodynamics, we reexamine the two-photon decay of one-electron atoms. Special attention is paid to the calculation of the (two-photon) total decay rates which can be viewed as the imaginary part of the two-loop self-energy. We argue that our approach can easily be applied to the cases with a virtual state having an intermediate energy between the initial and the final state of the decay process leading, thus, to the resonance peaks in the two-photon energy distribution. In order to illustrate our approach, we obtain fully relativistic results, resolved into electric and magnetic multipole components, for the two-photon decay rates of the 3S_{1/2} -> 1S_{1/2} transition in neutral hydrogen as well as in various hydrogen-like ions.

Jentschura, Ulrich D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Analysis of an open non-Markovian GI -- (GI| ?)K queueing network with high-rate renewal arrival process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze an open non-Markovian queueing network with high-rate renewal arrival process, Markovian routing, arbitrary service policy, and unlimited number of servers at nodes. We obtain mean values for the number of busy servers at nodes of the queueing ...

A. A. Nazarov; A. N. Moiseev

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Tunas are apex predators renowned for their thunniform swimming mode, high metabolic rates and ability to conserve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

881 Tunas are apex predators renowned for their thunniform swimming mode, high metabolic rates such as yellowfin tuna maintain only a small elevation above ambient temperatures while young and mature bluefin al., 2001). Measurements of metabolic performance in vivo have been made in tropical tunas

Block, Barbara A.

152

High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia, Indonesia Introduction Sulawesi Island, eastern Indonesia, is at the triple junction of the Paci®c (through- ABSTRACT In eastern Indonesia, the Central Sulawesi fault system consists of complex left-lateral strike

Vigny, Christophe

153

Acceleration of the rate of ethanol fermentation by addition of nitrogen in high tannin grain sorghum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this communication, the authors show that accelerated rates of ethanol production, comparable to sorghum varieties containing low levels of tannins and to corn, can occur without the removal of the tannins. The basis of the inhibition appears to be a lack of sufficient nitrogen in the mash for protein synthesis required to support an accelerated fermentative metabolism in Saccharomyces. No inhibition of the enzymes used for starch hydrolysis was found.

Mullins, J.T.; NeSmith, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A High-Rate, Heterogeneous Data Set from the Darpa Urban Challenge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a data set collected by MIT’s autonomous vehicle Talos during the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. Data from a high-precision navigation system, five cameras, 12 SICK planar laser range scanners, and a ...

Huang, Albert S.

155

Noisy matrix decomposition via convex relaxation: Optimal rates in high dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze a class of estimators based on convex relaxation for solving high-dimensional matrix decomposition problems. The observations are noisy realizations of a linear transformation [bar through "X" symbol] of the sum ...

Agarwal, Alekh

156

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. First technical progress report for the fourth quarter 1989  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

High-Rate Oxygen Reduction in Mixed Nonaqueous Electrolyte Containing Acetonitrile  

SciTech Connect

A mixed nonaqueous electrolyte that contains acetonitrile and propylene carbonate (PC) was found to be suitable for a LiO2 battery with a metallic Li anode. Both the concentration and diffusion coefficient for the dissolved O2 are significantly higher in the mixed electrolyte than those in the pure PC electrolyte. A powder microelectrode was used to investigate the O2 solubility and diffusion coefficient. A 10 mA?cm-2 discharge rate on a gas-diffusion electrode is demonstrated by using the mixed electrolyte in a LiO2 cell.

Zheng D.; Yang X.; Qu D.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

158

High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--6 March 2005  

SciTech Connect

The objectives for the University of Toledo are to: (1) establish a transferable knowledge and technology base for fabricating high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si-based solar cells, and (2) develop high-rate deposition techniques for the growing a-Si-based and related alloys, including poly-Si, c-Si, a-SiGe, and a-Si films and photovoltaic devices with these materials.

Deng, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Self-constructive high-rate system energy modeling for battery-powered mobile systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System energy models are important for energy optimization and management in mobile systems. However, existing system energy models are built in a lab setting with the help from a second computer. Not only are they labor-intensive; but also they do not adequately account for the great diversity in the hardware and usage of mobile systems. Moreover, existing system energy models are intended for energy estimation for time intervals of one second or longer; they do not provide the required rate for fine-grain use such as per-application energy accounting. In this work, we study a self-modeling paradigm in which a mobile system automatically generates its energy model without any external assistance. Our solution, Sesame, leverages the possibility of self power measurement through the smart battery interface and employs a suite of novel techniques to achieve accuracy and rate much higher than that of the smart battery interface. We report the implementation and evaluation of Sesame on a laptop and a smartphone. The experiment results show that Sesame is able to generate system energy models of 95 % accuracy at one estimation per second and of 88 % accuracy at one estimation per 10 ms, without any external assistance. Two fiveday field studies with four laptop and four smartphones users further demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, and noninvasiveness of Sesame.

Mian Dong; Lin Zhong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Instantaneous Rainfall Rate: Its Measurement and Its Influence on High-Voltage Transmission Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a high-voltage transmission line is exposed to rain there is generally a small amount of corona activity at the surface of the conductors. This activity usually results in a power loss and the generation of audible and radio noise. While the ...

Harold Kirkham

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermodynamic cycle simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine was used to determine the effects of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and emission characteristics. The overall objective was to use the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects of variations in load, speed, combustion duration, spark timing, equivalence ratio, exhaust gas recycle, and compression ratio for a 3.3 liter, Chrysler Minivan, V 6 engine operating on propane. Parameters were selected for the analysis. Variations in the brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific NOx emissions, and mean exhaust temperature were determined for both the propane-fuelled and the iso-octane-fuelled engines. Brake specific fuel consumption and mean exhaust temperature values for the propane-fuelled engine were consistently lower (3 to 5 %) than the corresponding values for the iso-octane-fuelled engine. Fuel structure did not have a significant effect on brake specific nitric oxide emissions. Predictions made from the simulation were compared with some of the available experimental results. Predicted brake torque and brake power showed acceptable quantitative agreement (less than 10 % variation) in the low engine speed range (1,000 to 3,000 rpm) and similar trends with the available experimental data.

Pathak, Dushyant

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

HyperCP: A high-rate spectrometer for the study of charged hyperon and kaon decays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The HyperCP experiment (Fermilab E871) was designed to search for rare phenomena in the decays of charged strange particles, in particular CP violation in $\\Xi$ and $\\Lambda$ hyperon decays with a sensitivity of $10^{-4}$. Intense charged secondary beams were produced by 800 GeV/c protons and momentum-selected by a magnetic channel. Decay products were detected in a large-acceptance, high-rate magnetic spectrometer using multiwire proportional chambers, trigger hodoscopes, a hadronic calorimeter, and a muon-detection system. Nearly identical acceptances and efficiencies for hyperons and antihyperons decaying within an evacuated volume were achieved by reversing the polarities of the channel and spectrometer magnets. A high-rate data-acquisition system enabled 231 billion events to be recorded in twelve months of data-taking.

HyperCP collaboration; R. A. Burnstein; A. Chakravorty; A. Chan; Y. C. Chen; W. -S. Choong; K. Clark; E. C. Dukes; C. Durandet; J. Felix; R. Fuzesy; G. Gidal; P. Gu; H. R. Gustafson; C. Ho; T. Holmstrom; M. Huang; C. James; C. M. Jenkins; T. D. Jones; D. M. Kaplan; L. M. Lederman; N. Leros; M. J. Longo; F. Lopez; L. C. Lu; W. Luebke; K. -B. Luk; K. S. Nelson; H. K. Park; J. -P. Perroud; D. Rajaram; H. A. Rubin; P. K. Teng; B. Turko; J. Volk; C. G. White; S. L. White; P. Zyla

2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

Reproducible Preparation of Au/TS-1 with High Reaction Rate for Gas Phase Epoxidation of Propylene  

SciTech Connect

A refined and reliable synthesis procedure for Au/TS-1(Si/Ti molar ratio {approx}100) with high reaction rate for the direct gas phase epoxidation of propylene has been developed by studying the effects of pH of the gold slurry solution, mixing time, and preparation temperature for deposition precipitation (DP) of Au on TS-1 supports. Au/TS-1 catalysts prepared at optimal DP conditions (pH {approx} 7.3, mixing for 9.5 h, room temperature) showed an average PO rate {approx} 160 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} kg{sub Cat}{sup -1} at 200 C at 1 atm. A reproducibility better than {+-}10% was demonstrated by nine independent samples prepared at the same conditions. These are the highest rates yet reported at 200 C. No visible gold particles were observed by the HRTEM analysis in the fresh Au/TS-1 with gold loading up to {approx}0.1 wt%, indicating that the gold species were smaller than 1 nm. Additionally, the rate per gram of Au and the catalyst stability increased as the Au loading decreased, giving a maximum value of 500 g{sub PO} h{sup -1} g{sub Au}{sup -1}, and Si/Ti molar ratios of {approx}100 gave the highest rates.

Lee W. S.; Stach E.; Akatay, M.C.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, N.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Spinel LiMn(2)O(4)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for High Rate Lithium Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A well-crystallized and nano-sized spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide hybrid cathode material for high rate lithium-ion batteries has been successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 200 C for 30 min without any post heat-treatment. The nano-sized LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles were evenly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide template without agglomeration, which allows the inherent high active surface area of individual LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the hybrid. These unique structural and morphological properties of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} on the highly conductive reduced graphene oxide sheets in the hybrid enable achieving the high specific capacity, an excellent high rate capability and stable cycling performance. An analysis of the cyclic voltammogram data revealed that a large surface charge storage contribution of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide hybrid plays an important role in achieving faster charge/discharge.

Bak, S.M.; Nam, K.; Lee, C.-W.; Kim, K.-H.; Jung, H.-C.; Yang, X-Q.; Kim, K.-B.

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

High Strain-Rate Mechanical Behaviour of a Copper Matrix Composite for Nuclear Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aim of this work is the investigation of mechanical behaviour of an alumina dispersion strengthened copper, known by the trade name GLIDCOP®, subjected to dynamic loads: it is a composite material with a copper matrix strengthened with aluminium oxide ceramic particles. Since the particle content is quite small the material keeps the OFE copper physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, but with a higher yield strength, like a mild-carbon steel. Besides, with the addition of aluminium oxide, the good mechanical properties are retained also at high temperatures and the resistance to thermal softening is increased: the second phase blocks the dislocation movement preventing the grain growth. Thanks to these properties GLIDCOP® finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collim...

Peroni, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A study of PVT relations for carbon dioxide, n-pentane, and n-octane mixtures using a recombination apparatus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide flooding is considered to have a multi- contact miscibility displacement mechanism. It changes the reservoir fluid in a complex manner. This type of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technique is very economically viable, readily available, and environmentally acceptable. Carbon dioxide flooding is one of the EOR techniques in the gas processes category. Miscibility is defined as physical condition between two or more fluids that will permit them to mix in all proportions without the existence of an interface. The minimum pressure required to achieve a multicontact miscibility between injected fluid and oil, specifically, is called the minimum miscibility pressure. The objectives of this study could be separated into two. The first was to look for correlation between bubble-point pressure and minimum miscibility pressure. Simulators were used to obtain the bubble-points and, based on those data, the minimum miscibility pressures were able to be calculated using available correlations. The second part of the objectives was experimental study. A laboratory for reservoir fluid studies was set up and experimental procedures were developed from experiments using propane in the calibration experiment and n-pentane - n-octane - carbon dioxide mixtures in the main experiment.

Wirawan, Januar Fitri Santo

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Use of a high repetition rate neutron generator for in vivo body composition measurements via neutron inelastic scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small D-T neutron generator with a high pulse rate is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The core of the neutron generator is a 13 cm-long Zetatron tube pulsed at a rate of 10 kHz delivering 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ neutrons per pulse. A target-current feedback system regulates the source of the accelerator to assure constant neutron output. Carbon is measured by detecting the 4.44 MeV ..gamma..-rays from inelastic scattering. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the ..gamma..-rays during the 10 ..mu..s neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurements because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during the pulse). In vivo measurements were performed with normal volunteers using a scanning bed facility for a dose less than 25 mrem. This technique offers medical as well as general bulk analysis applications. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Weinlein, J.H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

'In vivo' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured 'in vivo' by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the 'in vivo' measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the 'in vivo' dose is fully described.

Reynoso Mejia, C. A.; Buenfil Burgos, A. E.; Ruiz Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mota Garcia, A.; Trejo Duran, E.; Rodriguez Ponce, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, 4080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

Pressure oscillations caused by momentum on shut in of a high rate well in a fractured formation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure transient testing techniques are an important part of reservoir and production testing procedures. These techniques are frequently used to determine practical information about underground reservoirs such as the permeability, porosity, liquid content, reservoir and liquid discontinuities and other related data. This information is valuable in helping to analyze, improve and forecast reservoir performance. This report is concerned with developing models for pressure transient well testing in high permeability, high flow rate, naturally fractured reservoirs. In the present work, a study was made of the effects of liquid inertia in the fractures and the wellbore on the pressure response obtained during a well test. The effects of turbulent flow and multi-phase flow effects such as gravitational segregation or anisotropic porous media effects were not considered. The scope of the study was limited to studying inertial effects on the pressure response of a fractured reservoir.

Bhatnagar, S.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H{sub 2}, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are reduced; (3) surface hydrogen removal--heavier and more energetic helium ions break the Si-H much easier than hydrogen ions. The preferential attachment of Si-H to Ge-H is reduced. They also found that with the small amount of hydrogen put into the plasma, the superior properties of a-(Si,Ge):H made from pure hydrogen dilution plasma were still maintained. These hydrogen ions help to remove the subsurface weakly bonded hydrogen and buried hydrogen. They also help to passivate the Ge-dangling bond.

Yong Liu

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor.

Bolzonella, David, E-mail: david.bolzonella@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Cavinato, Cristina, E-mail: cavinato@unive.it [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Fatone, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fatone@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Pavan, Paolo, E-mail: pavan@unive.it [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Cecchi, Franco, E-mail: franco.cecchi@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as a Monotherapy for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: There are multiple treatment options for favorable-risk prostate cancer. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a monotherapy is appealing, but its use is still investigational. A Phase II trial was undertaken to explore the value of such treatment in low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a single-institution, prospective study. Eligible patients had low-risk prostate cancer features but also Gleason scores of 7 (51% of patients) and stage T2b to T2c cancer. Treatment with HDR brachytherapy with a single implant was administered over 2 days. One of four fractionation schedules was used in a dose escalation study design: 3 fractions of 10, 10.5, 11, or 11.5 Gy. Patients were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 2.0 for urinary toxicity, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring schema for rectal toxicity, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire to measure patient-reported health-related quality of life. Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/ml. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 79 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 39.5 months, biochemical relapse occurred in 7 patients. Three- and 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 88.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.0-96.2%) and 85.1% (95% CI, 72.5-94.5%), respectively. Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity was seen in only 1 patient. There was no instance of acute grade 3 rectal toxicity. Rates of late grade 3 rectal toxicity, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence were 0%, 10.3%, 1.3%, 9.0%, and 0%, respectively. No grade 4 or greater toxicity was recorded. Among the four (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal) domains assessed with the EPIC questionnaire, only the sexual domain did not recover with time. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer, administered using a single implant over 2 days, is feasible and has acceptable acute and late toxicities. Further follow-up is still required to better evaluate the efficacy of such treatment.

Barkati, Maroie [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott G., E-mail: scott.williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad; Tai, Keen Hun; Chander, Sarat [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dyk, Sylvia van [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); See, Andrew [Ballarat Austin Radiation Oncology Centre, Ballarat (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Effects of engine speed, fueling rate, and combustion phasing on the thermal stratification required to limit HCCI knocking intensity.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce pressure-rise rates and allow increased power output for HCCI engines. This paper systematically examines how the amount of thermal stratification of the core of the charge has to be adjusted to avoid excessive knock as the engine speed and fueling rate are increased. This is accomplished by a combination of multi-zone chemical-kinetics modeling and engine experiments, using iso-octane as the fuel. The experiments show that, for a low-residual engine configuration, the pressure traces are self-similar during changes to the engine speed when CA50 is maintained by adjusting the intake temperature. Consequently, the absolute pressure-rise rate measured as bar/ms increases proportionally with the engine speed. As a result, the knocking (ringing) intensity increases drastically with engine speed, unless counteracted by some means. This paper describes how adjustments of the thermal width of the in-cylinder charge can be used to limit the ringing intensity to 5 MW/m2 as both engine speed and fueling are increased. If the thermal width can be tailored without constraints, this enables smooth operation even for combinations of high speed, high load, and combustion phasing close to TDC. Since large alterations of the thermal width of the charge are not always possible, combustion retard is considered to reduce the requirement on the thermal stratification. The results show that combustion retard carries significant potential since it amplifies the benefit of a fixed thermal width. Therefore, the thermal stratification required for operation with an acceptable knocking intensity can be decreased substantially by the use of combustion retard. This enables combinations of high engine speed and high fueling rate even for operation with the naturally occurring thermal stratification. However, very precise control of the combustion phasing will likely be required for such operation.

SjÞoberg, Magnus; Dec, John E.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

Wei-Kao Lu

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Clock division as a power saving strategy in a system constrained by high transmission frequency and low data rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Systems are often restricted to have higher transmission frequency than required by their data rates. Possible constraints include channel attenuation, power requirements, and backward compatibility. As a result these ...

Selbst, Andrew D. (Andrew David)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Characterization of High Strain Rate Mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy using 3D Digital Image Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of the material mechanical behavior at sub-Hopkinson regime (0.1 to 1000 s{sup -1}) is very challenging due to instrumentation limitations and the complexity of data analysis involved in dynamic loading. In this study, AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet specimens are tested using a custom designed servo-hydraulic machine in tension at nominal strain rates up to 1000 s{sup -1}. In order to resolve strain measurement artifacts, the specimen displacement is measured using 3D Digital Image correlation instead from actuator motion. The total strain is measured up to {approx} 30%, which is far beyond the measurable range of electric resistance strain gages. Stresses are calculated based on the elastic strains in the tab of a standard dog-bone shaped specimen. Using this technique, the stresses measured for strain rates of 100 s{sup -1} and lower show little or no noise comparing to load cell signals. When the strain rates are higher than 250 s{sup -1}, the noises and oscillations in the stress measurements are significantly decreased from {approx} 250 to 50 MPa. Overall, it is found that there are no significant differences in the elongation, although the material exhibits slight work hardening when the strain rate is increased from 1 to 100 s{sup -1}.

Wang, Yanli [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

High Average Power, 100 Hz Repetition Rate, Table-top EUV/Soft X-ray Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compact =13.9 nm and =18.9 nm lasers with >0.1 mW average power at 100 Hz repetition rate driven by a diode-pumped, 1 J, CPA laser were demonstrated. Wavelength scaling to =10.9 nm will be discussed.

Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Durivage, Leon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Salsbury, Chase [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

180

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Infinite cloud model of electrification by the precipitation mechanism in the presence of high rates of ion generation  

SciTech Connect

We have extended a simple, infinite cloud, precipitation mechanism model of thundercloud electrification to include effects due to the presence of radioactive aerosol particles resulting from fresh debris from a nuclear explosion. These effects involve ion generation, currents due to motions of ions and charged aerosol particles, and collection of ions and aerosol particles by hydrometeors and cloud droplets. Our conclusion is that an ion pair generation rate G> or approx. =10/sup 12/m/sup -3/ s/sup -1/ will prevent significant electric field growth.

Spangler, J.D.; Rosenkilde, C.E.

1979-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

182

Infinite cloud model of electrification by the precipitation mechanism in the pressence of high rates of ion generation  

SciTech Connect

We have extended a simple, infinite-cloud, precipitation-mechanism model of thundercloud electrification to include effects due to the presence of radioactive aerosol particles. These effects involve ion generation, currents due to motions of ions and charged aerosol particles, and collection of ions and aerosol particles by hydrometeors and cloud droplets. Our conclusion is that an ion-pair generation rate G equal to or greater than 10/sup 12/m/sup -3/s/sup -1/ will prevent significant electric-field growth.

Spangler, J.D.; Rosenkilde, C.E.

1978-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

183

Use of very-high-frequency plasmas to prepare a-Si:H-based triple-junction solar cells at high deposition rates: Annual technical status report, 11 March 1998--11 March 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed by Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) during this phase of this subcontract. ECD researchers have made significant progress in advancing the very high frequency (VHF), high-rate technology. They demonstrated that 8.0% stable efficiencies can be achieved for a-Si:H cells whose i-layers are prepared at rates near 10 {angstrom}/s using the VHF technique. Presently, there is not a great difference in the performance of a-Si:H cells made using the VHF technique and i-layer deposition rates near 10 {angstrom}/s and that for cells made using the standard 13.56 MHz technique and rates near 1 {angstrom}/s in the same deposition system. In terms of the a-SiGe:H cells, researchers have completed a number of studies of devices with properties appropriate for middle-junction cells-that is, cells without Ag/ZnO back-reflectors having Voc values near 0.75V and Jsc values near 8.0 mA/cm{sup 2} when measured using AM1.5 light filtered using a 530-nm, low-band-pass filter. The stabilized proper ties for these cells prepared at i-layer rates near 10 {angstrom}/s are again similar to a-SiGe:H cells made using the same deposition hardware and the low-rate 13.56 MHz method. Establishing an initial 10.5% for a triple-junction cell whose i-layers are prepared at the high rates sets the baseline for ECD's future studies. The triple-junction cell degradation (10%--13%) with prolonged light soaking is similar to that regularly obtained for cells prepared at low i-layer deposition rates (1 {angstrom}/s). This is important because the use of high-rate methods to prepare i-layers typically leads to less-stable materials and cells. Increasing the buffer-layer deposition rate to 6 {angstrom}/s leads to nearly a 15-min decrease in the total deposition time, whereas the increase in the n-layer and p-layer deposition rates both decrease the total time by 5 and 5.8 min, respectively. Thus, besides the i-layer growth rates, increasing the buffer layer growth rate has the strongest effect on the deposition time of the triple-junction semiconductor structures.

Jones, S.J.; Liu, T.; Tsu, D.; Izu, M.

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution  

SciTech Connect

We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies.

Lima, Frederico A.; Milne, Christopher J.; Amarasinghe, Dimali C. V.; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; Veen, Renske M. van der; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Mourik, Frank van; Chergui, Majed [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, ISIC, FSB, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Johnson, Steven L.; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Abela, Rafael [SwissFEL, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Design and demonstration of heat pipe cooling for NASP and evaluation of heating methods at high heating rates  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of two heating methods for demonstration of NASP leading edge heat pipe technology was conducted. The heating methods were and rf induction heated plasma jet and direct rf induction. Tests were conducted to determine coupling from the argon plasma jet on a surface physically similar to a heat pipe. A molybdenum tipped calorimeter was fabricated and installed in an rf induction heated plasma jet for the test. The calorimetric measurements indicated a maximum power coupling of approximately 500 W/cm{sup 2} with the rf plasma jet. The effect of change in gas composition on the heating rate was investigated using helium. An alternative to the plasma heating of a heat pipe tip, an rf concentrator was evaluated for coupling to the hemispherical tip of a heat pipe. A refractory metal heat pipe was designed, fabricated, and tested for the evaluation. The heat pipe was designed for operation at 1400 to 1900 K with power input to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a hemispherical nose tip. Power input of 800 W/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated using the rf concentrator. 2 refs., 13 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

187

Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases in melter operating temperature. Glass composition development was based on one of the HLW waste compositions specified by ORP that has a high concentration of aluminum. Small-scale tests were used to provide an initial screening of various glass formulations with respect to melt rates; more definitive screening was provided by the subsequent DM100 tests. Glass properties evaluated included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, gross glass phase separation and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (ASTM-1285). Glass property limits were based upon the reference properties for the WTP HLW melter. However, the WTP crystallinity limit (< 1 vol% at 950oC) was relaxed slightly as a waste loading constraint for the crucible melts.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

188

High Conversion of Coal to Transportation Fuels for the Future With Low HC Gas Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An announced objective of the Department of Energy in funding this work, and other current research in coal liquefaction, is to produce a synthetic crude from coal at a cost lower than $30.00 per barrel (Task A). A second objective, reflecting a recent change in direction in the synthetic fuels effort of DOE, is to produce a fuel which is low in aromatics, yet of sufficiently high octane number for use in the gasoline- burning transportation vehicles of today. To meet this second objective, research was proposed, and funding awarded, for conversion of the highly-aromatic liquid product from coal conversion to a product high in isoparaffins, which compounds in the gasoline range exhibit a high octane number (Task B).

Alex G. Oblad; Wendell H. Wiser

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells at high rates by glow discharge of disilane. Final subcontract report, January 1985-July 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of recent a-Si:H thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials research. The work reported here concerned the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells at high deposition rates using disilane. This task required the construction of a new, dual-chamber deposition system to control the dopant profile between the heavily doped p-type layer and the undoped (intrinsic) layer in the solar cell structure. Conditions were sought that would produce high-quality films at a high deposition rate. Complete photovoltaic devices were fabricated. In disilane-deposited material, the optimum substrate temperature is much higher than in silane material, presumably because it is harder to eliminate the excess hydrogen in the former. The efficiency of the best disilane cell was about 7%, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.80 V, a short-circuit current density of 14.7 mA cm/sup -2/ and a fill factor of 0.59. The most likely area for improvement is in the voltage, where values as high as 0.9 V should be possible with careful adjustment of the cell structure.

Vanier, P.E.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

191

Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon reforming involves a variety of chemical reactions at high temperatures and pressures in the presence of suitable catalysts. The conversion of naptha to high octane aromatics requires high energy to initiate and sustain the reaction at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections. It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up the burners with excessive airflows for normal, full-load firing. These furnaces represent production limits. Products of combustion exhaust at high thermal levels - the range is from 985-1700oF. The mixed gases flow through a "waste heat" boiler, or they bypass the boiler and enter a single stack. Steam generation at 150 psig averages 38,200 lb/hr. Heat is wasted via the bypass at a rate of 41.1x106 Btu /hr. at 1240oF. When airflows are reduced (to 15% excess air) the loss will be 18.7x106 Btu/hr. at 1180oF. Installation of a second, parallel waste heat boiler will result in a saving of l3.4x106 Btu/hr. Energy savings at this furnace complex will be equivalent to $628,700 per year. Investment costs were estimated to be less than $250,000 for the proposed heat trap addition.

Viar, W. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Insertion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Insertion Rates. TECH HEADLINES. Research Explores a New Layer in Additive Manufacturin... Grand Opening Slated for Electron Microscopy Facility.

194

Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

High-Strain-Rate II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 40kJ instrumented pendulum machine has been used to perform DWTT test for an API X80 pipeline steel to acquire the force-displacement curve, which ...

196

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

198

Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tariff Rates FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2011 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2010 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

200

A Comprehensive Analysis of Cardiac Dose in Balloon-Based High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate radiation dose to the heart in 60 patients with left-sided breast cancer who were treated with balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy using MammoSite or Contura applicators. Methods and Materials: We studied 60 consecutive women with breast cancer who were treated with 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions using MammoSite (n = 37) or Contura (n = 23) applicators. The whole heart and the left and right ventricles were retrospectively delineated, and dose-volume histograms were analyzed. Multiple dosimetrics were reported, such as mean dose (D{sub mean}); relative volume receiving 1.7, 5, 10, and 20 Gy (V1.7, V5, V10, and V20, respectively); dose to 1 cc (D{sub 1cc}); and maximum point dose (D{sub max}). Biologic metrics, biologically effective dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose were computed. The impact of lumpectomy cavity location on cardiac dose was investigated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation of D{sub mean} was 2.45 {+-} 0.94 Gy (range, 0.56-4.68) and 3.29 {+-} 1.28 Gy (range, 0.77-6.35) for the heart and the ventricles, respectively. The average whole heart V5 and V10 values were 10.2% and 1.3%, respectively, and the heart D{sub max} was >20 Gy in 7 of 60 (11.7%) patients and >25 Gy in 3 of 60 (5%) patients. No cardiac tissue received {>=}30 Gy. The V1.7, V5, V10, V20, and D{sub mean} values were all higher for the ventricles than for the whole heart. For balloons located in the upper inner quadrant of the breast, the average whole heart D{sub mean} was highest. The D{sub mean}, biologically effective dose, and generalized equivalent uniform dose values for heart and ventricles decreased with increasing minimal distance from the surface of the balloon. Conclusions: On the basis of these comprehensive cardiac dosimetric data, we recommend that cardiac dose be routinely reported and kept as low as possible in balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning for patients with left-sided breast cancer so the correlation with future cardiac toxicity data can be investigated.

Valakh, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@valakh.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Yongbok; Werts, E. Day; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures  

SciTech Connect

We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arman, Bedri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cagin, Tahir [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Category Rating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Gold category: highly proficient with an overall comprehensive level of knowledge; skills, and abilities of the job based on a complete review of ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

203

Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Cullen, W.H. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2009 Rates and Rate Schedule 2008 Rates and...

205

Systems & Control Letters 60 (2011) 815824 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], the octane rating control in the continuous catalytic reforming process [2], and the control of chemical

Pagilla, Prabhakar R.

206

Preparation and properties of high-deposition-rate a-Si:H films and solar cells using disilane: Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1987--30 April 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains results of the first year of research on producing p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells with the intrinsic layer deposited from higher order silanes at deposition rates of 1 nm/s or more. The research was divided into three major areas: diagnostic studies of monosilane and disilane RF discharges using optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to assist in optimizing discharge conditions and gas-phase processes; parametric studies of material properties of 1-layers prepared form disilane as a function of deposition rate and other process parameters; and parametric studies of p-i-n devices with the i-layer prepared from disilane at various deposition rates. The focus during the first year was to fabricate a p-i-n solar cell with 9/percent/ AM1.5 efficiency over an area greater than 0.08 cm/sup 2/ with the i-layer deposited at 1 nm/s or more. Material properties such as the dark and AM1.5 light conductivities, optical band gap, and conductivity activation energy showed a weak dependence on deposition rate. The performance characteristics of unoptimized p-i-n solar cells with i-layers prepared from disilane were independent of the deposition rate of the i-layer. A p-i-n device was prepared at a rate close to 1 nm/s with an AM1.5 efficiency of 9/percent/. 20 refs, 26 figs, 2 tabs.

Bhat, P.K.; Chatham, H.; Madan, A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|)/D{sub max}{sup DVH}) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D{sub max}{sup Man}) and the objective method (D{sub max}{sup DVH}) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average{+-}standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%{+-}1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value dose difference compared with maximal skin dose difference for both Abdiff (2.30%{+-}1.71% vs 1.05%{+-}1.43%) and Rediff[%] (2.32%{+-}1.79% vs 1.21%{+-}1.41%). In general, rib has a more irregular contour and it is more proximally located to the balloon for 50 HDR patients. Due to the inverse square law factor, more dose difference was observed in higher dose range (D{sub max}>90%) compared with lower dose range (D{sub max}low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was dose point in 3D planning CT images.

Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States) and Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Loveland Area Project Firm Power Rates Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates 2012 Rate Adjustment-Transmission and Ancillary Services 2010 Rate Adjustment-Firm Power 2009...

209

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission...

210

High-Energy Threshold Reaction Rates on 0.8 GeV Proton-Irradiated Thick W and W-Na Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Threshold activation reaction rates in 12C, 19F, 27Al, 59Co, 63Cu, 65Cu, 64Zn, 93Nb, 115In, 169Tm, 181Ta, 197Au, and 209Bi experimental samples placed along the axis inside and outside the 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated 92-cm thick W-Na and 4-cm thick W targets where measured at the ITEP proton synchrotron. 158 reactions of up to +AH4-0.5 GeV thresholds have been measured in 123 activation samples for W-Na target, and 157 reactions in 36 activation samples for W target. The reaction rates were determined using the gamma-spectrometry method. In total, more than 1000 values of activation reactions were determined in the experiments. In both cases the measured reaction rates were compared with the LAHET code simulated rates and using several nuclear databases for the respective excitation functions, namely, ENDF/B6 for cross section of neutrons at energies below 20 MeV and MENDL2 together with MENDL2P for cross sections of protons and neutrons of 20 to 100 MeV energies. A general satisfactory agreement between simulated and experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; E. I. Karpikhin; V. M. Zhivun; A. B. Koldobsky; R. D. Mulambetov; S. V. Mulambetova; S. L. Zaitsev; S. G. Mashnik; R. E. Prael

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

211

Extremely Durable High-Rate Capability of the LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 Cathode Enabled with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A binder-free LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode fabricated with 5 wt.% single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTS) shows excellent cycling performance at rates of 10C (Charge/discharge in 6 minutes). In contrast, a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} electrode prepared by conventional methods without SWNTs has a significantly lower capacity. Based on the morphology and structural analysis, this exceptional rate capability is due to highly intimate contact between the long crystalline SWNT ropes and the active cathode material, ensuring fast diffusion of ions and electrons during cycling and resulting in sustainable capacity at high rates for 500 cycles.

Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Li, Zheng [State University of New York, Binghamton; Wu, Zhuangchun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Chen, Le [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Jung, Yoonseok [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yan, Yanfa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Whittingham, M. Stanley [State University of New York, Binghamton; Dillon, Anne C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Rates & Repayment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

213

National Utility Rate Database: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

High-Rate Cathodes Based on Li3V2(PO4)3 Nanobelts Prepared via Surfactant-Assisted Fabrication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, we synthesized monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 nanobelts via a single-step, solid-state reaction process in a molten hydrocarbon. The as-prepared Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles have a unique nanobelt shape and are ~50-nm thick. When cycled in a voltage range between 3.0 V and 4.3V at a 1C rate, these unique Li3V2(PO4)3 nanobelts demonstrated a specific discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 (which is close to the theoretical capacity of 132 mAh g-1) and stable cycling characteristics.

Pan, Anqiang; Choi, Daiwon; Zhang, Jiguang; Liang, Shu-quan; Cao, Guozhong; Nie, Zimin; Arey, Bruce W.; Liu, Jun

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

High Range Resolution Radar Measurements of the Speed Distribution of Breaking Events in Wind-Generated Ocean Waves: Surface Impulse and Wave Energy Dissipation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of X-band radar measurements, backscattered from the sea surface at near grazing incidence with very high spatial and temporal resolution (30 cm in range and 2000-Hz pulse repetition frequency) in moderate wind conditions, are dominated by ...

O. M. Phillips; F. L. Posner; J. P. Hansen

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region  

SciTech Connect

A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Gamma/neutron analysis for SNM signatures at high-data rates(greater than 107 cps) for single-pulse active interrogation  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a high data gamma/neutron spectrometer suitable for active interrogation of special nuclear materials (SNM) activated by a single burst from an intense source. We have tested the system at Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Mercury pulsed-power facility at distances approaching 10 meters from a depleted uranium (DU) target. We have found that the gamma-ray field in the target room 'disappears' 10 milliseconds after the x-ray flash, and that gamma ray spectroscopy will then be dominated by isomeric states/beta decay of fission products. When a polyethylene moderator is added to the DU target, a time-dependent signature of the DU is produced by thermalized neutrons. We observe this signature in gamma-spectra measured consecutively in the 0.1-1.0 ms time range. These spectra contain the Compton edge line (2.2 MeV) from capture in hydrogen, and a continuous high energy gamma-spectrum from capture or fission in minority constituents of the DU.

Forman L.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

218

Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The structures, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of Al-substituted lithium-excess oxides, Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.16} Mn{sub 0.56}Co{sub 0.08-y}Al{sub y}O{sub 2} (y = 0, 0.024, 0.048, 0.08), are reported, and compared to the stoichiometric compounds, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2}. A solid solution was found up to at least y = 0.06. Aluminum substitution improves the poor thermal stability while preserving the high energy density of lithium-excess oxides. However, these high manganese compositions are inferior to the lithium stoichiometric materials, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2} (z = 0.333, 0.4), in terms of both power and thermal stability.

Li, Zheng; Chernova, Natasha A.; Feng, Jijun; Upreti, Shailesh; Omenya, Fredrick; Whittingham, M. Stanley (SUNY-Binghamton)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas

220

Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to beta-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. Alpha imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a beta-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 ?Ci of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an alpha-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

Pagel, John M.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Park, Steven I.; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K.; Green, Damian J.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Press, Oliver W.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Retail Gasoline and Diesel Surveys Retail Gasoline and Diesel Surveys Definitions Key Terms Definition Conventional Area Any area that does not require the sale of reformulated gasoline. All types of finished motor gasoline may be sold in this area. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the reformulated gasoline category. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Note: this survey designates all motor gasoline collected within a conventional area as conventional gasoline (see conventional area). Gasoline Grades The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional and reformulated) is classified by three grades - regular, midgrade, and premium. Note: gasoline sales are reported by grade in accordance with their classification at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower.

222

Heat Rate Improvement Reference Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance optimization of fossil power plants is a high priority within the electric utilities in the new competitive environment. This manual can help utility engineers establish a heat rate improvement program.

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but

224

Available Technologies Low Defect, High Deposition Rate ...  

Biofuels; Biotechnology & Medicine. Diagnostics and Therapeutics; Medical Devices; ... allowing free passage of neutrals from the target to the substrate.

225

Dynamic/High-Strain-Rate Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Recent experiments on specimens of unconventional geometries have provided strong evidence of the effect of the Lode angle on the onset of ...

226

Data Center Rating Infrastructure Rating Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Portfolio Manager on June 7, 2010. The questions below are designed to help data center owners and operators better understand the rating and benchmark their buildings in...

227

Tracking the Libor Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigating the Libor Rate,” mimeo. Abrantes-Metz, R. ,Libor data: Historial 1 month Libor rates, British Bankers1108R) Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M. Abrantes-Metz , Sofia

Abrantes-Metz, Rosa; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Judge, George G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Novel strategies for the synthesis of methane adsorbents with controlled porosity and high surface area. Final report, October 1991-October 1992  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is an attractive alternative to gasoline as fuel for cars because of its desirable emission characteristics, good cold starting characteristics, and high octane number. A major factor that limits widespread use of NGVs is the low energy density of natural gas. The energy density can be increased by adsorption of the natural gas on high surface area sorbents. Present carbon adsorbents do not adsorb enough methane on a volume per volume basis to be commercially attractive for storage of methane on natural gas fueled vehicles. The report has begun exploring the use of organic gels for the adsorption of methane. Preliminary results are promising enough to warrant further research.

Ventura, S.C.; Hum, G.P.; Narang, S.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

2012 Rate Adjustments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Register Notices Meetings Brochure Brochure Addendum Customer Comment Letter Approved Rate Order FERC Confirmation If you have questions, call Rates and Repayment, 800-472-2306...

230

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

figure data Figure 7 shows the percent change in average real rates for those state-to-state ... Estimated transportation rates for coal delivered to electric ...

231

Effective Rate Period  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10012012 - 09302013 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10012012 - 09302013 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,381,487...

232

PULSE RATE DIVIDER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

McDonald, H.C. Jr.

1962-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

233

High accuracy {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction rate in the 8{center_dot}10{sup 6}-5{center_dot}10{sup 9} K temperature range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction is of great importance in several astrophysical scenarios, as it influences the production of key isotopes such as {sup 19}F, {sup 18}O and {sup 15}N. In this work, a high accuracy {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N reaction rate is proposed, based on the simultaneous fit of direct measurements and of the results of a new Trojan Horse experiment. In particular, we have focused on the study of the broad 660 keV 1/2{sup +} resonance. Since {Gamma}{approx}100-300 keV, it strongly influences the nearly-zero-energy region of the cross section by means of the low-energy tail of the resonant contribution and dominates the cross section at higher energies. Here we provide a factor of 2 larger reaction rate above T{approx}0.5 10{sup 9} K based over our new improved determination of its resonance parameters.

La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and DMFCI - Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E. [Cyclotron Institute - Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Coc, A. [CSNSM CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris Sud, Orsay France (France); Irgaziev, B. [GIK - Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi District (Pakistan)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

234

A Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

503 * July 2012 503 * July 2012 Hydrogen photoproduction by 500 mL of sulfur/phosphorus- deprived (-S -P) algal cultures placed in PhBRs with different headspace volumes (165-925 mL). The final percentages of H 2 gas in the gas phase of the PhBRs are indicated in the figure inset; the Y-axis reports actual amounts of H 2 produced. The yield of H 2 gas in the PhBR with a historically small gas phase volume is shown as a dotted line. A Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume Project: Biological Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction Team: Maria L. Ghirardi and Michael Seibert, NREL; Sergey N. Kosourov, Khorcheska A. Batyrova, Ekaterina P. Petushkova, and Anatoly A. Tsygankov, IBBP, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

235

Prospective Multi-Institutional Study of Definitive Radiotherapy With High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Nonbulky (<4-cm) Stage I and II Uterine Cervical Cancer (JAROG0401/JROSG04-2)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a definitive radiotherapy protocol using high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a low cumulative dose schedule in nonbulky early-stage cervical cancer patients, we conducted a prospective multi-institutional study. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix, Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages Ib1, IIa, and IIb, tumor size <40 mm in diameter (assessed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging), and no pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The treatment protocol consisted of whole-pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 20 Gy/10 fractions, pelvic EBRT with midline block of 30 Gy/15 fractions, and HDR-ICBT of 24 Gy/4 fractions (at point A). The cumulative biologically effective dose (BED) was 62 Gy{sub 10} ({alpha}/{beta} = 10) at point A. The primary endpoint was the 2-year pelvic disease progression-free (PDPF) rate. All patients received a radiotherapy quality assurance review. Results: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 60 eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-six patients were assessed with FIGO stage Ib1; 12 patients with stage IIa; and 12 patients with stage IIb. Median tumor diameter was 28 mm (range, 6-39 mm). Median overall treatment time was 43 days. Median follow-up was 49 months (range, 7-72 months). Seven patients developed recurrences: 3 patients had pelvic recurrences (2 central, 1 nodal), and 4 patients had distant metastases. The 2-year PDPF was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-100%). The 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 90% (95% CI, 82%-98%) and 95% (95% CI, 89%-100%), respectively. The 2-year late complication rates (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer of Grade {>=}1) were 18% (95% CI, 8%-28%) for large intestine/rectum, 4% (95% CI, 0%-8%) for small intestine, and 0% for bladder. No Grade {>=}3 cases were observed for genitourinary/gastrointestinal late complications. Conclusions: These results suggest that definitive radiotherapy using HDR-ICBT with a low cumulative dose schedule (BED, 62 Gy{sub 10} at point A) can provide excellent local control without severe toxicity in nonbulky (<4-cm) early-stage cervical cancer.

Toita, Takafumi, E-mail: b983255@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Radiology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tsukuba (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

rates rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

237

Historical Interest Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current and Historical Interest Rates Current and Historical Interest Rates The table lists interest rates, from the project's inception through the present, for all projects with repayment supervised by the CRSP MC. The latest available interest rate is used for all future interest rate calculations. The Amistad-Falcon, Collbran, Provo River, and Rio Grande Projects are all assigned the average daily "Yield Rate" calculated by the U.S. Treasury, on an annual basis, for Treasury bonds having terms of 15 years or more remaining to maturity. The calculated yield rate is rounded to the nearest one-eighth of one percent. The yield rate is based upon the bond's interest rate, as well as its market value. The Colorado River Storage Project and its participating projects, Dolores and Seedskadee, are assigned the average daily "Coupon Rate," annualized for the same U.S. Treasury bonds used in "Yield Rate" calculations. The coupon rate is the interest rate that the bond carries upon its face.

238

Tracking the Libor Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paper 1108R2 Paper 1108R) Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M.revision 2013 by author(s). Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M.providing a methodology for tracking the dynamic integrity

Abrantes-Metz, Rosa; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Judge, George G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

2009 Rate Adjustments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

provisional rates will be in effect until the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) confirms and approves them on a final basis or until they are replaced by other rates....

240

Mouse heart rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mouse heart rate Name: amj Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: Is it possible to get the heart rate of a mouse without special equipment?...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Dynamics of heart rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heart rate oscillates on several different time scales and has long?term variability in the form of 1/fnoise. The physiological control of heart rate is briefly reviewed

Daniel T. Kaplan; Mario Talajic

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode  

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

243

N d'ordre : 2010 EMSE 0563 prsente par  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) in the catalytic reforming units that are subsequently used to upgrade the octane rating of the naphtha streams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air conditioning load, which is highly coincident with HL&P's system peak, provided a large market for cool storage technologies. Initial market research made it very clear that a special cool storage rate was required to successfully market the technology. Development of the rate required an integrated, multidepartment effort and extensive use of DSManager, an integrated resource planning model. An experimental version of the rate was initially implemented as part of the initial phase of the cool storage program. A permanent rate, incorporating lessons learned from the experimental rate, was then developed for the long term implementation of the program. The permanent rate went through a lengthy regulatory approval process which included intervention by a local natural gas distribution company. The end result is a very successful cool storage program with 52 projects and 31 megawatts of demand reduction in the first three and one-half years of program implementation.

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Electrochemical and rate performance study of high-voltage lithium-richcomposition: Li1.2Mn0.525Ni0.175Co0.1O2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report electrochemical studies of high voltage cathodes composed of lithium rich layeredlayered material having the nominal composition Li1.2Mn0.525Ni0.175Co0.1O2, or equivalently 0.6Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2 0.4Li[Mn0.3Ni0.45Co0.25]O2. These aspects were investigated by cyclic voltammetry studies in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to understand the redox reactions involving multiple transition metals and their capacity contribution at higher voltages, up to 4.9 V. Further, cathodes with 1.5 wt.% carbon nanofibers added to the Li1.2Mn0.525Ni0.175Co0.1O2 composite electrode showed stable reversible capacities of about 280 mAh g 1 when cycled to 4.9 V for more than 100 cycles, and almost a factor of two improvements in the rate performance compared to the electrode composition prepared using conventional composition (7.5% carbon black and 7.5% binder).

Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

About the Ratings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 Ratings Changes 2008 Ratings Changes EPA's "New" Fuel Economy Ratings Video about EPA's New Fuel Economy Ratings Windows Media Video (6.8 MB) Quicktime Video (7.8 MB) Text Version EPA changed the way it estimates fuel economy starting with the 2008 model year. This "new" way of estimating fuel economy supplements the previous method by incorporating the effects of Faster speeds and acceleration Air conditioner use Colder outside temperatures What else do I need to know about the "new" ratings? The tests lower MPG estimates for most vehicles. View old/new MPG ratings for a specific vehicle The actual mileage you get will still vary based on your driving habits, traffic conditions, and other factors. All MPG estimates in Find-a-Car have been converted to the new

247

Effective Rate Period  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fiscal Year 2014 Fiscal Year 2014 Effective Rate Period As of Beginning of the FY 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement $73,441,557 CV-F13 Base Resource Revenue Requirement $69,585,875 First Preference Revenue Requirement $3,855,682

248

Rate Schedule CPP-2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or other regulatory bodies will be passed on to each relevant customer. The FERC's or...

249

LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

Henry, J.J.

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Exchange Rates and Fundamentals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near–random walk behavior if fundamentals are I(1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs, inflation, and interest rates provide little help in predicting changes in floating exchange rates. As well, we show that the data do exhibit a related link suggested by standard models—that the exchange rate helps predict these fundamentals. The implication is that exchange rates and fundamentals are linked in a way that is broadly consistent with asset-pricing models of the exchange rate. I.

Charles Engel; Kenneth D. West

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

OpenEI - rates  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Electric Utility U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by Zipcode (Feb 2011) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/899 This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011.

252

<RatesMiscInfo>  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Power Supply Report June 2013 (53kb pdf) May 2013 (53kb pdf) April 2013 (52kb pdf) March 2013 (54kb pdf) February 2013 (54kb pdf) January 2013 (54kb...

253

Heat Rate Program Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant facilities with performance or heat rate improvement programs perform better than those that do not have those programs. A heat rate improvement program typically provides sufficient information for decision making with respect to timely maintenance actions and/or operational adjustments. Monitoring the performance of any power plant component includes the trending of parameters that also describe the performance of other plant components, providing insight and information on improving ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Name: Shakti Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Summer 2010 Question: What is the best way to find a cat's heart rate using a stethoscope? Because I have tried to hear their heart beat but their purring is all I can hear. If I shouldn't use a stethoscope, then what should I use? Replies: Hi Shakti! If you want to use a stethoscope, the trick is to get your cat to stop purring. Two good ways that I have found to help stop the purring 1. Cover their nose (generally cats don't like this and will stop purring) or 2. Put on the tap to drip or lightly stream water (also, they generally don't like this and will stop purring). Alternatively, you can get their heart rate from feeling their pulse. A good place to try to feel a pulse is right where the leg attaches to the abdomen - in an area called the inguinal region. Now granted there are some heart conditions that will cause an animals pulse and their heart rates don't match up, and it's hard to feel if you have a fat cat, but it's a good place to try if you are really trying to get a heart rate in a healthy kitty!

255

Rate constants for OH with selected large alkanes : shock-tube measurements and an improved group scheme.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temperature rate constant experiments on OH with the five large (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}) saturated hydrocarbons n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (2,2,3,3-TMB), n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane (2,3-DMB) were performed with the reflected-shock-tube technique using multipass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. Single-point determinations at {approx}1200 K on n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-TMB, n-hexane, and 2,3-DMB were previously reported by Cohen and co-workers; however, the present work substantially extends the database to both lower and higher temperature. The present experiments span a wide temperature range, 789-1308 K, and represent the first direct measurements of rate constants at T > 800 K for n-pentane. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length of {approx}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high OH concentration detection sensitivity permitted pseudo-first-order analyses for unambiguously measuring rate constants. The experimental results can be expressed in Arrhenius form in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} as follows: K{sub OH+n-heptane} = (2.48 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1927 {+-} 69 K)/T] (838-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = (8.26 {+-} 0.89) x 10{sup -11} exp[(-1337 {+-} 94 K)/T] (789-1061 K); K{sub OH+n-pentane} = (1.60 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1903 {+-} 146 K)/T] (823-1308 K); K{sub OH+n-hexane} = (2.79 {+-} 0.39) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-2301 {+-} 134 K)/T] (798-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = (1.27 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1617 {+-} 118 K)/T] (843-1292 K). The available experimental data, along with lower-T determinations, were used to obtain evaluations of the experimental rate constants over the temperature range from {approx}230 to 1300 K for most of the title reactions. These extended-temperature-range evaluations, given as three-parameter fits, are as follows: k{sub OH+n-heptane} = 2.059 x 10{sup -5}T{sup 1.401} exp(33 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (241-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = 6.835 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.886} exp(-365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (290-1180 K); k{sub OH+n-pentane} = 2.495 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.649} exp(80 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (224-1308 K); k{sub OH+n-hexane} = 3.959 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.218} exp(443 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (292-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = 2.287 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.958} exp(365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (220-1292 K). The experimental data and the evaluations obtained for these five larger alkanes in the present work were used along with prior data/evaluations obtained in this laboratory for H abstractions by OH from a series of smaller alkanes (C{sub 3}?C{sub 5}) to devise rate rules for abstractions from various types of primary, secondary, and tertiary H atoms. Specifically, the current scheme was applied with good success to H abstractions by OH from a series of n-alkanes (n-octane through n-hexadecane). The total rate constants using this group scheme for reactions of OH with selected large alkanes are given as three-parameter fits in this article. The rate constants for the various abstraction channels in any large n-alkane can also be obtained using the groups listed in this article. The present group scheme serves to reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for OH + alkane reactions.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Superintendents Guide for Better Understanding CPI and NCES Graduation Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels. DiscussionKaufman, P. (1992). Dropout Rates in the United States:Christopher D. (2001). Dropout Rates in the United States

Hogan-Newsome, Patricia Marie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Trade, Interdependence and Exchange Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

period is 1971-2000. All inflation rates and predictions areof Goods and Real Exchange Rate Fluc- tuations,” mimeo [5]Between Trade and Exchange Rate Volatility,” mimeo [6

Fitzgerald, Doireann

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Exchange Rates, Information, and Crises  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Intervention and Exchange Rate Misalignment 4 Conclusion 5explain the exchange rate determination puzzle? Americanrisk to defend the exchange rate. Universit¨at Trier Working

Fernholz, Ricardo Turrin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Mythology of rate design  

SciTech Connect

If power rates are determined by marginal costs with clear signals to the consumer, then the load curve will regulate itself without burdening the public with ethical and patriotic issues. Manipulation of the load factor will only cause hardship and inconvenience, but a choice of rates will allow consumers to determine their own balance between rates and convenience. It makes sense to charge consumers the true cost rather than having the same rate apply during a 24-hour period when costs are not uniform. Discussions of how to determine equitable rate structures flounder because we cannot define equity. Economists, who base their recommendations on the assumption that income distribution is reasonable, believe marginal-cost pricing allows the customer to save whatever the utility is saving. Such a system is economically efficient in that the utility charges 100 percent-load-factor consumers according to a base load plant, while charging peak and offpeak consumers what it costs to add them to the system. Adjustment of prices to cause a minimal distortion of the market is the economists' general rule for handling the balancing of cost increases and regulated profits. (DCK)

Streiter, S.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

BCP Annual Rate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 BCP Annual Rate Process 2013 BCP Annual Rate Process Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 6, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4 Informal Customer Meeting Presentation (Pdf) PRS Executive Summary (Mar 07, 2013) (Pdf) FY2014 Final Ten Year Operating Plan PRS Executive Summary (PDF) FORM for Foreign Visits (doc) Formal Process Initial Federal Register Notice (pdf) Public Information Forum March 27,2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 Customer Meeting Presentation PIF Presentation (PPT) Presentation Details (pdf) Reclamation Fund Status Report PIF PRS Executive Summary (pdf) PIF Transcripts (PDF) Visitor Center Cost Analysis Questions - Responses Public Comment Forum April 10, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 PCF Transcripts Customer Letters

262

Multiple System Rate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savings Under Various MSTR (XLS) Public Information Forum March 29, 2005 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point) Customer Meeting Overview (PDF) Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Public Comment Forum April 6, 2005 Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Response Letter 5-17-05 (PDF) Customer Letters Tonopah ID-5/25/05 (PDF) APS-5/26/05 (PDF) SRP-5/27/05 (PDF) RSLynch-6/1/05 (PDF) KRSaline-6/1/05 (PDF) Formal Process Federal Register Notice (Word) Federal Register Notice (PDF) Brochure (Word) Appendices to Brochure: A B C D E1 E2 F1 F2 GH Public Information Forum July 14, 2004 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point)

263

Upper Great Plains Rates information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Rates and Repayment Services Rates 2010 Firm Power Rate (effective January 1, 2010) Rate Adjustments 2010 Firm Power Rate Adjustment 2009 Firm Power Rate Adjustment IS Rate Adjustments Rate Adjustment Process Rate Orders Signed, December 23, 2009 (16kb pdf) Announcements Firm Electric Service Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component, June 27, 2013 (74kb pdf) Customer Letter - Final Notice of Drought Adder Component, October 2, 2013 (68kb pdf) Integrated System (IS) Rates 2014 IS Rates Customer Information Meeting Presentation, October 15, 2013 (611kb pdf) Customer Letter - Notification of 2014 Rates, September 13, 2013 (160kb pdf) 2014 Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Calculation and 2012 Rate True-up Calculation (4.9mb pdf) 2013 IS Rates

264

LAP Transmission Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LAP Transmission Rate 4.50 4.00 3.82 3.50 3.00 of 2.50 c 0 2.I2 2.68 I 3: 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012...

265

Natural Gas Conveyance and Rates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Natural gas transportation market; Competition vs. market power; Rate structures Cost-of-service Performance based rates

Information Center

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Theoretical cosmic Type Ia supernova rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work is the computation of the cosmic Type Ia supernova rates at very high redshifts (z>2). We adopt various progenitor models in order to predict the number of explosions in different scenarios for galaxy formation and to check whether it is possible to select the best delay time distribution model, on the basis of the available observations of Type Ia supernovae. We also computed the Type Ia supernova rate in typical elliptical galaxies of different initial luminous masses and the total amount of iron produced by Type Ia supernovae in each case. It emerges that: it is not easy to select the best delay time distribution scenario from the observational data and this is because the cosmic star formation rate dominates over the distribution function of the delay times; the monolithic collapse scenario predicts an increasing trend of the SN Ia rate at high redshifts whereas the predicted rate in the hierarchical scheme drops dramatically at high redshift; for the elliptical galaxies we note that the predicted maximum of the Type Ia supernova rate depends on the initial galactic mass. The maximum occurs earlier (at about 0.3 Gyr) in the most massive ellipticals, as a consequence of downsizing in star formation. We find that different delay time distributions predict different relations between the Type Ia supernova rate per unit mass at the present time and the color of the parent galaxies and that bluer ellipticals present higher supernova Type Ia rates at the present time.

R. Valiante; F. Matteucci; S. Recchi; F. Calura

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

268

Plant Tumor Growth Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Tumor Growth Rates Plant Tumor Growth Rates Name: Gina and Maria Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We are doing a science fair project on if B. Carotene, Green tea, and Grape Seed Extract helps plants against the crown gall disease. We injected sunflowers with agrobacterium tum. one week ago (Sun. Feb. 27, 2000). Our questions is how long will it take for the tumors to grow? We scratched the surface of the stems and injected the agrobacterium in the wound. Also which do you think, in your opinion, will do the best, if any? Our science fair is April 13, do you think we'll have growth before then, atleast enough time to do our conclusion and results? Thank you, any information you forward will be very helpful. Replies: Sunflowers form galls relatively quickly. I usually get them in two weeks at least. Good luck.

269

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 5,300 5,600 5,900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: 2.5% Aug '12 to Aug '13: -1.3% YTD '12 to YTD '13: 1.5% 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Residual Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: -0.8%

270

Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjusted Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -7.4% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -0.1% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -0.1% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -16.8% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -3.2% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -3.2% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -9.3% Jan '99 to Jan '00: +3.5% YTD '99 to YTD '00: +3.5% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

271

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +1.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -1.9% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -0.1% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -1.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.7% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: +22.3% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +21.1%

272

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.4% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.1% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.6% YTD '98 to YTD '99: 0.0% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: +7.3% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +8.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +8.3%

273

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

June '99 to July '99: -5.4% June '99 to July '99: -5.4% July '98 to July '99: +3.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.3% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: -0.5% July '98 to July '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +0.5% July '98 to July '99: +1.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.3% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +1.5% July '98 to July '99: +10.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +7.2%

274

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +8.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.0% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +6.0% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +4.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +2.4% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +3.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +32.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +2.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.5%

275

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +5.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.5% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: -0.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +1.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +2.5% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +6.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.8% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +9.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +2.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.2%

276

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: +2.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.4% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -0.2% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.9% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.0% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -1.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.4% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -2.1% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -6.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.6%

277

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents CRSP Transmission 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2014 Accompanying calculation table for FY 2014 CRSP transmission rate letter Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2013 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2012 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2011 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2010 SLCA/IP 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, SLCA/IP firm power rate extension Letter announcing two-year extension to SLCA/IP firm power rate SLCA/IP Tentative Rate Adjustment Schedule

278

Critical reaction rates in hypersonic combustion chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High Mach number flight requires that the scramjet propulsion system operate at a relatively low static inlet pressure and a high inlet temperature. These two constraints can lead to extremely high temperatures in the combustor, yielding high densities of radical species and correspondingly poor chemical combustion efficiency. As the temperature drops in the nozzle expansion, recombination of these excess radicals can produce more product species, higher heat yield, and potentially more thrust. The extent to which the chemical efficiency can be enhanced in the nozzle expansion depends directly on the rate of the radical recombination reactions. A comprehensive assessment of the important chemical processes and an experimental validation of the critical rate parameters is therefore required if accurate predictions of scramjet performance are to be obtained. This report covers the identification of critical reactions, and the critical reaction rates in hypersonic combustion chemistry. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Oldenborg, R.C.; Harradine, D.M.; Loge, G.W.; Lyman, J.L.; Schott, G.L.; Winn, K.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

High PRF high current switch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

280

Survey of innovative rates, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Current innovative rate data from 135 major utilities throughout the United States were gathered and analyzed. Over 1000 innovative rates that were in use by the utilities in 1990 and 1991 were identified, abstracted and entered into a database. Survey results indicate that over 616 million MWh were sold to the nearly five million customers using the innovative rates offered. From an annual sales perspective, the most widely used rates are demand-side management rates -- rates intended to change customer energy use -- and rates that are market-driven.'' The survey identified 525 demand-side management rates serving our four million customers with reported sales of approximately 520 million MWh. These rates serve over 80% of the total innovative rate customers and account for 84% of the total MWh sales. Also important in terms of MWh sales they represent are market-driven rates, which accounted for sales of 48 million MWh in 1990. Both demand-side management and market-driven rates show a 20% customer growth rate between 1988 and 1990. Other innovative rates examined in the survey included: prepaid service; load retention incentive rates; technology specific rates; and those rates related expressly to non-utility generators -- namely buy-back and standby rates.

White, L.J.; Wakefield, R.A.; McVicker, C.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Survey of innovative rates, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current innovative rate data from 135 major utilities throughout the United States were gathered and analyzed. Over 1000 innovative rates that were in use by the utilities in 1990 and 1991 were identified, abstracted and entered into a database. Survey results indicate that over 616 million MWh were sold to the nearly five million customers using the innovative rates offered. From an annual sales perspective, the most widely used rates are demand-side management rates -- rates intended to change customer energy use -- and rates that are market-driven.'' The survey identified 525 demand-side management rates serving our four million customers with reported sales of approximately 520 million MWh. These rates serve over 80% of the total innovative rate customers and account for 84% of the total MWh sales. Also important in terms of the MWh sales they represent are market-driven rates, which accounted for sales of 48 million MWh in 1990. Both demand-side management and market-driven rates show a 20% customer growth rate between 1988 and 1990. Other innovative rates examined in the survey included: prepaid service; load retention incentive rates; technology specific rates; and those rates related expressly to non-utility generators -- namely buy-back and standby rates.

White, L.J.; Wakefield, R.A.; McVicker, C.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

Emery, K.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Neutrino Event Rates from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recalculate the diffuse flux of high energy neutrinos produced by Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) in the relativistic fireball model. Although we confirm that the average single burst produces only ~10^{-2} high energy neutrino events in a detector with 1 km^2 effective area, i.e. about 10 events per year, we show that the observed rate is dominated by burst-to-burst fluctuations which are very large. We find event rates that are expected to be larger by one order of magnitude, likely more, which are dominated by a few very bright bursts. This greatly simplifies their detection.

F. Halzen; D. W. Hooper

1999-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

electric rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

electric rates electric rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

285

Rate Schedules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rate Schedules Rate Schedules Rate Schedules One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are updated annually. They demonstrate the adequacy of the rates for each system. Rates are considered to be adequate when revenues are sufficient to repay all costs associated with power production and transmission costs, which include the amortization of the Federal investment allocated to power. Latest Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012

286

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The two recognized laboratory engine test methods for determining the antiknock rating, i.e., octane rating, of gasolines are the Research method and the Motor method.

287

What Is the New Normal Unemployment Rate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent labor markets developments, including mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and very high rates of long-term joblessness, may be impeding the return to “normal ” unemployment rates of around 5%. An examination of alternative measures of labor market conditions suggests that the “normal ” unemployment rate may have risen as much as 1.7 percentage points to about 6.7%, although much of this increase is likely to prove temporary. Even with such an increase, sizable labor market slack is expected to persist for years. In the past, the U.S. labor market has proven to be very flexible and recessions have not usually been followed by long-lasting increases in the unemployment rate. But, in the wake of the most recent recession, many economists are concerned that developments such as mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and a rise in long-term joblessness may have raised the “normal ” or “natural ” rate of unemployment above the 5 % level that was thought to be typical before the downturn. Indeed, a few economists have gone so far as to argue that the rise in the unemployment rate to its current level of 9 % primarily reflects an increase in the natural rate, implying there is little slack in labor markets and therefore little downward pressure on inflation. This Economic Letter

Weidner; John C. Williams

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Operational dose rate visualization techniques  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the gamma ray dose rate in the vicinity of a radiation source can be greatly aided by the use of recent state-of-the-art visualization techniques. The method involves calculating dose rates at thousands of locations within a complex geometry system. This information is then processed to create contour plots of the dose rate. Additionally, when these contour plots are created, animations can be created that dynamically display the dose rate as the shields or sources are moved.

Schwarz, R.A.; Morford, R.J.; Carter, L.L.; Jones, G.B.; Greenborg, J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

DOE Guidance-Category Rating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy for the use of Category Rating.

290

ARCS – Access Rate Control System  

protected steel housing. ... Access Rate Control System This rugged, maintenance- ... Y-12 is seeking an industry partner to fully com-

291

Asymptotic Cellular Growth Rate as the Effective Information Utilization Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the average asymptotic growth rate of cells in randomly fluctuating environments. Using a game-theoretic perspective, we show that any response strategy has an asymptotic growth rate, which is the sum of: (i) the maximal growth rate at the worst possible distribution of environments, (ii) relative information between the actual distribution of environments to the worst one, and (iii) information utilization rate which is the information rate of the sensory devices minus the "information dissipation rate", the amount of information not utilized by the cell for growth. In non-stationary environments, the optimal strategy is the time average of the instantaneous optimal strategy and the optimal switching times are evenly spaced in the statistical (Fisher) metric.

Pugatch, Rami; Tlusty, Tsvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Quasi-Dynamic Rating Pilot Projects: Tool Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operators must rate power equipment conservatively to avoid damage during occasional periods of poor weather. When load and equipment temperatures are not calculated or monitored, power equipment must be assumed to be at high temperature at the onset of limited-time ratings. Such assumptions often result in underestimating thermal capacity (thermal rating) of power equipment under most actual operating conditions. EPRI's Dynamic Thermal Circuit Rating (DTCR) technology, which encompasses a number of soft...

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates  

SciTech Connect

The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an ?inverse dose rate effect? for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

294

Definition: Dynamic Capability Rating System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capability Rating System Capability Rating System Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Dynamic Capability Rating System Dynamic capability rating adjusts the thermal rating of power equipment based on factors such as air temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation to reflect actual operating conditions. These systems are primarily used on high capacity or critical power system elements such as transmission lines and large power transformers.[1] Related Terms transmission lines, Dynamic capability rating, thermal rating, power, solar radiation, rating, transmission line, transformer References ↑ https://www.smartgrid.gov/category/technology/dynamic_capability_rating_system [[Category LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. : Smart Grid Definitions|Template:BASEPAGENAME]]

295

2011 Heat Rate Improvement Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rising cost of fuel and the strong possibility of CO2 emissions regulations and limitations in the near future, utilities and power generation companies are focusing on power plant heat rate and performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 17th Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist attendees in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and sustaining heat rate improve...

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Search Results for 'Credit Rating'  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The rating agency says it expects the bank’s asset quality to remain weak over the next 12-18 months

297

Exchange rate determination in Indonesia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis examines the options for adopting normative and prescriptive models of exchange rate determination suitable for developed and developing countries. It also develops a… (more)

Rusydi, Mohammad

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Definition: Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

power, such as transformers, or transport it from one location to another, such as transmission lines, the power rating almost always refers to the maximum power flow...

299

Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

June 1 Government Rate $137  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Fitness Center The Jewelry Box & Gift Shoppe 24 Hour Front Desk Service, Sundry Shop, ATM Wireless Internet Always Complimentary 112 per night room rate effective thru April...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Liberty Deprived: The Social and Political Determinants of Female Incarceration Rates, 1979-2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White and nonwhite rates of imprisonment.   Social Problems of  Incarceration Rates.   Journal of Politics, 66(3): 925?Why Are U.S.  Incarceration Rates So High?   Crime and 

McAnnally, Linda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

RATES OF RETURN AND ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ the EU KLEMS database to estimate the real rate of return to capital in 14 countries (11 in the EU, three outside the EU) in 10 branches of the market economy plus the market economy as a whole. Our measure of capital is an aggregate over seven types of asset: three ICT assets and four non-ICT assets. The real rate of return in the market economy does not vary very much across countries, the extremes being Spain (high) and Italy (low). The real rate appears to be trendless in most countries. Within each country however, the rate varies widely across the 10 branches, often being implausibly high or low. We also estimate the growth of capital services by two different methods: ex-post and ex-ante, and the contribution of capital to output growth by three methods: ex-post, ex-ante and hybrid. The ex-ante method uses an estimate of the required rate of return for each country instead of the actual, average rate of return to calculate user costs and also employs the expected growth of asset prices rather than the actual growth. These estimates are derived from exactly the same data as for the ex-post method, ie without any extraneous data being employed. For estimating the contribution of capital to output growth, the ex-ante method uses ex-ante profit as the weight, while both the ex-post and the hybrid method use ex-post profit. We find that the three methods produce very similar results at the market economy level. But differences are much larger at the branch level, particularly between the ex-post and ex-ante methods.

Nicholas Oulton; Ana Rincon-aznar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Server efficiency rating tool (SERT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Server Efficiency Rating Tool (SERT) [1] has been developed by Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) [2] at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) [3], prompted by concerns that US datacenters consumed almost 3% ... Keywords: benchmark, datacenter, energy efficiency, energy star, environmental protection agency, epa, power, rating tool, sert, server, spec

Klaus-Dieter Lange; Mike G. Tricker; Jeremy A. Arnold; Hansfried Block; Sanjay Sharma

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

High-repetition rate quantum key distribution [6780-10  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to synchronize the transmitter's and receiver's data clocks ... four 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting ... the system's exposure to solar photons, and ...

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

Measurement and Modeling of High Strain-rate Deformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with Numerical Simulation · Using Huge Pendulum Impact Tester to Evaluate the Dynamic Fracture Toughness and Crack Behavior of Pipeline Steels ...

306

NREL: Awards and Honors - High-Rate Vapor Transport Deposition...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

modules. In its first year of production, the technology has helped First Solar cut the price of PV modules to 2.50 per watt. The potential is even greater. A second-generation...

307

Solid Particle Erosion Resistance and High Strain Rate Deformation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

one of the primary reasons for the damage of power generation components. More than 25% of all boiler tube failures are caused by solid particle erosion [ 11  ...

308

A-25: Copper Nanopillars under High Strain Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... as Shielding Materials for Electromagnetic Interference and Radiation Shielding ... for Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators during Cold-Working Process.

309

B-tree indexes for high update rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In some applications, data capture dominates query processing. For example, monitoring moving objects often requires more insertions and updates than queries. Data gathering using automated sensors often exhibits this imbalance. More generally, indexing ...

Goetz Graefe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Effects of coal type on coal plasticity are investigated. Seven coals, from the Argonne premium sample bank ranging from lignite to low volatile bituminous, are studied. Different indices and structural data of a coal are shown to affect its plastic behavior. A coal-specific parameter incorporating the effects of labile bridges, oxygen, and hydrogen on plasticity has been used to successfully correlate measured values of maximum plasticity (i.e. minimum apparent viscosity) at elevated temperature with coal type.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The SN Ia Rate in High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lin, Y.-T. & Mohr, J. J. 2004, ApJ, 617, 879 Livio, M. 2001, in Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts: the Greatest Explosions since the Big Bang, ed. M. Livio, N. Panagia, & K....

312

High repetition rate fiber and integrated waveguide femtosecond lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Femtosecond lasers and the development of frequency combs have revolutionized multiple fields like metrology, spectroscopy, medical diagnostics and optical communications. However, to enable wider adoption of the technology ...

Sander, Michelle Y. (Michelle Yen-Ling)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Novel Neutron Detector for High Rate Imaging Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Phase II period performance was May 30, 2002 through May 29, 2004. This development effort was successfully completed within the period and budget allotted. The proposed design was successfully fabricated from B{sub 4}C-coated aluminum and copper film, slit and wound to form 4 mm diameter straws, cut to 100 cm in length, and threaded with resistive anode wires (20 {micro}m in diameter). This paper reports testing done with two 50-straw detector modules at the reactor of the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University (TAMU NSC).

Lacy, Jeffrey, L.

2004-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

High-Strain-Rate & Shock Response of Lightweight Materials: How ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Measurements and Modeling of Advanced Automotive and Structural Materials ...

315

Ultrafinegrain and Nanostructured Materials at High Strain Rates ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic-Based Carbon Fibers from Biofuel Production Wastes · Magnesium Sheets Produced by Extrusion · Magnetite Formation Observed with TEM on ...

316

Structural changes in metals under high-rate deformation ?...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Sarov, Russia Moscow Steel and Alloys Institute, Russia CEG, Gramat, France LANL, Los Alamos, NM, USA Joint U.S. - Russia Conference on Advances in Materials Science...

317

Demonstration of a High Pulse Rate Lidar for Studying Airflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to a recognized need for an inexpensive, low power, portable lidar for meteorological applications in remote areas, a system has been designed and constructed. The lidar, termed MELS (Mini-Environmental Lidar System), operates on 20 ...

Thomas G. Kyle; William Clements; Sumner Barr

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Texture and Microstructural Evolution during High Strain Rate Hot ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unconventional Short-Term Glow Discharge Nitriding of 316l Austenitic Steel · Using Accumulative Roll Bonding to Process Ultrafine Grained ...

319

Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

320

Destabilization of Sigma 3 Boundaries at High Strain Rates of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical Modeling of Coke Bed Gasification ... Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility in-vitro and in-vivo of Plasma Sprayed Carbon Nanotube ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Commercial Building Asset Rating Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 eere.energy.gov 1 eere.energy.gov Commercial Building Asset Rating Program August 23, 2011 12 p.m. ET, 9 a.m. PT Presenter: Cody Taylor PRE-DECISIONAL Information included in this document is for discussion purposes and does not constitute the final program design. FOR INFORMATION ONLY 2 eere.energy.gov Outline * Goals * Scope & schedule * Guiding principles * Program design issues - Metrics - Rating method - Rating scale - Opportunities for efficiency improvement - Quality assurance Please submit clarifying questions during today's webinar via the Q&A function of Live Meeting. 3 eere.energy.gov National Building Rating Program Goals * Facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency and reduce energy use in the commercial building sector * Establish a national standard for voluntary commercial building asset rating

322

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: REM/Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

REM/Rate REM/Rate REM/Rate logo. User-friendly, yet highly sophisticated, residential energy analysis, code compliance and rating software developed specifically for the needs of HERS providers. REM/Rate calculates heating, cooling, hot water, lighting, and appliance energy loads, consumption and costs for new and existing single and multi-family homes. Climate data is available for cities and towns throughout North America. A home energy rating is calculated based on the proposed DOE HERS guidelines (10 CFR 437) as modified by the RESNET/NASEO HERS Technical Committee. In addition to an energy rating, REM/Rate creates value added information including energy efficiency mortgage report, energy appraisal addendum, energy code compliance (MEC, IECC, and ASHRAE), improvement analysis (existing homes), design optimization (new homes),

323

Ratings of Transmission Lines: Applications, Computations, and Thermal Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal rating of overhead transmission lines can be complex, because there is no way to directly measure the line rating and because high current load events occur only rarely in most parts of the power system. A thermal line rating is a prediction of how the conductor will behave thermally, mechanically, and electrically in the event of a high electrical current. It is possible to calculate ratings incorrectly and not discover that this is true until a most inopportune timeduring a system emergency...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

324

Supernova rates and stellar populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

F. Mannucci

2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

325

OpenEI - electric rates  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Electric Utility U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by Zipcode (Feb 2011) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/899 This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011.

326

DOE Guidance-Category Rating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2010 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: SARA"iJ. Boku1, DIRECToR OF HUMAN C~TAL MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #10 CATEGORY RATING The purpose of this memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy for the use of Category Rating. Authorities: Public Law 107-296; Title 5 USC 3319; 5 CFR, Part 337, Subpart C., Presidential Memorandum of May 11, 2010 This guidance is established in accordance with 5 USC 3319, which authorizes Federal Agencies to use alternative rating proced.ures in assessing applicants for employment using category rating and selection procedures, and to ensure consistency in complying with federal regulations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Personnel Management (OPM) and the Department of

327

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

328

Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Project Definition Rating Index (EM-PDRI) is a modification of a commercially developed planning tool that has been tested by an EM team specifically for...

329

Exchange Rates, Information, and Crises  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equation (5.4). Standard Bayesian inference implies that theAs before, standard Bayesian inference implies that Var 1 [f˜ so that standard Bayesian inference both exchange rate is

Fernholz, Ricardo Turrin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Sales Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual transactions which exceed the size of a truckload. Dealer Tank Wagon Sales (DTW) Wholesale sales of gasoline priced on a delivered basis to a retail outlet. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories. Gasoline Grades The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional and reformulated) is classified by three grades - regular, midgrade, and premium. Note: gasoline sales are reported by grade in accordance with their classification at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower.

331

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prime Supplier Sales Volume Prime Supplier Sales Volume Definitions Key Terms Definition Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Finished Aviation Gasoline A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Gasoline Grades The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional and reformulated) is classified by three grades - regular, midgrade, and premium. Note: gasoline sales are reported by grade in accordance with their classification at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower.

332

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Sales Wholesale sales of gasoline in individual transactions which exceed the size of a truckload. Dealer Tank Wagon Sales (DTW) Wholesale sales of gasoline priced on a delivered basis to a retail outlet. Gas Plant Operator Any firm, including a gas plant owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise separated into natural gas liquid products or both. For the purposes of this survey, gas plant operator data are contained in the refiner categories. Gasoline Grades The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional and reformulated) is classified by three grades - regular, midgrade, and premium. Note: gasoline sales are reported by grade in accordance with their classification at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower.

333

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Octane rating: A number used to ... domestic hot water heating, ... A building is considered owner occupied if an employee or representative of the ...

334

Apps for Vehicles: Why should I care what data is in my car and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

interested in vehicle performance may use it to compare engine operations given different oil weights or gasoline octane ratings to determine what engine inputs provide optimal...

335

Standard Rates, Budget Office, Brookhaven National Laboratory...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Standard Rates Standard Rates for Brookhaven National Laboratory is available in PDF file formats. This file contains rates for Distributed Technical Services, Scientific Devices...

336

Development of Clemson variable-rate lateral irrigation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crops in the Southern United States are generally produced in fields which are known to have a high degree of variability in soil type, water holding capacity, infiltration rates, and other major factors which affect crop production. In these fields, ... Keywords: Instrumentation, Irrigation, Lateral-move, Precision agriculture, Variable-rate irrigation

Young J. Han; Ahmad Khalilian; Tom O. Owino; Hamid J. Farahani; Sam Moore

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Current developments in oil shale research at the Laramie Energy Research Center. [Review of studies in 4 areas: concurrent gasification and retorting; high pressure retorting; abnormal heating rate of interior of large blocks of oil shale; and in-situ combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current oil shale research being conducted at the Laramie Energy Research Center is many faceted, and some of the recent developments in these areas are presented. Concurrent gasification and retorting of oil shale where the effects of operating pressure and amounts of oxygen and water injection on quality and quantity of gas and oil produced is being studied. This work has resulted in off gas with heating values varying from 50 to 1,300 Btu/ft/sup 3/ and oil recovery of up to 80 vol percent of Fischer assay. The effects of retorting atmosphere, pressure, and external heating rate are being studied in a high pressure batch retort. Results from this work indicate that a nitrogen atmosphere decreases oil yield slightly while a hydrogen atmosphere increases the oil yield significantly. Large blocks of oil shale are being retorted in a 150-ton aboveground retort to study the abnormal heating rate of the interior of the blocks. This could be caused by an oxidation exotherm similar to that found in limited DTA studies. Some early results from the Rock Springs site 9 in-situ experiment are also presented. This is the fifth in-situ combustion experiment and is being performed in a 40-foot-thick oil shale bed having an average Fischer assay of 23 gallons per ton.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Burwell, E.L.; Harak, A.E.; Long, A.; Wise, R.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions.Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coalconsumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System(NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

John Conti

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Billiards with polynomial mixing rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While many dynamical systems of mechanical origin, in particular billiards, are strongly chaotic -- enjoy exponential mixing, the rates of mixing in many other models are slow (algebraic, or polynomial). The dynamics in the latter are intermittent between regular and chaotic, which makes them particularly interesting in physical studies. However, mathematical methods for the analysis of systems with slow mixing rates were developed just recently and are still difficult to apply to realistic models. Here we reduce those methods to a practical scheme that allows us to obtain a nearly optimal bound on mixing rates. We demonstrate how the method works by applying it to several classes of chaotic billiards with slow mixing as well as discuss a few examples where the method, in its present form, fails.

Nikolai Chernov; Hong-Kun Zhang

2004-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

340

Landslide Erosion Rate in the Eastern Cordillera of Northern Bolivia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The northeastern edge of the Bolivian Eastern Cordillera is an example of a tectonically active plateau margin where orographically enhanced precipitation facilitates very high rates of erosion. The topography of the steepest part of the margin ...

Troy A. Blodgett; Bryan L. Isacks

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ab Initio-Based Rate Theory Modeling of Radiation Induced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we construct a rate theory model to simulate RIS in Ni-Cr alloys ... Evolution and Hardening of High- and Low-Cu Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels.

342

Optimization of time-based rates in forward energy markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a new two-step design approach of Time-Based Rate (TBR) programs for markets with a high penetration of variable energy sources such as wind power. First, an optimal market time horizon must be determined ...

Wang, J.

343

ORISE: Study finds foreign doctorate recipients' stay rates remain...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the United States remains high No evidence that visa restrictions are reducing stay rates, according to report FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Jan. 18, 2012 FY12-12 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The...

344

Hardware implementation of wireless bit rate adaptation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a hardware implementation of the SoftRate bit-rate adaptation protocol. SoftRate is a new bit-rate adaptation protocol, which uses per-bit confidence hints generated by the convolutional decoder to ...

Gross, Samuel A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic compounds in residences Title The impact of ventilation rate on the emission rates of volatile organic...

346

Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rate" Rate" Showing 13 pages using this property. 4 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 5 +, 6 +, 3 +, ... 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 6 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 3 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 7 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 5 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 8 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 5 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 5 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 6 + 4b524791-bef2-49b1-850b-458730755203 + 6 + E E40880ac-c27b-4cbf-a011-b0d7d6e10fe9 + 1 + E40880ac-c27b-4cbf-a011-b0d7d6e10fe9 + 1 + E40880ac-c27b-4cbf-a011-b0d7d6e10fe9 + 1 + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Rate&oldid=53975

347

Energy Management Through Innovative Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased costs and a continuing dependence on uncertain supplies of domestic and foreign energy resources have prompted many companies to focus their attention on energy management. The author explores the potential for achieving a greater measure of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so.

Williams, M. L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

SIL rating fire protection equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SIL's (Safety Integrity Levels) are used by IEC 61508:1998 [1] to characterise the required functional safety of computer control systems. For example, SIL 4, the highest rating is for fly by wire aircraft and weapons systems and track circuited train ... Keywords: SIL, fire control panels, fire systems

Richard M. Robinson; Kevin J. Anderson

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses electric rate alternatives to cogeneration for the industrial customer and attempts to identify the effects on the utility company, the industrial customer as well as remaining customers. It is written from the perspective of one company and its exposure to cogenerstion within its service territory.

Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Instability statistics and mixing rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We claim that looking at probability distributions of \\emph{finite time} largest Lyapunov exponents, and more precisely studying their large deviation properties, yields an extremely powerful technique to get quantitative estimates of polynomial decay rates of time correlations and Poincar\\'e recurrences in the -quite delicate- case of dynamical systems with weak chaotic properties.

Roberto Artuso; Cesar Manchein

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

351

2010FirmRateAdj  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Peaking Revenue Requirement 320.2 million P-SMPB--ED Composite Rate 33.25 millskWh Firm Demand 7.65kWmo Firm Energy 19.05 millskWh Firm Peaking Demand 6.90kWmo Firm...

352

Building Energy Performance Certificate. Asset Rating.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Non-Domestic Building Energy Performance Asset Rating ... Asset Rating. Author: BRE Subject: LCEA029636 Keywords: Energy Performance Certificate ...

353

Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interest Rate Reduction Program Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial...

354

Alkylation is an important source for octane in gasoline - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

355

Catalytic reforming boosts octane for gasoline blending - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Because reformate contains significant amounts of benzene, toluene, and xylene, it also is an important source of feedstock for the petrochemical industry.

356

Alkylation is an important source for octane in gasoline - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. ... (like temperature and pressure) along with different safety considerations.

357

Today in Energy - Catalytic reforming boosts octane for gasoline ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration - EIA - Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government ... solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium.

358

Multichannel Sampling of Pulse Streams at the Rate of Innovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider minimal-rate sampling schemes for streams of delayed and weighted versions of a known pulse shape. Such signals belong to the class of finite rate of innovation (FRI) models. The minimal sampling rate for these parametric signals, is the number of degrees of freedom per unit of time, referred to as the rate of innovation. Although sampling of pulse streams was treated in previous works, either the rate of innovation was not achieved, or the pulse shape was limited to diracs and the method was instable for high rates of innovation. In this work we propose a multichannel framework for pulse streams with arbitrary shape, operating at the rate of innovation. Our approach is based on modulating the input signal with a set of properly chosen waveforms, followed by a bank of integrators. We show that the pulse stream can be recovered from the proposed minimal-rate samples using standard tools taken from spectral estimation in a stable way even at high rates of innovation. In addition, we address practica...

Gedalyahu, Kfir; Eldar, Yonina C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Definition: Time-Based Rate Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Based Rate Program Based Rate Program Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Time-Based Rate Program Electricity rates paid by customers in which rates vary for different days, times of the day, or events (such as days with extremely high loads). Various types of customer systems facilitate implementation of these time-variant pricing programs. These systems include smart meters, controls, and communications systems and software that provide two-way information between utilities and customers. Such systems may control customer load, based on the time-variant pricing program, or provide information for customers to alter their electricity consumption pattern in response to different rates during any given hour of the day. There are different pricing programs such as: Time Of Use (TOU) where the day is

360

Dynamic MIPS rate stabilization in out-of-order processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today's microprocessor cores reach high performance levels not only by their high clock rate but also by the concurrent execution of a large number of instructions. Because of the relationship between power and frequency, it becomes attractive to run ... Keywords: embedded systems, ooo processors, real-time systems, stabilization, variability

Jinho Suh; Michel Dubois

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rate Rate Escalations to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Water Rate Escalations on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Water Efficiency Basics Federal Requirements Best Management Practices Analysis and Evaluation Water Rate Escalations Evaluation Service Contracts Case Studies Resources

362

Heating Rates in Tropical Anvils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of infrared and solar radiation with tropical cirrus anvils is addressed. Optical properties of the anvils are inferred from satellite observations and from high-altitude aircraft measurements. An infrared multiple-scattering ...

Thomas P. Ackerman; Kuo-Nan Liou; Francisco P. J. Valero; Leonhard Pfister

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Rate of coal devolatilization in iron and steelmaking processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The devolatilization of coal particles under ironmaking and steelmaking conditions was studied. A new experimental technique was developed to measure the rates of devolatilization. A unique method was used to prepare coal particles based on thick coal bands rich in a given maceral group. Experiments with these single particles gave good reproducibility. The rates of devolatilization for all coal types from low to high rank coals were measured in the gaseous atmosphere and within the slag phase. Real time x-ray images were taken for high volatile, low volatile and anthracite coals devolatilizing in a molten smelting slag. The rate in terms of percentage devolatilization were relatively independent of coal type and a small function of furnace temperature at high heating rates and temperatures studied. The rates depended on particle size and heating rates. The results were consistent with internal transport controlled processes primarily heat transfer. Furthermore the rates were the same in the gas and slag phase which is consistent with heat transfer control.

Sampaio, R.S.; Rio Doce, C.V. do; Fruehan, R.J.; Ozturk, B. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Iron and Steel Making Research)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

P-D Project Rate Adjustment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Parker-Davis Project Rate Adjustment Data Parker-Davis Project Rate Adjustment Data FY2014 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design Preliminary PRS Final Documents Notification of Rates Final CAS Final Rate Design Final PRS FY2013 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design Preliminary PRS Supplemental Information Final Documents Notification of Rates Final CAS Final Rate Design Final PRS FY2012 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design Preliminary PRS Customer Requested Scenario Final Documents Notification of Rates Final CAS Final Rate Design Final PRS FY2011 Informal Customer Meeting Notification of Meeting Presentation Preliminary CAS Preliminary Rate Design

365

Further Study on Atmospheric Lapse Rate Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lapse rate, moist adiabatic lapse rate and the critical lapse rate for baroclinic adjustment are calculated as was done by Stone and Carlson using a different data set covering both hemispheres. Results show very good agreement in low latitudes, ...

Shi-Keng Yang; G. Louis Smith

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Narrowing the estimates of species migration rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of species migration rates How fast can species migrate?estimate population growth rates for each population sinceon their data 1 show that the rate of population spread is

Blois, Jessica L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

4. Trends in Natural Gas Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 39 Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates 4. Trends in Natural Gas Transportation Rates

368

Definition: Thermal Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermal Rating The maximum amount of electrical current that a transmission line or electrical facility can conduct over a...

369

Form:Utility Rate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Form Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Form:Utility Rate Jump to: navigation, search Add or Update Utility Rate Information Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

370

Evidence for an Oscillatory Rain Rate in a Midwestern Winter Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain rate during light precipitation in winter was measured with high temporal resolution optical systems at a site in Illinois. In addition to quasi-periodic variations, a clearly sinusoidal oscillation in rain rate was found imbedded in the ...

R. B. Fritz; R. J. Hill; J. T. Priestley; W. P. Schoenfeld

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock value of the fuel. All-electric ... Other home energy-saving ...

372

CRSP Transmission Sales Rate History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Updated: 12/20/2013 Updated: 12/20/2013 CRSP Transmission Sales Rate History Rate Schedule Effective Dates Nonfirm (Mills/kWh) Firm ($/kW-yr.) Firm ($/kW-mo.) None Through 3/83 1.000 $ 6.60 $0.55 SP-FT1 4/83 - 6/86 N.A. $10.27 $0.86 SP-NFT1 4/83 - 6/86 2.000 N.A. SP-FT2 7/86 - 6/89 N.A. $15.94 $1.33 SP-NFT2 7/86 - 7/89 3.100 N.A. SP-FT3 7/89 - 9/92 N.A. $21.72 $1.81 SP-NFT3 8/89 - 3/98 Mutually Agreed N.A. SP-FT4 10/92 - 3/98 N.A. $22.68 $1.89 SP-NFT4 4/98 - 3/03 Mutually Agreed N.A. SP-PTP5 4/98 - 3/99 N.A. $26.70 $2.23 4/99 - 3/00 N.A. $26.19 $2.18 4/00 - 3/01 N.A. $26.14 $2.18 4/01 - 3/02 N.A. $25.63 $2.14 4/02 - 9/02 N.A. $21.33 $1.78 SP-NFT5 10/02 - 9/07 Mutually Agreed N.A. 10/07-9/08 Mutually Agreed N.A. SP-PTP6 10/02 - 9/03 N.A. $24.72 $2.06

373

utility rate | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

utility rate utility rate Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 11:14 Utility Rates API Version 2 is Live! API developer OpenEI update utility Utility Companies utility rate Utility Rates version 1 version 2 version 3 web service Smart meter After several months of development and testing, the next generation web service for the utility rate database is finally here! I encourage you to check out the V2 Utility Rates API at http://en.openei.org/services/doc/rest/util_rates Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 22 June, 2012 - 09:30 Increasing ask query limit developer utility rate An NREL user who is trying to use the utility rate service was having an issue. He writes "I noticed that any rates past 10,000 are not accessible via json. For example, this query only returns two entries:

374

Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Services » Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-1-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke On-System System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-2-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Central System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: None System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-4-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Self-Schedulers System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 MISS-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: South Mississippi Electric Power Association

375

Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Services » Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-1-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke On-System System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-2-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Central System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: None System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-4-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Self-Schedulers System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 MISS-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: South Mississippi Electric Power Association

376

Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA)

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radiolytic hydrogen production from process vessels in HB line - production rates compared to evolution rates and discussion of LASL reviews  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen production from radiolysis of aqueous solutions can create a safety hazard since hydrogen is flammable. At times this production can be significant, especially in HB line where nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of Pu-238, an intense alpha emitter, are processed. The hydrogen production rates from these solutions are necessary for safety analyses of these process systems. The methods and conclusions of hydrogen production rate tests are provided in this report.

Bibler, N.E.

1992-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rate" Rate" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 0 00c88d6d-e3b0-4128-ad3e-a93f686cf6e3 + 0.227 + 00c88d6d-e3b0-4128-ad3e-a93f686cf6e3 + 0.227 + 00c88d6d-e3b0-4128-ad3e-a93f686cf6e3 + 0.227 + 019be14c-4635-4529-af90-799cbf5d7865 + 0.0335 + 019be14c-4635-4529-af90-799cbf5d7865 + 0.0335 + 02b061e1-f065-421e-9ebc-76aef4734486 + 0.079 + 02b061e1-f065-421e-9ebc-76aef4734486 + 0.079 + 02fc76fd-35ff-44c3-bc85-1fb1918f125b + 0.0978 + 02fc76fd-35ff-44c3-bc85-1fb1918f125b + 0.0978 + 0402cc99-ab16-40cc-83e7-2c5910a825a1 + 0.061 + 0402cc99-ab16-40cc-83e7-2c5910a825a1 + 0.061 + 041466a9-81ca-4fce-90e3-e718159347a9 + 0.0587 +, 0.044 + 041466a9-81ca-4fce-90e3-e718159347a9 + 0.044 + 041466a9-81ca-4fce-90e3-e718159347a9 + 0.0587 + 047086c9-976d-4a05-90d5-b67afaf60851 + 0.0583 +

379

High throughput screen for cells with high extracellular metabolite consumption--secretion rates using microfluidic droplets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the improvement of strains for the industrial production of various compounds. Traditionally, enzymatic steps closely associated with the product-forming pathway have ...

Wang, Benjamin L. (Benjamin Lu chen)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nesterenko, Marc A. Meyers, “Carbon Fiber on the Mechanicalthe fact that PAN-based carbon fibers usually have higherthan pitch-based carbon fibers. Studies also demonstrated

Cai, Jing

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Distributed Rate Allocation for Wireless Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a distributed algorithm for rate allocation in wireless networks. As the main result, the paper establishes that this algorithm is throughput-optimal for very general class of throughput regions. In contrast to distributed on-off scheduling algorithms, this algorithm enables optimal utilization of physical layer schemes by scheduling multiple rate levels. The algorithm is based on a Markov process on these discrete set of rates with certain transition rates. For dealing with multiple rate levels, the paper introduces an important structure for the transition rates, which enable the design of appropriate update rule for these transition rates. The update uses local queue length information alone, and thus does not require global exchange of queue length information. In addition, the algorithm requires that each link can determine the feasibility of increasing its data-rate from the current value without reducing the data-rates of other links. Determining rate feasibility does not introduce...

Jose, Jubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

Khang, S.J.

1996-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Computerized extrapolation of hydrolysis rate data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program RATE was developed to aid in the extrapolation and interpretation of hydrolysis rate data to a format that is useful for environmental risk assessment. Hydrolysis data typically are reported in the literature as pseudo-first-order rate constants at the temperature and pH of the reaction medium used to obtain the kinetics information. The utility of RATE lies in its ability to estimate first-order rate constants at other values of temperature and pH and to convert pseudo-first-order rate constants to second-order rate constants. RATE also will calculate the half-life for the overall reaction, including neutral-, base-, and acid-mediated hydrolysis, at any selected temperature and pH. RATE, programmed in FORTRAN, is used to systematically analyze data for entry in FATE, a comprehensive environmental fate constants information system database.

Hamrick, K.J.; Kollig, H.P.; Bartell, B.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Schedules Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2011 CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU October 1, 2011 CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Southern Illinois System: CU October 1, 2011 CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: KU Area System: CU October 1, 2011 CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: East Kentucky System: CU October 1, 2011 CC-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: CP&L Area, Western Division System: CU September 20, 2011 JW-1-J Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Woodruff Preference Customer System: Jim Woodruff September 20, 2011 JW-2-F Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Florida Power Corporation System: Jim Woodruff November 17, 2010 AP-1-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power

385

1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Puerto Rico time-of-day rates demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Puerto Rico Time of Day (TOD) electric rate demonstration project consists of three distinct studies: (A) Low usage customers (less than or equal to425 kWh per 30 consecutive days) are compared for a 12 hours peak period rate, against a control group of similar usage. (B) High usage customers (>425 kWh per 30 consecutive days) are assigned a single 12 hours peak period experimental rate. (C) High usage customers, assigned to a number of different experimental rates and compared against a control group (also used for B). For this group, peak period lengths are fixed at a specific six hour period and rates are allowed to vary. For comparative purposes a control group is included. As part of this experiment an entry and exit survey have been designed. The purpose of the surveys is to find out the changes in electric consumption stock and life style of the participants from the start to the end of the project. As participants were assigned to rates or control groups on a random basis, the emphasis of the entry survey analysis is to determine if there are any significant statistical differences among the selected participants.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

389

officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m ?2 s ?1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m ?2 s ?1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m ?2 s ?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 µmol m ?2 s ?1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover,

Ali Ghasemzadeh; Hawa Z. E. Jaafar; Asmah Rahmat

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Optimum Power and Rate Allocation for Coded V-BLAST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical framework for minimizing the outage probability of a coded spatial multiplexing system while keeping the rate close to the capacity is developed. Based on this framework, specific strategies of optimum power and rate allocation for the coded V-BLAST architecture are obtained and its performance is analyzed. A fractional waterfilling algorithm, which is shown to optimize both the capacity and the outage probability of the coded V-BLAST, is proposed. Compact, closed-form expressions for the optimum allocation of the average power are given. The uniform allocation of average power is shown to be near optimum at moderate to high SNR for the coded V-BLAST with the average rate allocation (when per-stream rates are set to match the per-stream capacity). The results reported also apply to multiuser detection and channel equalization relying on successive interference cancelation.

Kostina, Victoria

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

User’s Guide for Getter Rate Test System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This User’s Guide describes the operation and maintenance of the Getter Rate Test System, including the mechanical equipment, instrumentation, and datalogger/computer components. The Getter Rate Test System includes equipment and instrumentation to conduct two getter rate tests simultaneously. The mechanical equipment comprises roughing and high-vacuum pumps, heated test chambers, standard hydrogen leaks, and associated piping and valves. Instrumentation includes thermocouples, pressure (vacuum) transducers, panel displays, analog-to-digital signal converter, and associated wiring. The datalogger/computer is a stand-alone computer with installed software to allow the user to record data input from the pressure transducers to data files and to calculate the getter rate from the data in an Excel® spreadsheet.

Elmore, Monte R.

2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

392

Interference-Aware Fair Rate Control in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a wireless sensor network of N nodes transmitting data to a single base station, possibly over multiple hops, what distributed mechanisms should be implemented in order to dynamically allocate fair and efficient transmission rates to each node? Our interference-aware fair rate control (IFRC) detects incipient congestion at a node by monitoring the average queue length, communicates congestion state to exactly the set of potential interferers using a novel low-overhead congestion sharing mechanism, and converges to a fair and efficient rate using an AIMD control law. We evaluate IFRC extensively on a 40-node wireless sensor network testbed. IFRC achieves a fair and efficient rate allocation that is within 20- 40% of the optimal fair rate allocation on some network topologies. Its rate adaptation mechanism is highly effective: we did not observe a single instance of queue overflow in our many experiments. Finally, IFRC can be extended easily to support situations where only a subset of the nodes transmit, where the network has multiple base stations, or where nodes are assigned different transmission weights.In a wireless sensor network of N nodes transmitting data to a single base station, possibly over multiple hops, what distributed mechanisms should be implemented in order to dynamically allocate fair and efficient transmission rates to each node? Our interference-aware fair rate control (IFRC) detects incipient congestion at a node by monitoring the average queue length, communicates congestion state to exactly the set of potential interferers using a novel low-overhead congestion sharing mechanism, and converges to a fair and efficient rate using an AIMD control law. We evaluate IFRC extensively on a 40-node wireless sensor network testbed. IFRC achieves a fair and efficient rate allocation that is within 20- 40% of the optimal fair rate allocation on some network topologies. Its rate adaptation mechanism is highly effective: we did not observe a single instance of queue overflow in our many experiments. Finally, IFRC can be extended easily to support situations where only a subset of the nodes transmit, where the network has multiple base stations, or where nodes are assigned different transmission weights.

Sumit Rangwala; Ramakrishna Gummadi; Ramesh Govindan; Konstantinos Psounis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Utility Rate | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Rate Utility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: API Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry API The utility rate database version 1 API is now deprecated Rmckeel 6 Sep 2013 - 14:00 Blog entry API Lighting Electricity Rates on OpenEI Sfomail 31 May 2013 - 12:04 Blog entry API Utility Rates API Version 2 is Live! Sfomail 17 May 2013 - 11:14 Groups Menu You must login in order to post into this group. Recent content There is currently no way to s... ranking of utilities by demand charge? FYI, OpenEI now accommodates t... Very useful information. Thank... The utility rate database version 1 API is now deprecated more Group members (28) Managers: Dloomis

394

Cross-layer wireless bit rate adaptation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents SoftRate, a wireless bit rate adaptation protocol that is responsive to rapidly varying channel conditions. Unlike previous work that uses either frame receptions or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimates ...

Vutukuru, Mythili

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cross-Layer Wireless Bit Rate Adaptation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents SoftRate, a wireless bit rate adaptation protocol that is responsive to rapidly varying channel conditions. Unlike previous work that uses either frame receptions or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimates ...

Vutukuru, Mythili

396

Transfer Rate vs. I/O Units  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

O Units Transfer Rate vs. IO Units These plots show the transfer rate from the IO benchmarks as a function of the number of elizaio units in use for each particular eliza at the...

397

OpenEI Community - utility rate  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rates API Rates API Version 2 is Live! http://en.openei.org/community/blog/utility-rates-api-version-2-live Smart meterAfter several months of development and testing, the next generation web service for the utility rate database is finally here! I encourage you to check out the V2 Utility Rates API at rates">http://en.openei.org/services/doc/rest/util_ratesrates-api-version-2-live" target="_blank">read more

398

Cumulus Parameterization and Rainfall Rates I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling of convective rainfall rates is a central problem in tropical meteorology. Toward numerical weather prediction efforts the semi-prognostic approach (i.e., a one time-step prediction of rainfall rates) provides a relevant test of cumulus ...

T. N. Krishnamurti; Y. Ramanathan; Hua-Lu Pan; Richard J. Pasch; John Molinari

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Why Oceanic Dissipation Rates Are Not Lognormal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In their derivation of the lognormal probability density function for volume-averaged dissipation rates, Gurvich and Yaglom assumed explicitly that these dissipation rates are statistically homogeneous and that the averaging scale is small ...

Hidekatsu Yamazaki; Rolf Lueck

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

A Probability Distribution Model for Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic approach is suggested for modeling the probability distribution of rain rate. Rain rate, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is modeled as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropriate boundary conditions. ...

Benjamin Kedem; Harry Pavlopoulos; Xiaodong Guan; David A. Short

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Rain Rate Estimates from Differential Polarization Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the accuracy of rain rate estimates from data observed with a radar that has alternating horizontal and vertical polarization. Theoretical accuracies of rain rates from the reflectivity, the differential ...

M. Sachidananda; D. S. Zrni?

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

On-site Housing Rates | Staff Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Effective February 1, 2013 Rates for Occupancy < 30-Days Guest House* SingleDouble: 105.00 per day Housekeeping service is provided on all working days. *Alternatives to...

403

CONVERGENCE AND CONVERGENCE RATE OF STOCHASTIC ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gence rate of { ?f(?n)2}n?0 and {f(?n)}n?0 is the slower of the rates O(??rˆ? n. ) (the ...... for ??,s nj ? knj+1. Then ...

404

Geomagnetic Reversals: Rates, Timescales, Preferred Paths,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic Reversals: Rates, Timescales, Preferred Paths, Statistical Models and Simulations: Geomagnetic reversals, Reversal rates, Paleointensity, Statistics of Geodynamo September 30, 2001 #12;Abstract Paleomagnetic data on geomagnetic reversals are divided into two general categories: times of occurrence

Constable, Catherine G.

405

Rio Grande Project Power Sales Rate History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Sales Rate History Updated: 1022009 Rate Schedule Effective Dates Energy (MillskWh) Capacity (kW-mo.) Combined (MillskWh) R5-F1 1940 - 1949 3.000 - 8.000 (declining...

406

Collbran Project Power Sales Rate History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Sales Rate History Updated: 1022009 Rate Schedule Effective Dates Energy (MillskWh) Capacity (kW-mo.) Combined (MillskWh) Contract 1262 - 1283 (Firm Only) (Nonfirm...

407

Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae  

SciTech Connect

The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z {approx} 0.01-0.1 of r{sub V} = 4.26{sub -1.93 -0.10}{sup +1.39 +0.10} h{sup 3} x 10{sup -4} SNe Ia/yr/Mpc{sup 3} from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

Wood-Vasey, William Michael

2004-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

Effects of Sequence Partitioning on Compression Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the paper, a theoretical work is done for investigating effects of splitting data sequence into packs of data set. We proved that a partitioning of data sequence is possible to find such that the entropy rate at each subsequence is lower than entropy rate of the source. Effects of sequence partitioning on overall compression rate are argued on the bases of partitioning statistics, and then, an optimization problem for an optimal partition is defined to improve overall compression rate of a sequence.

Alagoz, B Baykant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Science & Technology Principal Directo rate – Industrial ...  

Erik Stenehjem Science & Technology Principal Directo rate – Industrial Partnerships Office Erik Stenehjem Director----Roger Werne Deputy Director

410

Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

Bielek, Timothy P. (Albuquerque, NM); Thompson, Douglas G. (Albuqerque, NM); Walker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

411

Determining Photosynthesis Rate Constants in Lake Harapan Penang  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lake Harapan was created in 1990 to serve as a runoff detention pond in Universiti Sains Malaysia USM. The lake is eutrophic with occasional high levels of 300 ug/l chl a, with dissolved oxygen reaching 12 - 16 mg/l in the late afternoon and near anaerobic ... Keywords: Photosynthesis, Rate Constants, Dissolved Oxygen

Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Ahmad Izani Md Ismail; Mashhor Mansor

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Bayesian sample-size determination for two independent Poisson rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: Because of the high cost and time constraints for clinical trials, researchers often need to determine the smallest sample size that provides accurate inferences for a parameter of interest. Although most experimenters have employed frequentist ... Keywords: Average length criterion, Average power, Bayesian sample-size determination, Comparison of two Poisson rates

Austin L. Hand; James D. Stamey; Dean M. Young

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Reproduction Rates for 1990–2002 and Intrinsic Rates for 2000–2001: United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective—This report presents revised rates of reproduction for 1990–93, reproduction rates for 1994–2002, and intrinsic rates for 2000–2001. The revised rates for 1991–93 are based on populations consistent with the April 1, 2000, census, as are the rates for 1994–2002. Methods—Tabular and graphic data on the reproduction and intrinsic rates by race and Hispanic origin of mother are presented and described. Results—Rates of reproduction (total fertility, gross reproduction, and net reproduction rates), the intrinsic rate of natural increase, and the intrinsic birth rate were lower in 2001 (and 2002) than 1990. Among the race and Hispanic subgroups, the reproduction rates were lower for all groups except Cubans and whites (total). The overall intrinsic death rate increased between 1990 and 2001 with the rate declining for whites (total) but increasing for blacks (total).

Brady E. Hamilton, Ph.D.; Division Of Vital Statistics

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

EPRI's Twelfth Heat Rate Improvement Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Twelfth Heat Rate Improvement Conference, sponsored by EPRI's Heat Rate and Cost Optimization Value Package, is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist utilities in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and maintaining heat rate improvement. The last conference was held in Baltimore in September 1998.

2001-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

415

Definition: Emergency Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Emergency Rating Emergency Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Emergency Rating The rating as defined by the equipment owner that specifies the level of electrical loading or output, usually expressed in megawatts (MW) or Mvar or other appropriate units, that a system, facility, or element can support, produce, or withstand for a finite period. The rating assumes acceptable loss of equipment life or other physical or safety limitations for the equipment involved.[1] Related Terms rating References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Emergency_Rating&oldid=480317" Categories:

416

Water Rate Escalations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rate Escalations Rate Escalations Water Rate Escalations October 8, 2013 - 9:55am Addthis Federal agencies need accurate water cost escalation rates to perform life cycle cost analyses for water efficiency projects to meet Executive Order 13514 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requirements. To estimate long-term escalation rates of potable water, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an analysis. Using the trends from this study, Federal facility managers can select escalation rates from studied cities with similar circumstances to their facility locations such as U.S. region, water source, or drought tendencies. Also they can make more informed choices on possible water escalation rates that can be used in economic analysis of water efficiency projects.

417

Utility Rates | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Rates Utility Rates Home Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 6 September, 2013 - 14:00 The utility rate database version 1 API is now deprecated API Utility Rates There comes a time in every API version's lifecycle when it needs to be deprecated. OpenEI's utility rate database version 1 API has been in use since the inception of the database in 2010. As Illinois State University has taken a commanding lead of the project and its data curation, we have updated the schema and API to version 2 to present a richer spectrum of utility rate data. Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 11 June, 2013 - 09:33 Tip for working with approvals on OpenEI EZFeed Utility Rates The "ApprovedRevs" extension is the feature on OpenEI that allows

418

PBXN-9 Ignition Kinetics and Deflagration Rates  

SciTech Connect

The ignition kinetics and deflagration rates of PBXN-9 were measured using specially designed instruments at LLNL and compared with previous work on similar HMX based materials. Ignition kinetics were measured based on the One Dimensional Time-to-Explosion combined with ALE3D modeling. Results of these experiments indicate that PBXN-9 behaves much like other HMX based materials (i.e. LX-04, LX-07, LX-10 and PBX-9501) and the dominant factor in these experiments is the type of explosive, not the type of binder/plasticizer. In contrast, the deflagration behavior of PBXN-9 is quite different from similar high weight percent HMX based materials (i.e LX-10, LX-07 and PBX-9501). PBXN-9 burns in a laminar manner over the full pressure range studied (0-310 MPa) unlike LX-10, LX-07, and PBX-9501. The difference in deflagration behavior is attributed to the nature of the binder/plasticizer alone or in conjunction with the volume of binder present in PBXN-9.

Glascoe, E; Maienschein, J; Burnham, A; Koerner, J; Hsu, P; Wemhoff, A

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

419

Trigger and data rates expected for the CTA Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an initiative to build a next-generation observatory for very-high energy $\\gamma$-rays. Its expected large effective area ($\\mathcal{O}(10^{7} \\mathrm{m}^2)$) and energy threshold as low as 25 GeV imply a challenge for triggering and data acquisition systems. The analysis of the official CTA Monte Carlo production-1 simulations leads to array trigger rates of $\\mathcal{O}$(10 kHz) and data rates ranging from $\\mathcal{O}$(100 MB/s) to $\\mathcal{O}$(1000 MB/s), depending on the read-out scenario.

Manuel Paz Arribas; Ullrich Schwanke; Ralf Wischnewski; for the CTA Consortium

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

420

Theoretical mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a model for the wind properties of cool main-sequence stars, which comprises their wind ram pressures, mass fluxes, and terminal wind velocities. The wind properties are determined through a polytropic magnetised wind model, assuming power laws for the dependence of the thermal and magnetic wind parameters on the stellar rotation rate. We use empirical data to constrain theoretical wind scenarios, which are characterised by different rates of increase of the wind temperature, wind density, and magnetic field strength. Scenarios based on moderate rates of increase yield wind ram pressures in agreement with most empirical constraints, but cannot account for some moderately rotating targets, whose high apparent mass loss rates are inconsistent with observed coronal X-ray and magnetic properties. For fast magnetic rotators, the magneto-centrifugal driving of the outflow can produce terminal wind velocities far in excess of the surface escape velocity. Disregarding this aspect in the analyses of wind ram pressures leads to overestimations of stellar mass loss rates. The predicted mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars do not exceed about ten times the solar value. Our results are in contrast with previous investigations, which found a strong increase of the stellar mass loss rates with the coronal X-ray flux. Owing to the weaker dependence, we expect the impact of stellar winds on planetary atmospheres to be less severe and the detectability of magnetospheric radio emission to be lower then previously suggested. Considering the rotational evolution of a one solar-mass star, the mass loss rates and the wind ram pressures are highest during the pre-main sequence phase.

V. Holzwarth; M. Jardine

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Definition: Penetration Rate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Penetration Rate Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Penetration Rate The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. Also known as penetration rate or drill rate. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.

422

Utility Rate | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Rate Utility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: developer Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry developer Utility Rates API Version 2 is Live! Sfomail 17 May 2013 - 11:14 Discussion developer Utility rate change propagation is now much faster Rmckeel 1 21 Mar 2013 - 09:11 Blog entry developer OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Rmckeel 8 Mar 2013 - 14:23 Blog entry developer Semantic Mediawiki Semantic Forms update Rmckeel 22 Oct 2012 - 07:23 Discussion developer Increasing ask query limit Rmckeel 1 28 Jun 2012 - 14:35 Groups Menu You must login in order to post into this group. Recent content FYI, OpenEI now accommodates t... Very useful information. Thank...

423

Rate-Making Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rate-Making Policy Rate-Making Policy Rate-Making Policy < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info Start Date 2005 State Wisconsin Program Type Generating Facility Rate-Making Provider Public Service Commission of Wisconsin WI Act 7 states that, when proposing the purchase or construction of an electric generating facility, a utility may "apply to the [WI Public Service Commission] for an order specifying in advance the rate-making principles" that the Public Service Commission will use for "future rate-making proceedings." The Nuclear Energy Institute highlights that "There is no restriction on

424

On loading rate effects in toughening processes  

SciTech Connect

Environmental crack tip reactions are a known source of premature fracture in oxides. These rate-dependent phenomena commonly are studied in strength tests where loading rate serves as the major experimental variable. A material susceptible to environmentally-assisted crack growth is stronger at fast testing rates. A topic which has received far less attention is the influence of stressing rate or loading rate on the shielding processes which occur at some distance from the crack tip, although the inverse has been studied by Deuerler et al. The authors present here the first known documentation of a loading rate effect on shielding phenomena in ceramic materials. For these experiments Coors AD 94 alumina was chosen for study.

Tandon, S.; Faber, K.T. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Definition: Dynamic Capability Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capability Rating Capability Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Dynamic Capability Rating Dynamic capability rating can be achieved through real-time determination of an element's (e.g., line, transformer etc.) ability to carry load based on electrical and environmental conditions.[1] Related Terms rating References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Dynamic_Capability_Rating&oldid=506158" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load)

426

Building energy benchmarks and rating tools | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building energy benchmarks and rating tools Building energy benchmarks and rating tools Building energy benchmarks and rating tools Building energy benchmarks and rating tools More...

427

Loads, capacity, and failure rate modeling  

SciTech Connect

Both failure rate and load capacity (stress-strength) interferenece methodologies are employed in the reliability analysis at nuclear facilities. Both of the above have been utilized in a heuristic failure rate model in terms of load capacity inference. Analytical solutions are used to demonstrate that infant mortality and random aging failures may be expressed implicity in terms of capacity variability, load variability, and capacity deterioration, and that mode interactions play a role in the formation of the bathtub curve for failure rates.

Lewis, E.E.; Chen, Hsin-Chieh

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

FERC rate incentives for transmission infrastructure development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress delivered a mandate to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to establish regulations that would provide for incentive-based rate treatments for investments that would improvement the nation's electric transmission system. That has required FERC to move from merely approving cost-based rates for transmission services to enacting new regulations that would make it more attractive to invest in transmission infrastructure without offending the ''just and reasonable'' rate standard. (author)

Snarr, Steven W.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

2007 EPRI Heat Rate Improvement Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the rising cost of fuel and the growing possibility of carbon taxes in the not-too-distant future, utilities are once again focusing on the heat rate and performance of coal-fired power plants. The fifteenth Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in this series of meetings designed to assist utilities in addressing problems with power plant performance and in identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and maintaining heat rate improvement.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

430

Proceedings 2013 Heat Rate Improvement Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rising cost of fuel and the strong possibility of CO2 emissions regulations and limitations in the near future, utilities and power generation companies are focusing on power plant heat rate and performance. The 18th Heat Rate Improvement Conference is the latest in a series of meetings designed to assist attendees in addressing problems with power plant performance and identifying cost-effective solutions for achieving and sustaining heat rate ...

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

431

Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Projections 1993--2014 and Historical Wholesale Power Rates 1939--1992.  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a range of high, medium, and low case long-term projections of Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) wholesale power rates and a medium case long-term projection of BPA`s wheeling rates. These projections are produced annually by BPA. BPA uses these projections in long-term marketing, resource, transmission, and financial planning assessments. BPA`s projections also are used by public utility commissions, utilities, and others for a variety of planning purposes. The analysis used for these rate projections assumes that current rate making methodologies continue into the future and are further based on certain assumptions about regional loads, extra-regional markets, the costs of resources, BPA`s financial requirements, and the capability of the region`s power plants. While these projections are intended to address the overall uncertainty in rate levels, BPA realizes that the future will not reflect any specific set of assumptions. The rate projections in this document have been prepared prior to the Draft 1993 BPA Marketing Plan, the implementation of which is almost certain to push BPA away from any set of assumptions in this document. Therefore, this document can be thought of as representing the ``old`` BPA with its products and policies. It can be viewed as a starting point or reference point to measure the impact of the ``new`` BPA with its Marketing Plan, and the broader undertaking referred to as the Competitiveness Project.

US Bonneville Power Administration

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

DETERMINATION OF DEPOSITION RATES FOR COOKING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... All calculations of deposition rates were made after ... the in- duct electrostatic precipitator increased the ... (1985) measured the performance of several ...

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

433

Utility Rate Discounts | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Discounts Discounts Jump to: navigation, search A few electric utilities offer rate discounts to encourage residential energy efficiency. For homes that meet certain energy efficiency criteria, such as those established by the federal Energy Star program, the owner or tenant is awarded a percentage discount on each monthÂ’s electric bill. [1] Contents 1 Utility Rate Discount Incentives 2 References Utility Rate Discount Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 14) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Cleco Power - Power Miser New Home Program (Louisiana) Utility Rate Discount Louisiana Residential Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Clothes Washers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Doors Duct/Air sealing Furnaces Heat pumps

434

Rate Schedule PACI-T3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or other regulatory bodies will be passed on to each relevant customer. The FERC's or...

435

DEC Asset Rating | CUBIC APPLE LTD  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

NON-DOMESTIC ENERGY ... if you are worried about the DEC asset rating for your public building why not get in contact with Cubic Apple on 01529 300 ...

436

Rate Schedule CV-EID4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CV-EID3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR ENERGY IMBALANCE SERVICE Effective: October 1, 2011,...

437

Rate Schedule CV-SUR4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CV-SUR3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR SUPPLEMENTAL RESERVE SERVICE Effective: October 1, 2011,...

438

Rate Schedule CV-SPR4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CV-SPR3) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR SPINNING RESERVE SERVICE Effective: October 1, 2011,...

439

Dose rate visualization of radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced visualization techniques can be used to investigate gamma ray and neutron dose rates around complex dose rate intensive operations. A method has been developed where thousands of dose points are calculated using the MCNP(Monte Carlo N-Particle) computer code and then displayed to create color contour plots of the dose rate for complex geometries. Once these contour plots are created, they are sequenced together creating an animation to dynamically show how the dose rate changes with changes in the geometry or source over time.

Schwarz, R.A.; Kessler, S.F.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Rate Schedule CV-SPR4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Any charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Rate Schedule CV-SUR4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Any charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

442

Corridor Rate Analysis Results - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 113 ... with the pipeline company tariff rates obtained using the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Automated System for Tariff

443

Optimization Online - Approximate Primal Solutions and Rate ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 29, 2007... limit as the number of subgradient iterations increases to infinity). Furthermore, no convergence rate results are known for these algorithms.

444

Method of controlling fusion reaction rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

445

Rate Schedule CV-TPT7  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR TRANSMISSION OF WESTERN POWER BY OTHERS Effective: October 1, 2011, through September 30,...

446

Rate Schedule COTP-T3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COTP-T3 (Supersedes Schedule COTP-T2) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CALIFORNIA-OREGON TRANSMISSION PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATE FOR...

447

PEPTIDE FOLDING RATES FROM SINGLE-MOLECULE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A. Myers, Daniel A. Gacek, Eric M. Peterson, Christopher B. Fox, Joel M ... These microscopic rates are used to estimate the free energy barrier to ...

448

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Title Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde...

449

ORNL DAAC, global soil respiration rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W. Raich and W. H. Schlesinger, the newly released data set contains soil respiration rates from sites in terrestrial and wetland ecosystems as reported in scientific literature...

450

Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Rate Schedule CV-F13  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FP customer allocation is equal to the annual PRR multiplied by the relevant FP percentage. The formula rate for FP power has three components. Component 1: FP Customer...

452

Definition: Facility Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

any equipment comprising the facility.1 Related Terms reactive power, equipment rating, power, smart grid References Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inl...

453

HEART RATE AS A MONITOR FOR METABOLIC RATE IN CAPTIVE JUVENILE STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEART RATE AS A MONITOR FOR METABOLIC RATE IN CAPTIVE JUVENILE STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS COLUMBIA 0Jan M. Mcl'hee, 2001 #12;ABSTRACT The potential use of heart rate to monitor energy expenditure a relationship exists between heart rate @I) and oxygen consumption ( ~ 0 ~ )in captive sea lions while swimming

454

University of California -Office of Loan Programs Historical STIP Quarterly Rate of Return for MOP Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of California - Office of Loan Programs Historical STIP Quarterly Rate of Return for MOP - Office of Loan Programs Historical STIP Quarterly Rate of Return for MOP Rate Quarterly MOP Rate MOP.00% 03/31/86 7.987% 8.35% 8.35% (1) Calculated as the total STIP income earned for each period

Russell, Lynn

455

Richard Cantor Rating Transitions and Defaults Conditional on Watchlist, Outlook and Rating History Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report documents global corporate credit rating transition and default rates during the 1995-2003 period conditional on the full information in Moody's published credit opinions, which, in addition to the current credit rating, include prior rating actions and current rating outlooks and reviews. The primary findings of this study are: • Moody’s rating system management practices attempt to limit rating reversals and dampen rating change volatility and, as a consequence, different issuers carrying the same rating may have different risks of rating migration and default. • As noted in Moody’s prior research dating back to 1993, recently downgraded issuers have a greater likelihood of future rating downgrades and default than do recently upgraded issuers. For example, obligors downgraded in the past twelve months are eight times more likely to be downgraded than upgraded in the next year. Downgraded issuers are eleven times more likely to default over one year than upgraded issuers. • Moody’s rating outlooks and reviews are used to signal the likely direction and timing of future rating actions and the evolution of default risk. For example, at a one-year time horizon, issuers with negative outlooks are seven times more likely to be downgraded than upgraded; issuers with positive outlooks are nearly twice as likely to be upgraded as downgraded; and issuers with stable outlooks have the highest probability of no rating change. Default rates within a given rating category also vary systematically by outlook status. For example,

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional

457

Rates of Return and Alternative Measures of Capital  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ the EU KLEMS database to estimate the real rate of return to capital in 14 countries (11 in the EU, three outside the EU) in 10 branches of the market economy plus the market economy as a whole. Our measure of capital is an aggregate over seven types of asset: three ICT assets (computers, communications equipment, and software) and four non-ICT assets (machinery and equipment, nonresidential structures, transport equipment, and other). The real rate of return in the market economy does not vary very much across countries, with the exception of Spain where it is exceptionally high and in Italy where it is exceptionally low. The real rate appears to be trendless in most countries. Within each country however, the rate varies widely across the 10 branches, often being implausibly high or low. We also estimate the growth of capital services by two different methods: ex-post and exante, and the contribution of capital to output growth by three methods: ex-post, ex-ante and hybrid. Our implementation of the ex-ante method uses an estimate of the required rate of return for each country instead of the actual, average rate of return to calculate user costs and also employs the expected growth of asset prices rather than the actual growth. These estimates are derived from exactly the same data as for the ex-post method, ie without any extraneous data being employed. For estimating the contribution of capital to output growth, the ex-ante method uses ex-ante profit as the weight, while both the ex-post and the hybrid method use ex-post profit. We find that the three methods produce very similar results at the market economy level. But differences are much larger at the branch level, particularly between the ex-post and ex-ante methods.

Nicholas Oulton; Ana Rincon-aznar Abstract

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

459

Video digest based on heart rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In video digesting, not only features and keywords extracted from a content itself but viewer's input are essential to incorporate subjective impressions and perceived importance. The present study aims at providing heart rate based arousal level as ... Keywords: affect, emotion, heart rate, psychophysiology, video analysis, video digest

Satoshi Toyosawa; Takashi Kawai

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Switching rates of multi-step reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a switching rate of a meta-stable reaction scheme, which includes reactions with arbitrary steps, e.g. $kA\\to(k+r)A$. Employing WKB approximation, controlled by a large system size, we evaluate both the exponent and the pre-exponential factor for the rate. The results are illustrated on a number of examples.

Escudero, Carlos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "high octane rating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Quasi-Dynamic Rating Pilot Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's DTCR technology, which encompasses a number of software tools, hardware tools, and methodologies, offers near-term solutions to overhead line rating problems. The Quasi-Dynamic Rating (QDR) concepts and tools developed in the 2004 pilot project are presented in this report.

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

462

Method of controlling fusion reaction rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Nuclear Reaction Rates and Carbon Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied how the third dredge-up and the carbon star formation in low-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch stars depends on certain key nuclear reaction rates. We find from a set of complete stellar evolution calculations of a 2Msun model with Z=0.01 including mass loss, that varying either the N14(p,g)O15 or the 3-alpha reaction rate within their uncertainties as given in the NACRE compilation results in dredge-up and yields that differ by a factor of 2. Model tracks with a higher rate for the 3-alpha rate and a lower rate for the N14(p,g)O15 reaction both show more efficient third dredge-up. New experimental results for the N14(p,g)O15 reaction rates are surveyed, yielding a rate which is about 40% lower than the tabulated NACRE rate, and smaller than NACRE's lower limit. We discuss the possible implications of the revised nuclear reaction stellar evolution calculations that aim to reproduce the observed carbon star formation at low mass, which requires efficient third dredge-up.

Falk Herwig; Sam M. Austin

2004-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

464

Seedskadee Participating Project Power Sales Rate History  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Sales Rate History Updated: 1022009 Rate Schedule Effective Dates Energy (MillskWh) Capacity (kW-mo.) Combined (MillskWh) R4-F1 thru 474 3.000 1.275 6.000 UC-F1 4...

465

Utility Rate | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Rate Utility Rate Home > Features > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Content type Blog entry Discussion Document Event Poll Question Keywords Author Apply Ewilson FYI, OpenEI now accommodates t... Posted by: Ewilson 20 Sep 2013 - 11:58 99thin Very useful information. Thank... Posted by: 99thin 9 Sep 2013 - 00:19 Rmckeel The utility rate database version 1 API is now deprecated Posted by: Rmckeel 6 Sep 2013 - 14:00 There comes a time in every API version's lifecycle when it needs to be deprecated. OpenEI's utility rate database version 1 API has been in use since the inception of the database in 2010. As... Tags: API, Utility Rates NickL Glad I could help get you on t... Posted by: NickL 4 Sep 2013 - 07:41 Glad I could help get you on the right track Myles. There is not as simple

466

International Rates | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Rates International Rates Home > Groups > Utility Rate Nsbowde's picture Submitted by Nsbowde(12) Member 10 July, 2012 - 11:27 Per the town hall discussion yestereday, I have a link to a tariff database assembled by the Energy Regulators Regional Association. There is no free access and reproduction of the information without ERRA consent is prohibited, but nonetheless here it is. I have some friends in ERRA, so maybe future collaboration could be possible. http://www.erranet.org/Products/TariffDatabase Nick Groups: Utility Rate Login to post comments Nsbowde's blog Comments Rmckeel Rmckeel1 year 26 weeks ago International rates Thanks for the info, Nick! On a side note, when we move our blog over to OpenEI communities, content like this blog entry will be more visible on

467

Utility Rate | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Rate Utility Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: American Clean Skies Foundation Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry American Clean Skies Foundation Nominations open for $250,000 Multimedia Clean Energy prizes Graham7781 2 Oct 2012 - 13:01 Groups Menu You must login in order to post into this group. Recent content There is currently no way to s... ranking of utilities by demand charge? FYI, OpenEI now accommodates t... Very useful information. Thank... The utility rate database version 1 API is now deprecated more Group members (28) Managers: Dloomis Rmckeel Sfomail Recent members: MSiira Apin101 Lissacoffey Denizurla Bazouing Gdavis Shehant Anapettirossi Abkatzman

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Definition: Equipment Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rating Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Equipment Rating The maximum and minimum voltage, current, frequency, real and reactive power flows on individual equipment under steady state, short-circuit and transient conditions, as permitted or assigned by the equipment owner.[1] Also Known As Standard current ratings Related Terms reactive power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Equipment_Rating&oldid=502535" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

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