National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for high octane rating

  1. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering...

  2. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

    1997-02-25

    A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

  3. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

  4. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  5. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  7. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHighJianDepartment of

  8. A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Higher-Octane Fuels Tom Leone, Technical Expert, Powertrain Evaluation and Analysis, Ford Motor Company

  9. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  10. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  12. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  13. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  14. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Anisotropies in Octane Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Haji-Akbari; Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2015-09-25

    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on the induced thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies. We consider n-octane nanofilms that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction. Complete freezing of octane nanofilms is observed at low temperatures, while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at both interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose substrates undergo pre-freezing, characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously by us [JCP 141: 024506, 2014] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations proposed in the above-mentioned work in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane films, i.e., a correlation between density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of a film to explore the potential energy landscape, and observe no noticeable difference between the free surface and the bulk. This is unlike the films of model atomic glass formers that tend to sample their respective landscape more efficiently at free surfaces.

  15. BiOctane | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformation BeaufortBentMichigan:Greece) Jump to:BhimsahankarBhutan:BiOctane

  16. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

  17. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; West, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

  18. China's High Savings Rates Rick Harbaugh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, Emília

    the highest in the world. That savings would grow in a country emerging from poverty is not necessarilyChina's High Savings Rates Rick Harbaugh Prepared for conference on "The Rise of China Revisited Abstract Since the early 1980s China has witnessed a rapid increase in its national savings rate to one

  19. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  20. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2010-03-03

    For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

  1. Review of market for octane enhancers: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. Sinor Consultants, Inc.

    2000-06-20

    Crude oil is easily separated into its principal products by simple distillation. However, neither the amounts nor the quality of these natural products matches demand. Today, octane requirements must be achieved by changing the chemical composition of the straight-run gasoline fraction.

  2. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan Bortfeldt; Michael Bender; Otmar Biebel; Helge Danger; Bernhard Flierl; Ralf Hertenberger; Philipp Lösel; Samuel Moll; Katia Parodi; Ilaria Rinaldi; Alexander Ruschke; André Zibell

    2015-08-04

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60MHz/cm$^2$. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48cm$\\times$50cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50$\\mu$m at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below $5^\\circ$ are observed. Systematic deviations of this $\\mu$TPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4cm$\\times$6.4cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20MeV protons at a rate of 550kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4cm$\\times$6.4cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2MHz and 2GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  3. Bio Octane Energias Renov veis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to:Greece:BajoBelpower SrlHydroelectric Power CorpOctane

  4. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  5. Exploring the use of a higher octane gasoline for the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the possible benefits that can be achieved if U.S. oil companies produced and offered a grade of higher-octane gasoline to the consumer market. The octane number of a fuel represents how resistant the ...

  6. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  7. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat IsHeavy-Duty Waste Hauler

  8. Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

  9. Third phase formation in the extraction of phosphotungstic acid by TBP in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonio, M. R.; Chiarizia, R.; Jaffrennou, F. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2010-08-30

    The solvent extraction of 12-phosphotungstic acid, also known as 12-tungstophosphoric acid-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, the so-called Keggin heteropolyacid - by 0.73 M (20%v/v) tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in n-octane under conditions comparable to those used previously for the extraction of conventional inorganic mineral acids is described. A simplified phase diagram for the pentanary system comprised of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, TBP, and n-octane reveals an extremely low initial concentration of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (1.1 mM) at the LOC (limiting organic concentration) condition, far lower than the most effective third-phase-forming inorganic acid, namely HClO{sub 4}. The results from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) indicate that the interparticle attraction energy - U(r) calculated through application of the Baxter sticky sphere model to the SANS data at the LOC condition - does not approach the -2 k{sub B} T value associated with phase splitting in previous studies of TBP third-phase formation. The third-phase formation model based on attractive interactions between polar cores of reverse micelles, successfully developed for TBP and other extraction systems does not apply to the extraction of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. Rather, the separation of a third-phase from the TBP organic phase stems from the limited solubility of the heavy and highly polar H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-TBP species in the alkane diluent.

  10. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosic, Slavko

    2009-05-15

    wells, particularly those with subsea wellheads, and the alternative has been to subject the completion to increasingly high drawdown, accepting a high skin effect. A far better solution is to use a HPF completion. Of course the execution of a successful...

  11. CRC program for quantifying performance of knock-sensor-equipped vehicles with varying octane level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A pilot study was conducted under the auspices of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC) to assess the potential effects of gasoline octane quality on acceleration performance, fuel economy and driveability in vehicles equipped with electronic spark control systems (knock sensors). Fourteen vehicles were tested by five participating laboratories on CRC unleaded reference fuels of varying octane quality (78 to 104 RON). The test vehicles included nine naturally-aspirated and five turbocharged models. The results showed that acceleration performance was the parameter most sensitive to octane quality changes, particularly in the turbocharged models.

  12. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  13. Liquid argon calorimeter performance at high rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $10^{12}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  14. Probing Ultrafast Solvation Dynamics with High Repetition-Rate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems. Thanks to implementation of a high-repetition-rate (54 kHz-6.5 MHz), high-power (>10 W) laser system at the X-ray Science Division 7-ID-D beamline at the Advanced...

  15. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01

    THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

  16. The thermodynamic properties of mixtures of normal octane and branched paraffin hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Edward Kou-Shan

    1975-01-01

    THE THEi%ODYNANIC PROPERTIES Ol' NIXTURES OF NORMAL OCTANE AND BRANCHED PARAFFIN HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by Edward Kou-Shan Liu Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of NASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MIXTURES OF NORMAL OCTANE AND BRANCHED PARAFFIN HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by EDWARD KOU-SHA N LID Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

  17. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that this process could be employed for any high-volume expansion material. * Volumetric capacity at 1C is 2000 mAhcm 3 (3 x graphite). Commercial Fe 3 O 4 material works...

  18. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELING OF ISO-OCTANE SI-HCCI TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; McNenly, M J; Piggott, W T; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M; Daw, C S; Finney, C A

    2009-10-12

    The authors describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (ST) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study they assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scneario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. They find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR ({approx} 0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR ({approx} 0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  19. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: ProfessorHigh-Pressure MOFOffice of Energy

  20. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  1. High strain rate deformation of NiAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloy, S.A.; Gray, G.T. III; Darolia, R.

    1994-07-01

    NiAl is a potential high temperature structural material. Applications for which NiAl is being considered (such as rotating components in jet engines) requires knowledge of mechanical properties over a wide range of strain rates. Single crystal NiAl (stoichiometric and Ni 49.75Al 0.25Fe) has been deformed in compression along [100] at strain rates of 0.001, 0.1/s and 2000/s and temperatures of 76,298 and 773K. <111> slip was observed after 76K testing at a strain rate of 0.001/s and 298K testing at a strain rate of 2000/s. Kinking was observed after deformation at 298K and a strain rate of 0.001/s and sometimes at 298 K and a strain rate of 0.1/s. Strain hardening rates of 8200 and 4000 MPa were observed after 773 and 298K testing respectively, at a strain rate of 2000/s. Results are discussed in reference to resulting dislocation substructure.

  2. Constitutive Model for Material Comminuting at High Shear Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdenek P. Bazant; Ferhun C. Caner

    2013-06-04

    The modeling of high velocity impact into brittle or quasibrittle solids is hampered by the unavailability of a constitutive model capturing the effects of material comminution into very fine particles. The present objective is to develop such a model, usable in finite element programs. The comminution at very high strain rates can dissipate a large portion of the kinetic energy of an impacting missile. The spatial derivative of the energy dissipated by comminution gives a force resisting the penetration, which is superposed on the nodal forces obtained from the static constitutive model in a finite element program. The present theory is inspired partly by Grady's model for comminution due to explosion inside a hollow sphere, and partly by analogy with turbulence. In high velocity turbulent flow, the energy dissipation rate is enhanced by the formation of micro-vortices (eddies) which dissipate energy by viscous shear stress. Similarly, here it is assumed that the energy dissipation at fast deformation of a confined solid gets enhanced by the release of kinetic energy of the motion associated with a high-rate shear strain of forming particles. For simplicity, the shape of these particles in the plane of maximum shear rate is considered to be regular hexagons. The rate of release of free energy density consisting of the sum of this energy and the fracture energy of the interface between the forming particle is minimized. The particle sizes are assumed to be distributed according to Schuhmann's power law. It is concluded that the minimum particle size is inversely proportional to the (2/3)-power of the shear strain rate, that the kinetic energy release is to proportional to the (2/3)-power, and that the dynamic comminution creates an apparent material viscosity inversely proportional to the (1/3)-power of the shear strain rate.

  3. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  4. High strain-rate model for fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.

    1995-07-01

    Numerical simulations of dynamic uniaxial strain loading of fiber-reinforced composites are presented that illustrate the wide range of deformation mechanisms that can be captured using a micromechanics-based homogenization technique as the material model in existing continuum mechanics computer programs. Enhancements to the material model incorporate high strain-rate plastic response, elastic nonlinearity, and rate-dependent strength degradation due to material damage, fiber debonding, and delamination. These make the model relevant to designing composite structural components for crash safety, armor, and munitions applications.

  5. Method for generating high-energy and high repetition rate laser pulses from CW amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui

    2013-06-18

    A method for obtaining high-energy, high repetition rate laser pulses simultaneously using continuous wave (CW) amplifiers is described. The method provides for generating micro-joule level energy in pico-second laser pulses at Mega-hertz repetition rates.

  6. Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, Brett Darren

    1998-01-01

    peak power. The linear cavity laser produced pulses with repetition rates as high as 128 MHz and a peak power of 6 mW. The ring cavity laser produced pulses with repetition rates as high as 1 GHz and a peak power of 36 mW....

  7. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  8. Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo (Downers Grove, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS.sub.2 and NiS.sub.2 in about equal molar amounts along with about 2-20 mole percent of the reaction product Li.sub.2 S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

  9. Avalanche Photo-Detection for High Data Rate Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; C. Silberhorn

    2007-09-19

    Avalanche photo detection is commonly used in applications which require single photon sensitivity. We examine the limits of using avalanche photo diodes (APD) for characterising photon statistics at high data rates. To identify the regime of linear APD operation we employ a ps-pulsed diode laser with variable repetition rates between 0.5MHz and 80MHz. We modify the mean optical power of the coherent pulses by applying different levels of well-calibrated attenuation. The linearity at high repetition rates is limited by the APD dead time and a non-linear response arises at higher photon-numbers due to multiphoton events. Assuming Poissonian input light statistics we ascertain the effective mean photon-number of the incident light with high accuracy. Time multiplexed detectors (TMD) allow to accomplish photon- number resolution by photon chopping. This detection setup extends the linear response function to higher photon-numbers and statistical methods may be used to compensate for non-linearity. We investigated this effect, compare it to the single APD case and show the validity of the convolution treatment in the TMD data analysis.

  10. The Gamma Ray Burst Rate at High Photon Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Mannheim; Dieter Hartmann; Burkhardt Funk

    1996-05-17

    Some gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra exhibit high energy tails with the highest photon energy detected at 18 GeV. The spectral slope of the high-energy tails is sufficiently flat in nu F_nu to consider the possibility of their detection at still higher energies. We calculate how many bursts can reasonably be expected above a given energy threshold for a cosmological distribution of bursts satisfying the observed apparent brightness distribution. The crucial point is that the gamma-ray absorption by pair production in the intergalactic diffuse radiation field eliminates bursts from beyond the gamma-ray horizon tau ~ 1, thus drastically reducing the number of bursts at high energies. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of bursts by current experiments in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. For the earth-bound detector array MILAGRO, we predict a maximal GRB rate of ~ 10 events per year. The Whipple Observatory can detect, under favorable conditions, ~1 event per year. The event rate for the HEGRA array is ~ 0.01 per year. Detection of significantly higher rates of bursts would severely challenge cosmological burst scenarios.

  11. Low resistance bakelite RPC study for high rate working capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, T.; Han, L.; Hou, S.; Liu, M.; Li, Q.; Song, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-11-19

    This paper presents series efforts to lower resistance of bakelite electrode plate to improve the RPC capability under high rate working condition. New bakelite material with alkali metallic ion doping has been manufactured and tested. This bakelite is found unstable under large charge flux and need further investigation. A new structure of carbon-embedded bakelite RPC has been developed, which can reduce the effective resistance of electrode by a factor of 10. The prototype of the carbon-embedded chamber could function well under gamma radiation source at event rate higher than 10 kHz/cm2. The preliminary tests show that this kind of new structure performs as efficiently as traditional RPCs.

  12. Low resistance bakelite RPC study for high rate working capability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, T.; Han, L.; Hou, S.; Liu, M.; Li, Q.; Song, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-11-19

    This paper presents series efforts to lower resistance of bakelite electrode plate to improve the RPC capability under high rate working condition. New bakelite material with alkali metallic ion doping has been manufactured and tested. This bakelite is found unstable under large charge flux and need further investigation. A new structure of carbon-embedded bakelite RPC has been developed, which can reduce the effective resistance of electrode by a factor of 10. The prototype of the carbon-embedded chamber could function well under gamma radiation source at event rate higher than 10 kHz/cm2. The preliminary tests show that this kind of newmore »structure performs as efficiently as traditional RPCs.« less

  13. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

    2012-06-19

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  14. A study of the physics and chemistry of knock in modern SI engines and their relationship to the octane tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    Avoiding knock is the major design constraint for spark ignition engines because of the unacceptable noise and engine damage associated with it. Hence, the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests were established ...

  15. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

  16. ALICE TPC upgrade for High-Rate operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2015-01-01

    A new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been proposed for the upgrade of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) so as to cater to the high luminosity environment expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility in future. This device will rely on the intrinsic ion back flow (IBF) suppression of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) based technology in particular the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). GEM is to minimise the space charge effect in the main drift volume and thus will not require the standard gating grid and the resulting intrinsic dead time. It will thus be possible to read all minimum bias Pb--Pb events that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era in Run 3. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1~TByte/s. The new read-out chambers will consist of stacks of 4 GEM foils combining different hole pitches. In addition to a low ion...

  17. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  18. ALICE TPC upgrade for High-Rate operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikat Biswas

    2015-11-08

    A new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been proposed for the upgrade of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) so as to cater to the high luminosity environment expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility in future. This device will rely on the intrinsic ion back flow (IBF) suppression of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) based technology in particular the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). GEM is to minimise the space charge effect in the main drift volume and thus will not require the standard gating grid and the resulting intrinsic dead time. It will thus be possible to read all minimum bias Pb--Pb events that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era in Run 3. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1~TByte/s. The new read-out chambers will consist of stacks of 4 GEM foils combining different hole pitches. In addition to a low ion back flow ($<$ 1\\%) other important requirements are good energy resolution (better than 12\\% (sigma) for $^{55}$Fe X-rays) and operational stability.

  19. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, M.

    2012-01-01

    REPETITION RATE X-RAY FEL ? M. Venturini † , J. Corlett, L.support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-of high-repetition rate FEL machine generat- ing soft x-rays

  20. Adaptive High Learning Rate Probabilistic Disruption Predictors from Scratch for the Next Generation of Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adaptive High Learning Rate Probabilistic Disruption Predictors from Scratch for the Next Generation of Tokamaks

  1. SHEAR LOCALIZATION AND CHEMICAL REACTION IN HIGH-STRAIN, HIGH-STRAIN-RATE DEFORMATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    SHEAR LOCALIZATION AND CHEMICAL REACTION IN HIGH-STRAIN, HIGH-STRAIN-RATE DEFORMATION OF Ti regions can initiate chemical reaction inside a reac- tive powder mixture. The shear band spacing was H0-induced chemical reactions in silicide systems have been investigated in recent years. Vreeland and coworkers [7

  2. High dose rate intraluminal irradiation in recurrent endobronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seagren, S.L.; Harrell, J.H.; Horn, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Palliative therapy for previously irradiated patients with symptomatic recurrent endobronchial malignancy is a difficult problem. We have had the opportunity to treat 20 such patients with high dose rate (50-100 rad/min) endobronchial brachytherapy. Eligible patients had received previous high dose thoracic irradiation (TDF greater than or equal to 90), a performance status of greater than or equal to 50, and symptoms caused by a bronchoscopically defined and implantable lesion. The radiation is produced by a small cobalt-60 source (0.7 Ci) remotely afterloaded by cable control. The source is fed into a 4 mm diameter catheter which is placed with bronchoscopic guidance; it may oscillate if necessary to cover the lesion. A dose of 1,000 rad at 1 cm from the source is delivered. We have performed 22 procedures in 20 patients, four following YAG laser debulking. Most had cough, some with hemoptysis. Eight had dyspnea secondary to obstruction and three had obstructive pneumonitis. In 12, symptoms recurred with a mean time to recurrence of 4.3 months (range 1-9 months). Eighteen patients were followed-up and reexamined via bronchoscope 1-2.5 months following the procedure; two were lost to follow-up. All had at least 50 percent clearance of tumor, and six had complete clearance; most regressions were documented on film or videotape. In six, the palliation was durable. The procedure has been well tolerated with no toxicity. We conclude that palliative endobronchial high dose rate brachytherapy is a useful palliative modality in patients with recurrent endobronchial symptomatic carcinoma.

  3. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    1 High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells PHASE II Annual-Efficiency Single-Junction a-SiGe Solar Cells Section 3 Optimization of High-efficiency a-Si Top Cell Section 4. Figure 2-3 J-V curve of a single-junction a-SiGe solar cell with initial, active-area efficiency

  4. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  5. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  6. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-02-08

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on our previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction class mechanism construction first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and these mechanisms will be refined further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available for download from our web page.

  7. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  8. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  9. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  10. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  11. Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical energy storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate electrochemical...

  12. eCAM: Ultra Compact, High Data-Rate Wireless Sensor Node with a Miniature Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    eCAM: Ultra Compact, High Data-Rate Wireless Sensor Node with a Miniature Camera Chulsung Park Email: {chulsung, phchou}@uci.edu Abstract-- eCAM is an ultra-compact, high data-rate wireless sensor to the theoretical peak performance. In this demo, we propose eCAM, an ultra compact, high data-rate wireless sensor

  13. Studies of the CMS tracker at high trigger rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, M.

    During the latter months of 2006 and the first half of 2007, the CMS Tracker was assembled and operated at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During this period the performance of the tracker at trigger rates up to ...

  14. Solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The solubilities of toluene and n-octane in aqueous protosurfactant and surfactant solutins were determined at 25/sup 0/C. The protosurfactants studied are sodium salts of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonic acid, and 3,5-diisopropyisalicylic acid. Each of them has six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and does not form micelles in water. The two micelle-forming surfactants used are sodium n-hexanoate with six alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =6) and sodium n-octanoate with eight alkyl carbons (S /SUB AC/ =8). In three-component systems of toluene or n-octane with water and organic salt (either protosurfactant or surfactant), the solubility of the hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase increases as the number of alkyl carbons of the organic salt and as the aqueous concentration of the organic salt increases. However, in this study we found that sodium 3,5-diisopropyisalicylate causes much more pronounced increases in hydrocarbon solubility than these two surfactants. Sodium 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonate, although not as effective in solubilization as the salicylate, has much stronger hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than either of these two surfactants. Sodium cyclohexanoate, with a compact arrangement of the six alkyl carbons, shows a higher hydrotropic effect than sodium n-hexanoate.

  15. Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR in homogeneous mixtures of methane + hexane, ethane + hexane, methane + octane, ethane + octan, methane + decane, ethane + decane, and methane + hexane + benzene over the whole concentration range, at 303.2 K and 333

  16. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in high precision manufacturing environments: Fuel injector nozzle drilling (automotive industry) Ceramic hole drilling (electronics industry) Precious metal...

  17. Short Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced production rate Microbial electrolysis cell a b s t r a c t Practical applications of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) require high hydrogen production rates and a compact reactor. These goals can be achieved

  18. Design Studies for a High-Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORLETT, J.

    2009-01-01

    for a High-Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL* A. Brepetition-rate, seeded FEL. Figure 2: Longitudinal phase-spontaneous emission FEL with energy-chirped electron beam

  19. Dynamic hydrocarbon separation in high-temperature, high-pressure, liquid n-alkane water vapor systems by steam distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlierboom, Casper-Maarten

    1987-01-01

    of 345 'F and 126 psia 78 43. Rate Effect on the n-Octane Distribution for a n-Hexane- n-Heptane ? n-Octane Ternary Mixture at Saturated Steam Conditions of 345 F and 126 psia 79 44. Comparison of Experimental and Calculated K-values for a n... Conditions of 345 'F and 126 psia 88 xv1 LIST OF FIGURES (Cont. ) Fig. Page 48. Comparison of n-Hexane K-value for a n-Hexane - n-Heptane- n-Octane Ternary Mixture at Saturated Steam Conditions of 345 'F and 126 psia 49. Comparison of n-Heptane K-value...

  20. High power and high repetition rate pulse generation using self injection-locking in Fabry-Perot Laser diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    , but the output power is not very high. High repetition pulse generation based on nonlinear propagation of a dual1 High power and high repetition rate pulse generation using self injection-locking in Fabry-doped fiber ring lasers (ED-FRL) [2-3] are attractive methods to generate high speed pulse trains

  1. High frame-rate, large field wavefront sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avicola, K.; Salmon, J.T.; Brase, J.; Waltjen, K.; Presta, R.; Balch, K.S.

    1992-03-01

    A two-stage intensified 192 {times} 239 pixel imager developed by Eastman Kodak for motion analysis was used to construct a 1 kHz frame-rate Hartmann wavefront sensor. The sensor uses a monolithic array of lenslets with a focal length that is adjusted by an index fluid between the convex surface and an optical flat. The accuracy of the calculated centroid position, which is related to wavefront measurement accuracy, was obtained as a function of spot power and spot size. The sensor was then dynamically tested at a 1 kHz frame-rate with a 9 {times} 9 lenslet array and a fast steering mirror, which swept a plane wavefront across the wavefront sensor. An 8 cm diameter subaperture will provide a return signal (589 nm) level of about 1000 photons/ms using the AVLIS 1 kW laser (stretched pulse) as guide star source, which is sufficient to yield a wavefront measurement of better than {gamma}/10 rms. If an area of 6 {times} 6 pixels per Hartmann spot were allocated, this wavefront sensor could support a 32 {times} 32, or 1024, element deformable mirror.

  2. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORK BREAKDOWNEnergy how toEM&High impactHigh

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORK BREAKDOWNEnergy how toEM&High impactHighAndy

  4. High Strain-Rate Characterization of Magnesium Alloys | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High HIGH PERFORMANCEEnergy

  5. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for combustion of n-alkane hydrocarbons from n-octane to n-hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Herbinet, Olivier; Silke, Emma J.; Curran, Henry J.

    2009-01-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of nine n-alkanes larger than n-heptane, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane, using the reaction classes first developed for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms. These mechanisms are validated through extensive comparisons between computed and experimental data from a wide variety of different sources. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare reactivities of different n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, is available for download from our web page. (author)

  6. Instrumentation and Diagnostics for High Repetition Rate LINAC-Driven FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Santis, S

    2014-01-01

    Evtushenko, “Electron Beam Diagnostics For High Current FELDrivers”, FEL 2011, Shanghai (2011). [5] F. Sannibale, etREPETITION RATE LINAC-DRIVEN FEL S. De Santis # , J. Byrd,

  7. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  8. Pathway to a lower cost high repetition rate ignition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Colombant, D.G.; Schmitt, A.J.; Sethian, J.D.; McGeoch, M. W. [Plasma Physics Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Plex LLC, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446-5478 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    An approach to a high-repetition ignition facility based on direct drive with the krypton-fluoride laser is presented. The objective is development of a 'Fusion Test Facility' that has sufficient fusion power to be useful as a development test bed for power plant materials and components. Calculations with modern pellet designs indicate that laser energies well below a megajoule may be sufficient. A smaller driver would result in an overall smaller, less complex and lower cost facility. While this facility might appear to have most direct utility to inertial fusion energy, the high flux of neutrons would also be able to address important issues concerning materials and components for other approaches to fusion energy. The physics and technological basis for the Fusion Test Facility are presented along with a discussion of its applications.

  9. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J. [Studiengesellschaft fuer Eisenerzaufbereitung, Liebenburg-Othfresen (Germany); Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G. [LURGI AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  10. High Rate Deposition of High Quality ZnO:Al by Filtered Cathodic Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, S.H.N.; Milliron, D.J.; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-18

    High quality ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by direct current filtered cathodic arc deposition. Substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 425oC, and samples were grown with and without the assistance of low power oxygen plasma (75W). For each growth condition, at least 3 samples were grown to give a statistical look at the effect of the growth environment on the film properties and to explore the reproducibility of the technique. Growth rate was in the 100-400 nm/min range but was apparently random and could not be easily traced to the growth conditions explored. For optimized growth conditions, 300-600 nm AZO films had resistivities of 3-6 x 10-4 ?Omega cm, carrier concentrations in the range of 2-4 x 1020 cm3, Hall mobility as high as 55 cm2/Vs, and optical transmittance greater than 90percent. These films are also highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and a surface roughness of 2-4 nm.

  11. High-rate reactive sputter deposition of zirconium dioxide (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTechHigh-contrastproperties of

  12. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHighJian

  13. Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoying

    2010-01-01

    Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and LowRechargeable lithium batteries are known for their highBecause lithium ion batteries are especially susceptible to

  14. Design Studies for a High-Repetition-Rate FEL Facility at LBNL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORLETT, J.

    2009-01-01

    high-resolution diagnostics of photon and electron beams, tobeams, free-electron lasers, photocathodes, high-repetition-rate electron-gun systems, laser systems, CW superconducting rf cryomodules, diagnostics,

  15. Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid System for High-Rate Pulsed Load Applications Donghwa Shin, Younghyun--Modern batteries (e.g., Li-ion batteries) provide high discharge efficiency, but the rate capacity effect in these batteries drastically decreases the discharge efficiency as the load current increases. Electric double

  16. Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathak, Dushyant

    2006-04-12

    the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects...

  17. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jing

    2007-01-01

    PTFE.Rate Flow and Failure in PTFE/Al/W Granular Composites”,and Microstructural Properties of PTFE-Al-W System”, 2007

  18. SANS study of HC1 extraction by selected neutral organophosphorus compounds in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarizia, R.; Stepinski, D.; Antonio, M. R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of HCl by tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri-n-octyl phosphate (TOP), and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in n-octane was investigated by liquid-liquid distribution of acid and water and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. No formation of a heavy organic phase (third phase) was observed with TEHP and TOP under the experimental conditions used, whereas for 0.4 M TOPO the HCl limiting organic concentration (LOC) at 23 C was 0.32 M (with 5.1 M HCl in the equilibrium aqueous phase). For higher HCl concentrations in the aqueous phase, the organic phase splits into a light and a heavy layer. For TEHP and TOP, the SANS results, interpreted using the Baxter model for hard spheres with surface adhesion, indicated the formation of only small reverse micelles with little intermicellar attraction. For TOPO, the scattering signals suggested the formation of much larger and strongly interacting micelles. The critical values of the stickiness parameter, {tau}{sup -1}, and the interaction potential energy, U(r), for the LOC sample in the TOPO system were consistent with the model for third-phase formation previously developed for tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). According to this model, organic phase splitting is due to van der Waals interactions between the polar cores of reverse micelles formed by the extractants in the organic phase.

  19. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  20. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jing

    2007-01-01

    17 2.3 Reaction at High Velocity Impact of PTFE-Basedprocess [60]. 2.3 Reaction at High Velocity Impact of PTFE-of reaction of energetic materials at high velocity impact,

  1. High repetition rate mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with complete electric field control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sickler, Jason William, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in fully-stabilized mode-locked laser systems are enabling many applications, including optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG). In this thesis work, we describe the development of high repetition-rate ...

  2. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons from n-Octane to n-Hexadecane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Herbinet, O; Silke, E J; Curran, H J

    2007-09-25

    Detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms have been developed to describe the pyrolysis and oxidation of the n-alkanes, including n-octane (n-C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), n-nonane (n-C{sub 9}H{sub 20}), n-decane (n-C{sub 10}H{sub 22}), n-undecane (n-C{sub 11}H{sub 24}), n-dodecane (n-C{sub 12}H{sub 26}), n-tridecane (n-C{sub 13}H{sub 28}), n-tetradecane (n-C{sub 14}H{sub 30}), n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}H{sub 32}), and n-hexadecane (n-C{sub 16}H{sub 34}). These mechanisms include both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. The mechanisms are based on previous mechanisms for n-heptane, using the same reaction class mechanism construction developed initially for n-heptane. Individual reaction class rules are as simple as possible in order to focus on the parallelism between all of the n-alkane fuels included in the mechanisms, and there is an intent to develop these mechanisms further in the future to incorporate greater levels of accuracy and predictive capability. Several of these areas for improvement are identified and explained in detail. These mechanisms are validated through comparisons between computed and experimental data from as many different sources as possible. In addition, numerical experiments are carried out to examine features of n-alkane combustion in which the detailed mechanisms can be used to compare processes in all of the n-alkane fuels. The mechanisms for all of these n-alkanes are presented as a single detailed mechanism, which can be edited to produce efficient mechanisms for any of the n-alkanes included, and the entire mechanism, with supporting thermochemical and transport data, together with an explanatory glossary explaining notations and structural details, will be available on our web page when the paper is accepted for publication.

  3. Self-Constructive High-Rate System Energy Modeling for Battery-Powered Mobile Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    of a system in the lab using high quality external power measurements. Such methods are not only laborSelf-Constructive High-Rate System Energy Modeling for Battery-Powered Mobile Systems Mian Dong, low power, mobile systems 1. Introduction An energy model estimates the energy consumption by a mobile

  4. Barycentric rational interpolation with no poles and high rates of approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hormann, Kai

    Barycentric rational interpolation with no poles and high rates of approximation Michael S. Floater to control the occurrence of poles. In this paper we propose and study a family of barycentric rational inter- polants that have no real poles and arbitrarily high approximation orders on any real interval, regardless

  5. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  6. A Model for High-Strain-Rate Deformation of Uranium-Niobium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.L.Addessio; Q.H.Zuo; T.A.Mason; L.C.Brinson

    2003-05-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to develop a framework for modeling uranium-niobium alloys under the conditions of high strain rate. Using this framework, a three-dimensional phenomenological model, which includes nonlinear elasticity (equation of state), phase transformation, crystal reorientation, rate-dependent plasticity, and porosity growth is presented. An implicit numerical technique is used to solve the evolution equations for the material state. Comparisons are made between the model and data for low-strain-rate loading and unloading as well as for heating and cooling experiments. Comparisons of the model and data also are made for low- and high-strain-rate uniaxial stress and uniaxial strain experiments. A uranium-6 weight percent niobium alloy is used in the comparisons of model and experiment.

  7. Extra-galactic high-energy transients: event rate densities and luminosity functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Hui; Li, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Several types of extra-galactic high-energy transients have been discovered, which include high-luminosity and low-luminosity long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), short-duration GRBs, supernova shock breakouts (SBOs), and tidal disruption events (TDEs) without or with an associated relativistic jet. In this paper, we apply a unified method to systematically study the redshift-dependent event rate densities and the global luminosity functions (ignoring redshift evolution) of these transients. We introduce some empirical formulae for the redshift-dependent event rate densities for different types of transients, and derive the local specific event rate density, which also represents its global luminosity function. Long GRBs have a large enough sample to reveal features in the global luminosity function, which is best characterized as a triple power law. All the other transients are consistent with having a single power law luminosity function. The total event rate density depends on the minimum luminosity, and...

  8. From whole gland to hemigland to ultra-focal high-dose rate prostate brachytherapy: A dosimetric analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, R; Park, S; Anderson, ES; Demanes, DJ; Wang, J; Kamrava, MR

    2015-01-01

    Focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy: A dosimetric comparisonwhole-gland treatment. Brachytherapy 2013;12:434e441. [6]P, et al. High-dose-rate brachytherapy boost to the dominant

  9. Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

    2010-03-08

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  10. Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-01-13

    We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50?km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.

  11. Hanford waste treatment plant Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) canister radiation dose rate and radiolytic heat load analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERSON, R.M.

    2003-09-02

    This document provides an analysis of anticipated radiation dose rates and heat loads for immobilized high level waste (IHW) canisters

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Molybdenum and Stainless Steel Mirrors Cleaning by High Repetition Rate Laser Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Molybdenum and Stainless Steel Mirrors Cleaning by High Repetition Rate Laser Beam

  13. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    of narrow bandgap a-SiGe and µc-SiGe films deposited using different hydrogen dilution Section 3 Triple-junction a-Si Solar Cells with Heavily Doped Thin Interface Layers at the Tunnel Junctions Section 4 High 3-1 I-V performance of triple cell having heavily doped tunnel-junction interface layers

  14. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Höppner, H.; Hage, A.; Tanikawa, T.; Schulz, M.; Riedel, R.; Teubner, U.; Prandolini, M. J.; Faatz, B.; Tavella, F.

    2015-05-15

    High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to manymore »hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation.« less

  15. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speiser, B.L. ); Spratling, L.

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% for the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Coexistence of high-bit-rate quantum key distribution and data on optical fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Patel; J. F. Dynes; I. Choi; A. W. Sharpe; A. R. Dixon; Z. L. Yuan; R. V. Penty; A. J. Shields

    2012-11-30

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) uniquely allows distribution of cryptographic keys with security verified by quantum mechanical limits. Both protocol execution and subsequent applications require the assistance of classical data communication channels. While using separate fibers is one option, it is economically more viable if data and quantum signals are simultaneously transmitted through a single fiber. However, noise-photon contamination arising from the intense data signal has severely restricted both the QKD distances and secure key rates. Here, we exploit a novel temporal-filtering effect for noise-photon rejection. This allows high-bit-rate QKD over fibers up to 90 km in length and populated with error-free bidirectional Gb/s data communications. With high-bit rate and range sufficient for important information infrastructures, such as smart cities and 10 Gbit Ethernet, QKD is a significant step closer towards wide-scale deployment in fiber networks.

  17. Analogy between glass rheology and crystal plasticity: yielding at high strain rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    Analogy between glass rheology and crystal plasticity: yielding at high strain rate Yue Fan arising from avalanche dynamics.10 View from crystal plasticity The experimental evidence of up fluctuation to stress activated processes. For crystals this behavior has been recently explained using

  18. Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobtsev, Sergei M.

    of research into passively mode- locked fiber laser with a record-setting optical length of the resonant-repetition rate high- energy picosecond pulses from a single-wall carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser," presented at the Optical Amplifiers and their Applications Conference (OAA 2006), Whistler, British Columbia

  19. A method to quench and recharge avalanche photo diodes for use in high rate situations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, T.O.; Fenker, H.C.; Thomas, J.; Oliver, J.

    1992-06-01

    We present a new method of using Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDS) for low level light detection in Geiger mode in high rate situations such as those encountered at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The new technique is readily adaptable to implementation in CMOS VLSI.

  20. A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT* J. Corlett#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT* J. Corlett# , J. Byrd, W. M. Fawley, M. Gullans, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A. Abstract We report on design studies for a seeded FEL light source that is responsive to the scientific needs of the future. The FEL process increases radiation flux by several orders

  1. High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R. [Universidade Federal do Pampa - UNIPAMPA-Bage, 96413-170 (Brazil); Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, 13086-100 (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

  2. High-Rate Glass Resistive Plate Chambers For LHC Muon Detectors Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laktineh, I; Cauwenbergh, S; Combret, C; Crotty, I; Haddad, Y; Grenier, G; Guida, R; Kieffer, R; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Schirra, F; Seguin, N; Tytgat, M; Van der Donckt, M; Wang, Y; Zaganidis, N

    2012-01-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPC) used as muon detector in LHC experiments is behind the absence of such detectors in the high TJ regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10ID O.cm) could be an adequate solution to equip the high TJ regions extending thus both the trigger efficiency and the physics performance. Different beam tests with single and multi-gap configurations using the new glass have shown that such detectors can operate at few thousands Hzlcm2 with high efficiency( > 90%).

  3. Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neev, Joseph (Laguna Beach, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Glinsky, Michael E. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment.

  4. Ultrashort pulse high repetition rate laser system for biological tissue processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neev, J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Glinsky, M.E.; Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.

    1998-02-24

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for fast, efficient, precise and damage-free biological tissue removal using an ultrashort pulse duration laser system operating at high pulse repetition rates. The duration of each laser pulse is on the order of about 1 fs to less than 50 ps such that energy deposition is localized in a small depth and occurs before significant hydrodynamic motion and thermal conduction, leading to collateral damage, can take place. The depth of material removed per pulse is on the order of about 1 micrometer, and the minimal thermal and mechanical effects associated with this ablation method allows for high repetition rate operation, in the region 10 to over 1000 Hertz, which, in turn, achieves high material removal rates. The input laser energy per ablated volume of tissue is small, and the energy density required to ablate material decreases with decreasing pulse width. The ablation threshold and ablation rate are only weakly dependent on tissue type and condition, allowing for maximum flexibility of use in various biological tissue removal applications. The use of a chirped-pulse amplified Titanium-doped sapphire laser is disclosed as the source in one embodiment. 8 figs.

  5. The compressive response of porcine adipose tissue from low to high strain rate Kerstyn Comley, Norman Fleck*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    at high strain rates (1000 sÀ1 e5700 sÀ1 ) were conducted with a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) using polycarbonate bars. Over the full range of strain rate from quasi-static to high strain rate, the magnitude pressure bar (SHPB) with polycarbonate bars (PC). It is demon- strated that a one dimensional Ogden model

  6. A contactless microwave-based diagnostic tool for high repetition rate laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braggio, C., E-mail: caterina.braggio@unipd.it [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN sez. di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Borghesani, A. F. [CNISM unit, Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN sez. di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)] [CNISM unit, Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN sez. di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    We report on a novel electro-optic device for the diagnostics of high repetition rate laser systems. It is composed of a microwave receiver and of a second order nonlinear crystal, whose irradiation with a train of short laser pulses produces a time-dependent polarization in the crystal itself as a consequence of optical rectification. This process gives rise to the emission of microwave radiation that is detected by a receiver and is analyzed to infer the repetition rate and intensity of the pulses. We believe that this new method may overcome some of the limitations of photodetection techniques.

  7. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  8. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

  9. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-05-01

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

  10. Nuclear reaction rates and energy in stellar plasmas : The effect of highly damped modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merav Opher; Luis O. Silva; Dean E. Dauger; Viktor K. Decyk; John M. Dawson

    2001-05-09

    The effects of the highly damped modes in the energy and reaction rates in a plasma are discussed. These modes, with wavenumbers $k \\gg k_{D}$, even being only weakly excited, with less than $k_{B}T$ per mode, make a significant contribution to the energy and screening in a plasma. When the de Broglie wavelength is much less than the distance of closest approach of thermal electrons, a classical analysis of the plasma can

  11. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

  12. Quantifying the Intergration of LEED Ratings to Military High Performance Sustainable Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walewski, J.

    2013-01-01

    of LEED ratings to Military High Performance Sustainable Buildings CATEE 2013 MAJ Autumn Leveridge, U.S. Army CPT Brian Schonefeld, U.S. Navy CPT Jared Solether, U.S. Navy Dr. John Walewski Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University CCLD... & Coatings / Carpet Systems Thermal Comfort, Design Daylight & Views Daylight 75% of Spaces Innovation & Design Process (ID) NA 18 Key LEED Credits for Military High Performance Sustainable Buildings ESL-KT-13-12-08 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy...

  13. Development of high-repetition-rate laser pump/x-ray probe methodologies for synchrotron facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March, Anne Marie; Doumy, Gilles; Kanter, Elliot P.; Kraessig, Bertold; Southworth, Stephen H.; Attenkofer, Klaus; Kurtz, Charles A.; Young, Linda [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stickrath, Andrew [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, Lin X. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We describe our implementation of a high repetition rate (54 kHz-6.5 MHz), high power (>10 W), laser system at the 7ID beamline at the Advanced Photon Source for laser pump/x-ray probe studies of optically driven molecular processes. Laser pulses at 1.06 {mu}m wavelength and variable duration (10 or 130 ps) are synchronized to the storage ring rf signal to a precision of {approx}250 fs rms. Frequency doubling and tripling of the laser radiation using nonlinear optical techniques have been applied to generate 532 and 355 nm light. We demonstrate that by combining a microfocused x-ray probe with focused optical laser radiation the requisite fluence (with <10 {mu}J/pulse) for efficient optical excitation can be readily achieved with a compact and commercial laser system at megahertz repetition rates. We present results showing the time-evolution of near-edge x-ray spectra of a well-studied, laser-excited metalloporphyrin, Ni(II)-tetramesitylporphyrin. The use of high repetition rate, short pulse lasers as pump sources will dramatically enhance the duty cycle and efficiency in data acquisition and hence capabilities for laser-pump/x-ray probe studies of ultrafast structural dynamics at synchrotron sources.

  14. High repetition rate laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using acousto-optically gated detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Po?ízka, Pavel [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Klessen, Benjamin; Gornushkin, Igor; Riedel, Jens [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kaiser, Jozef [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Panne, Ulrich [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Chemistry Department, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Straße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    This contribution introduces a new type of setup for fast sample analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The novel design combines a high repetition rate laser (up to 50 kHz) as excitation source and an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) as a fast switch for temporally gating the detection of the emitted light. The plasma radiation is led through the active medium of the AOM where it is diffracted on the transient ultrasonic Bragg grid. The diffracted radiation is detected by a compact Czerny-Turner spectrometer equipped with a CCD line detector. Utilizing the new combination of high repetition rate lasers and AOM gated detection, rapid measurements with total integration times of only 10 ms resulted in a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 wt.% for magnesium in aluminum alloys. This short integration time corresponds to 100 analyses/s. Temporal gating of LIP radiation results in improved LODs and consecutively higher sensitivity of the LIBS setup. Therefore, an AOM could be beneficially utilized to temporally detect plasmas induced by high repetition rate lasers. The AOM in combination with miniaturized Czerny-Turner spectrometers equipped with CCD line detectors and small footprint diode pumped solid state lasers results in temporally gateable compact LIBS setups.

  15. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  16. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  17. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, A.

    2010-01-01

    12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries A. Jaiswal 1 , C. R. Hornenext generation of Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics

  18. Robot-guided open-loop insertion of skew-line needle arrangements for high dose rate brachytherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    system for prostate brachytherapy,” Computer Aided Surgery,Stoianovici, “Automatic brachytherapy seed placement underof High-dose-rate Brachytherapy Acci- dents,” Annals of the

  19. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Särhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  20. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  1. Understanding the origin of high-rate intercalation pseudocapacitance in Nb2O5 crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kent, P. R. C.; Sumpter, Bobby G; Lubimtsev, Andrew A

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocapacitors aim to maintain the high power density of supercapacitors while increasing the energy density towards those of energy dense storage systems such as lithium ion batteries. Recently discovered intercalation pseudocapacitors (e.g. Nb2O5) are particularly interesting because their performance is seemingly not limited by surface reactions or structures, but instead determined by the bulk crystalline structure of the material. We study ordered polymorphs of Nb2O5 and detail the mechanism for the intrinsic high rates and energy density observed for this class of materials. We find that the intercalating atom (lithium) forms a solid solution adsorbing at specific sites in a network of quasi-2D NbOx faces with x {1.3, 1.67, or 2}, donating electrons locally to its neighboring atoms, reducing niobium. Open channels in the structure have low diffusion barriers for ions to migrate between these sites (Eb 0.28 0.44 eV) comparable to high-performance solid electrolytes. Using a combination of complementary theoretical methods we rationalize this effect in LixNb2O5 for a wide range of compositions (x) and at finite temperatures. Multiple adsorption sites per unit-cell with similar adsorption energies and local charge transfer result in high capacity and energy density, while the interconnected open channels lead to low cost diffusion pathways between these sites, resulting in high power density. The nano-porous structure exhibiting local chemistry in a crystalline framework is the origin of high-rate pseudocapacitance in this new class of intercalation pseudocapacitor materials. This new insight provides guidance for improving the performance of this family of materials.

  2. A Multi-Contact, Low Capacitance HPGe Detector for High Rate Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Christopher

    2014-12-04

    The detection, identification and non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials and nuclear fission by-products are critically important activities in support of nuclear non-proliferation programs. Both national and international nuclear safeguard agencies recognize that current accounting methods for spent nuclear fuel are inadequate from a safeguards perspective. Radiation detection and analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in this field, but no instrument exists that can deliver the required performance (energy resolution and detection sensitivity) in the presence of very high background count rates encountered in the nuclear safeguards arena. The work of this project addresses this critical need by developing a unique gamma-ray detector based on high purity germanium that has the previously unachievable property of operating in the 1 million counts-per-second range while achieving state-of-the-art energy resolution necessary to identify and analyze the isotopes of interest. The technical approach was to design and fabricate a germanium detector with multiple segmented electrodes coupled to multi-channel high rate spectroscopy electronics. Dividing the germanium detector’s signal electrode into smaller sections offers two advantages; firstly, the energy resolution of the detector is potentially improved, and secondly, the detector is able to operate at higher count rates. The design challenges included the following; determining the optimum electrode configuration to meet the stringent energy resolution and count rate requirements; determining the electronic noise (and therefore energy resolution) of the completed system after multiple signals are recombined; designing the germanium crystal housing and vacuum cryostat; and customizing electronics to perform the signal recombination function in real time. In this phase I work, commercial off-the-shelf electrostatic modeling software was used to develop the segmented germanium crystal geometry, which underwent several iterations before an optimal electrode configuration was found. The model was tested and validated against real-world measurements with existing germanium detectors. Extensive modeling of electronic noise was conducted using established formulae, and real-world measurements were performed on candidate front-end electronic components. This initial work proved the feasibility of the design with respect to expected high count rate and energy resolution performance. Phase I also delivered the mechanical design of the detector housing and vacuum cryostat to be built in Phase II. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was created to show the response of the complete design to a Cs-137 source. This development presents a significant advance for nuclear safeguards instrumentation with increased speed and accuracy of detection and identification of special nuclear materials. Other significant applications are foreseen for a gamma-ray detector that delivers high energy resolution (1keV FWHM noise) at high count rate (1 Mcps), especially in the areas of physics research and materials analysis.

  3. IN-LINE HIGH-RATE DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM ONTO RISE SOLAR CELLS BY ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IN-LINE HIGH-RATE DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM ONTO RISE SOLAR CELLS BY ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY Jens , Ruediger Meyer 3 1) Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology (FEP), Winterbergstr. 28 Through (RISE EWT) solar cells by electron beam high-rate evaporation of aluminum. In stationary

  4. Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran, Branko N. Popov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Capacity fade study of lithium-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates Gang Ning, Bala Haran at high discharge rates. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries collectors can affect up to different degrees the capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries [1­5]. Quantifying

  5. 398 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 High-Range Angular Rate Sensor Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    398 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 High-Range Angular Rate- bration in a microelectromechanical systems Coriolis vibratory gyroscope to produce a frequency-based measurement of the input angular rate. The system is enabled by a combination of a MEMS vibratory high

  6. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect High Rate and Stable

  7. Enhancing DNA binding rate using optical trapping of high-density gold nanodisks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, En-Hung; Pan, Ming-Yang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China) [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Lee, Ming-Chang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China)] [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Wei, Pei-Kuen, E-mail: pkwei@sinica.edu.tw [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China) [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-15

    We present the dynamic study of optical trapping of fluorescent molecules using high-density gold nanodisk arrays. The gold nanodisks were fabricated by electron beam lithography with a diameter of 500 nm and a period of 1 ?m. Dark-field illumination showed ?15 times enhancement of fluorescence near edges of nanodisks. Such enhanced near-field generated an optical trapping force of ?10 fN under 3.58 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2} illumination intensity as calculated from the Brownian motions of 590 nm polystyrene beads. Kinetic observation of thiolated DNA modified with Cy5 dye showed different binding rates of DNA under different illumination intensity. The binding rate increased from 2.14 × 10{sup 3} s{sup ?1} (I = 0.7 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2}) to 1.15 × 10{sup 5} s{sup ?1} (I = 3.58 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2}). Both enhanced fluorescence and binding rate indicate that gold nanodisks efficiently improve both detection limit and interaction time for microarrays.

  8. Development of scintillating fiber detector technology for high rate particle tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. C. Aschenauer; J. Baehr; V. Gapienko; B. Hoffmann; A. Kharchilava; H. Luedecke; R. Nahnhauer; R. Shanidze

    1997-10-02

    The performance of a scintillating fiber detector prototype for tracking under high rate conditions is investigated. A spatial resolution of about100 micron is aimed for the detector. Further demands are low occupancy and radiation hardness up to 1 Mrad/year. Fibers with different radii and different wavelengths of the scintillation light from different producers have been extensively tested concerning light output, attenuation length and radiation hardness, with and without coupling them to light guides of different length and diameter. In a testrun at a 3 GeV electron beam the space dependent efficiency and spatial resolution of fiber bundels were measured by means of two external reference detectors with a precision of 50 micron. The light output profile across fiber roads has been determined with the same accuracy. Different technologies were adopted for the construction of tracker modules consisting of 14 layers of 0.5 mm fibers and 0.7 mm pitch. A winding technology provides reliable results to produce later fiber modules of about 25 cm x 25 cm area. We conclude that on the basis of these results a fiber tracker for high rate conditions can be built.

  9. Reliable, high repetition rate thyratron grid driver used with a magnetic modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.V.; Ball, D.G.; Garrett, D.N.

    1991-06-14

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses a magnetic modulator switched by a high voltage thyratron to drive a gas discharge laser. The thyratron trigger source must provide an extremely reliable, low jitter, high- rep-rate grid pulse. This paper describes a thyratron grid driver which delivers a 1.2 kV, 80 ns rise time grid pulse into a 50 ohm load at up to 4.5 kHz repetition rate and has demonstrated approximately 10,000 hours MTBF. Since the thyratron is used with a magnetic compression circuit having a delay time of 1.4 ms this grid driver incorporates a jitter compensation circuit to adjust the trigger timing of the thyratron to provide overall modulator/laser jitter of less than {plus minus} 2 ns. The specific grid driver requirements will be discussed followed by a description of the circuit design and theory of operation. Construction comments will be followed by performance data (for a specific thyratron and magnetic compression circuit), including pulse shape, jitter, and lifetime. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  10. A complex chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of gasoline surrogate fuels: n heptane, iso octane and toluene - Mechanism development and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Da Cruz, A Pires; Anderlohr, Jörg; Bounaceur, Roda; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    The development and validation against experimental results of a new gasoline surrogate complex kinetic mechanism is presented in this paper. The surrogate fuel is a ternary mixture of n heptane, iso octane and toluene. The full three components mechanism is based on existing n heptane/iso octane (gasoline PRF) and toluene mechanisms which were modified and coupled for the purpose of this work. Mechanism results are compared against available experimental data from the literature. Simulations with the PRF plus toluene mechanism show that its behavior is in agreement with experimental results for most of the tested settings. These include a wide variety of thermodynamic conditions and fuel proportions in experimental configurations such as HCCI engine experiments, rapid compression machines, a shock tube and a jet stirred reactor.

  11. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  12. Microcalorimeter Spectroscopy at High Pulse Rates: a Multi-Pulse Fitting Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, J W; Doriese, W B; Fischer, D A; Jaye, C; Joe, Y I; O'Neil, G C; Swetz, D S; Ullom, J N

    2015-01-01

    Transition edge sensor microcalorimeters can measure x-ray and gamma-ray energies with very high energy resolution and high photon-collection efficiency. For this technology to reach its full potential in future x-ray observatories, each sensor must be able to measure hundreds or even thousands of photon energies per second. Current "optimal filtering" approaches to achieve the best possible energy resolution work only for photons well isolated in time, a requirement in direct conflict with the need for high-rate measurements. We describe a new analysis procedure to allow fitting for the pulse height of all photons even in the presence of heavy pulse pile-up. In the limit of isolated pulses, the technique reduces to the standard optimal filtering with long records. We employ reasonable approximations to the noise covariance function in order to render multi-pulse fitting computationally viable even for very long data records. The technique is employed to analyze x-ray emission spectra at 600 eV and 6 keV at r...

  13. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  14. Long-range Cooper pair splitter with high entanglement production rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; D. N. Shi; D. Y. Xing

    2015-01-05

    Cooper pairs in the superconductor are a natural source of spin entanglement. The existing proposals of the Cooper pair splitter can only realize a low efficiency of entanglement production, and its size is constrained by the superconducting coherence length. Here we show that a long-range Cooper pair splitter can be implemented in a normal metal-superconductor-normal metal (NSN) junction by driving a supercurrent in the S. The supercurrent results in a band gap modification of the S, which significantly enhances the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) of the NSN junction and simultaneously quenches its elastic cotunneling. Therefore, a high entanglement production rate close to its saturation value can be achieved by the inverse CAR. Interestingly, in addition to the conventional entangled electron states between opposite energy levels, novel entangled states with equal energy can also be induced in our proposal.

  15. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at ?g/ ?Hz and ?rad/s/ ?Hz levels, making thismore »a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.« less

  16. Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Stolz, C.J.; Sarginson, T.G.

    1991-10-01

    An effort is being made to understand the limits of survivability and damage for optical components exposed to a visible laser operating continuously at a high repetition rate over 4 kHz. Results of this work are reported and related to the materials and manufacturing conditions for coatings and substrates as well as defects seen at the surface under laser illumination. These results were obtained for a variety of optical coatings and conditions using lasers from the Laser Demonstration Facility, part of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at LLNL. Better understanding of the reliability of optical components in this environment could lead to improvements in design and manufacture that would result in reduced size for the laser optical system and correspondingly lower costs for the facilities that can use this technology.

  17. Modeling of transient ionizing radiation effects in bipolar devices at high dose-rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FJELDLY,T.A.; DENG,Y.; SHUR,M.S.; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; MUYSHONDT,ARNOLDO

    2000-04-25

    To optimally design circuits for operation at high intensities of ionizing radiation, and to accurately predict their a behavior under radiation, precise device models are needed that include both stationary and dynamic effects of such radiation. Depending on the type and intensity of the ionizing radiation, different degradation mechanisms, such as photoelectric effect, total dose effect, or single even upset might be dominant. In this paper, the authors consider the photoelectric effect associated with the generation of electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor. The effects of low radiation intensity on p-II diodes and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) were described by low-injection theory in the classical paper by Wirth and Rogers. However, in BJTs compatible with modem integrated circuit technology, high-resistivity regions are often used to enhance device performance, either as a substrate or as an epitaxial layer such as the low-doped n-type collector region of the device. Using low-injection theory, the transient response of epitaxial BJTs was discussed by Florian et al., who mainly concentrated on the effects of the Hi-Lo (high doping - low doping) epilayer/substrate junction of the collector, and on geometrical effects of realistic devices. For devices with highly resistive regions, the assumption of low-level injection is often inappropriate, even at moderate radiation intensities, and a more complete theory for high-injection levels was needed. In the dynamic photocurrent model by Enlow and Alexander. p-n junctions exposed to high-intensity radiation were considered. In their work, the variation of the minority carrier lifetime with excess carrier density, and the effects of the ohmic electric field in the quasi-neutral (q-n) regions were included in a simplified manner. Later, Wunsch and Axness presented a more comprehensive model for the transient radiation response of p-n and p-i-n diode geometries. A stationary model for high-level injection in p-n junctions was developed by Isaque et al. They used a more complete ambipolar transport equation, which included the dependencies of the transport parameters (ambipolar diffusion constant, mobility, and recombination rate) on the excess minority carrier concentration. The expression used for the recombination rate was that of Shockley-Reed-Hall (SRH) recombination which is dominant for low to mid-level radiation intensities. However, at higher intensities, Auger recombination becomes important eventually dominant. The complete ambipolar transport equation including the complicated dependence of transport parameters on the radiation intensity, cannot be solved analytically. This solution is obtained for each of the regimes where a given recombination mechanism dominates, and then by joining these solutions using appropriate smoothing functions. This approach allows them to develop a BJT model accounting for the photoelectric effect of the ionizing radiation that can be implemented in SPICE.

  18. Evolution of microstructure and crystalline texture in aluminum sheet metal subjected to high strain rate biaxial deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitler, Isaac Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Electrohydraulic forming was used to biaxially stretch commercial Aluminum 5052 sheet metal workpieces at a high strain rate. Annealed and unannealed workpieces were formed. Specimens were taken from unformed metal and ...

  19. Effect Of False Alarm Rate On Pilot Use And Trust Of Automation Under Conditions Of Simulated High Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarelli, Deborah

    2010-11-05

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the relationships between automation false alarm rate, human trust in automation, and human use of automation, specifically under conditions of simulated high risk. The ...

  20. Combustion rates of chars from high-volatile fuels for FBC application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masi, S.; Salatino, P.; Senneca, O.

    1997-12-31

    The fluidized bed combustion of high volatile fuels is often associated with huge occurrence of comminution phenomena. These result into in-bed generation of substantial amounts of carbon fines which further undergo competitive processes of combustion and elutriation. The small size of carbon fines generated by comminution is such that their further combustion is largely controlled by the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation, alone or in combination with intraparticle diffusion. The competition between fine combustion and elutriation strongly affects the efficiency of fixed carbon conversion and calls for thorough characterization of the combustion kinetics and of residence times of fines in a fluidized bed of coarse solids. In this paper a collection of intrinsic combustion kinetic and porosimetric data for chars from three high-volatile fuels suitable for FBC application is presented. Chars from a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass (Robinia Pseudoacacia) are obtained from devolatilization, in fluidized bed, of fuel samples. Thermogravimetric analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry are used to characterize the reactivity and the pore structure of the chars. Combustion rates are characterized over a wide range of temperatures (320--850 C) and oxygen partial pressures, covering the entire range of interest in fluidized bed combustion. Analysis of thermogravimetric and porosimetric data is directed to obtaining the parameters (pre-exponential factors, reaction orders, activation energies, intraparticle diffusivities) of combustion kinetic submodels for application in fluidized bed combustor modeling.

  1. Is the Use of a Surrogate Urethra an Option in Prostate High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, Josef Kaelkner, Karl Mikael; Berg, Lars; Levitt, Seymour; Holmberg, Carina; Nilsson, Sten; Lundell, Marie

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and the dosimetric consequences of substituting a surrogate urethra assumed to be at the geometric center of the prostate, in place of the true urethra when using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred prostate cancer patients treated with HDR brachytherapy constituted the study group. A pre-plan was made with the urethra visualized. The true urethra was defined, and a surrogate urethra was placed at the geometric center of the prostate. The distance between the two urethras was measured. The deviation was evaluated at the base, middle, and apex. To evaluate the dosimetric consequences for the true urethra when using a surrogate urethra, two different dose plans were made: one based on the true urethra and one based on the surrogate urethra. The dose-volume histograms for the true urethra were analyzed. Results: The deviation between the true urethra and the surrogate urethra was greatest at the base of the prostate. A statistically significant difference was seen between the dosimetric parameters for the true and the surrogate urethra when the dose plan was made using the surrogate urethra. In this situation the dose to the true urethra was increased above our defined maximum tolerance limit. Conclusions: When using dose plans made according to a surrogate urethra the dose to the true urethra might be too high to be acceptable. If the true urethra is not visualized, severe damage could easily develop in a significant number of patients.

  2. Deposition of device quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon at high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie Harvin (Golden, CO); Molenbroek, Edith C. (Rotterdam, NL); Gallagher, Alan C. (Louisville, CO); Nelson, Brent P. (Golden, CO); Iwaniczko, Eugene (Lafayette, CO); Xu, Yueqin (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01

    A method of fabricating device quality, thin-film a-Si:H for use as semiconductor material in photovoltaic and other devices, comprising in any order; positioning a substrate in a vacuum chamber adjacent a plurality of heatable filaments with a spacing distance L between the substrate and the filaments; heating the filaments to a temperature that is high enough to obtain complete decomposition of silicohydride molecules that impinge said filaments into Si and H atomic species; providing a flow of silicohydride gas, or a mixture of silicohydride gas containing Si and H, in said vacuum chamber while maintaining a pressure P of said gas in said chamber, which, in combination with said spacing distance L, provides a P.times.L product in a range of 10-300 mT-cm to ensure that most of the Si atomic species react with silicohydride molecules in the gas before reaching the substrate, to thereby grow a a-Si:H film at a rate of at least 50 .ANG./sec.; and maintaining the substrate at a temperature that balances out-diffusion of H from the growing a-Si:H film with time needed for radical species containing Si and H to migrate to preferred bonding sites.

  3. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Lois C., E-mail: Lois.Friedman@UHhospitals.org [Department of Psychiatry, CASE Comprehensive Cancer Center and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH (United States); Abdallah, Rita [Ireland Cancer Center, CASE Comprehensive Cancer Center and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH (Ireland); Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, CASE Comprehensive Cancer Center and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kunos, Charles A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, CASE Comprehensive Cancer Center and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  4. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  5. Ureteral stent insertion for gynecologic interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    gynecologic interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat OncolBrachytherapy Ureteral stent insertion forhigh-dose-rate brachytherapy D. Jeffrey Demanes*, Robyn

  6. High-rate x-ray spectroscopy in mammography with a CdTe detector: A digital pulse processing approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Principato, F.; Del Sordo, S.; Ienzi, R.; Raso, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy) and INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); INAF/IASF Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Istituto di Radiologia, Policlinico, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose:Direct measurement of mammographic x-ray spectra under clinical conditions is a difficult task due to the high fluence rate of the x-ray beams as well as the limits in the development of high resolution detection systems in a high counting rate environment. In this work we present a detection system, based on a CdTe detector and an innovative digital pulse processing (DPP) system, for high-rate x-ray spectroscopy in mammography. Methods: The DPP system performs a digital pile-up inspection and a digital pulse height analysis of the detector signals, digitized through a 14-bit, 100 MHz digitizer, for x-ray spectroscopy even at high photon counting rates. We investigated on the response of the digital detection system both at low (150 cps) and at high photon counting rates (up to 500 kcps) by using monoenergetic x-ray sources and a nonclinical molybdenum anode x-ray tube. Clinical molybdenum x-ray spectrum measurements were also performed by using a pinhole collimator and a custom alignment device. Results: The detection system shows excellent performance up to 512 kcps with an energy resolution of 4.08% FWHM at 22.1 keV. Despite the high photon counting rate (up to 453 kcps), the molybdenum x-ray spectra, measured under clinical conditions, are characterized by a low number of pile-up events. The agreement between the attenuation curves and the half value layer values, obtained from the measured spectra, simulated spectra, and from the exposure values directly measured with an ionization chamber, also shows the accuracy of the measurements. Conclusions: These results make the proposed detection system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research and advanced quality controls in mammography.

  7. Design, microstructure, and high-temperature behavior of silicon nitride sintered with rate-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciniculk, M.K. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The processing-microstructure-property relations of silicon nitride ceramics sintered with rare-earth oxide additives have been investigated with the aim of improving their high-temperature behavior. The additions of the oxides of Y, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, or Yb were compositionally controlled to tailor the intergranular phase. The resulting microstructure consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and a crystalline secondary phase of RE{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with a thin residual amorphous phase present at grain boundaries. The lanthanide oxides were found to be as effective as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in densifying Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, resulting in identical microstructures. The crystallization behavior of all six disilicates was similar, characterized by a limited nucleation and rapid growth mechanism resulting in large single crystals. Complete crystallization of the intergranular phase was obtained with the exception of a residual amorphous, observed at interfaces and believed to be rich in impurities, the cause of incomplete devitrification. The low resistance to oxidation of these materials was attributed to the minimization of amorphous phases via devitrification to disilicates, compatible with SiO{sub 2}, the oxidation product of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The strength retention of these materials at 1300{degrees}C was found to be between 80% and 91% of room-temperature strength, due to crystallization of the secondary phase and a residual but refractory amorphous grain-boundary phase. The creep behavior was found to be strongly dependent on residual amorphous phase viscosity as well as on the oxidation behavior, as evidenced by the nonsteady-state creep rates of all materials. 122 refs., 51 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  9. In vivo real-time dosimetric verification in high dose rate prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, Erin L.; Downes, Simon J.; Fogarty, Gerald B.; Izard, Michael A.; Metcalfe, Peter

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a diode array in the routine verification of planned dose to points inside the rectum from prostate high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy using a real-time planning system. Methods: A dosimetric study involving 28 patients was undertaken where measured doses received during treatment were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS). After the ultrasound imaging required for treatment planning had been recorded, the ultrasound probe was replaced with a geometric replica that contained an 8 mm diameter cylindrical cavity in which a PTW diode array type 9112 was placed. The replica probe was then positioned inside the rectum with the individual diode positions determined using fluoroscopy. Dose was then recorded during the patients' treatment and compared to associated coordinates in the planning system. Results: Factors influencing diode response and experimental uncertainty were initially investigated to estimate the overall uncertainty involved in dose measurements, which was determined to be {+-}10%. Data was acquired for 28 patients' first fractions, 11 patients' second fractions, and 13 patients' third fractions with collection dependent upon circumstances. Deviations between the diode measurements and predicted values ranged from -42% to +35% with 71% of measurements experiencing less than a 10% deviation from the predicted values. If the {+-}10% measurement uncertainty was combined with a tolerated dose discrepancy of {+-}10% then over 95% of the diode results exhibited agreement with the calculated data to within {+-}20%. It must also be noted that when large dose discrepancies were apparent they did not necessarily occur for all five diodes in the one measurement. Conclusions: This technique provided a method that could be utilized to detect gross errors in dose delivery of a real-time prostate HDR plan. Limitations in the detection system used must be well understood if meaningful results are to be achieved.

  10. A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

  11. High-Rate Quantum Key Distribution with Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spellmeyer, Neal W.

    We demonstrate the potential for 1.85 Mbit/s secure key rates over 101 km of fiber, >100 times faster than previously demonstrated, using the differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol and superconducting ...

  12. Low to high strain rate deformation of amorphous polymers : experiments and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulliken, Adam Dustin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation has been performed to understand the mechanical behavior of two amorphous polymers--polycarbonate and poly(methvl methacrylate)--at strain rates ranging from 10?? to 10? ...

  13. Generation of high-stability solitons at microwave rates on a silicon chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Xu; Yang, Ki Youl; Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Because they coherently link radio/microwave-rate electrical signals with optical-rate signals derived from lasers and atomic transitions, frequency combs are having a remarkably broad impact on science and technology. Integrating these systems on a photonic chip would revolutionize instrumentation, time keeping, spectroscopy, navigation and potentially create new mass-market applications. A key element of such a system-on-a-chip will be a mode-locked comb that can be self-referenced. The recent demonstration of soliton pulses from a microresonator has placed this goal within reach. However, to provide the requisite link between microwave and optical rate signals soliton generation must occur within the bandwidth of electronic devices. So far this is possible in crytalline devices, but not chip-based devices. Here, a monolithic comb that generates electronic-rate soliton pulses is demonstrated.

  14. Aggregation Protocols for High Rate, Low Delay Data Collection in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    of transmitted packets, aggregation can reduce energy usage, increase the achievable data collection rate numbers of packets, as To appear in Proc. IFIP/TC6 Networking 2009, Aachen, Germany, May 2009. This work

  15. A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    performance, based on a number of FEL configurations, fed byREPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT* J. Corlett # ,will be switched into each FEL in the array, in a time-

  16. Stabilization techniques and silicon-germanium saturable absorbers for high repetition rate mode-locked lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grawert, Felix Jan

    2005-01-01

    The monolithic integration of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers at highest repetition rates has been prevented by Q-switching instabilities and the lack of integrable saturable absorbers to date. In this thesis we ...

  17. Sans study of reverse micelles formed upon extraction of inorganic acids by TBP in n-octane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarizia, R.; Briand, A.; Jensen, M. P.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for n-octane solutions of TBP loaded with progressively larger amounts of HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} up to and beyond the LOC (limiting organic concentration of acid) condition, were interpreted using the Baxter model for hard spheres with surface adhesion. The coherent picture of the behavior of the TBP solutions derived from the SANS investigation discussed in this paper confirmed our recently developed model for third phase formation. This model analyses the features of the scattering data in the low Q region as arising from van der Waals interactions between the polar cores of reverse micelles. Our SANS data indicated that the TBP micelles swell when acid and water are extracted into their polar core. The swollen micelles have critical diameters ranging from 15 to 22 {angstrom}, and polar core diameters between 10 and 15 {angstrom}, depending on the specific system. At the respective LOC conditions, the TBP weight-average aggregation numbers are -4 for HClO{sub 4}, -6 for H2SO{sub 4}, -7 for HCl, and -10 for H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The comparison between the behavior of HNO{sub 3}, a non-third phase forming acid, and the other acids provided an explanation of the effect of the water molecules present in the polar core of the micelles on third phase formation. The thickness of the lipophilic shell of the micelles indicated that the butyl groups of TBP lie at an angle of -25 degrees relative to a plane tangent to the micellar core. The critical energy of intermicellar attraction, U(r), was about -2 k{sub B}T for all the acids investigated. This value is the same as that reported in our previous publications on the extraction of metal nitrates by TBP, confirming that the same mechanism and energetics are operative in the formation of a third phase, independent of whether the chemical species extracted are metal nitrate salts or inorganic acids.

  18. Optical channel waveguides written by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation in Li-Zn fluoroborate glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Sunil; Solis, Javier; Biju, P R; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2015-01-01

    Low loss, optical channel waveguides have been successfully produced by high repetition rate, femtosecond laser inscription in a Li-Zn fluoroborate glass (64.9B2O3 + 25Li2O + 10ZnF2 + 0.1Er2O3). High quality waveguides were produced at 500 kHz, 1 MHz and 2 MHz laser repetition rates, showing a refractive index contrast in the range of 3-6 x 10-3 depending on various fluences. Dependence of experimental parameters such as average laser power, pulse repetition rate and writing speed on the properties of fabricated waveguides has been discussed. The comparison of optical and compositional characterization techniques evidences an enrichment of B and Zn in the guiding region, while F migrates to the heat diffused region of the written structure.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond 2002 We have conducted experiments exploring pulsed laser deposition of thin films using the high average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination

  20. JTu5A.40.pdf Advanced Photonics Congress 2012 OSA High-repetition-rate ultrashort pulse generation in nonlinear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    JTu5A.40.pdf Advanced Photonics Congress © 2012 OSA High-repetition-rate ultrashort pulse Polytechnic University, Hong Kong School of Engineering, Fraser Noble Building, King's College, University A is the slowly varying envelop, z is the distance variable, t is the time variable, 2(z) and are the dispersion

  1. Reducing pumping energy by using different flow rates of high and low concentration solutions in reverse electrodialysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reducing pumping energy by using different flow rates of high and low concentration solutions Keywords: Salinity gradient energy RED Renewable energy production a b s t r a c t Energy use for pumping to reduce the energy needed for pumping, electrical performance and hydrodynamic power losses in a RED stack

  2. High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigny, Christophe

    High slip rate for a low seismicity along the Palu-Koro active fault in central Sulawesi (Indonesia, Indonesia Introduction Sulawesi Island, eastern Indonesia, is at the triple junction of the Paci®c (through- ABSTRACT In eastern Indonesia, the Central Sulawesi fault system consists of complex left-lateral strike

  3. Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isolation and cultivation of microalgae select for low growth rate and tolerance to high pH Terje microalgae, especially oceanic forms from stable pH environments (ca. pH 8.1 Æ 0.5) and large species et al., 2007). Because microalgae have species-specific differences in their upper pH tolerance

  4. Towards High-Rate Fabrication of Photonic Devices Utilizing a Combination of Roll-To-Roll Compatible Imprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Towards High-Rate Fabrication of Photonic Devices Utilizing a Combination of Roll-To-Roll-optic modulator. Compared to spin-coating method, the use of print-on-demand method greatly reduces material consumption and process complexity. Every step involved has the potential to be fully compatible with roll

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MARCH 2009 977 High-Rate Interpolation of Random Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldar, Yonina

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MARCH 2009 977 High-Rate Interpolation of Random Signals From Nonideal Samples Tomer Michaeli and Yonina C. Eldar, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--We address the problem of reconstructing a random signal from samples of its filtered version using a given

  6. Variable firing rate power burner for high efficiency gas furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, H.H.; Demler, R.L.; Poulin, E.

    1980-02-01

    One method for increasing the efficiency of residential furnaces and boilers is to retrofit a burner capable of firing rate (FR) modulation. While maximum FR is still attainable, the average FR is significantly lower, resulting in more effective heat exchanger performance. Equally important is the capability for continuous firing at a very low rate (simmering) which eliminates off-cycle loss, a heavy contributor to inefficiency. Additional performance can be gained by reducing the excess air required by a burner. Based on its previous experience, Foster-Miller Associates, Inc. has designed and tested a low excess air (about 15%) variable firing rate (VFR) burner. The theory of operation and the construction of the test burner are described. Test results are given along with a conclusion/recommendation. A Phase II plan is outlined which suggests methods and steps for fabrication and field testing of a number of prototype units.

  7. High Efficiency and High Rate Deposited Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 1 September 2001--6 March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, X.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives for the University of Toledo are to: (1) establish a transferable knowledge and technology base for fabricating high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si-based solar cells, and (2) develop high-rate deposition techniques for the growing a-Si-based and related alloys, including poly-Si, c-Si, a-SiGe, and a-Si films and photovoltaic devices with these materials.

  8. Neutron diffraction measurements of dislocation density in copper crystals deformed at high strain rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Mala N.; Chaplot, S. L.; Rawat, S.

    2013-02-05

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the rocking curves were carried out for single crystals of copper subjected to dynamic compression at 10{sup 3}/s strain rate. The line broadening is expected to be produced by dislocations, and an analysis of this broadening gives the dislocation density. Dislocation density is found to increase with increase of pressure.

  9. High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250km of ultra low loss fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stucki; N. Walenta; F. Vannel; R. T. Thew; N. Gisin; H. Zbinden; S. Gray; C. R. Towery; S. Ten

    2009-03-23

    We present a fully automated quantum key distribution prototype running at 625 MHz clock rate. Taking advantage of ultra low loss fibres and low-noise superconducting detectors, we can distribute 6,000 secret bits per second over 100 km and 15 bits per second over 250km.

  10. Characteristics of high-rate energy spectroscopy systems using HPGe coaxial detectors and time-variant filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton, C.L.; Becker, T.H.; Paulus, T.J.; Trammell, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    A high-rate, high-resolution gamma spectrometer system is described. The system consists of a reverse electrode HPGe coaxial detector, a transistor reset preamplifier, an active, semi-Gaussian prefilter, a gated integrator, and a unique data acquisition system consisting of a 10 ..mu..s, 13 bit ADC, fast FIFO memory, 8k by 23 bit data memory, and computer interface circuitry under the control of a Z-80A ..mu..P. The effects of the various components on the throughput are described and throughput data is presented. The resolution and peak shift for various shaping times are presented for count rates up to 1 Mcps input rate using a mixed /sup 22/Na and /sup 60/Co source. The low rate resolutions of /sup 57/Co and /sup 60/Co for various shaping times using either the semi-Gaussian or gated integrator output are discussed as well as the low energy resolution and peak shifts in the presence of high energy events.

  11. Evaluation of a Low Power, High Repetition-Rate Laser for MALDI M. Bromirski, A. Loboda, W. Ens, and K.G. Standing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ens, Werner

    Evaluation of a Low Power, High Repetition-Rate Laser for MALDI M. Bromirski, A. Loboda, W. Ens A compact, low-power, high repetition rate (10 kHz) laser has been tested for use in MALDI in a conventional rate produces detector saturation. The use of a lower power laser focused to a smaller spot may

  12. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  13. An Empirical Model for the Galaxy Luminosity and Star-Formation Rate Function at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Using the most recent measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) and dust estimates of early galaxies, we derive updated dust-corrected star-formation rate functions (SFRFs) at z~4-8, which we model to predict the evolution to higher redshifts, z>8. We employ abundance matching techniques to calibrate a relation between galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and host halo mass M{_h} by mapping the shape of the observed SFRFs at z~4-8 to that of the halo mass function. The resulting scaling law remains roughly constant over this redshift range. We apply the average SFR-M{_h} relation to reproduce the observed SFR functions at 4 10 indicate that JWST will be able to detect galaxies out to z~15 with an extensive treasury sized program. We also derive the redshift evolution of the star formation rate density and associated reionization history by galaxies for which we find that the inclusion of galaxies with SFRs well below the current detection limit leads to a fully reionized universe by z~6.5 an...

  14. A sector-based dosimetric analysis of dose heterogeneity in high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesko, S; Park, SJ; Kishan, AU; Demanes, DJ; Kamrava, M

    2015-01-01

    Rogers RL, et al. High dose brachytherapy as monotherapy forcomparison with HDR brachytherapy and preliminary clinicalS. Mesko et al. / Brachytherapy 14 (2015) 173e178 [2] Fukuda

  15. Proposal for an Electron Antineutrino Disappearance Search Using High-Rate 8Li Production and Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bungau, Adriana

    This paper introduces an experimental probe of the sterile neutrino with a novel, high-intensity source of electron antineutrinos from the production and subsequent decay of [superscript 8]Li. When paired with an existing ...

  16. Noisy matrix decomposition via convex relaxation: Optimal rates in high dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Alekh

    We analyze a class of estimators based on convex relaxation for solving high-dimensional matrix decomposition problems. The observations are noisy realizations of a linear transformation [bar through "X" symbol] of the sum ...

  17. The impact of school facilities on student achievement, attendance, behavior, completion rate and teacher turnover rate in selected Texas high schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowen, Robert Scott

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible relationship between school facility conditions and school outcomes such as student academic achievement, attendance, discipline, completion rate and teacher turnover rate. School facility...

  18. Method to grow pure nanocrystalline diamond films at low temperatures and high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Xiao, Xingcheng (Woodridge, IL)

    2009-07-07

    A method of depositing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate at a rate of not less than about 0.2 microns/hour at a substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. The method includes seeding the substrate surface with nanocrystalline diamond powder to an areal density of not less than about 10.sup.10sites/cm.sup.2, and contacting the seeded substrate surface with a gas of about 99% by volume of an inert gas other than helium and about 1% by volume of methane or hydrogen and one or more of acetylene, fullerene and anthracene in the presence of a microwave induced plasma while maintaining the substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. to deposit nanocrystalline diamond on the seeded substrate surface at a rate not less than about 0.2 microns/hour. Coatings of nanocrystalline diamond with average particle diameters of less than about 20 nanometers can be deposited with thermal budgets of 500.degree. C.-4 hours or less onto a variety of substrates such as MEMS devices.

  19. Directions and Issues for High Data Rate Wide Area Network Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    -speed, network based, data intensive computing experiments between Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) facility. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of very high and congestion in the middleware and infrastructure, responding to human interaction, etc. The technologies

  20. The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Dependence of the Proton-Triton Nuclear Reaction Rate on the Temperature and Energy Content of the High-Energy Proton Distribution Function

  1. Nature of high-energy ions in the cathode plasma jet of a vacuum arc with high rate of current rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beilis, I.I.

    2004-10-04

    The production mechanism of extremely high-energy (up to 10 keV) ions observed in vacuum arcs having only a few tens of volts of arc voltage was considered. A model was developed for the plasma acceleration in a high-current ({>=}1 kA) short pulsed (<1 {mu}s) vacuum arc, taking into account the high rate of rise of the spot current (dI/dt>100 MA/s). A system of equations, including equations for the cathode spot and the plasma jet, was solved self-consistently with dI/dt in the range of 0.1-10 GA/s. It was shown that the plasma could be accelerated to the measured energy in the near spot region due to a gas dynamic mechanism and that the ion energy depends on the ratio of the ion flux to the electron flux. This ratio is determined by the cathode erosion rate. The calculated cathode erosion rate varies from 200 to 10 {mu}g/C when the ion energy increases from 0.1 to 10 keV and well agrees with measurements.

  2. High rate buffer layer for IBAD MgO coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-21

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an oriented material thereon, and, a layer of hafnium oxide upon the layer of an oriented material. The layer of hafnium oxide can further include a secondary oxide such as cerium oxide, yttrium oxide, lanthanum oxide, scandium oxide, calcium oxide and magnesium oxide. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of hafnium oxide or layer of hafnium oxide and secondary oxide.

  3. Remotely-interrogated high data rate free space laser communications link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Anthony J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-29

    A system and method of remotely extracting information from a communications station by interrogation with a low power beam. Nonlinear phase conjugation of the low power beam results in a high power encoded return beam that automatically tracks the input beam and is corrected for atmospheric distortion. Intracavity nondegenerate four wave mixing is used in a broad area semiconductor laser in the communications station to produce the return beam.

  4. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, I.H.

    1990-10-16

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity. 5 figs.

  5. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, Ivar H. (Bangor, ME)

    1990-01-01

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity.

  6. Is there a maximum star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies? , , ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, A. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, L. L.; Chen, C.-C.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Sanders, D. B.; Williams, J. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Owen, F. N. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wang, W.-H. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-20

    We use the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's SCUBA-2 camera to image a 400 arcmin{sup 2} area surrounding the GOODS-N field. The 850 ?m rms noise ranges from a value of 0.49 mJy in the central region to 3.5 mJy at the outside edge. From these data, we construct an 850 ?m source catalog to 2 mJy containing 49 sources detected above the 4? level. We use an ultradeep (11.5 ?Jy at 5?) 1.4 GHz image obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array together with observations made with the Submillimeter Array to identify counterparts to the submillimeter galaxies. For most cases of multiple radio counterparts, we can identify the correct counterpart from new and existing Submillimeter Array data. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 62% of the radio sources in the 9' radius highest sensitivity region (556/894) and 67% of the radio sources in the GOODS-N region (367/543). We supplement these with a modest number of additional photometric redshifts in the GOODS-N region (30). We measure millimetric redshifts from the radio to submillimeter flux ratios for the unidentified submillimeter sample, assuming an Arp 220 spectral energy distribution. We find a radio-flux-dependent K – z relation for the radio sources, which we use to estimate redshifts for the remaining radio sources. We determine the star formation rates (SFRs) of the submillimeter sources based on their radio powers and their submillimeter fluxes and find that they agree well. The radio data are deep enough to detect star-forming galaxies with SFRs >2000 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} to z ? 6. We find galaxies with SFRs up to ?6000 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} over the redshift range z = 1.5-6, but we see evidence for a turn-down in the SFR distribution function above 2000 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}.

  7. Dose uncertainty due to computed tomography ,,CT... slice thickness in CT-based high dose rate brachytherapy of the prostate cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pouliot, Jean

    brachytherapy of the prostate cancer Yongbok Kim,a) I-Chow Joe Hsu, Etienne Lessard, and Jean Pouliot Department tomography CT -based high dose rate HDR brachytherapy, the uncertainty in the localization in Medicine. DOI: 10.1118/1.1785454 Key words: high dose rate brachytherapy, computed tomography, prostate

  8. Rapid heating tensile tests of hydrogen-charged high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1989-05-19

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. Proper design of the equipment will require an understanding of how tritium and its decay product helium affect mechanical properties. This memorandum describes results of rapid heating tensile testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) 316L stainless steel. These results provide a data base for comparison with uncharged and tritium-charged-and-aged specimens to distinguish the effects of hydrogen and helium. Details of the experimental equipment and procedures and results for uncharged specimens were reported previously. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  9. 'In vivo' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynoso Mejia, C. A.; Buenfil Burgos, A. E.; Ruiz Trejo, C.; Mota Garcia, A.; Trejo Duran, E.; Rodriguez Ponce, M.; Gamboa de Buen, I.

    2010-12-07

    The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured 'in vivo' by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the 'in vivo' measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the 'in vivo' dose is fully described.

  10. Outcomes of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: Long-term Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinn-Bingham, Melva; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Sharma, Anil; DiSaia, Philip; Berman, Michael; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Randall-Whitis, Leslie; Mahmood, Usama; Ramsinghani, Nilam; Kuo, Jeffrey; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 1996 and May 2009, 116 patients with cervical cancer were treated. Of these, 106 (91%) patients had advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA). Ten patients had stage IB, 48 had stage II, 51 had stage III, and 7 had stage IVA disease. All patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis (5040 cGy) and 2 applications of HDR-ISBT to a dose of 3600 cGy to the implanted volume. Sixty-one percent of patients also received interstitial hyperthermia, and 94 (81%) patients received chemotherapy. Results: Clinical LRC was achieved in 99 (85.3%) patients. Three-year DFS rates were 59%, 67%, 71%, and 57% for patients with stage IB, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates for the entire group were 60% and 44%, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were within acceptable limits. Conclusions: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients for whom intracavitary BT is unsuitable can achieve excellent LRC and OS with a combination of EBRT and HDR-ISBT.

  11. High-frame rate, fast neutron imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zboray, R; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 millisecond exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed.

  12. High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappan, Bryce C; Mason, Benjamin A

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

  13. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B.; Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G.; Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Manti, L.

    2013-07-26

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/?m on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately following irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of repair capability showed that the cells irradiated with 1 and 2 Gy almost completely recovered from the damage, but not, however, 3 Gy treated cells in which DNA damage was not recovered. In addition, the results indicate the importance of the use of an appropriate control in radiobiological in vitro analysis.

  14. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. II. The most luminous standard candles in the universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Netzer, Hagai; Kaspi, Shai [Wise Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Lu, Kai-Xing [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-10-01

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The goal is to identify super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) and to use their unique properties to construct a new method for measuring cosmological distances. Based on theoretical models, the saturated bolometric luminosity of such sources is proportional to the BH mass, which can be used to obtain their distance. Here we report on five new RM measurements and show that in four of the cases, we can measure the BH mass and three of these sources are SEAMBHs. Together with the three sources from our earlier work, we now have six new sources of this type. We use a novel method based on a minimal radiation efficiency to identify nine additional SEAMBHs from earlier RM-based mass measurements. We use a Bayesian analysis to determine the parameters of the new distance expression and the method uncertainties from the observed properties of the objects in the sample. The ratio of the newly measured distances to the standard cosmological ones has a mean scatter of 0.14 dex, indicating that SEAMBHs can be use as cosmological distance probes. With their high luminosity, long period of activity, and large numbers at high redshifts, SEAMBHs have a potential to extend the cosmic distance ladder beyond the range now explored by Type Ia supernovae.

  15. PULSAR: A High-Repetition-Rate, High-Power, CE Phase-Locked Laser for the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Itzhak, Itzik (Itzhak) [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Carnes, Kevin D. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Cocke, C. Lew [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Fehrenbach, Charles W. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Kumarappan, Vinod [PULSAR: A High-Repetition-Rate, High-Power, CE Phase-Locked Laser for the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University; Rudenko, Artem [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University; Trallero, Carlos [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University

    2014-05-09

    This instrumentation grant funded the development and installation of a state-of-the-art laser system to be used for the DOE funded research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. Specifically, we purchased a laser based on the KMLABs Red-Dragon design, which has a high repetition rate of 10-20 kHz crucial for multi-parameter coincidence measurements conducted in our lab. This laser system is carrier-envelope phase (CEP) locked and provides pulses as short as 21 fs directly from the amplifier (see details below). In addition, we have developed a pulse compression setup that provides sub 5 fs pulses and a CEP tagging capability that allows for long measurements of CEP dependent processes.

  16. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} species to MnO during melter preprocessing. At the lower redox limit of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {approx} 0.09 about 99% of the Mn{sup +4}/Mn{sup +3} is converted to Mn{sup +2}. Therefore, the lower REDOX limits eliminates melter foaming from deoxygenation.

  17. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  18. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Kao Lu

    2002-09-15

    An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

  19. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  20. Electron capture and beta-decay rates for sd-shell nuclei in stellar environments relevant to high density O-Ne-Mg cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshio Suzuki; Hiroshi Toki; Ken'ichi Nomoto

    2015-12-01

    Electron capture and beta-decay rates for nuclear pairs in sd-shell are evaluated at high densities and high temperatures relevant to the final evolution of electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with the initial masses of 8-10 solar mass. Electron capture induces a rapid contraction of the electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg core. The outcome of rapid contraction depends on the evolutionary changes in the central density and temperature, which are determined by the competing processes of contraction, cooling, and heating. The fate of the stars are determined by these competitions, whether they end up with electron-capture supernovae or Fe core-collapse supernovae. Since the competing processes are induced by electron capture and beta-decay, the accurate weak rates are crucially important. The rates are obtained for pairs with A=20, 23, 24, 25 and 27 by shell-model calculations in sd-shell with the USDB Hamiltonian. Effects of Coulomb corrections on the rates are evaluated. The rates for pairs with A=23 and 25 are important for nuclear URCA processes that determine the cooling rate of O-Ne-Mg core, while those for pairs with A=20 and 24 are important for the core-contraction and heat generation rates in the core. We provide these nuclear rates at stellar environments in tables with fine enough meshes at various densities and temperatures for the studies of astrophysical processes sensitive to the rates. In particular, the accurate rate tables are crucially important for the final fates of not only O-Ne-Mg cores but also a wider range of stars such as C-O cores of lower mass stars.

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for applying advanced experimental diagnostic techniques with increasing fidelity for the purposes of computational validation and model development. Numerical simulation of the reacting jet in crossflow is challenging because of the complex vortical structures in the flowfield and compounded by an unsteady crossflow. The resulting benchmark quality data set will include comprehensive, accurate measurements of mean and fluctuating components of velocity, pressure, and flame front location at high pressure and with crossflow conditions more representative of modern gas turbine engines. A proven means for producing combustion dynamics is used for the performing combustion instability experimental study on a reacting jet in crossflow configuration. The method used to provide an unsteady flowfield into which the transverse jet is injected is a unique and novel approach that permits elevated temperature and pressure conditions. A model dump combustor is used to generate and sustain an acoustically oscillating vitiated flow that serves as the crossflow for transverse jet injection studies. A fully optically accessible combustor test section affords full access surrounding the point of jet injection. High speed 10 kHz planar measurements OH PLIF and high frequency 180 kHz wall pressure measurements are performed on the injected reacting transverse jet and surrounding flowfield, respectively, under simulated unstable conditions. The overlay of the jet velocity flowfield and the flame front will be investigated using simultaneous 10 kHz OH PLIF and PIV in experiments to be performed in the near future.

  2. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  3. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  4. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, Omar C-M Ma, Charlie

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.

  5. Abstract --Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy-efficient error-control is an important issue for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Abstract -- Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy mechanisms only, but the required extra energy consumed by the wireless interface should be incorporated energy consumption is a key issue for portable wireless network devices like computers like PDAs

  6. Abstract--With the increasing fears of the impacts of the high penetration rates of Photovoltaic (PV) systems, a technical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    by the researchers and the developers in power systems. II. PSCAD MODEL OF GRID TIED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM The PSCAD-Tied Photovoltaic Systems and Total Harmonic Distortion Analysis Abdulrahman Y. Kalbat, Member, IEEE Fig. 1. Grid1 Abstract--With the increasing fears of the impacts of the high penetration rates of Photovoltaic

  7. A HIGH-FREQUENCY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC AND ACOUSTIC SCATTERING SIMULATIONS : RATE OF CONVERGENCE OF MULTIPLE SCATTERING ITERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ecevit, Fatih

    A HIGH-FREQUENCY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC AND ACOUSTIC SCATTERING SIMULATIONS an analysis of a recently proposed integral equation method for the solution of high-frequency elec properties of this series in the high-frequency regime depend solely on geometrical characteristics. Moreover

  8. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  9. Surface silylated zeolite catalysts, and processes for the preparation, and use of the catalysts in the production of high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cody, I.A.; Hammer, G.P.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for selectively hydrocracking an aromatic hydrocarbon feed. It comprises: hydrocracking the feed at hydrocracking conditions with a hydrocracking catalyst constituted of a metal hydrogenation component composited with a zeolite which contains, at ambient temperatures, greater than 50 percent NH{sub 4}{sup +} sites, and on its surface a chemisorbed silica-containing species, such that at hydrocracking temperatures ammonia is evolved to convert the zeolite to a surface silylated acid zeolite.

  10. H6: Fingerprint Image Processing The banking industry reports that false acceptance rates at ATMs are as high as 30%,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chaur-Chin

    H6: Fingerprint Image Processing The banking industry reports that false acceptance rates at ATMs inspectors at US ports-of-entry intercepted and denied admission to almost 800,000 people for several best matches. The research on fingerprint analysis generally strives to solve part of or all

  11. Design and implementation of a high data rate wireless system using Low-Density Parity-Check codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Tejas Maheshbhai

    2000-01-01

    . Various decoding algorithms for LDPC codes are implemented and complexity v/s bit error rate (BER) trade off is studied. The goal is to evaluate LDPC codes as a suitable candidate for the forward error correction in the next generation wireless systems...

  12. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Schmidt, B. P. , 2003, in Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts,for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopicfor future high-statistics supernovae searches in which

  13. Single-event rate parameters for paraffin hydrocracking on a Pt/US-Y zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svoboda, G.D.; Vynckier, E.; Debrabandere, B.; Froment, G.F. [Univ. Gent (Belgium). Lab. voor Petrochemische Techniek

    1995-11-01

    A single-event kinetic model is applied to octane hydrocracking on a Pt/US-Y zeolite over a wide range of experimental conditions (T = 200--260 C; P = 10--50 bar). The single-event kinetic approach used in this paper draws on the chemical knowledge of the elementary steps occurring on the catalyst surface, retaining the full detail of the reaction network. The hundreds of rate coefficients of the elementary steps in the reaction network are expressed in terms of a practical number of single-event rate coefficients. Rate equations are developed for the paraffins and the olefin and carbenium ion surface intermediates based on this network. Finally, single-event rate coefficients are estimated for both isomerization and cracking reactions.

  14. An Investigation of Enhanced Formability in AA5182-O Al During High-Rate Fre-Forming at Room-Temperature: Quantification of Deformation History

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Soulami, Ayoub; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

    2014-03-01

    Following the two prior publication of PNNL Pulse-Pressure research in the Journal of Materials Processing Technology, this manuscript continues to describe PNNL’s advances in getting a better understanding of sheet metal formability under high strain-rate conditions. Specifically, using a combination of numerical modeling and novel experiments, we quantitatively demonstrate the deformation history associated with enhanced formability (~2.5X) in Al under room temperature forming.

  15. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  16. Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases in melter operating temperature. Glass composition development was based on one of the HLW waste compositions specified by ORP that has a high concentration of aluminum. Small-scale tests were used to provide an initial screening of various glass formulations with respect to melt rates; more definitive screening was provided by the subsequent DM100 tests. Glass properties evaluated included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, gross glass phase separation and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (ASTM-1285). Glass property limits were based upon the reference properties for the WTP HLW melter. However, the WTP crystallinity limit (< 1 vol% at 950oC) was relaxed slightly as a waste loading constraint for the crucible melts.

  17. Thermoelastic study of nanolayered structures using time-resolved X-ray diffraction at high repetition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navirian, H. A.; Schick, D. Leitenberger, W.; Bargheer, M.; Gaal, P.; Shayduk, R.

    2014-01-13

    We investigate the thermoelastic response of a nanolayered sample composed of a metallic SrRuO{sub 3} electrode sandwiched between a ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} film with negative thermal expansion and a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. SrRuO{sub 3} is rapidly heated by fs-laser pulses with 208?kHz repetition rate. Diffraction of X-ray pulses derived from a synchrotron measures the transient out-of-plane lattice constant c of all three materials simultaneously from 120?ps to 5??s with a relative accuracy up to ?c/c?=?10{sup ?6}. The in-plane propagation of sound is essential for understanding the delayed out-of-plane compression of Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}.

  18. Another short-burst host galaxy with an optically obscured high star formation rate: The case of GRB 071227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Rossi, A.; Schmidl, S. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Micha?owski, M. J.; McKenzie, M. R. G. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Savaglio, S.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Palazzi, E. [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We report on radio continuum observations of the host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst 071227 (z = 0.381) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect the galaxy in the 5.5 GHz band with an integrated flux density of F {sub ?} = 43 ± 11 ?Jy, corresponding to an unobscured star-formation rate of about 24 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, 40 times higher than what was found from optical emission lines. Among the ?30 well-identified and studied host galaxies of short bursts this is the third case where the host is found to undergo an episode of intense star formation. This suggests that a fraction of all short-burst progenitors hosted in star-forming galaxies could be physically related to recent star formation activity, implying a relatively short merger timescale.

  19. hal-00144330,version1-3May2007 An OFDM-CDMA scheme for High Data Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (FCC) regulated UWB systems by imposing a spectral mask to limit the transmission power [1]. According- edged as high potential solutions for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN). The novelty of these systems lies in the possibility of non regulated access to the spectral resource leading to a flexible use

  20. Metrology and instrumentation challenges with high-rate, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronic systems-to-roll manufacturing system for flexible electronic systems opens limitless possibilities for the deployment of high performance flexible electronic components in a variety of applications including communication, sensing

  1. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    storage come into sight. Introduction Electrochemical energy storage devices with simultaneously high nanostructures.5 As a result, there has been fast growing interest in using ALD materials for energy storage energy storage3 Received 23rd November 2012, Accepted 21st January 2013 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra23031g www

  2. High quantum efficiency and low dark count rate in multi-layer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari Salim, A. Eftekharian, A.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we theoretically show that a multi-layer superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) is capable of approaching characteristics of an ideal SNSPD in terms of the quantum efficiency, dark count, and band-width. A multi-layer structure improves the performance in two ways. First, the potential barrier for thermally activated vortex crossing, which is the major source of dark counts and the reduction of the critical current in SNSPDs is elevated. In a multi-layer SNSPD, a vortex is made of 2D-pancake vortices that form a stack. It will be shown that the stack of pancake vortices effectively experiences a larger potential barrier compared to a vortex in a single-layer SNSPD. This leads to an increase in the experimental critical current as well as significant decrease in the dark count rate. In consequence, an increase in the quantum efficiency for photons of the same energy or an increase in the sensitivity to photons of lower energy is achieved. Second, a multi-layer structure improves the efficiency of single-photon absorption by increasing the effective optical thickness without compromising the single-photon sensitivity.

  3. Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damast, Shari; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata; Mosenkis, Jeffrey; Bennett, Antonia; Atkinson, Thomas; Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne; Basch, Ethan

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from <6 months to >5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean ({+-} standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 ({+-}2.0); orgasm, 2.5 ({+-}2.4); desire, 2.4 ({+-}1.3); arousal, 2.2 ({+-}2.0); dryness, 2.1 ({+-}2.1); and pain, 1.9 ({+-}2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, -7.1 points; 95% CI, -11.2 to -3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, -4.4 points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, -4.6 points; 95% CI, -9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

  4. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  5. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  6. DUST ATTENUATION IN UV-SELECTED STARBURSTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND THEIR LOCAL COUNTERPARTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE COSMIC STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Wang Jing [Max-Planck-Institut for Astrophysics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Armus, Lee; Howell, Justin [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Meurer, Gerhardt [ICRAR/University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siana, Brian; Goncalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Basu-Zych, Antara [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [PMC Univ Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Salim, Samir [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: overzier@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, MC 2457, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z < 0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate (SFR) measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high-redshift samples (LBGs, 'BzK', and submillimeter galaxies at z {approx} 2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z {approx} 2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high-redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on a much more solid ground. We illustrate the importance of this result by showing how the locally calibrated relation between UV measurements and extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z {approx_equal} 2-6.

  7. Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khor, Richard; Duchesne, Gillian; Monash University, Melbourne ; Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret; Williams, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against an increased risk of urethral toxicity.

  8. TLD skin dose measurements and acute and late effects after lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: francisco.perera@lrcc.on.ca; Chisela, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia St. Mary's Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Stitt, Larry [Department of Clinical Research Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Engel, Jay [Department of Surgical Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Venkatesan, Varagur [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: This report examines the relationships between measured skin doses and the acute and late skin and soft tissue changes in a pilot study of lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven of 39 women enrolled in this pilot study of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (37.2 Gy in 10 fractions b.i.d.) each had thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) at 5 points on the skin of the breast overlying the implant volume. Skin changes at TLD dose points and fibrosis at the lumpectomy site were documented every 6 to 12 months posttreatment using a standardized physician-rated cosmesis questionnaire. The relationships between TLD dose and acute skin reaction, pigmentation, or telangiectasia at 5 years were analyzed using the GEE algorithm and the GENMOD procedure in the SAS statistical package. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there were any significant associations between acute skin reaction and late pigmentation or telangiectasia or between the volumes encompassed by various isodoses and fibrosis or fat necrosis. Results: The median TLD dose per fraction (185 dose points) multiplied by 10 was 9.2 Gy. In all 37 patients, acute skin reaction Grade 1 or higher was observed at 5.9% (6 of 102) of dose points receiving 10 Gy or less vs. 44.6% (37 of 83) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.0001). In 25 patients at 60 months, 1.5% telangiectasia was seen at dose points receiving 10 Gy or less (1 of 69) vs. 18% (10 of 56) telangiectasia at dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p 0.004). Grade 1 or more pigmentation developed at 1.5% (1 of 69) of dose points receiving less than 10 Gy vs. 25% (14 of 56) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.001). A Grade 1 or more acute skin reaction was also significantly associated with development of Grade 1 or more pigmentation or telangiectasia at 60 months. This association was most significant for acute reaction and telangiectasia directly over the lumpectomy site (p < 0.001). Grade 1 or more fibrosis, in 25 patients with a 60-month follow-up, occurred in 47.4% (9 of 19) of patients with a volume of 45 cm{sup 3} or less covered by the 100% isodose vs. 83.3% (5 of 6) of patients with a larger volume (p 0.180). Asymptomatic and biopsy-proven fat necrosis occurred in 5 patients. No significant differences in fat necrosis rates according to volume were detected. Conclusions: For high-dose-rate brachytherapy to the lumpectomy site, TLD skin dose was significantly related to acute skin reaction and to pigmentation and telangiectasia at 60 months. An acute skin reaction was also significantly associated with the development of telangiectasia at 60 months. TLD skin dose measurement may allow modification of the brachytherapy implant geometry (dwell times and position) to minimize late skin toxicity.

  9. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Beth A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Demanes, D. Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology , University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Radiological Physics Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hayes, John K. [Gamma West Brachytherapy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hsu, I-Chow J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Morris, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Tward, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  10. Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Y. Sun, S. X. Du, H.-J. Gao, and S. B. Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Y of electrode nanomaterials in lithium-ion battery: The effects of surface stress J. Appl. Phys. 112, 103507://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Organic salts as super-high rate capability materials for lithium-ion batteries Y. Y. Zhang,1,2 Y

  11. Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12–TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  12. Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Shengnian; Arman, Bedri; Germann, Timothy C; Cagin, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

  13. Observation of 511 keV peak high count rate in studying (n,x) and (g,x) reactions on terbium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Kadenko; N. Dzysiuk

    2011-01-26

    Experimental investigation of (n, x) and (g, x) reactions on Tb-159 with activation technique was carried out. Tb specimens of natural composition were irradiated with (d-d) and (d-t) neutrons using NG-300 neutron generator. Additionally the series of experiments were performed with application of M-30 microtrone as a source of electrons for bremsstrahlung spectra production with end point energies 7.5, 9.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, 16.5, and 18.5 MeV. Instrumental spectra of Tb specimens were measured with HPGe and Ge(Li) spectrometers. Within the main scope of nuclear reactions research and accurate {\\gamma}-spectrometry of Tb specimens a high count rate in 511 keV {\\gamma}-line peak was observed. The first-priority analysis of Tb specimen impurities was done with further attempts to explain a result of observations with reference to the specific nuclear properties of Tb which could appear due to complex GDR structure. The energy threshold of the process detected was determined around 12.2 MeV. The lower estimate of cross section value for this process was assumed and calculated.

  14. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron Computed TomographyHigh-OctaneHigh-Order

  15. Vibrational Spectra, Theoretical Calculations, and Structures of Cyclic Silanes, 2,4,7-Trioxa(3.3.0)Octane and Botryococcenes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Hye Jin

    2014-12-08

    The vibrational spectra and structures of several cyclic silanes and a bicyclic molecule have been investigated with high-level ab initio and density function theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, the Raman spectra of botryococcene hydrocarbons...

  16. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  17. A Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Trial Evaluating Quality of Life After Breast-Conserving Surgery and High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; DeWees, Todd A.; Deshields, Teresa L.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Cyr, Amy E.; Naughton, Michael; Aft, Rebecca; Gillanders, William E.; Eberlein, Timothy; Matesa, Melissa A.; Ochoa, Laura L.; Zoberi, Imran

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively examine quality of life (QOL) of patients with early stage breast cancer treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and December 2008, 151 patients with early stage breast cancer were enrolled in a phase 2 prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients included those with Tis-T2 tumors measuring ?3 cm excised with negative surgical margins and with no nodal involvement. Patients received 3.4 Gy twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy. QOL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, version 3.0, and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. The QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were evaluated during pretreatment and then at 6 to 8 weeks, 3 to 4 months, 6 to 8 months, and 1 and 2 years after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 55 months. Breast symptom scores remained stable in the months after treatment, and they significantly improved 6 to 8 months after treatment. Scores for emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective showed significant improvement 2 years after treatment. Symptomatic fat necrosis was associated with several changes in QOL, including increased pain, breast symptoms, systemic treatment side effects, dyspnea, and fatigue, as well as decreased role functioning, emotional functioning, and social functioning. Conclusions: HDR multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy was well tolerated, with no significant detrimental effect on measured QOL scales/items through 2 years of follow-up. Compared to pretreatment scores, there was improvement in breast symptoms, emotional functioning, social functioning, and future perspective 2 years after treatment.

  18. High-Order Membrane Complexes from Activated G-Protein Subunits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron Computed TomographyHigh-Octane

  19. Slepian-Wolf coded nested quantization (SEC-NQ) for Wyner-Ziv coding: high-rate performance analysis, code design, and application to cooperative networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhixin

    2009-05-15

    The upper capacity bound (4.6), the lower rate bound achievable with DF, the lower rate bound (4.14) achievable with CF, and the rate bound of multi-hop transmission, as functions of c 2 sr when P r = P s = 5 dB, c 2 sd = 0 dB, and c 2 rd = 10 d....r.t. e and y d1 , with d =9m, c 2 sr =1.4? 10 ?7 ,andP s1 =69.4dB. ................... 78 24 The additive noise upper bound of WZC rate and distortion, both as functions of ? 2 n ,wherec 2 sr =1.4 ? 10 ?7 (i.e., the relay is 9m away from the source...

  20. WORLD RECREATIONAL FISHING CONFERENCE. 21-24 MAY 2002. NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA. PAGE 83 The quality of many recreational fisheries depends on high survival rates of fishes that are captured and released by anglers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilde, Gene

    3rd WORLD RECREATIONAL FISHING CONFERENCE. 21-24 MAY 2002. NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA. PAGE 83 Abstract The quality of many recreational fisheries depends on high survival rates of fishes that are captured and released by anglers. Catch and release of fishes may be voluntary or required by regulation (e

  1. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  2. consumption are critical. Using a variety of methods, we are discovering optimal nutritional conditions to achieve high rates of these behaviors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    , extensive sanitation, repeated applications of residual insecticides, steam or heat treatments, and often challenge of eradicating bed bugs in buildings is well documented. Treatments require intensive inspections stand-alone treatment at 3-fold the drywood termite dosage rate. In addition to whole structure

  3. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore »revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  4. Hierarchical nanosheet-constructed yolk–shell TiO? porous microspheres for lithium batteries with high capacity, superior rate and long cycle capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Jun; Huang, Shao-Zhuan; Li, Yu; Tian, He; Wang, Hong-En; Yu, Yong; Chen, Li-Hua; Hasan, Tawfique; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-06-26

    . Such a yolk–shell structure with a highly porous shell and dense mesoporous core is quite advantageous as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The outer, 2D nanosheet-based porous (15 nm) shell and the nanocrystal-based inner mesoporous (3...

  5. Microstructural Evolution of Alloy 718 at High Helium and Hydrogen Generation Rates during Irradiation with 600-800 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sencer, Bulent H. (PNNL); Bond, G M. (PNNL); Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Hamilton, M L. (PNNL); Oliver, Brian M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thomas, L E. (PNNL); Maloy, S A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Sommer, Walter F. (LOS ALAMOS NATL LAB); James, M R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Ferguson, P D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    2000-12-01

    When precipitation hardened Alloy 718 is irradiated with high-energy protons (600?800 MeV) and spallation neutrons at temperatures below > 60 C, it quickly hardens and loses almost all uniform elongation. It later softens somewhat at higher exposures but does not regain any elongation. This behavior is explained in terms of the evolution of Frank loop formation, disordering and eventual dissolution of the?? and?? strengthening phases, and the steady accumulation of very large levels of helium and hydrogen. These gases must be dispersed on a very fine scale in the matrix since no cavities could be found.

  6. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6~meV and 0.25~nm$^{-1}$ spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1~meV and 0.02~nm$^{-1}$ are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about $7\\times 10^{12}$~ph/s in a $90$-$\\mu$e...

  7. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  8. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  9. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  10. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  11. Use of Electrodeposition for Sample Preparation and Rejection Rate Prediction for Assay of Electroformed Ultra High Purity Copper for 232Th and 238U Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Seifert, Allen; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-07-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (<0.1µBq/kg). Although electrodeposition processes are almost sophisticated enough to produce copper of this purity, to date there are no methods sensitive enough to assay it. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) can detect thorium and uranium at femtogram levels, but in the past, this assay has been hindered by high copper concentrations in the sample. Electrodeposition of copper samples removes copper from the solution while selectively concentrating thorium and uranium contaminants to be assayed by ICP/MS. Spiking 232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry.

  12. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  13. High Rate for Type IC Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental Issues, World Scientific, see chapter onB. Norman (Singapore: World Scientific), p. 188. Perlmutter,B. Norman (Singapore: World Scientific), p. 196. Porter, A.

  14. High Rate for Type IC Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Wheeler, J. C. 1990, in Supernovae, ed. A. G. Petschek (New4959. Tamrnann, G. A. 1977, in Supernovae, ed. D. Schramm (Wheeler, J. C. 1990, in Supernovae, ed. J. C. Wheeler, T.

  15. High-energy rate forgings of wedges :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Thomas Bither; Everhart, Wesley; Switzner, Nathan T; Balch, Dorian K.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-05-01

    The wedge geometry is a simple geometry for establishing a relatively constant gradient of strain in a forged part. The geometry is used to establish gradients in microstructure and strength as a function of strain, forging temperature, and quenching time after forging. This geometry has previously been used to benchmark predictions of strength and recrystallization using Sandias materials model for type 304L austenitic stainless steel. In this report, the processing conditions, in particular the times to forge and quench the forged parts, are summarized based on information recorded during forging on June 18, 2013 of the so-called wedge geometry from type 316L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn austenitic stainless steels.

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program BWR High-Fluence Material Project: Assessment of the Role of High-Fluence on the Efficiency of HWC Mitigation on SCC Crack Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebastien Teysseyre

    2014-04-01

    As nuclear power plants age, the increasing neutron fluence experienced by stainless steels components affects the materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking and fracture toughness. The purpose of this report is to identify any new issues that are expected to rise as boiling water reactor power plants reach the end of their initial life and to propose a path forward to study such issues. It has been identified that the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry mitigation technology may decrease as fluence increases for high-stress intensity factors. This report summarizes the data available to support this hypothesis and describes a program plan to determine the efficiency of hydrogen water chemistry as a function of the stress intensity factor applied and fluence. This program plan includes acquisition of irradiated materials, generation of material via irradiation in a test reactor, and description of the test plan. This plan offers three approaches, each with an estimated timetable and budget.

  17. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losen, Daniel; Orfield, Gary; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    of minority students in Texas attend these schools, comparedfourths of the high schools in Texas where graduation is notthe Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas By Daniel Losen, Gary

  18. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Kumar, Neeraj; Hulley, Elliott B.; Weiss, Charles J.; Raugei, Simone; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-03-05

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H?) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H? oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H?, with turnover frequencies of 290 s?¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H? using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outermore »coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes.« less

  19. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  20. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  1. A Competitive Rate Allocation Game Yanting Wu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    , the transmitter sends data at a low rate R1 over both channels. And when both receivers bid high, the transmitter splits its power to send data at a high rate R2 over both channels. When one of the receivers bids low and the other bids high, the transmitter sends data at a very high rate R3 over the latter channel. When

  2. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 20692076 PLANAR LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE IMAGING OF CREVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Marshall B.

    with lower octane ratings were shown to enhance flame penetration due to their increased reactivity-induced fluorescence (PLIF) from iso-octane/n-heptane fuel blends doped with 3-pentanone. The fluorescence was imaged

  3. Variable rate CELP speech coding using widely variable parameter updates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moodie, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Code-excited, linear prediction (CELP) has become an accepted method for low bit rate, high quality coding of digital speech. The success of fixed rate CELP schemes has led to increased interest in variable rate techniques ...

  4. High data-rate atom interferometers through high recapture efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biedermann, Grant; Rakholia, Akash Vrijal; McGuinness, Hayden

    2015-01-27

    An inertial sensing system includes a magneto-optical trap (MOT) that traps atoms within a specified trapping region. The system also includes a cooling laser that cools the trapped atoms so that the atoms remain within the specified region for a specified amount of time. The system further includes a light-pulse atom interferometer (LPAI) that performs an interferometric interrogation of the atoms to determine phase changes in the atoms. The system includes a controller that controls the timing of MOT and cooling laser operations, and controls the timing of interferometric operations to substantially recapture the atoms in the specified trapping region. The system includes a processor that determines the amount inertial movement of the inertial sensing system based on the determined phase changes in the atoms. Also, a method of inertial sensing using this inertial sensing system includes recapture of atoms within the MOT following interferometric interrogation by the LPAI.

  5. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.

  6. Naughton's related rates problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dominic

    2013-02-25

    Related rates (1). (1) Oil spills from a rupture container in a circular pattern whose radius increases at a rate of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the oil spill increasing ...

  7. SU-E-T-223: Investigation of the Accuracy of Two-Dimensional Dose Distributions Measurement From High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Ir-192 Source Using Multiple-Diode-Array Detector (MapCheck2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taguenang, J; De La Fuente, T Herman; Ahmad, S; Ali, I [Oklahoma Univ. Health Science Ctr., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric accuracy of multiple-diode-array detector (Mapcheck2) for high-dose-rate brachytherapy Ir-192 source. The two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 were validated with EBT2 Gafchromic film measurement and AAPM task-group- 43 (TG-43) modeling. Methods: 2D-dose distributions from Ir-192 source were measured with MapCheck2 and EBT2-films. MapCheck2 response was corrected for effects: directional dependence, diode and phantom heterogeneity. Optical density growth of the film was controlled by synchronized scanning of the film exposed to Ir-192 and calibration films exposed to 6 MV linac beams. Similarly, MapCheck2 response was calibrated to dose using 6 MV beams. An empirical model was developed for the dose distributions measured with Mapcheck2 that considered directional, diode and phantom heterogeneity corrections. The dose deposited in solid-state-detectors was modeled using a cavity theory model for the diode. This model was then validated with measurements using EBT2-films and calculations with TG-43. Results: The response of MapCheck2 has been corrected for different effects including: (a) directional dependence of 0–20% over angular range 0o–90o, (b) phantom heterogeneity (3%) and (c) diode heterogeneity (9%). The corrected dose distributions measured with MapCheck2 agreed well with the measured dose distributions from EBT2-film and with calculations using TG-43 within 5% over a wide range of dose levels and rates. The advantages of MapCheck2 include less noisy, linear and stable response compared with film. The response of MapCheck2 exposed to 192Ir-source showed no energy dependence similar to its response to MV energy beam. Detection spatial-resolution of individual diodes was 0.8×0.8 mm2, however, 2DMapCheck2 resolution is limited by distance between diodes (7.07 mm). Conclusion: The dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 agreed well within 5% with that measured using EBT2-films; and calculations with TG- 43. Considering correction of artifacts, MapCheck2 provides a compact, practical and accurate dosimetric tool for measurement of 2D-dose distributions for brachytherapy Ir-192.

  8. Rate constants for OH with selected large alkanes : shock-tube measurements and an improved group scheme.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-04-30

    High-temperature rate constant experiments on OH with the five large (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}) saturated hydrocarbons n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (2,2,3,3-TMB), n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane (2,3-DMB) were performed with the reflected-shock-tube technique using multipass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. Single-point determinations at {approx}1200 K on n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-TMB, n-hexane, and 2,3-DMB were previously reported by Cohen and co-workers; however, the present work substantially extends the database to both lower and higher temperature. The present experiments span a wide temperature range, 789-1308 K, and represent the first direct measurements of rate constants at T > 800 K for n-pentane. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length of {approx}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high OH concentration detection sensitivity permitted pseudo-first-order analyses for unambiguously measuring rate constants. The experimental results can be expressed in Arrhenius form in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} as follows: K{sub OH+n-heptane} = (2.48 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1927 {+-} 69 K)/T] (838-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = (8.26 {+-} 0.89) x 10{sup -11} exp[(-1337 {+-} 94 K)/T] (789-1061 K); K{sub OH+n-pentane} = (1.60 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1903 {+-} 146 K)/T] (823-1308 K); K{sub OH+n-hexane} = (2.79 {+-} 0.39) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-2301 {+-} 134 K)/T] (798-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = (1.27 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1617 {+-} 118 K)/T] (843-1292 K). The available experimental data, along with lower-T determinations, were used to obtain evaluations of the experimental rate constants over the temperature range from {approx}230 to 1300 K for most of the title reactions. These extended-temperature-range evaluations, given as three-parameter fits, are as follows: k{sub OH+n-heptane} = 2.059 x 10{sup -5}T{sup 1.401} exp(33 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (241-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = 6.835 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.886} exp(-365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (290-1180 K); k{sub OH+n-pentane} = 2.495 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.649} exp(80 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (224-1308 K); k{sub OH+n-hexane} = 3.959 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.218} exp(443 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (292-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = 2.287 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.958} exp(365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (220-1292 K). The experimental data and the evaluations obtained for these five larger alkanes in the present work were used along with prior data/evaluations obtained in this laboratory for H abstractions by OH from a series of smaller alkanes (C{sub 3}?C{sub 5}) to devise rate rules for abstractions from various types of primary, secondary, and tertiary H atoms. Specifically, the current scheme was applied with good success to H abstractions by OH from a series of n-alkanes (n-octane through n-hexadecane). The total rate constants using this group scheme for reactions of OH with selected large alkanes are given as three-parameter fits in this article. The rate constants for the various abstraction channels in any large n-alkane can also be obtained using the groups listed in this article. The present group scheme serves to reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for OH + alkane reactions.

  9. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  10. LCC Guidance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  11. Wafer-Scale Assembly of Highly Ordered Semiconductor Nanowire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    down to the molecular regime with enhanced performances2-7,10,11 while enabling new functionalities reported dry transfer method,13 is the use of octane and mineral oil (2:1, v:v) mixture as a lubricant

  12. The authors are solely responsible for the content of this technical presentation. The technical presentation does not necessarily reflect the official position of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), and its printing and distribution do

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    and is still marketed in the Midwest. More recently, the oxygenated and octane enhancing benefits of ethanol additive used to enhance octane and also reduce CO emissions. MTBE has been shown to be highly toxic even

  13. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  14. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  15. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  16. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | FY

  17. Previous Power Rates (rates/current)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal PlumesPress1,Previous EventsRates

  18. Comparison of methods for the measurement of radiation dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: Ge-doped optical fiber, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} radiochromic plastic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, A. L.; Di Pietro, P.; Alobaidli, S.; Issa, F.; Doran, S.; Bradley, D.; Nisbet, A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distribution measurement in clinical high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is challenging, because of the high dose gradients, large dose variations, and small scale, but it is essential to verify accurate treatment planning and treatment equipment performance. The authors compare and evaluate three dosimetry systems for potential use in brachytherapy dose distribution measurement: Ge-doped optical fibers, EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis, and the radiochromic material PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout. Methods: Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibers with 6 {mu}m active core and 5.0 mm length were sensitivity-batched and their thermoluminescent properties used via conventional heating and annealing cycles. EBT3 Gafchromic film of 30 {mu}m active thickness was calibrated in three color channels using a nominal 6 MV linear accelerator. A 48-bit transmission scanner and advanced multichannel analysis method were utilized to derive dose measurements. Samples of the solid radiochromic polymer PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, 60 mm diameter and 100 mm height, were analyzed with a parallel beam optical CT scanner. Each dosimetry system was used to measure the dose as a function of radial distance from a Co-60 HDR source, with results compared to Monte Carlo TG-43 model data. Each system was then used to measure the dose distribution along one or more lines through typical clinical dose distributions for cervix brachytherapy, with results compared to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Purpose-designed test objects constructed of Solid Water and held within a full-scatter water tank were utilized. Results: All three dosimetry systems reproduced the general shape of the isolated source radial dose function and the TPS dose distribution. However, the dynamic range of EBT3 exceeded those of doped optical fibers and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and the latter two suffered from unacceptable noise and artifact. For the experimental conditions used in this study, the useful range from an isolated HDR source was 5-40 mm for fibers, 3-50 mm for EBT3, and 4-21 mm for PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }. Fibers demonstrated some over-response at very low dose levels, suffered from volume averaging effects in the dose distribution measurement, and exhibited up to 9% repeatability variation over three repeated measurements. EBT3 demonstrated excellent agreement with Monte Carlo and TPS dose distributions, with up to 3% repeatability over three measurements. PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} gave promising results, being the only true 3D dosimeter, but artifacts and noise were apparent. Conclusions: The comparative response of three emerging dosimetry systems for clinical brachytherapy dose distribution measurement has been investigated. Ge-doped optical fibers have excellent spatial resolution for single-direction measurement but are currently too large for complex dose distribution assessment. The use of PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout gave promising results in the measurement of true 3D dose distributions but further development work is required to reduce noise and improve dynamic range for brachytherapy dose distribution measurements. EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis demonstrated accurate and reproducible measurement of dose distributions in HDR brachytherapy. Calibrated dose measurements were possible with agreement within 1.5% of TPS dose calculations. The suitability of EBT3 as a dosimeter for 2D quality control or commissioning work has been demonstrated.

  19. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  20. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  1. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  2. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  3. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.17 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  4. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for HLH and LLH. 2. OTHER RATE PROVISIONS a. BPA Incremental Cost BPA's incremental cost will be based on an hourly energy index in the Pacific Northwest. If no adequate...

  5. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  6. Novel strategies for the synthesis of methane adsorbents with controlled porosity and high surface area. Annual report, January 1, 1994-December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ventura, S.C.; Kumar, S.K.; Yokoi, S.I.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas is an attractive alternative to gasoline as fuel for cars because of its desirable emission characteristics, good cold starting characteristics, and high octane number. A major factor that limits widespread use of NGV`s is the low energy density of natural gas. The authors have developed low-cost gel precursors that are excellent binders of high surface area carbon and produce monoliths with piece density of 0.64 g/mL, carbon packing density of 0.62 g/mL and methane volumetric storage capacity of 140 V/V (based on volume of gas delivered) at 500 psia. The authors` preliminary experiments show that piece density may be further increased under suitable processing conditions and that even higher methane volumetric capacities will be attainable.

  7. Utility-Based Wireless Resource Allocation for Variable Rate Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Ng, Chun Sum

    2007-01-01

    For most wireless services with variable rate transmission, both average rate and rate oscillation are important performance metrics. The traditional performance criterion, utility of average transmission rate, boosts the average rate but also results in high rate oscillations. We introduce a utility function of instantaneous transmission rates. It is capable of facilitating the resource allocation with flexible combinations of average rate and rate oscillation. Based on the new utility, we consider the time and power allocation in a time-shared wireless network. Two adaptation policies are developed, namely, time sharing (TS) and joint time sharing and power control (JTPC). An extension to quantized time sharing with limited channel feedback (QTSL) for practical systems is also discussed. Simulation results show that by controlling the concavity of the utility function, a tradeoff between the average rate and rate oscillation can be easily made.

  8. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  9. Construction, Qualification, and Low Rate Production Start-up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Facility with Capacity to Support 100,000 Electric Drive Vehicles Construction, Qualification, and Low Rate Production Start-up of a DC Bus Capacitor High Volume...

  10. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  11. Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High-Rate, Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires...

  12. Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Links Center for Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies (CGS) EFRC New Energy and Fuel External link Green Optimistic External link Twitter External link...

  13. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  14. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrentJobPower-Rates

  15. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  16. Rate Design and Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers

  17. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  18. A PCI based high-fanout AER mapper with 2 GiB RAM look-up table, 0.8 s latency and 66 MHz output event-rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A PCI based high-fanout AER mapper with 2 GiB RAM look-up table, 0.8 µs latency and 66 MHz output and complexity in recent years, thanks also the adoption of the Address-Event Representation (AER) as a standard for transmitting signals among chips, and building multi-chip event-based systems. AER mapper devices that route

  19. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  20. Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, Tim

    to excessive loading. The output of the oscillatorlbuffer is applied to the dividers for generation, inclusive. If the divisor is even, the output will be square: otherwise the output will be high longer thanAPPENDIX B #12;#12;Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider FEATURES PIN CONFi

  1. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  2. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  3. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  4. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  5. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  6. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  7. Increasing the rate of hydrogen oxidation without increasing the overpotential: A bio-inspired iron molecular electrocatalyst with an outer coordination sphere proton relay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmon, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kumar, Neeraj [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hulley, Elliott B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, Charles J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raugei, Simone [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bullock, R. Morris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Helm, Monte L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of hydrogen (H?) to protons and electrons for energy production in fuel cells is catalyzed by platinum, but its low abundance and high cost present drawbacks to widespread adoption. Precisely controlled proton delivery and removal is critical in hydrogenase enzymes in nature that catalyze H? oxidation using earth-abundant metals (iron and nickel). Here we report a synthetic iron complex, (CpC5F4N)Fe(PEtN(CH2)3NMe2PEt)(Cl), that serves as a precatalyst for the oxidation of H?, with turnover frequencies of 290 s?¹ in fluorobenzene, under 1 atm of H? using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as the exogenous base. The cooperative effect of the primary, secondary and outer coordination spheres for moving protons in this remarkably fast catalyst emphasizes the key role of pendant amines in mimicking the functionality of the proton pathway in the hydrogenase enzymes. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  9. Dynamic Phase Transition, Enhanced Reaction Rate, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rikvold, Per Arne

    is a CO, they react [CO + O CO2(g)] These dynamical rules fully define the model. Its properties on a crystal surface by Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism: CO(g)+S CO(a) O2 + 2S 2O(a) CO(a) + O(a) CO2(g) + 2S been observed experimentally for high enough temperatures. Add CO desorption rate k to mimic

  10. Three-phase K-values for n-alkanes co-existing with water at high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forero Reyes, Helber Alfonso

    1992-01-01

    . Model. Heptane in all Billman's Runs. . Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical Model. Heptane in all Billman's Runs. . Three-phase K-value vs. Temperature. Model. Octane in all Billman's Runs. Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical... Model. Octane in all Billman's Runs. Three-phase K-value vs. Temperature. Model. Nonane in all Billman's Runs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical Model, Nonane in all Billman's Runs. . Three...

  11. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 16.00 32.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  12. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 15.00 30.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  13. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 (112 KB .pdf) FRN Notice of Proposed Transmission and Ancillary Services Formula Rates November 3, 2014 (93 KB .pdf) SPP Membership Information Integrated System (IS)...

  14. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  15. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  16. High-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demanes, DJ; Ghilezan, MI

    2014-01-01

    comparison with HDR brachytherapy and preliminary clinicalrisk prostate cancer. Brachytherapy 2013;12:428e433.Demanes, M.I. Ghilezan / Brachytherapy 13 (2014) 529e541

  17. Strain Rate Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  18. Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2012-10-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

  19. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PolyPlus Battery Company has developed the protected lithium electrode (PLE), an invention that enables the use of lithium metal as an electrode in a secondary battery....

  20. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for treating wastewater exist in a number of industries, including petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and chemical manufacturing. The sustainable low- energy approach to water...

  1. Photon and dilepton emission rates from high density quark matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaikumar, P.; Rapp, Ralf; Zahed, I.

    2002-01-01

    Methane conversion to heavier hydrocarbons was studied using electrical furnaces and a plasma apparatus. The experiments were performed with pure methane for the electrical furnace experiments while pure methane and additions such as hydrogen...

  2. Apparatus and method for high dose rate brachytherapy radiation treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macey, Daniel J.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Smith, Mark Frederick; Kross, Brian James

    2005-01-25

    A method and apparatus for the in vivo location and tracking of a radioactive seed source during and after brachytherapy treatment. The method comprises obtaining multiple views of the seed source in a living organism using: 1) a single PSPMT detector that is exposed through a multiplicity of pinholes thereby obtaining a plurality of images from a single angle; 2) a single PSPMT detector that may obtain an image through a single pinhole or a plurality of pinholes from a plurality of angles through movement of the detector; or 3) a plurality of PSPMT detectors that obtain a plurality of views from different angles simultaneously or virtually simultaneously. The plurality of images obtained from these various techniques, through angular displacement of the various acquired images, provide the information required to generate the three dimensional images needed to define the location of the radioactive seed source within the body of the living organism.

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technology (HSPT) (Completed). * Demonstrate targeted mechanical properties, including static tensile (yield strength: 950MPa and elongation of 13.1%), fracture toughness of K Ic...

  4. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tool, milling operations where the cutting tool rotates against the workpiece, and drilling operations where holes are produced or refined. However, traditional machining...

  5. Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to spend valuable beam time in low-alpha operation? Many phenomena that are the subjects of scientifically interesting and technologically important investigations today,...

  6. NREL: Awards and Honors - High-Rate Vapor Transport Deposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory; Dr. Rick Powell and Dr. Peter Myers, First Solar, LLD A module per minute. First Solar's automated, non-stop, continuous-feed production line can...

  7. High repetition rate fiber and integrated waveguide femtosecond lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sander, Michelle Y. (Michelle Yen-Ling)

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers and the development of frequency combs have revolutionized multiple fields like metrology, spectroscopy, medical diagnostics and optical communications. However, to enable wider adoption of the technology ...

  8. ORISE: Study finds foreign doctorate recipients' stay rates remain high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer underIRossybelle Perales ResearchRaquel Teasley

  9. Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUp inrd IEEE(Journal1

  10. Construction, Qualification, and Low Rate Production Start-up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a DC Bus Capacitor High Volume Manufacturing Facility with Capacity to Support 100,000 Electric Drive Vehicles Construction, Qualification, and Low Rate Production Start-up of a...

  11. Optimization of time-based rates in forward energy markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.

    This paper presents a new two-step design approach of Time-Based Rate (TBR) programs for markets with a high penetration of variable energy sources such as wind power. First, an optimal market time horizon must be determined ...

  12. Pressure Normalization of Production Rates Improves Forecasting Results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacayo Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-07

    reliable production forecasting technique suited to interpret unconventional wells in specific situations such as unstable operating conditions, limited availability of production data (short production history) and high-pressure, rate-restricted wells...

  13. Coral Extension Rate Analysis Using Computed Axial Tomography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudelman, Eleanor Ann

    2014-01-10

    Biological and geological studies of coral reefs often rely on measured Scleractinian coral skeletal extension rates. Ideally, corallites are oriented parallel to a coral core’s longitudinal axis and perpendicular to its annual high-density growth...

  14. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    ORIGINAL PAPER The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice Maryam assessment. Keywords Metabolomics Á Low dose rate radiation Á Mass spectrometry Introduction The adverse at high dose rates (HDR), but many will experience exposure to low dose rate (LDR) radiation from fallout

  16. Federal / State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Required for Introduction of E15 More Documents & Publications Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of...

  17. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    ming model of gasoline blending. As a blending component,premium high-octane gasoline. line, blending ethanol is notindicating blending would not be profitable if gasoline was

  18. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Use of Advanced Biofuel Blends...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    engines to improve compatibility when operated with high-octane biofuel blends The market impact of increasing the consumption of biofuels in the small engine market Mechanisms...

  19. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Letter to South Texas Electric Coop., Inc requesting an extension of the existing rate formula FalconAmistad WAPA-143 FERC Approval FalconAmistad Published WAPA-143 Falcon...

  20. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  1. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  2. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  3. Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McInerney, Peter; Adams, Paul; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2014-01-01

    As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differences from study to study. We have measured the error rates for 6 DNA polymerases commonly used in PCR applications, including 3 polymerases typically used for cloning applications requiring high fidelity. Errormore »rate measurement values reported here were obtained by direct sequencing of cloned PCR products. The strategy employed here allows interrogation of error rate across a very large DNA sequence space, since 94 unique DNA targets were used as templates for PCR cloning. The six enzymes included in the study, Taq polymerase, AccuPrime-Taq High Fidelity, KOD Hot Start, cloned Pfu polymerase, Phusion Hot Start, and Pwo polymerase, we find the lowest error rates with Pfu , Phusion, and Pwo polymerases. Error rates are comparable for these 3 enzymes and are >10x lower than the error rate observed with Taq polymerase. Mutation spectra are reported, with the 3 high fidelity enzymes displaying broadly similar types of mutations. For these enzymes, transition mutations predominate, with little bias observed for type of transition. « less

  4. Esercitazione no 4 per il corso di Ricerca Operativa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    oil (crude 1, crude 2, crude 3). The sales prices per barrel of gasoline are as follows: Sales price Sunco can purchase up to 5000 barrels of each type of crude oil. The three types of gasoline differ in their octane rating and sulfur content. The crude oil blends to form gas 1 must have an average octane rating

  5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 72097222, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/7209/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    : formaldehyde, formate, glycine, pheny- lalanine, benzoic acid, octanol, octanal, octanoic acid, oc- tanedioic with the organic species forms HOOH). Yields of HOOH, defined as the rate of HOOH production divided by the rate of q OH production, ranged from essentially zero (glycine) to 0.24 (octanal), with an average of 0

  6. Binary Capture Rates for Massive Protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickolas Moeckel; John Bally

    2007-04-09

    The high multiplicity of massive stars in dense, young clusters is established early in their evolution. The mechanism behind this remains unresolved. Recent results suggest that massive protostars may capture companions through disk interactions with much higher efficiency than their solar mass counterparts. However, this conclusion is based on analytic determinations of capture rates and estimates of the robustness of the resulting binaries. We present the results of coupled n-body and SPH simulations of star-disk encounters to further test the idea that disk-captured binaries contribute to the observed multiplicity of massive stars.

  7. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  8. Acceleration Rates and Injection Efficiencies in Oblique Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Ellison; M. G. Baring; F. C. Jones

    1995-06-12

    The rate at which particles are accelerated by the first-order Fermi mechanism in shocks depends on the angle, \\teq{\\Tbone}, that the upstream magnetic field makes with the shock normal. The greater the obliquity the greater the rate, and in quasi-perpendicular shocks rates can be hundreds of times higher than those seen in parallel shocks. In many circumstances pertaining to evolving shocks (\\eg, supernova blast waves and interplanetary traveling shocks), high acceleration rates imply high maximum particle energies and obliquity effects may have important astrophysical consequences. However, as is demonstrated here, the efficiency for injecting thermal particles into the acceleration mechanism also depends strongly on obliquity and, in general, varies inversely with \\teq{\\Tbone}. The degree of turbulence and the resulting cross-field diffusion strongly influences both injection efficiency and acceleration rates. The test particle \\mc simulation of shock acceleration used here assumes large-angle scattering, computes particle orbits exactly in shocked, laminar, non-relativistic flows, and calculates the injection efficiency as a function of obliquity, Mach number, and degree of turbulence. We find that turbulence must be quite strong for high Mach number, highly oblique shocks to inject significant numbers of thermal particles and that only modest gains in acceleration rates can be expected for strong oblique shocks over parallel ones if the only source of seed particles is the thermal background.

  9. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei

    2003-09-09

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  10. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA)

    2006-05-16

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  11. MEDICAL RATES for Active Employees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    -time, your base salary is calculated on the full-time equivalent. For example, if you are at an appointment percentage of 50% and earn $12,000 per year, your base salary is $24,000 and UNM would contribute 40%. UNM Health-Bi-Weekly Rates Annualized Salary $34,999 and below Annualized Salary $35,000 - $49,999 Annualized

  12. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  13. Statistical Methods for Thermonuclear Reaction Rates and Nucleosynthesis Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliadis, Christian; Coc, Alain; Timmes, F X; Champagne, Art E

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and gamma-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples ...

  14. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl customer and attempts... electricity to municipalities and rural electric cooperatives in both Texas and Louisiana. In Baton Rouge. GSU supplies steam and electricity to a large industrial customer through a cogeneration facility that the company has had in operation since...

  15. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: II. Tables and Graphs of Reaction Rates and Probability Density Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc; Ryan Fitzgerald

    2010-04-23

    Numerical values of charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei in the A=14 to 40 region are tabulated. The results are obtained using a method, based on Monte Carlo techniques, that has been described in the preceding paper of this series (Paper I). We present a low rate, median rate and high rate which correspond to the 0.16, 0.50 and 0.84 quantiles, respectively, of the cumulative reaction rate distribution. The meaning of these quantities is in general different from the commonly reported, but statistically meaningless expressions, "lower limit", "nominal value" and "upper limit" of the total reaction rate. In addition, we approximate the Monte Carlo probability density function of the total reaction rate by a lognormal distribution and tabulate the lognormal parameters {\\mu} and {\\sigma} at each temperature. We also provide a quantitative measure (Anderson-Darling test statistic) for the reliability of the lognormal approximation. The user can implement the approximate lognormal reaction rate probability density functions directly in a stellar model code for studies of stellar energy generation and nucleosynthesis. For each reaction, the Monte Carlo reaction rate probability density functions, together with their lognormal approximations, are displayed graphically for selected temperatures in order to provide a visual impression. Our new reaction rates are appropriate for bare nuclei in the laboratory. The nuclear physics input used to derive our reaction rates is presented in the subsequent paper of this series (Paper III). In the fourth paper of this series (Paper IV) we compare our new reaction rates to previous results.

  16. Cooling rate, heating rate and aging effects in glassy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino

    2004-03-03

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled by a system of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process of regenerating the equilibrium liquid by heating the glass. We study the dependence of these processes on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled during these processes with the corresponding properties sampled in the liquid equilibrium state to elucidate under which conditions glass configurations can be associated with equilibrium liquid configurations.

  17. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos Videos Re-EntryApproval OMB No.:Rates

  18. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power are

  19. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power

  20. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1 -

  1. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1

  2. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13 -

  3. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13

  4. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power135

  5. WP-07 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *415,Rates > Meetings &

  6. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  7. Rate Schedule CV-SPR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is available immediately to serve load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for spinning reserve includes three components: Component 1:...

  8. Rate Schedule CV-SUR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    within the first 10 minutes to take load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for supplemental reserve service includes three components:...

  9. Rate Schedule COTP-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for COTP firm and non-firm PTP transmission service includes...

  10. Rate Schedule CV-NWT5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CVP NITS includes three components: Component 1: The NITS...

  11. Rate Schedule PACI-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for PACI firm and non-firm transmission includes three...

  12. Rate Schedule CV-RFS4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    load and for maintaining scheduled interconnection frequency at 60-cycles per second. Formula Rate: The formula rate for regulation includes three components: Component 1: Annual...

  13. Rate Schedule CV-EID4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is established in the service agreement or Interconnected Operations Agreements. Formula Rate: The formula rate for EI service includes three components: Component 1: EI...

  14. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khang, S.J.

    1996-07-31

    Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

  15. Power Rates Study Final Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >5

  16. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain orRate

  17. MRMC: A Multi-Rate Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Multi-Radio Wireless LANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Carey

    ]. Dynamic rate selec- tion also allows a mobile station far from the AP (i.e., weak receiving power) to use adverse wireless channel conditions. However, over- all system throughput suffers when stations differ- ent transmission channels to isolate high-rate stations from low-rate stations. Simulation (ns-2

  18. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right...

  19. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krsti?, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control ability as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.

  20. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  2. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  3. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  4. High Rate Deposition of High Quality ZnO:Al by Filtered Cathodic Arc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelsberg, Rueben J.

    2011-01-01

    Facility of the Molecular Foundry, Lawrence BerkeleyFacility of the Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley

  5. Overview of Recent Progres on High Repetition Rate, High Brightness Electron Guns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sannibale, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic DC Electron Gun for the Jefferson Laboratory FEL.ALICE (ERLP) DC Photoinjector Gun Commissioning, Proc. ofa 500-kV Photo- cathode DC Gun for the ERL Light Sources in

  6. High throughput screen for cells with high extracellular metabolite consumption--secretion rates using microfluidic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Benjamin L. (Benjamin Lu chen)

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the improvement of strains for the industrial production of various compounds. Traditionally, enzymatic steps closely associated with the product-forming pathway have ...

  7. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jing

    2007-01-01

    polyurethane foam and Styrofoam. Chen et al. [107] employedbehavior of rubber and Styrofoam. Compared to Figure 3.8,

  8. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jing

    2007-01-01

    plunger guided by a hydraulic press. The tolerance of theand the plunger. The hydraulic press provided a 2.54 GPa

  9. High repetition rate, high average power, femtosecond erbium fiber ring laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ippen, Erich P.

    A 301 MHz fundamentally mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser generating 108 fs pulses is demonstrated. Novel combination of gain fiber with anomalous group-velocity dispersion and intra-cavity silicon with normal group-velocity ...

  10. Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Nanowires for High-Capacity, High-Rate, Hybrid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelement methodbyoxide embeddedtwo stageElectrical

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 JumpPublicationDate Jump to:InformationEnergyInformation Rate Jump

  12. An Integrated Approach for Creating Model Diesel Fuels Ioannis P. Androulakis, Mark D. Weisel, Chang S. Hsu, Kuangnan Qian,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

    algorithm to formulate well-characterized diesel fuel blends and an analytical method to characterize diesel for different parts of the drive cycle. For example, highly aromatic, high-octane fuels have been shown-aromatic, lower-octane fuels are optimal under low-load, stratified operation.1 Understanding the effects of fuel

  13. This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ://www.elsevier.com/copyright #12;Author's personal copy Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending components to high-octane components for use in high-per- formance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function as the producer of hydrogen

  14. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  15. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H?O? and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  16. Simple rate-adaptive LDPC coding for quantum key distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo Li; Chun-Mei Zhang; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Wei Chen; Chuan Wang; Zheng-Fu Han

    2015-05-24

    Although quantum key distribution (QKD) comes from the development of quantum theory, the implementation of a practical QKD system does involve a lot of classical process, such as key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is called post-processing. Post-processing has been a crucial element to high speed QKD systems, even the bottleneck of it because of its relatively high time consumption. Low density parity check (LDPC) is now becoming a promising approach of overcoming the bottleneck due to its good performance in processing throughput. In this article we propose and simulate an easily implemented but efficiently rate-adaptive LDPC coding approach of reconciliation, different from the previously proposed puncturing- and shortening-based approach. We also give a measure for choosing the optimal LDPC parameter for our rate-adaptive approach according to error rates.

  17. Rate, molecular spectrum, and consequences of human mutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Matthew D.

    , December 3, 2009 (sent for review September 13, 2009) Although mutation provides the fuel for phenotypic. Although the human per-generation mutation rate is exceptionally high, on a per-cell division basis of locus-specific mutations, similar to what has been achieved with reporter construct studies in microbes

  18. Predicting Panel Ratings for Semantic Characteristics of Lung Nodules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Predicting Panel Ratings for Semantic Characteristics of Lung Nodules Dmitriy Zinovev De@cdm.depaul.edu ABSTRACT In reading CT scans with potentially malignant lung nodules, radiologists make use of high level a second opinion - predicting these semantic characteristics for lung nodules. In our previous work, we

  19. Bunch mode specific rate corrections for PILATUS3 detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trueb, P.; Dejoie, C.; Kobas, M.; Pattison, P.; Peake, D. J.; Radicci, V.; Sobott, B. A.; Walko, D. A.; Broennimann, C.

    2015-04-09

    PILATUS X-ray detectors are in operation at many synchrotron beamlines around the world. This article reports on the characterization of the new PILATUS3 detector generation at high count rates. As for all counting detectors, the measured intensities have to be corrected for the dead-time of the counting mechanism at high photon fluxes. The large number of different bunch modes at these synchrotrons as well as the wide range of detector settings presents a challenge for providing accurate corrections. To avoid the intricate measurement of the count rate behaviour for every bunch mode, a Monte Carlo simulation of the counting mechanismmore »has been implemented, which is able to predict the corrections for arbitrary bunch modes and a wide range of detector settings. This article compares the simulated results with experimental data acquired at different synchrotrons. It is found that the usage of bunch mode specific corrections based on this simulation improves the accuracy of the measured intensities by up to 40% for high photon rates and highly structured bunch modes. For less structured bunch modes, the instant retrigger technology of PILATUS3 detectors substantially reduces the dependency of the rate correction on the bunch mode. The acquired data also demonstrate that the instant retrigger technology allows for data acquisition up to 15 million photons per second per pixel.« less

  20. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielek, Timothy P. (Albuquerque, NM); Thompson, Douglas G. (Albuqerque, NM); Walker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  1. High frequency and high dynamic range continuous time filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewinski Komincz, Artur Juliusz

    2007-09-17

    Many modern communication systems use orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and discrete multi-tone (DMT) as modulation schemes where high data rates are transmitted over a wide frequency band in multiple orthogonal subcarriers. Due...

  2. SN-03 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small Angle X-RayFinal Proposal:2003 SN

  3. SN-03 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small Angle X-RayFinal Proposal:2003

  4. Historical Average Priority Firm Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school4-TP59.01 C5;44 4 o (Q3 a

  5. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  6. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  7. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  8. Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high-temperature solar receivers by applying microchannel heat-transfer technology to solar-receiver design. The extremely high heat-transfer rates afforded by microchannels...

  9. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  10. Rate Schedule CV-TPT7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or receipt, adjusted for losses, and delivered to points as agreed to by the parties. Formula Rate: The formula rate for transmission of Western's power by others includes three...

  11. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  12. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  13. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  14. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  15. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  16. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-08-16

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z {approx} 0.01-0.1 of r{sub V} = 4.26{sub -1.93 -0.10}{sup +1.39 +0.10} h{sup 3} x 10{sup -4} SNe Ia/yr/Mpc{sup 3} from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  17. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  18. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  19. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  20. Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage Carlos H. Crisosto o David Garner D Katia)at 32*F for 16 weeks. Un- der both storage conditions,large fruit had a slower rate of softening than fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafely

  1. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01

    decreasing rate as shipment quantity increases. Highest rates were associated with the berth term followed by the free discharge and free-in-and-out terms. The ships with U.S. flags were found to charge higher rates when compared to ships with foreign flags...

  2. The evolution of the cosmic SN rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrico Cappellaro; Maria Teresa Botticella; Laura Greggio

    2007-06-09

    We briefly review the contribution of SN rate measurements to the debate on SN progenitor scenarios. We find that core collapse rates confirms the rapid evolution of the star formation rate with redshift. After accounting for the dispersion of SN Ia measurements and uncertainty of the star formation history, the standard scenarios for SN Ia progenitors appear consistent with all observational constraints.

  3. Direct Determination of the Ionization Energies of PtC, PtO, and PtO2 with VUV Murat Citir and Ricardo B. Metz*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    energies and bond dissociation energies for catalytically interesting species such as metal oxides in catalytic processes such as the oxidation of CH4 and CO. Platinum is also extensively used in the petroleum. This reformation process produces high-octane gasoline from low-octane feedstock.1-5 In the gas phase, neutral

  4. Theoretical mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Holzwarth; M. Jardine

    2006-11-14

    We develop a model for the wind properties of cool main-sequence stars, which comprises their wind ram pressures, mass fluxes, and terminal wind velocities. The wind properties are determined through a polytropic magnetised wind model, assuming power laws for the dependence of the thermal and magnetic wind parameters on the stellar rotation rate. We use empirical data to constrain theoretical wind scenarios, which are characterised by different rates of increase of the wind temperature, wind density, and magnetic field strength. Scenarios based on moderate rates of increase yield wind ram pressures in agreement with most empirical constraints, but cannot account for some moderately rotating targets, whose high apparent mass loss rates are inconsistent with observed coronal X-ray and magnetic properties. For fast magnetic rotators, the magneto-centrifugal driving of the outflow can produce terminal wind velocities far in excess of the surface escape velocity. Disregarding this aspect in the analyses of wind ram pressures leads to overestimations of stellar mass loss rates. The predicted mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars do not exceed about ten times the solar value. Our results are in contrast with previous investigations, which found a strong increase of the stellar mass loss rates with the coronal X-ray flux. Owing to the weaker dependence, we expect the impact of stellar winds on planetary atmospheres to be less severe and the detectability of magnetospheric radio emission to be lower then previously suggested. Considering the rotational evolution of a one solar-mass star, the mass loss rates and the wind ram pressures are highest during the pre-main sequence phase.

  5. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amur Margaryan

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  6. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Michael G. Finn

    2010-01-04

    Study of the stay rate in the United States of foreign nationals receiving their S/E doctorates from U.S. universities. This study has estimated stay rates in 2007 for persons receiving a doctorate one, two, five, and ten years previously. The two-year stay rate (for 2005 graduates) recovered from the decline experienced earlier in the decade. The five-year stay rate (for 2002 graduates) is lower; the ten-year stay rate (for 1997 graduates) reached a new high.

  7. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krsti?, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control abilitymore »as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.« less

  8. PBXN-9 Ignition Kinetics and Deflagration Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E; Maienschein, J; Burnham, A; Koerner, J; Hsu, P; Wemhoff, A

    2008-04-24

    The ignition kinetics and deflagration rates of PBXN-9 were measured using specially designed instruments at LLNL and compared with previous work on similar HMX based materials. Ignition kinetics were measured based on the One Dimensional Time-to-Explosion combined with ALE3D modeling. Results of these experiments indicate that PBXN-9 behaves much like other HMX based materials (i.e. LX-04, LX-07, LX-10 and PBX-9501) and the dominant factor in these experiments is the type of explosive, not the type of binder/plasticizer. In contrast, the deflagration behavior of PBXN-9 is quite different from similar high weight percent HMX based materials (i.e LX-10, LX-07 and PBX-9501). PBXN-9 burns in a laminar manner over the full pressure range studied (0-310 MPa) unlike LX-10, LX-07, and PBX-9501. The difference in deflagration behavior is attributed to the nature of the binder/plasticizer alone or in conjunction with the volume of binder present in PBXN-9.

  9. NCRAWL: Network Coding for Rate Adaptive Wireless Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broustis, Ioannis; Syrivelis, Dimitris; Georgiadis, Leonidas; Tassiulas, Leandros

    2011-01-01

    Intersession network coding (NC) can provide significant performance benefits via mixing packets at wireless routers; these benefits are especially pronounced when NC is applied in conjunction with intelligent link scheduling. NC however imposes certain processing operations, such as encoding, decoding, copying and storage. When not utilized carefully, all these operations can induce tremendous processing overheads in practical, wireless, multi-rate settings. Our measurements with prior NC implementations suggest that such processing operations severely degrade the router throughput, especially at high bit rates. Motivated by this, we design {\\bf NCRAWL}, a Network Coding framework for Rate Adaptive Wireless Links. The design of NCRAWL facilitates low overhead NC functionalities, thereby effectively approaching the theoretically expected capacity benefits of joint NC and scheduling. We implement and evaluate NCRAWL on a wireless testbed. Our experiments demonstrate that NCRAWL meets the theoretical predicted ...

  10. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  11. Reforming using erionite catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. (Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)); Reschetilowski, W. (Karl Winnacker Inst. of DECHEMA, Frankfurt (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

  12. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  13. Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

    2012-07-26

    Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

  14. Statistical Methods for Thermonuclear Reaction Rates and Nucleosynthesis Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Alain Coc; F. X. Timmes; Art E. Champagne

    2014-09-19

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and gamma-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples are given for applications to s-process neutron sources, core-collapse supernovae, classical novae, and big bang nucleosynthesis.

  15. The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    The Impulsive Heating Rate in Shocked O Star Winds: Determined Directly from High-Resolution X; no corona #12;Radiation-driven O star winds Pup (O4 supergiant): M ~ few 10-6 Msun/yr UV spectrum: C IV with the stellar wind #12;Radiation-driven O star winds kinetic power in the wind = 1/2 Mv 2 (~10-3 Lbol) typically

  16. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  17. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    T. , (1998), Building Energy Measurement and PerformanceRating a building’s energy performance is becoming anrating of energy performance of buildings. Modern existing

  18. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the proposed wholesale power rate increase is reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales. Market prices have been, and are forecast to continue to be, suppressed...

  19. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  20. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  1. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational and non-operational risks will be described in Section 2.0 of this study. Given these risks, if rates are designed using BPA's traditional approach of only adding Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNRR), power rates would need to recover a much larger ''risk premium'' to meet BPA's TPP standard. As an alternative to high fixed risk premiums, BPA is proposing a risk mitigation package that combines PNRR with a variable rate mechanism similar to the cost recovery adjustment mechanisms used in the FY 2002-2006 rate period. The proposed risk mitigation package is less expensive on a forecasted basis because the rates can be adjusted on an annual basis to respond to uncertain financial outcomes. BPA is also proposing a Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC) to refund reserves in excess of $800M to customers in the event net revenues in the next rate period exceed current financial forecasts.

  2. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  3. Influence of temperature and strain rate on the compressive behavior of PMMA and polycarbonate polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, C. M. (Carl McElhinney); Lopez, M. F. (Mike F.); Gray, G. T. (George T.), III; Idar, D. J. (Deanne J.); Blumenthal, W. R. (William R.)

    2001-01-01

    Compression stress-strain measurements have been made on commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) polymers as a function of tcmperature (-197 C to 220 C) and strain rate. A split-Hopkinson-pressure bar (SJIPU) was used to achieve strain rates of about 2500 s-' and a servohydraulic tester was used for lower strain rate testing (0.001 to 5 s-'). The mechanical response of these transparent polymers is quite different. The strength of PC is weakly dependent on strain rate, only moderately dependent on temperature, and remains ductile to -197OC. In contrast, the strength of PMMA is linearly dependent on temperature and strongly dependent on strain rate. Significantly, PMMA develops cracking and fails in compression with little ductility ( 7 4 % total strain) at either low strain rates and very low temperatures (-197OC) or at high strain rates and temperatures very near ambient.

  4. Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel Ori Eitan a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial analysis of air pollution and cancer incidence rates in Haifa Bay, Israel Ori Eitan with historically high air pollution levels. This work tests whether persistent spatial patterns of metrics of chronic exposure to air pollutants are associated with the observed patterns of cancer incidence rates

  5. Cooperativity, Smooth Energy Landscapes and the Origins of Topology-dependent Protein Folding Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    Cooperativity, Smooth Energy Landscapes and the Origins of Topology-dependent Protein Folding Rates Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9510 USA The relative folding rates of simple, single-domain proteins, proteins whose folding energy landscapes are smooth, are highly dispersed and strongly correlated

  6. GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS CRAIG of the present work. This study is an analysis of the growth rate in two nearby populations of the sand crab. tions are not considered here. The crab normally lives between high and low tide marks buried in sand

  7. Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution Chuan Wu and Baochun Li Department. This paper addresses the optimal rate allocation problem in overlay content distribution for efficient, these scenarios reflect the contrast between elastic and streaming content distribution, with either per

  8. Heat release rate markers for premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaou, Zacharias M.; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian

    2014-06-16

    The validity of the commonly used flame marker for heat release rate (HRR) visualization, namely the rate of the reaction OH + CH2O ? HCO + H2O is re-examined. This is done both for methane–air and multi-component fuel–air mixtures for lean...

  9. Variable word rate N-grams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    The rate of occurrence of words is not uniform but varies from document to document. Despite this observation, parameters for conventional N-gram language models are usually derived using the assumption of a constant word rate. In this paper we...

  10. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  11. Resonances and the thermonuclear reaction rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein; M. Ueda; A. J. Sargeant; M. P. Pato

    2003-07-21

    We present an approximate analytic expression for thermonuclear reaction rate of charged particles when the cross section contains a single narrow or wide resonance described by a Breit-Wigner shape. The resulting expression is uniformly valid as the effective energy and resonance energy coalesce. We use our expressions to calculate the reaction rate for $^{12}$C(p,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$N.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A Structure-Based Study K R I S T I N E H . W structure in determining the biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Laboratory. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic pollutants that are commonly found

  13. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  14. Patterned vegetation, tipping points, and the rate of climate change Yuxin Chen , Theodore Kolokolnikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    to sudden irreversible changes (such as desertification) as the resource level dips below a tipping point in [11], where it was noted in §4.2 that "at high rates of change, desertification can take place

  15. Optics and Lasers in Engineering 46 (2008) 2733 Entropy generation rate during laser pulse heating: Effect of laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Qahtani, Hussain M.

    2008-01-01

    Optics and Lasers in Engineering 46 (2008) 27­33 Entropy generation rate during laser pulse heating generation rate attains high values in the early heating period due to large (1/T 2 ). Moreover, the laser reserved. Keywords: Laser; Pulse; Temperature; Entropy generation rate 1. Introduction Laser pulse heating

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    BPA's operating environment is filled with numerous uncertainties, and thus the rate-setting process must take into account a wide spectrum of risks. The objective of the Risk Analysis is to identify, model, and analyze the impacts that key risks have on BPA's net revenue (total revenues less total expenses). This is carried out in two distinct steps: a risk analysis step, in which the distributions, or profiles, of operating and non operating risks are defined, and a risk mitigation step, in which different rate tools are tested to assess their ability to recover BPA's costs in the face of this uncertainty. Two statistical models are used in the risk analysis step for this rate proposal, the Risk Analysis Model (RiskMod), and the Non-Operating Risk Model (NORM), while a third model, the ToolKit, is used to test the effectiveness of rate tools options in the risk mitigation step. RiskMod is discussed in Sections 2.1 through 2.4, the NORM is discussed in Section 2.5, and the ToolKit is discussed in Section 3. The models function together so that BPA can develop rates that cover all of its costs and provide a high probability of making its Treasury payments on time and in full during the rate period. By law, BPA's payments to Treasury are the lowest priority for revenue application, meaning that payments to Treasury are the first to be missed if financial reserves are insufficient to pay all bills on time. For this reason, BPA measures its potential for recovering costs in terms of probability of being able to make Treasury payments on time (also known as Treasury Payment Probability or TPP).

  17. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  18. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility RateUtility Rate

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRateUtility Rate

  1. The rate and luminosity function of long Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pescalli, A; Salvaterra, R; Ghisellini, G; Vergani, S D; Nappo, F; Salafia, O S; Melandri, A; Covino, S; Götz, D

    2015-01-01

    We derive, adopting a direct method, the luminosity function and the formation rate of long Gamma Ray Bursts through a complete, flux-limited, sample of Swift bursts which has a high level of completeness in redshift z (~82%). We parametrise the redshift evolution of the GRB luminosity as L = L_0(1+ z)^k and we derive k = 2.5, consistently with recent estimates. The de-evolved luminosity function of GRBs can be represented by a broken power law with slopes a = -1.32 +- 0.21 and b = -1.84 +- 0.24 below and above, respectively, a characteristic break luminosity L_0,b = 10^51.45+-0.15 erg/s. Under the hypothesis of luminosity evolution we find that the GRB formation rate increases with redshift up to z~2, where it peaks, and then decreases in agreement with the shape of the cosmic star formation rate. We test the direct method through numerical simulations and we show that if it is applied to incomplete (both in redshift and/or flux) GRB samples it can misleadingly result in an excess of the GRB formation rate a...

  2. Theoretical rate coefficients for allyl + HO2 and allyloxy decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Green, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics of the allyl + HO{sub 2} bimolecular reaction, the thermal decomposition of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}OOH, and the unimolecular reactions of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O are studied theoretically. High-level ab initio calculations of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}OOH and C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O potential energy surfaces are coupled with RRKM master equation methods to compute the temperature- and pressure-dependence of the rate coefficients. Variable reaction coordinate transition state theory is used to characterize the barrierless transition states for the allyl + HO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O + OH reactions. The predicted rate coefficients for allyl + HO{sub 2} ? C{sub 3}H{sub 5}OOH ? products are in good agreement with experimental values. The calculations for allyl + HO{sub 2} ? C{sub 3}H{sub 6} + O{sub 2} underpredict the observed rate. The new rate coefficients suggest that the reaction of allyl + HO{sub 2} will promote chain-branching significantly more than previous models suggest.

  3. Core-Collapse Supernova Rate Synthesis Within 11 Mpc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The 11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy (11HUGS) Survey traces the star formation activity of nearby galaxies. In addition within this volume the detection completeness of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) is high therefore by comparing these observed stellar births and deaths we can make a sensitive test of our understanding of how stars live and die. In this paper, we use the results of the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) code to simulate the 11HUGS galaxies H-alpha and far-ultraviolet (FUV) star formation rate indicators (SFRIs) and simultaneously match the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) rate. We find that stellar population including interacting binary stars makes little difference to the total CCSN rate but increases the H-alpha and FUV fluxes for a constant number of stars being formed. In addition they significantly increase the predicted rate of type Ibc supernovae (SNe) relative to type II SNe to the level observed in the 11HUGS galaxies. We also find that instead of assuming a cons...

  4. Phenomena that determine knock onset in spark-ignited engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revier, Bridget M. (Bridget Mary)

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timings before, at, and after knock onset for four different octane-rated toluene ...

  5. Universal Parametrization of Thermal Photon Rates in Hadronic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Heffernan; Paul Hohler; Ralf Rapp

    2014-11-25

    Electromagnetic (EM) radiation off strongly interacting matter created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions (HICs) encodes information on the high-temperature phases of nuclear matter. Microscopic calculations of thermal EM emission rates are usually rather involved and not readily accessible to broad applications in models of the fireball evolution which are required to compare to experimental data. An accurate and universal parametrization of the microscopic calculations is thus key to honing the theory behind the EM spectra. Here we provide such a parametrization for photon emission rates from hadronic matter, including the contributions from in-medium rho mesons (which incorporate effects from anti-/baryons), as well as Bremsstrahlung from pi-pi scattering. Individual parametrizations for each contribution are numerically determined through nested fitting functions for photon energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV in chemically equilibrated matter of temperatures 100-180 MeV and baryon chemical potentials 0-400 MeV. Special care is taken to extent the parameterizations to chemical off-equilibrium as encountered in HICs after chemical freezeout. This provides a functional description of thermal photon rates within a 20% variation of the microscopically calculated values.

  6. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare

  7. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  8. Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    to inherent heterogeneities in structure, mineral placement and fluid velocity in rock, bulk reaction rates1 Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media D. Kim · W. B. Lindquist model simulations of anorthite and kaolinite reactions in two sandstone pore networks under acidic

  9. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and...

  10. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates. These are intended to be based on specific resource costs for customers that need power to be based on specific resource types (e.g., renewable) or that want to know more...

  11. Rate Schedule CV-F13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the entire FY. The PRR is allocated to FP Customers and BR Customers based on formula rates, as adjusted for Hourly Exchange (HE), FP true-up calculation, and midyear...

  12. Regularization of Tunneling Rates with Quantum Chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecora, Louis M; Wu, Dong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We study tunneling in various shaped, closed, two-dimensional, flat potential, double wells by calculating the energy splitting between symmetric and anti-symmetric state pairs. For shapes that have regular or nearly regular classical behavior (e.g. rectangular or circular) the tunneling rates vary greatly over wide ranges often by several orders of magnitude. However, for well shapes that admit more classically chaotic behavior (e.g. the stadium, the Sinai billiard) the range of tunneling rates narrows, often by orders of magnitude. This dramatic narrowing appears to come from destabilization of periodic orbits in the regular wells that produce the largest and smallest tunneling rates and causes the splitting vs. energy relation to take on a possibly universal shape. It is in this sense that we say the quantum chaos regularizes the tunneling rates.

  13. Essays on exchange rates and electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiangming, 1966-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines two important issues in economic development: exchange rates and electricity demand and addresses methodological issues of using time series and panel data analysis to investigate important policy ...

  14. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  15. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  16. Extratropical Lapse Rates in Very Hot Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamora, Ryan Alexander

    2013-07-02

    circulation in progressively warmer climate states. As a tool to assess the stability of the atmosphere, we calculate a thermodynamic variable called saturation potential vorticity (P*), which has the property of being identically zero wherever lapse rates...

  17. Negotiating Rates and Contracts for Qualifying Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    . This paper describes the key issues involved in the development of purchase rates, as well as supplemental power services, and contract terms and conditions. Attention is given to special issues such as wheeling, losses, and regulatory proceedings. A general...

  18. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

  19. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  20. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    beyond this becomes more elastic as usage increases. In the book "Innovative Electric, Rates," John Chamberlin and Charles Dickson utilize an economic model to test conservation programs. This model utilizes intrac1ass price elasticities and has a.... Utilities must rely on customer data and intuition to estimate customer response to rate changes. These methods have several downfalls. First, the customer data may not reflect customer behavior in an economic downturn. Second, the data may not exactly...